Page 1

1

THE BEXAR STREET CORRIDOR A CENTURY IN DEVELOPMENT


THE BEXAR STREET CORRIDOR | DALLAS, TX NICK KUNZ | BCWORKSHOP [2013]

CRITICAL METRICS BLACK: 63.9% HISPANIC: 34.1%

MEDIAN PER CAPITA ANNUAL INCOME: $8,089 (17% AMFI) VACANT HOUSING: 24.8%

1

DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE POPULATION: 2,368 HOUSEHOLDS: 803 FAMILIES: 531 BLACK: OTHER: WHITE: MIXED: NATIVE: HISPANIC: (ANY

THE BEXAR STREET CORRIDOR A CENTURY IN DEVELOPMENT

63.9% 16.7% 16.3% 1.9% 1.1% 34.1% RACE)

MALE: 50.4% FEMALE: 49.6% 00-19: 20-39: 40-59: 60-79: 80+:

30.6% 24.4% 28.3% 12.6% 4.2%

MEDIAN AGE: 35.5 2013 MARKED EXACTLY 100 YEARS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE BEXAR STREET CORRIDOR. ORIGINALLY PLATTED IN 1913, LINCOLN MANOR, LINCOLN MANOR NO.2 ELITE, ERVAY CEDARS, AND CAMPS PEACHLAND WERE THE FIRST HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS TO HAVE APPEARED IN NEIGHBORHOODS CONTEMPORARILY KNOWN AS IDEAL, AND ROCHESTER PARK / BONTON; BOTH WHICH SIT WITHIN THE BEXAR STREET CORRIDOR. THIS RESEARCH INVESTIGATED THE HISTORIC VICISSITUDES ASSOCIATED WITH THOSE DEVELOPMENTS. IT WAS DETERMINED THAT FOUR CRITICAL DEVELOPMENTS OCCURRED OVER THE COURSE OF A CENTURY; AMONG THEM WERE BEXAR STREET, TURNER COURTS AND RHOADS TERRACE, THE 175 CF HAWN FREEWAY, AND THE ROCHESTER PARK LEVEE. OF THESE FOUR CRITICAL DEVELOPMENTS, THE MEANS IN WHICH BEXAR STREET DEVELOPED WAS DRAMATICALLY DIFFERENT THAN THE REMAINING THREE. THIS EFFECTIVELY ENGENDERED TWO DISTINGUISHABLY DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT MODELS, WHICH ARE REFERRED TO IN THIS INVESTIGATION AS THE "MARKET MODEL" AND THE "STATE MODEL." THE MARKET MODEL WAS PREDICATED ON DEVELOPMENT AS A LOCAL MARKET RESPONSE TO NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH AND REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY. THE CRISIS MODEL WAS PREDICATED ON DEVELOPMENT AS A FEDERAL GOVERNMENT RESPONSE TO NATIONAL ECONOMIC CRISES AND REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CATASTROPHE. THE OBJECT OF THIS INVESTIGATION WAS TO OFFER A SUGGESTION TO THE FUTURE. BY EXAMINING THE LAST 100 YEARS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE BEXAR STREET CORRIDOR, UNDERSTANDING WHAT WAS EFFECTIVE, WHAT WAS NOT, WHY, AND WHAT THAT MEANT FOR THE COMMUNITY, MAY MORE EFFECTIVELY SHAPE CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES AND POLICY, AND BETTER INFORM THE NEXT 100 YEARS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DALLAS, TX.

"EACH TIME HISTORY REPEATS ITSELF, THE PRICE GOES UP." - RONALD WRIGHT, A SHORT HISTORY OF PROGRESS, 2004

AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD ANNUAL INCOME: $24,338 AVERAGE PER CAPITA ANNUAL INCOME: $8,250 MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD ANNUAL INCOME: $16,695 (31% AMFI) MEDIAN PER CAPITA ANNUAL INCOME: $8,089 (17% AMFI)

HOUSING PROFILE HOUSING UNITS: 1,002 VACANT: 199 OCCUPIED: 803 RATE: 24.8% OWNED: 58.2% RENTED: 41.8% SINGLE-FAMILY UNITS: 68.3% MULTI-FAMILY UNITS: 31.7% AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD SIZE: 2.95 MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD SIZE: 2.06 MEDIAN AGE OF EXISTING HOUSING STOCK: 1957 MEDIAN TIME OF EXISTING HOUSING OCCUPANCY: 1999


