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ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO


MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO ARC 6833 PRACTICE PORTFOLIO: FALL 2016 LAWRENCE TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN 21000 WEST TEN MILE ROAD SOUTHFIELD, MI 48075-1058

ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO

NICHOLAS J. STRAHLE


TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 01: Reflective Essay

5013: CRITICAL PRACTICE SUMMER 2015: ROSS HOEKSTRA 09: Threshingbird 11: Eco-Creature 15: Eco-Habitat 19: Ecotarium

5814: ADVANCED DESIGN 1 FALL 2015: MARK FARLOW 27: Missing Middle 29: Site Analysis 31: Site Presidents 37: Site Development 39: Programming 41: Floor Plans

5824: ADVANCED DESIGN 2 SPRING 2016: KRISTEN DEAN 47: Concept 51: Module 57: Construction 59: Phasing 61: Settlement Patterns

5423: ECOLOGICAL ISSUES SUMMER 2016: WILL ALLEN 67: Road Trip 69: Win-Win 71: Contemporary Building

5942: PROJECT MANAGEMENT FALL 2015: RON HERZOG 77: Heathrow Airport Terminal 5: Successful Construction, Failure Transition 83: Project Architect Vs. Project Managers


Another major influence on my career choice was my uncle, David Gervais. He has worked as an architect in Grand Rapids for as long as I can remember. When I saw him during the Christmas and Thanksgiving breaks, he would show me the different projects he was working on. He would explain the project’s program, the design decisions, and how the building code influenced the outcome of the building. This furthered my interest in the field. It was my uncle who introduced me to LTU. Several of his coworkers graduated from to Lawrence Institute of Technology and became successful architects.

There were many factors that influenced me to start my architecture education at LTU rather than any other college: the small class size taught primarily by adjunct professors, the projects I saw of the students during my first tour, the location being somewhere I had never been before, and the fact I earned a few sholarships. I digress. Within a month, I received my acceptance letter. During orientation, I heard the whole ‘look to your left, look to your right…’ speech and I knew that I would be one who would still be there at the end. It was a long several years and many of my friends ended up being on my left and right. I faced my fair share of hardships as well. I am not a strong test taker. I struggle and rearrange words in my head. My grades started to fall. Then, a group of my close friends and I refounded a chapter of Alpha Sigma Phi on campus. I held several positions, which took up a lot of time. Our fraternity’s motto is ‘to better the man.’ I knew that I would have to change in order to live up to this motto. I decided to extend my undergraduate education by a year. This would give me more time to bring up my grades. I was already ahead credit-wise, I decided to add a business minor onto my degree. With each passing semester I grew as a person and still felt like I was on the right path, no matter how rough it was.

INTRODUCTION

Everyone who is involved in architecture is drawn to it in one way or another. Some follow the creative path of a designer, others become a draftsperson, few research its history, and there are those who photograph it. There are several niches that need to be filled because architecture is so broad of a field. From a very young age, I envisioned myself pursuing a career in the field of architecture. This was due to a childhood of playing with building blocks and trying to solve puzzles and brainteasers. I never thought about doing anything else. I have always viewed myself as more of a technical mind. I was able to solve difficult situations with what was available or put together any type of puzzle. Thus architecture seemed to be a natural fit.

Examples of my undergraduate class work

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Close to the end of my undergraduate work, I came to an important realization: Those who have worked or are working in the field have a better understanding of what they learn in the classroom. This is due to a direct relationship of knowing how the field operates and knowing what information from each course is relevant. They are able to apply the skills they gain from school to the workplace. Thus I started to look for a job within the field. I knew to get the most out of my graduate education, I would have to simultaneously work in the professional environment while completing my course work. During my first internship, I realized that I knew little of how architecture actually worked. Previously, I was taught generic concepts and how they might apply in the real world. I learned how to produce construction documents and work with clients and subcontractors. This internship was short-lived due to the company’s small workload.

There is so much that makes up architecture, that to fully absorb it, you have to know what you are doing and why you are doing it. I was surrounded by many talented architects throughout my next internship. I was able to implement those skills into my schoolwork and vise-a-versa. Graduate studies is what I believe separates those wanting to be a draftsperson and those wanting to become a licensed architect. This is partially because a Master of Architecture degree is required to earn licensure. I never intended on being a CAD monkey for my entire professional career. My goal is to eventually become a project manager/project architect in a large firm. Although the master’s program is only a third of the credit load of the undergraduate program, I feel as though I developed myself much more as an architect through it. First off, I fell as though there is a certain prestige that comes with being in any master’s program. It is not as easy to get into as undergraduate, and everyone involved in the program seems to recognize that. Both the professors and my classmates knew the experiences I will go through in the master program. Another important impact was there were people in my classes who were at different stages of life. Some of them had already been

working in the industry for several years, while other were previously undergraduate classmates of mine. We seemed to benifite from what each other knew. Those experienced did not always know how to use new technologies, while the younger generation was clueless about the actual work environment. In the undergraduate courses (such as Building Systems, structures, and HVAC), there was always a straightforward answer to a problem that could be found with an equation or line in the textbook. Master classes were not as simple. There was never one right answer that could be found in the textbook. The class was typically given a topic, then we were to do research on your own and discuss our findings. This was a great learning experience because I was learning different perspectives covering the same topic. It also shows that there is typically more than one right answer, you just need to know how to find them and then what ones can be applied to your situation. In my Advanced Design studios this meant researching the site, client, program, and analyzing that research to produce an architectural solution. My collegiate career has been full of memorable experiences. I have had to work hard. I have failed and I have succeeded. Going forward, I know that I

will have more experiences that will test me and shape who I am. I know that I do not know everything. I know that I want to know more. My next step is to continue my education on my own in order to earn licensure. As I transition into the profession I have worked the past six years for, I look forward to those experiences that will allow me to grow.

INTRODUCTION

As I approached my final year, my GPA slowly rose. With two semesters left, I peaked over the requirement to apply for the master’s program. I applied to the architectural master’s program the same day I saw that my GPA surpassed the requirements. I knew there was more for me to learn and I would need to work even harder than I did during my undergraduate education.