SOUTH DALLAS, DALLAS, TX BEXAR STREET

CRITICAL DEVELOPMENTS

1

1

BEXAR STREET

2

TURNER COURTS + RHOADS TERRACE

3

175 CF HAWN FREEWAY

4

ROCHESTER PARK LEVEE

5 17 SM HT IG WR Y WA EE FR

3 175 CF HAWN FREEWAY

BEXAR ST

2

RHOADS TERRACE PARK

LE VE E

RHOADS TERRACE

RO CH ES TE R

PA RK

310 S CENTRAL FREEWAY

INDUSTRIAL

175 CF HAWN FREEWAY

SOUTHEAST SERVICE CENTER

2

TY INI

TR

TURNER COURTS ER

RIV

ROCHESTER PARK

GEOGRAPHIES THE BEXAR STREET CORRIDOR (549.8 AC) IDEAL (200.2 AC) ROCHESTER PARK / BONTON (349.6 AC) ROCHESTER PARK LEVEE (100% OF BONTON) 500 YEAR FLOODPLAIN (100% OF IDEAL)

4


DEVELOPMENT HISTORY SMALLER MORE FREQUENT DEVELOPMENT 1 6. 5.

7.

PATTERN OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT

4.

2.

3.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

LINCOLN MANOR (1913) LINCOLN MANOR NO.2 (1913) ELITE (1913) 7. 13. ERVAY CEDARS (1913) 9. CAMPS PEACHLAND (1913) 14. 4. LOMAS PARK(1914) CITY BLOCKS (1919)

6. 11. 5.

12. 2.

3.

1.

1.

10. 8.

6. 1. LINCOLN MANOR (1913) 2. LINCOLN MANOR NO.2 (1913) 5. 3. ELITE (1913) 7. 13. 4. ERVAY CEDARS (1913) 9. 5. CAMPS PEACHLAND (1913) 4. 14. 2. 6. LOMAS PARK(1914) 7. CITY BLOCKS (1919) 3. 8. OAKLAND PLACE (1921) 9. WEBSTERS S DALLAS (1922) 1. 10. SOUTH LAWN (1923) 11. HT LACKEYS (1924) 12. IDEAL (1924) 13. SD LAWRENCE (1925) 14. WOODSIDE (1927)

11. 10. 8. 12.

15. 16.

6. 11. 1. LINCOLN MANOR (1913) 2. LINCOLN MANOR NO.2 (1913) 5. 10. 8. 3. ELITE (1913) 7. 13. 18. 4. ERVAY CEDARS (1913) 9. 12. 5. CAMPS PEACHLAND (1913) 4. 14. 2. 6. LOMAS PARK(1914) 7. CITY BLOCKS (1919) 3. 8. OAKLAND PLACE (1921) 9. WEBSTERS S DALLAS (1922) 1. 10. SOUTH LAWN (1923) 11. HT LACKEYS (1924) 12. IDEAL (1924) 13. SD LAWRENCE (1925) 14. WOODSIDE (1927) 15. 16. 15. BON TON (1932) 16. LINCOLN MANOR NO.3 (1932) 17. OE TAYLOR (UNREALIZED) (1932)

1. LINCOLN MA 2. LINCOLN MA 3. ELITE (191 4. ERVAY CEDA 5. CAMPS PEAC 6. LOMAS PARK 7. CITY BLOCK 8. OAKLAND PL 9. WEBSTERS S 10. SOUTH LAW 11. HT LACKEY 12. IDEAL (19 13. SD LAWREN 14. WOODSIDE 15. BON TON ( 16. LINCOLN M 17. OE TAYLOR 18. JEWEL COU