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We were divided into teams that met up every Critical Practice weekend (working from Friday morning to Sunday night) and various nights between those weekends. We researched different plants and animals and started fusing the two together into different forms using our pencils and computers. Then we created a habitat for the hybrid and modeled it using PVC, model boat parts, and harmonicas. As we worked together, we realized that this assignment was truly laughable. The idea of using

logic to create something illogical was completely absurd. We came to another realization. This course was more about how to work together as a team and how to apply our design skillsets on any task. All work in this section was prepared by myself and the team I worked with.

5013: CRITICAL PRACTICE SUMMER 2015: ROSS HOEKSTRA

The first required studio I took would set the tone for the remaining studios. At least that is what I wish I could say. Truth be told, Critical Practice was unlike anything I ever imagined I would be doing in my lifetime. Every summer, this school would import a practitioner to lead the studio. This summer, Terreform1 was chosen. This think tank from New York City develops unimaginable (and mostly unrealistic) ways to solve issues facing society. Their semester-long task for us was to identify an issue, then design a plant-animal hybrid that would solve that issue, create a self-sustainable environment for the hybrid to live in, and then implement the environment into the urban, sub-urban, and rule areas surrounding Detroit. Needless to say, their assignment seems laughable at the time. Furthermore, how did a class focused around creating a science fiction type of creature relate to architecture?

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Terreform ONE is a non-profit architecture group that promotes smart design in cities. They were chosen to be the guest practitioners who would lead the summer of critical practice. Through our creative projects and outreach efforts, we aim to illuminate the environmental possibilities of New York City and inspire solutions in areas like it around the world. We are a unique laboratory of specialists with diverse disciplinary backgrounds that explore and advance the larger framework of socio-ecological design. The group develops innovative concepts and technologies for local sustainability in energy, transportation, infrastructure, buildings, waste treatment, food, and water. These novel research projects are derived from the interface of design, engineering, and synthetic biology. -Terreform ONE

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Binocular Eyes

Three-Fingered Shovel Hands

ASSIGNMENT

BIOGRAPHY

Solar Panels

All-Terrain Treads

Trash Compactor

Collects spare parts in order to repair himself.

Terreform 1’s project, Rapid Re(f)use, proposes the use of trash as building materials. Their process start by created a series of drawings that shows the problem. The first drawing of theirs shows that the amount of trash Manhattan produces in one day is equal to the size of the Statue of Liberty. This illustrates the vast amounts of trash being produced just in New York City. To remedy this problem, Terreform 1 came up with the idea that waste can be used to build new buildings. Terreform 1 proposes to create robots that will crush the trash into simple shapes. The robots will then used the shapes as building blocks for the new buildings. To show how the process will be done, Terreform 1 produced drawings of the robots, the robots putting together new buildings, and a scale model made of the shapes that the robots will be creating out of the waste.

Terreform 1 Rapid Re(F)use project was largely influences by Disney’s Pixar’s film WALL-E. Terreform 1 traveled to Walt Disney Imagineering (WDI) headquarters in Glendale, California to discuss the idea a carbon free world. WALL-E is a trash compactor powered by solar energy. He stacks up the cubes he makes to make large towers.

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THRESHINGBIRD

TROCHILUS FEBRUA Latin Name: Trochilus Februa Common Name: Threshingbird Like a giant hummingbird, the threshingbird feeds through a similar beak and crop, and oxygen is distributed to the body through a circulatory system that closely mirrors that of the hummingbird species. While this creature does have wings that are typical among giant hummingbirds, these wings are not used to hover in place (owing to the creatures large hydrogenous bladder which creates positive buoyancy), but as a rudder, using them to change direction. Unlike a typical hummingbird, which feeds on nectar, the threshingbird has adapted a taste for arsenic-laced water. It’s digestive system, mirroring the mucilage flesh of the prickly pear cactus, filters out arsenic to keep the creature from being poisoned. The separated arsenic is captured in the threshingbirds fruit, similar to that of the cactus. In addition to energy from feeding, the creature has a photosynthetic dermis, which provides additional energy through sun absorption.

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R1 - THRESHINGBIRD

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ECO-GRAM

HABITAT OF THE CREATURE

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Threshingbirds are originally native to southeast Asia, finding a niche through its adaptation of feeding on surface water that is rich in arsenic. Their ideal habitat consists of tall trees within a relatively sparse or open forest (old growth) with a large open arsenic surface water source within a short flight. While capable of living in higher elevations, threshingbirds are most densely found in the low-lying swamps and wetlands of India and Bangladesh. Though only found natively in these regions, recent domestication has shown that the creature, when provided with an abundant food source, can thrive in almost all temperate climates.

MINING LOCATION RICE CROP LOCATION

The Eco-Gram is a graphic representation of an ecological phenomenon that affects our humanity. Our group chose to focus on arsenic. This substance is an element that can cause great harm id ingested. Yet, we use it in several products. Arsenic poisoning has become an great issue in several third world countries.

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AGE (YEARS)

LIFECYCLE OF CREATURE

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DOMESTIC ADULT

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END OF LIFE

END OF LIFE

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10ft

6 5

MATURITY

MATURE (3 YRS)

8 ft

ADOLESCENT (1 YEAR)

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(a)

3 2

6 ft

WATER BLADDER PURIFICATION

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CONTAMINANT DUCT

NATURAL

4 ft

SKIN AND FLESH

ADOLESCENT (4 MONTHS)

0 EGG-SEED

MATURE (1 YRS)

FLEDGING (63 DAYS)

DUCT TO FRUIT ft ARESENIC 2TRANSFER

(c) (b)

ARSENIC ALBUMEN

EGG-SEED FLEDGING (50 DAYS)

ROOT / CLAW

DOMESTICATED

MUCILAGE SHELL

0 ft

FRUIT SHELL

FERTILIZATION EGG-SEED

HATCHING (42 DAYS) ARSENIC FLESH LAYER YOKE

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WILD ADULT

12 ft

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SIZE (FEET)

The threshingbird begins life as a traditional egg embryo, laid by females and fertilized by the males of the species. After six weeks of incubation, the hatchlings remain in the nest for another three weeks, growing almost six inches every week, at which point they are fully capable of flight and foraging for food on their own, with a digestive system that developed to the point where it can filter arsenic. Adult threshingbirds reach maturity after three years, averaging four feet in height. After maturity, creatures continue to grow at a reduced rate; some example have been to known to grow up to six feet in height, living for as long as 15 years. In recent years, domestication efforts aimed at increasing both the water and arsenic capacity of the threshingbird have resulted in larger creatures (averaging 8 to 12 feet) with shorter life spans (averaging 5-7 years).

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HATCHING (30 DAYS)

LIFE CYCLE

ECO-CREATURE

S4 - FRUIT ATTACHMENT SECTION

(a) The domestic creature was engineered to be larger in order to carry more water in flight. It has a hydrogenous bladder twice the size of that of the wild (b) The domestic creature was bred with an extended arm in order to filter more water faster (c) The wild version has a more camouflaged exterior in order to protect itself from potential predators.

(A) Fruit begins to grow at the skin surface through a connection to the contaminate duct, (B) As the fruit grows, arsenic is sequestered inside the fruit keeping it from immediately returning to groundwater, (C)D2 Once fully grown, the fruit is a deep PROCESS red color. - FRUIT DEVELOPMENT DOMESTIC + WILD COMPARISON

A

B

C

(A) fruit begins to grow at the skin surface through a connection to the contaminate duct, (B) as the fruit

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The birdcage was designed to house a family of our hybrid for one year. It came stocked with everything the creature would need to survive. Also, it was designed to mimic itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s daily routine. As the birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s thirst grew, it would fly to the top of the cage to replenish itself. Then, as it in took more water and its weight increased, it would lower back down to the base where its nest would be.

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ECO-HABITAT

BIRDCAGE

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CONTROL INFRASTRUCTURE

MAIN POWER GENERATOR

AIR CURRENT ARSENIC STORAGE

ARSENIC WATER

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WATER TANK

AIR CURRENT

ECO-HABITAT

NEST

HVAC

OXYGEN

HABITAT TRAINING FACILITY

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ECOTARIUM

INTRODUCTION INTO DETROIT The final piece of the studio was to integrate the creature and its cage into the fabric of Detroit. We looked at the how many creatures would needed to cleanse water from the rural to urban settlements.

Map of Detroitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban and peri-urban quality explores a range of different habitat conditions for Ecotarium interaction.

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ASSIGNMENT

DESCRIPTION

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Farlow’s approach and methodology to this class was different, and perhaps the best I have been involved in.. He did nothing more than give us the assignment and advice when we asked for it. As the designer, I was be able to choose in what manor my project would manifest. I was able to choose the site within North End, whom the occupants would be, and how the building would be constructed. I was even able to choose what my final deliverable was. The majority of the first half of the semester was dedicated to researching different Missing Middle typologies and other information I felt would be useful. With the assistance of Google Maps, I looked into various neighborhoods throughout the world. I diagramed aspects I thought would help my project. The second half of the semester was used to apply the research to my design. At the conclusion of the final critique,

I was disappointed with the work that I had produced. I had accumulated so much research useful information about Missing Middle typologies. Yet I had trouble identifying what information would have been applicable to our site. I do believe that my design solution was applicable to our prompt, but I felt as though I could have done better if I had more time. In my final discussion with Pr. Farlow, he told me he felt as though my research was very insightful and that I should have delved more into the research path. Unfortunately, I got too hung up on idea that I had to design a building. A project should never be finished once the class is over. I decided to think about what Prof. Farlow told me in our last conversation. I took the time to type up, diagram my thought, and share them with Prof. Farlow.

5814: ADVANCE DESIGN 1 FALL 2015: MARK FARLOW

This course’s assignment was based on the AIA’s Missing Middle Competition. A competition which this studio’s professor, Mark Farlow, has previously taken second place in. As described on their website ‘the Missing Middle is a range of multi-unit or clustered housing types compatible in scale with single-family homes that help meet the growing demand for walkable urban living.’ We were to design a Missing Middle-style residence for Detroit’s North End.

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MILLENNIALS

“Well-designed ‘Missing Middle’ buildings unify the walkable streetscape as they greatly diversify the choices available for households of different age, size, and income. Smaller households tend to eat out more, helping our neighborhood attract wonderful restaurants. Diverse households keep diverse hours meaning we have more people out walking our streets at more varied hours—keeping them safer.” — Ellen Dunham-Jones, professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology and co-author of Retrofitting Suburbia: Urban Design Solutions for Redesigning Suburbs

A person who reached young adulthood in the early 2000s. They currently make up 25% of the population. Very tech savy and career driven.

As Detroit changes, so do its residences. Therefore, Detroit needs a housing development option that evolves to meet the needs of future residences. The block of Northend, Detroit bordered by Smith St., Antoine St, Bathune Ave, and Beaubien St. has been selected as the site for this project. The project will be a development that is carried out in four phases. Each phase will add housing options that accommodate a different demographics. These include (in order of the phase of development); Millennials, Newlyweds, Young Family, and Empty Nesters.

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MISSING MIDDLE

ASSIGNMENT

BABY BOOMERS Someone born within 20 years from the end of World War II. They currently make up 20% of the population. Most of them are nearing retirement. They do want to stay active and independent is their retirement. Boomers are concerned with their health and need some means of transportation. Duplex

Fourplex

Bungalow Court

DIVERSE HOUSEHOLD

FEATURES

The percentage of working-age Americans is decreasing while the percentage of nonworking dependents increasing, stressing financial resources.

Marketable Demanding more vibrant, sustainable, walkable places to live Walkable Context Transportation services and amenities Simple Construction Type V Creates Community Courts, Neighborhood places

Town House

Live/Work

Carriage House

End-Grain Locations Smaller-Scale are used to transition from single-family housing Small Footprint Buildings Comfortable and usable Lower Perceived Density (higher than 16 dwelling units per acre) Fewer Off-Street Parking Spaces No more than 1 parking space per unit

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The block northwest of Bennet park is the focus of this project. The block is bordered by Smith St., Antoine St, Bathune Ave, and Beaubien St.