TE XA S

BE LT

LI NE

5 17

RI OU SS MI

HO US TO N

+

EXPANDING INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

AS NS KA -

CENTRAL + TEXAS HOUSTON

S XA TE

CHANGING COMMUNITY IDENTITY

LINCOLN MANOR

1900’s

1910’s

1920’s

1930’s

1940’s


CRITICAL DEVELOPMENTS

LARGER LESS FREQUENT DEVELOPMENT 2

2

6. 11. ANOR (1913) 1. LINCOLN MANOR (1913) ANOR NO.2 (1913) 2. LINCOLN MANOR NO.2 (1913) 5. 10. 13) 3. ELITE (1913) 7. 13. 18. ARS (1913) 4. ERVAY CEDARS (1913) 9. 12. 5. CAMPS PEACHLAND (1913) CHLAND (1913) 4. 14. 2. K(1914) 6. LOMAS PARK(1914) KS (1919) 7. CITY BLOCKS (1919) LACE (1921) 3. 8. OAKLAND PLACE (1921) 20. S DALLAS (1922) 9. WEBSTERS S DALLAS (1922) 1. WN (1923) 10. SOUTH LAWN (1923) 21. 11.22.HT LACKEYS (1924) YS (1924) 924) 12. IDEAL (1924) 15. NCE (1925) 13. SD LAWRENCE (1925) (1927) 14. WOODSIDE (1927) 19. 16. (1932) 15. BON TON (1932) MANOR NO.3 (1932) 16. LINCOLN MANOR NO.3 (1932) R (UNREALIZED) (1932) 17. OE TAYLOR (UNREALIZED) (1932) URTS (1940) 18. JEWEL COURTS (1940) 19. TURNER COURTS (1952) 20. RHOADS TERRACE (1953) 21. ROCHESTER PARK (1953) 22. CITY BLOCKS (1953)

1

BEXAR STREET

2

TURNER COURTS + RHOADS TERRACE

3

175 CF HAWN FREEWAY

4

ROCHESTER PARK LEVEE

4

2

20.

20.

19.

3

1

5 SM HT IG WR

310 S CENTRAL

175 CF HAWN

IDEAL THE BEXAR STREET CORRIDOR ROCHESTER PARK / BONTON

1950’s

1960’s

1970’s

1980’s

1990’s

2000’s

2010’s


ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

PRODUCTIVITY US REAL GDP PER CAPITA (ADJUSTED TO 2009 INFLATION RATE)

SMOOTHING TREND US REAL GDP PER CAPITA (ADJUSTED TO 2009 INFLATION RATE) HODRICK-PRESCOTT DECOMPOSITION

CYCLICAL DYNAMICS US REAL GDP PER CAPITA (ADJUSTED TO 2009 INFLATION RATE) HODRICK-PRESCOTT DECOMPOSITION HIGH PERSISTENCE LOCAL MINIMA

THE GREAT DEPRESSION

1900’s

1910’s

1920’s

1930’s

RECONVER

1940’s


$50,000 $40,000

$30,000

$20,000

$10,000

$0

$50,000

$40,000

$30,000

$20,000

$10,000

$3,000/$0 $2,400 $1,800 $1,200 $600 $0 -$600 ARAB OIL EMBARGO

RSION

-$1,200

BUSH RECESSION REAGAN RECESSION

THE GREAT RECESSION

-$1,800 -$2,400 -$3,000

1950’s

1960’s

1970’s

1980’s

1990’s

2000’s

2010’s


SYNTHESIS CYCLICAL DYNAMICS US REAL GDP PER CAPITA (ADJUSTED TO 2009 INFLATION RATE) HODRICK-PRESCOTT DECOMPOSITION HIGH PERSISTENCE LOCAL MINIMA 1937

1938

HOUSING ACT OF 1934

US V. CERTAIN LANDS IN LOUISVILLE

US HOUSING AUTHORITY

FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION

EVIDENCE OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH LEADING TO LOCAL HOUSING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MARKET EXPANSION EXHIBITED BY PREVIOUSLY DEFINED CRITICAL DEVELOPMENTS 1

PATTERN OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT

1900’s

1910’s

1920’s

1930’s

1940’s

FLOOD

1935

HOMEOWNERS LOAN ACT

HOUSING ACT OF 1949

1934

1949

1933

FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKING ACT

ORIGINAL DEVELOPMENT

1932

FLOOD

MARKET DEVELOPMENT STATE DEVELOPMENT NATIONAL HOUSING LEGISLATION LEGAL PRECEDENTS REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CATASTROPHE