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Detroit’s M1 Rail was constructed with the intent of increasing the convenience of accessibility to 1 different areas of the city. The neighborhood of North End is located at the final stop of the M1 Rail. As such, this area is expected to see an increase of residence. There are many positive aspects to North End in addition to proximity to the M1 Rail. These aspects include: 4 The Detroit Urban Farming Initiative, Bennet Park, and several neighborhood restaurants. Unfortunately, this area is in a state of disrepair due to events over the last 70 years. Several homes have been abandoned, burned down, and lots left vacant. These are the type of 7 circumstances that set the groundwork for opportunity. This neighborhood will be revitalized by bringing in several housing options and neighborhood stores. What drew me to the site was what I saw as I walked it. There were many areas that were missing buildings, and some buildings were probably going to be removed soon. But there was an area that had a row of houses, and I imagined what it would have been like decades ago, seeing that completed street. I wanted to see that effect throughout the entire block and see the block more active.

RD WA OD WO

NORTHEND, DETROIT

Shopping: Family Dollar Metro PCS Value World Mani’s Handbags Enterprise Uniform Co. Silver Fox Furs Pure Detroit Prince Men’s Wear QT Boutique

rd Fo

y Fw

Errands: CVS/Pharmacy Fudge Unisex Salon Harden Family Dentistry Charter One Bank Klassy C’s Hair Salon Best Value Pharmacy

Restaurants: Grandy’s Cony Island The Turkey Grill Fishnook Burger King Clay Super Coney Island Park’s Old Style Bar-B-Q Happy’s Pizza Motown Cravinfs Coney Man Lunchtime

Education: Loving Elementary Foreign Language Immersion School Prosha Daycare Square New Center Child Care Barsamian Preparatory Boykin Continuing Eduction Center Plymoth Education Center Childtime in Detroit

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Volterra, Italy

Nolli Map

Lot Lines

Circulation

Vegetation

SITE PRESIDENTS

Brugge, Belgium

I started by looking at eight other residential neighborhoods to compare with the Northend site. I graphed out their footprint, circulation, lot sizes, infrastructure and vegetation. The first three locations I chose were European examples; Volterra, Italy, Bath, England, and Bruges, Belgium. The walkability of these cities drew me to them because walkability is a key factor of the Missing Middle.

Site Photo

Bath, England

EUROPEAN NEIGHBORHOODS

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Lot Lines

Circulation

Vegetation

SITE PRESIDENTS

Nolli Map

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Midland, MI

Chicago, IL

The second group of neighborhoods were located in Michigan. I looked at Grand Rapids, Midland, and West Bloomfield. The other two cities I look at were Chicago, IL and my hometown Brownsburg, IN. Chicago was a similar to the Grand Rapids example. While Brownsburg was like a mix of Midland, and West Bloomfield.

Site Photo

Brownsburg, IN

AMERICAN NEIGHBORHOODS

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After graphing out different aspects for the precedence, I overlaid the information I gathered with Northend to give me an idea of how these situations would feel on the site. What aspects would work, and want wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t work. For example, looking at Chicago and Grand Rapids informed me that placing parking within the block, along the alley would make the sidewalks more pedestrian friendly, similar to European cities.

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Site Photo

Nolli Map

Lot Lines

Circulation

Vegetation

SITE PRESIDENTS

NEIGHBORHOOD OVERLAYS

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SITE DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT TIME LINE This development will be done in three phases. The first phase of construction will start at Beaubien St. The current duplex will be expanded into a fourplex and a new apartment building will be constructed adjacent to it. The following two phases will develop the middle of the block, then the St Antoine St. side. During each phase, current buildings on the site will either be renovated or deconstructed. The new housing developments will feature several types of units. These units will be designed to meet the needs of the market for that time.

CURRENT

FIRST PHASE

SECOND PHASE

THIRD PHASE

COMMERCIAL UNIT INFORMATION Unit Area Description 1 1357 sq ff Grocery Store 2 617 sq ff Dinner 3 395 sq ff Barber Shop

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PARKING INFORMATION Standard Parking Spaces 21 ADA Parking Spaces 3 Total Parking 24 Parking Area 7517 ft2

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PROGRAMING

FLOOR PLAN LEGEND 1 Entry 2 Master Bedroom 3 Bedroom 4 Bathroom 5 Closet 6 Kitchen 7 Storage Garage

8 Fold-Down Table 9 Dinning Room 10 Laundry Room 11 Living Room 12 Balcony Entry 13 Balcony 14 Porch Two-Bedroom Apartment

Studio Apartment

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SHARED RESIDENTIAL SPACE

FOURPLEX

A community lounge is located on the second and third floor of the proposed structure. This allows residents to entertain several guest or interact with the other residences. Each floor has a shared laundry room.

This family-style option builds off of an existing structure. Transforming the current duplex into a fourplex. Its views are of the playground and basketball court in Bennet Park. This allows parents to watch their children from the living room, patio, or balcony.

STUDIO APARTMENTS

TWO-BEDROOM APARTMENTS

NEIGHBORHOOD RETAIL

The Two-Bedroom Unit was designed for those living on a lower budget. The bedrooms are able to retain a small size due to the use of space saving beds and desk, and pocket doors. Each unit has a balcony that is shared with their neighbor.

This 385 ss ft unit was designed for a person focused on their career. As such these units are located along Beathune, obscuring them from Bennet Park. The open floor plan allows the resident to arrange the room to fit their needs.

Retail has been added to increase walkability of the area. The retail is located on first floor on the Beaubien side across from Bennet Park. The three available commercial units very in size, allowing for a wide verity of small businesses to move in An outdoor gathering area has also been provided.

Two-Bedroom Apartment

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FLOOR PLANS

RESIDENTIAL UNIT INFORMATION Unit A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA BB CC DD EE

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Area 930 ft2 759 ft2 385 ft2 385 ft2 379 ft2 385 ft2 55 ft2 930 ft2 759 ft2 461 ft2 461 ft2 461 ft2 599 ft2 320 ft2 385 ft2 385 ft2 385 ft2 385 ft2 385 ft2 55 ft2 461 ft2 461 ft2 461 ft2 599 ft2 320 ft2 385 ft2 385 ft2 385 ft2 385 ft2 385 ft2 55 ft2

Description Single family apartment Single family apartment One bedroom studio One bedroom studio Leasing office One bedroom studio Laundry room Single family apartment Single family apartment Two beadroom apartment Two beadroom apartment Two beadroom apartment Two beadroom apartment Community Lounge One bedroom studio One bedroom studio One bedroom studio One bedroom studio One bedroom studio Laundry room Two beadroom apartment Two beadroom apartment Two beadroom apartment Two beadroom apartment Community Lounge One bedroom studio One bedroom studio One bedroom studio One bedroom studio One bedroom studio Laundry room Duplex Lower Level

Duplex Upper Level

Apartment Floor Plan Typical

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ASSIGNMENT

DESCRIPTION

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Another change for me was that this studio was completely online. Thus, everything I produce has to be conveyed in a digital fashion. Not being limited on a number of sheets made it possible to convey as much information as I liked. Partway through the semester, our professor found the What Design Can Do: Refugee Challenge. It aligned with our studioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prompt and I took the opportunity to enter the competition. It was beneficial because I was able to get feedback from people all over the world. In the digital age, it is important to know how to communicate digitally.

5824: ADVANCE DESIGN 2 SPRING 2016: KRISTEN DEAN

Piggybacking off of designing homes for North End the previous semester, my next studio focused on designing a home for refugees that could transform from temporary housing to a permanent community. The challenge was creating an evolving architecture, which could be used by anyone, be customizable, and devoid of site. Furthermore, the method of the unitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s construction was important. It would need to be able to be built anywhere and by whomever was available build it. I was able to build off on my research from the prior studio and apply a new twist to it. I explored housing options that were designed to change overtime. Modularity and simple interlocking joints seemed to be a repetitive theme, as well as the key to solving this challenge.

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Self-Esteem Garage, Bedroom

Belonging Living Room, Dining Room, Internet, Yard, Entertainment

Safety Walls, Roof, Floor, Door, Bedroom, Bathroom, Electricity, Lighting

Mazlow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a graphic representation depicting what a person needs to survive and what will make them happy. His theory states that a person must fulfill the lower levels of need before advancing to the higher levels of fulfillness. The parts of home call all be assigned into one the different categorize. This allowed me to determine what parts of a home are necessary during each phase of the homes’ development.

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OTHER ADDATIONS

Physiological Kitchen (Cooking/Eating), Plumbing, Sleeping Area, Restroom

Kitchen

Bedroom

Bathroom

Mechanical/ Storage

Dining Room

Living/Family Room

Office

Laundry

Bedroom

Garage

Yard/ Community Space

Bedroom

CONCEPT

SelfActualization

FIRST ADDATION

A disaster can displace thousands of people in an instance and can continue to displace people for years to come. Those people are distraught and in need of food, shelter, and peace of mind. Modern forms of emergency/ refuge shelters are not intended to last for more than a few years. Those displaced people may not be ready to move on after a few years and may outlive the life of their shelter. Therefore, there needs to be a design that can be deployed quickly to a mass amount of people in any situation and evolve to a permanent residence to accommodate those who stay in them for an extended period of time.

INITIAL UNIT

MAZLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

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CONCEPT

EVOLVING Evolving the temporary unit into a permanent one holds several unknown factors. The needs of the refugees change over time and vary from person to person. Thus, the ideal home will vary. Therefore, the initial module unit should house what the refugees need to survive. This includes a bathroom, kitchenette, and area to sleep. Then, as time goes on, the refugees can add more modules to their home in order to make it fit their needs. These additional should be designed and built with the ideas of permanence and adaptability. If the initially walls are allows to move, then the unit could easily adapt to the addition of more modules (in this case, more walls). Because the module walls would be used mainly as exterior walls, the residence would be able to build-out the interior of the unit. That would allow a greater level of customization.

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Self-Actualization Self-Esteem Belonging Safety

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Physiological

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8'-6"

Most existing shelters that can be rapidly deployed are shipped in a relatively small container and can be assembled by almost anyone with the right tools. The tradeoff is they lack infrastructure needed to be a permanent unit and are made from inferior materials. If the size of the deliverable container was increased, then better materials can be used. Additionally, this could be done while still keeping the unit easy to assemble. Units tend to lack infrastructure (plumbing, electrical, mechanical, and foundation) when they are first deployed. As modules are added to the unit to make it more permanent, the need for infrastructure increases. With this in mind, the initial unit needs to be able to adapt itself to the required infrastructure.

2'-6"

6" 2'-6"

6'-6" 6"

8'-0"

6"

2'-6"

Walls can rotate to 90°, 180° and 270°. This allows the users to change in interior of their home as needed

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MODULE

17'-6"

STANDARD WALL

Frame lets allow residence to build-out the interior of the space (walls and floor) by attaching local materials

Pivot enables wall to change its orientation and adapt to additions

Opening allows standard windows or doors to be installed

Pivot sets inside of foundation footing

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8'-6"

The second module is intended to transition the structure to a permanent status. This wall comes with three pieces of rough in plumbing on each side. This allows the residence to customize their bathrooms and kitchens as they evolve their home.

2'-6"

2'-6"

6'-6" 6"

8'-0"

6"

2'-6"

6"

MODULE

17'-6"

WET WALL

Plumbing ends are located at the sides and can be attached to any source

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Roughed in plumbing enables the unit to easily become permanent

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There are several questions to consider when designing a unit of this sort. What caused the need for temporary shelter? Who is implementing and who is using the units? How will the initial unit be deployed/ assembled? What are the building materials? How will it connect to necessary infrastructure? How will the unit evolve over time? How can the unit adapt to different settlement strategies? How can the unit change in different locations? How the community will developed, and what will be the need/use of it?