1908

CRITICAL EVENTS

1913


$2,400

$1,800

$1,200 $600

-$600

$0

-$2,400 2009 2008

1991 1990 1989

1981 1980

1964

1952

BEXAR STREET REDEVELOPMENT

TURNER COURTS REDEVELOMENT

HOMEOWNERS AFFORDABILITY AND STABILITY PLAN

AMERICAN RECOVERY AND REINVESTMENT ACT HOUSING AND ECONOMIC RECOVERY ACT

ROCHESTER PARK LEVEE SYSTEM FLOOD

FLOOD

RHOADS TERRACE REHABILITATION WALKER V. HUD + DHA HOUSING ACT OF 1937 AMENDMENT COMPREHENSIVE IMPROVEMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

RHOADS TERRACE DEVELOPMENT TURNER COURTS DEVELOPMENT

2010’s 1990’s

2000’s 1980’s 1950’s

1960’s

1970’s

4

2

2 2

-$1,800

-$3,000

1953

CRITICAL DEVELOPMENTS 1

BEXAR STREET 2

TURNER COURTS + RHOADS TERRACE 3

175 CF HAWN FREEWAY 4

ROCHESTER PARK LEVEE

EVIDENCE OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC CRISIS LEADING TO LOCAL HOUSING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH FEDERAL LEGISLATION EXHIBITED BY PREVIOUSLY DEFINED CRITICAL DEVELOPMENTS

-$1,200

2009 2013 1983 1985 1949


POSTULATION

CLOSING

MARKET MODEL NEOCLASSICISM, EMPLOYMENT, GEOGRAPHIC NECESSITY RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY THE MARKET MODEL WAS PREDICATED ON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AS A LOCAL MARKET RESPONSE TO NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH AND REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY. THE MARKET DETERMINED THAT IT WAS GEOGRAPHICALLY NECESSARY FOR LABOR TO BE WITHIN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO INDUSTRY. THAT IS TO SAY, THE ORIGINAL HOUSING DEVELOPERS (LINCOLN MANOR HOME COMPANY) FOUND IT PROFITABLE TO DEVELOP HOUSING FOR EMPLOYEES THAT WORKED NEAR THEIR PLACE OF EMPLOYMENT. THE MARKET MODEL BEGAN IN 1913 WITH A SERIES OF ORIGINAL PLATS CONTAINING LINCOLN MANOR, LINCOLN MANOR NO.2, ELITE, ERVAY CEDARS, AND CAMPS PEACHLAND, WHICH EFFECTIVELY FORMED BEXAR STREET.

MEANING

17 CRISIS YEARS (44%)

23 STABLE YEARS (56%)

SYNONYMY BETWEEN MARKETS + BENEFITS = INCREASED COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY

40 YEARS

1910’s

1920’s

1930’s

1940’s


STATE MODEL KEYNESIANISM, RACIAL SEGREGATION, GEOGRAPHIC STRATEGY RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CATASTROPHE THE STATE MODEL WAS PREDICATED ON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AS A FEDERAL GOVERNMENT RESPONSE TO NATIONAL ECONOMIC CRISIS AND REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CATASTROPHE. BY VIRTUE OF THE HOUSING ACT OF 1949, THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SOUGHT TO DEVELOP 810,000 NEW PUBLIC HOUSING UNITS. THE DALLAS HOUSING AUTHORITY WOULD LATER USE THIS AS A GEOGRAPHIC STRATEGY TO PLACE BLACKS WITHIN DISTANT PROXIMITY TO WHITES, WHICH WAS RULED IN THE CASE WALKER V. HUD + DHA IN 1985. THAT IS TO SAY, THE DALLAS HOUSING AUTHORITY FOUND IT SOCIALLY ADVANTAGEOUS TO PERPETUATE RACIAL SEGREGATION. THE STATE MODEL BEGAN SOMEWHERE BETWEEN 1952 AND 1953 WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF TURNER COURTS AND RHOADS TERRACE PUBLIC HOUSING.

17 CRISIS YEARS (28%)

43 STABLE YEARS (72%)

ANTONYMY BETWEEN MARKETS + BENEFITS = DISCOUNTED COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY

60 YEARS

1950’s

1960’s

1970’s

1980’s

1990’s

2000’s

2010’s

Profile for Nick Kunz

The Bexar Street Corridor: A Century in Development  

This research brief was completed at bcWORKSHOP in Dallas, TX in 2013.

The Bexar Street Corridor: A Century in Development  

This research brief was completed at bcWORKSHOP in Dallas, TX in 2013.

Profile for nickkunz
Advertisement