Bath

Kitchen

The immediate and short term arrangements are meant to meet safety and physiological needs. The intent is that this would be the initial setup for a refuge family.

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MODULE

CONSIDERATIONS

Sleeping Area

Dining

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CONSTRUCTION

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PHASING SHORT TERM: REFUGEE SHELTER Wall Modules Tarp Siding Temporary Water Tank Temporary Floor Sheathing

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LONG TERM: IMPLEMENTING AGENCY Additional Modules Clad Siding Connection to Permanent Infrastructure Built-out Interior

PERMANENT: RESIDENCE Additional Modules Permanent Clad Siding Glazing Built-out Interior

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Chaos Mumbai, India

Cluster

Linear

SETTLEMENT PATTERNS

Linear Volterra, Italy

Cloister

Dense

Cluster Yoshidak, Japan

Medium

Refugees can be relocated to and from anywhere. As such, there is a potential for the unit to be placed anywhere. The units should be deployed in a manner that both fits into the typical housing style of the area and fosters a positive community. The use of a community will change over time in relationship to the evolution of the units. Community spaces will need to be used as a place to receive food, use bathroom facilities, and/or a place to sleep at the beginning of a disaster. As the unit evolves, it incorporates most of those uses into itself. This will free up community spaces for other needs or uses. As the unit evolves, it should continue to response to and foster a community. The difficulty emerges when the residence are given free reign over their land. Their additions may not properly create that community space. Therefore, each settlement pattern should have its own setbacks that govern where and how the residence can grow their unit.

Cloister Bath, England

Loose

ONE SIZE FITS ALL

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ASSIGNMENT

DESCRIPTION

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5423: ECOLOGICAL ISSUES SUMMER 2016: WILL ALLEN

The first assignment of the class was to ask people from different demographics what they thought were the greatest ecological issues facing our planet today. Most people think of an ecological issues as any circumstances that hurts the environment such as global warming, illegal dumping, oil spills, and etc. Looking further into these problems revealed that each of these problems was caused by either the greed or ignorance of humankind. As I progressed through the semester, I learned more and more about the problems that our species has created. I also learned about individuals who use architecture to counteract these problems. Additionally, organizations like LEED and the Living Building Challenge encourage architects to design a more sustainable buildings. I have always tried to minimize the impact my actions have on the environment. Another assignment was to convert waste (of any kind) for an architectural application. This task made me think of how not only to minimize my waste output, but to reuse the waste I create. In time, I can see this assignmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s concept transfer into the work I do for clients.

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ROAD TRIP

CHIPPEWA NATURE CENTER KINDERGARTEN The purposes of this assignment was to visit and explore one or two sustainable structures as to experience sustainable buildings. I chose the Chippewa Nature Center. When I visited, I was taken on a private tour of the facilities and told the history of the building.

BUILDING SUSTAINABLE FEATURES The first building in Midland, MI to receive LEED Gold Rainwater is collected for irrigation proposes Geo-thermal Heating and Cooling through radiant floors Solar Panels Structural Insulated Panels (SIP)

HISTORY

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In 1965, the DOW Foundation set aside 198 acers of land between the Pine and Chippawa River to be used an a nature center. The land was donated to the Chippawa Nature Center in 1975 The Nature Center and Preschool was renovated in 2010 by TKWA 140 children attended the preschool each year.

Windows and overhangs increase ambient lighting Rainwater Catchments and Solar Panels of Roof. Wood was harvested from surrounding forest. High ceiling and mechanical storage. Upper windows open to allow for natural ventilation and lighting.

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Wooden Stair Spindles from the Architectural Salvage Warehouse of Detroit

The amount of trash this nation produces increases with the amount of items we buy. Such in the nature of a consumerist society. Architects contribute our fair share to this increase in ware by specifying materials that do not stand up to the test of time. All of this waste can be seen as a new resource and repurposed. This assignment was to repurposed waste into three architectural items.

Wood Flooring from the Architectural Salvage Warehouse of Detroit

WIN-WIN

TRASH TO ARCHITECTURE

Steps: This coffee table is made from wood flooring and wooden Built a frame stair spindles. I got the materials at the Architectural Salvage Set flooring into frame and glued them in place Warehouse of Detroit. I crafted a frame that the flooring panels sat Cut spindles to angel them into. They were then glued into place. I attached the spindles at a Attached spindles to underside of tabletop slight angle to the underside of the table. Steps: Attached screw eye to each corner of shutter. Cut chain to appropriate length Attached chin to screw eye. Mounted on wall.

The propose of this item was to turn a spigot into a drinking fountain. I used PVC pipe left over from a prior project. The height is set to the IBC height for a standard drinking fountain.

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Steps: Cut PVC into different lengths Made parts (fountain piece and hose adaptor) using different PVC fittings Used adhesive to keep them together Attached onto spigot

Chain and eye-hook

Window Shutter from the Architectural Salvage Warehouse of Detroit

I used a Bay Window Shutter and chain to make a shelf. The chain supports the shelf and allows it to fold up for storage or transportation. This shelf has been placed above my girlfriendâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bed in her dorm.

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Nature has provided us with a plethora of methods to improve the buildings we reside in. This assignment was to analyze a building and reveal what features made it sustainable. For this project, we were allowed to partner together. I worked with my college-long classmate and fraternity brother Kyle Converse. We decided to examine Frank Lloyd Wrightâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Affleck House. I had visited the house several times in the past. This time, I walked around the home, taking pictures of its sustainable elements. Then Kyle deliberated over the features of the home.

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HISTORY

NATURAL COOLING

Frank Lloyd Wright designed the Affleck House for Gregor S. Affleck and his Wife Elizabeth. Construction of the usonian home was completed in 1941. This house has many design elements that provides comfort to its occupants such as an abundance of natural lighting, large overhangs to protect against heat, and even a cooling pool system that acts as a natural air conditioner. Located in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, its site sits on 2.3 acres of land and is hidden from the busy Woodward Avenue. The site is surrounded by trees and natural beauty, one of the reasons why this site was selected so that its occupants can escape the busy life of Detroit.

Frank Lloyd Wright incorporated a cooling system into the Affleck House design. The windows located in the floor in the entry hall open to create an updraft effect. The air coming from the lower level is cooled from the shaded water pond and brought into the center of the house. This design serves as an natural air conditioner for the home which was very desirable at a time as Air conditioners were not yet invented. Frank Lloyd Wrights cooling pond is similar to the Persian Qanats which were used to distribute water to the fields for irrigation. Persian Qanats were used in the early part of the first millennium B.C. and had other uses other than just irrigation. Qanats were also used as a passive cooling system for their structures. The image on the left shows how they incorporated the Qanat tunnels into their structures and used them as a way to cool the air and bring it into the desired space. This design idea is very similar to the Affleck Houseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cooling pond.

CONTEMPORARY BUILDING

AFFLECK HOUSE

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NATURAL LIGHTING

The large overhangs used on the Affleck house provided benefits to its occupants. During the summer, the overhangs provided shading and limited the amount of sunlight entering the space. This prevented heat from entering the structure allowing it to remain cool during hot summer days. The overhangs also provided protection from other elements like in the picture shown above. Wright used the overhangs for privacy.

Natural Lighting was a key component that Frank Lloyd Wright wanted to utilize when he designed the Affleck house. The entry Hall has an abundance of skylights which illuminate the space. The den located right next to the entry hall has a large window which allows for more light into the space. In the Living room, the east wall has a row of French doors which lights up the whole space. In all, the houses many windows and skylights allow for little need of electricity for illumination during the day.

When cathedrals were being constructed, designer used windows as primary source of lighting. This is due to the lack of electricity during this time so structures had to rely on natural light. Designers sought to create the cathedrals taller so that they can maximize the amount of light entering the space. Similar to the cathedrals, Frank Lloyd Wright used natural lighting as a sustainable tool to enhance the interior space.

CONTEMPORARY BUILDING

NATURAL SHADING

During the Enlightenment era, when many cathedrals were being constructed, its designers used large windows as its primary source of lighting. This is also due to the lack of electricity during this time period so structures had to rely on natural light. Designers sought to create the cathedrals taller so that they can maximize the amount of natural light entering the space. Cathedrals also sought natural light as it had dramatic effects on the faithful. Similar to the Cathedrals, Frank Lloyd Wright used natural lighting as a sustainable tool to enhance the interior space.

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5942: PROJECT MANAGEMENT SPRING 2016: JOHN HARMALA

Elective courses are intended to further your knowledge in a particular area. After acquiring a few leadership role in my extra circular activities and being influenced by a professor of mine, I decided to obtain a minor in business management during my undergraduate studies. I one day want to Master of Business Administration and become a project manager in an architectural/ engineering firm. Due to my interest in the management field, I felt it appropriate to enlist myself in Project Management and Construction Management. Both classes were important in learning how the fields of architectural and construction work together. The design of a building is important, but if it does not meet the necessary scope, schedule, and cost then the project will fail and the building will never be built. Therefore, I wanted to learn how I could manage these aspects of a project to produce a successful project.

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Challenges Terminal 5 was the largest and most complicated project BAA had ever attempted. The physically constrained site complicated the project. (The site is located at the West side of the airport.) T5’s site was located in between the two runways. This limited the amount of laydown space that could be used to store materials. It is also located underneath air spaces that the planes fly through, preventing the use of cranes. Due to its location on the property, there was only one entry that allowed access to the site (a construction site will typically have at least two entries to the site). There were also two small rivers that ran through the site. They would have to be diverted to build T5. Additionally, the structure had to be constructed while the other terminals were in use. All of these conditions contributed to the need for proper project management. If the project were to fail or go severely over budget, then it could severely damage the survival of BAA. If a project manager knows what the conditions are, then he can account for them and adapt to them.

HEATHROW TERMINAL 5

HEATHROW AIRPORT TERMINAL 5: SUCCESSFUL CONSTRUCTION, FAILURE TRANSITION Project Description In 2008, Heathrow Airport (located in Greater London, United Kingdom) opened Terminal 5 (T5). At the time, it was the largest and most complicated infrastructure project that have ever been attempted in the United Kingdome. Heathrow Airport and the British Airport Authorities (BAA) proposed T5 because they wanted to remain one of the top airports in the world and be able to accommodate for the increase amount of flights. Plans for the project started in 1985. Mike Davis of Richard Rogers Partnership (now known as Rogers Stirk Harbor + Partners) was the Lead Architect that designed T5. Arup served as the Structural Engineer. DSSR and Arup were the Service Engineers. BAA served as the Construction Manager . Construction did not start until 2002 . It took over 8,000 people working for 80 first tier suppliers to complete this project . The building’s scope consisted of; two main terminal buildings, 60 aircraft stands, baggage handling system, hotel, 4,000 space car park, road and rail extensions, air traffic control tower, diverting two rivers, and major tunneling and excavation for the rail line . The project cost £4.3 billion to construct. T5 was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on March 27, 2008.

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John Egan (previous chairman of Jaguar Cars) was hired to be the Chairman of BAA at the start of the project. He and his team developed a new project management system for BAA to follow (graphed in Figure 3 ). Previously, BAA would start fresh every time they did a project. There was no standardized components. Egan saw this as a waste of time and money. His background in the automotive industry influenced his first step: to standardize the way BAA accomplished

its routine projects. This meant that components that are shared between jobs (bathrooms, room layouts, parking garage, ect.) would now share the same design. Henceforth, whenever they needed a parking garage they would use a past parking garage. To further increase the level of standardization, Egan created a framework agreement. This entailed a contractor not just bidding for one project, but a series of similar projects throughout all BAA’s airports. This would allow the contractor to learn exactly how to do the job through repetition. The second level of the second step clarified how T5 would be built due to the challenges of the site. First, everyone was required to use the same digital model to monitor the project. This model would continually be undated. That way everyone knew what was going on with the project at all times. Due to only one entrance and no laydown space, most components/materials were required to preassembled, tested, and stored off site. Then the components/ materials would be brought onto the site right before they were needed. The progress of what was completed and delivered would reflected in the project’s schedule that was constantly updated.

All of this information was written down in what is known as the T5 Agreement (Fig. 4 depicts the supply chain associated with the T5 agreement). This agreement served as the contract for all contractors and first tier-suppliers. After the project was designed, it was taken to the bidding phase (As is typical with any Design-Bid-Build project). Each party had to read and sign the T5 Agreement before they were brought onto the project. “The T5 Agreement: a totally new form of contract agreement… BAA carries all the risk and is insured for all that risk. If any problems arise the answer is not to find someone to carry the can but to work together to find a solution.

“It’s the most important enabling strategy we have… it is far more than a common contract. It gets you over a number of emotional hurdles at higher levels.” Issues Terminal 5 was completed both on time and under budget. If the story ended there, then this project would have been a tremendous success. Unfortunately, a project’s success cannot be judged until it is moved to operations. The transition of Heathrow’s Terminal 5 is infamous in the world of construction management. Over 23,000 pieces of baggage were misplaced and 250 flights coming into Heathrow were canceled on opening

day alone. What contributed to the catastrophic opening of T5 was not one major problem, but several small issues. These small issues then snowballed into a fiasco that cost British Airways over £16 million. The issues started at the beginning of opening day. Lack of wayfinding prevented employees from finding their designated parking area as they arrived to T5. Once they found parking, they headed to the mandatory security check. This also caused issues because the majority of the staffs’ ID tags did not to work with the new IT system. Both of these issues caused employees to show up late, therefore delaying the passengers from getting to their flights.

HEATHROW TERMINAL 5

Lessons Learned All project have a lessons that can be learned from them. The lessons include different methods that were used to complete that project and an analysis of what was done well and what could have been done better. All of this information is gathered with the idea that it can be referenced and applies to other projects. BAA looked at large infrastructure projects built between 2000-2002, project that cost over £1 billion and international airport. They found that if the project was completed in the tradition way, then three common characteristics would occur; the project would cost 70% more than what was budgeted, it would finish three years late, and there would be 12 fatalities. None of these were acceptable to BAA. So they chose to create and implement a new project delivery process. Project Delivery Method

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delays from appearing on the monitors and websites . All of these problems left hundreds of people stranded in Heathrow Airport and other interconnecting airports overnight.A year in advance, Toney Douglas (CEO Heathrow) and Willie Walsh (British Airways CEO) were sure that T5 would open on schedule and on budget. They tried to do everything that they could to keep the project on schedule. The terminal was built on time. The construction of the terminal was simple compared to managing everyone who will be working in it. Every issue that occurred can be attributed to a failure in testing and/or training. There were several simulation ran during the design and construction process to see how well the terminal would function and all employees were required to go through training . BA had to delay training by six week because they were not able to access certain parts of the terminal. So when it came time to open, employees were unfamiliar with their new environment.

With the use of hindsight, those involved in the project can recall what went wrong, why it happened, and when it occurred. “With the benefit of hindsight, it is clear we had made some mistakes. In particular, we had compromised on the testing regime as a result of delays in completing the building programme for T5 and the fact that we compromised on the testing of the building did impact the operation at T5 on the first few days after its opening” – Willie Walsh, CEO British Airways Willie Walsh’s comment sums up what the issues were with T5’s construction and opening. First of all, BAA and Heathrow wanted T5 to open March 27, 2008 no matter what. This was the real downfall of the opening. If they had properly scheduled in the times that it took to train the employees who would be in T5 everyday then they could of avoided the terrible outcome. The terminal was not fully operational until April 8, 2008 (two weeks after its opening) Conclusion Heathrow Airport’s Terminal 5 was it was the largest and most complicated infrastructure project that have ever been attempted in the United Kingdom. The delivery of this project was very successful. BAA went about creating their project delivery method by researching other large projects and then adapting a project delivery method that suited them. The shortcoming of the

project occurred when BAA had a fixed due date. If they had been more humble in their schedule and realized that certain inaccessible areas prevent employees from learning how to operate the terminal, then they could have postponed T5’s opening. BAA worked quickly to correct their mistakes. As of now, T5 see about 201,000 people every day . An important factor to the success of this project was the T5 Agreement. It served as a very detailed contract and covered exactly how BAA wanted the project to be completed. If BAA had used a different project delivery method, then they would not have gotten the same results. The way BAA went about completing this project is a fantastic model for any large scale infrastructure project to use.

HEATHROW TERMINAL 5

A fear that everyone shares is not seeing their luggage after giving it to an airport. This fear became a reality for over 23,000 passenger within the first three days of T5’s opening. After a piece of luggage is typically dropped off, it automatically goes through a series of conveyor belts and then is manually loaded onto the planes. Things did not go that smoothly. With employees arriving to their work stations late, they had to work hard and fast to process the passengers and their luggage. There was a backup of the terminal’s 11 miles of conveyor belts and many people lost their possessions . Two factors contributed to this issue. The first factor was due to the luggage handlers’ familiarity of the luggage system. Many of them did not know or understand how the system operated and where it would deposit the luggage. The second factor was once again due to IT problems. The Resource Management System (RMS) was incorrectly routing the luggage. Also, employees were unable to access the network, and therefore, unable to correct the RMS’s mistakes. These issues caused numerous flights to be canceled or delayed. Which then becomes an issue of its own. Unfortunately this issues did not stop there. The final issues occurred when passengers were not informed of these cancellations and delays. Once again, a failure in the IT system prevented the information about the cancellations and

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Project Managers and Project Architects The characteristics of each position must be examined to understand why the two position currently exist. No matter the professions, Project Managers use their resources to meet requirements on a project. There are ten areas of knowledge that a Project Manager must know about when working on a project. These areas are: integration, scope, time, cost, quality, procurement, human resources, communication, risk management, and stakeholder management . This knowledge then

guides the project manager through the five steps of the management process; Initiating Planning, Executing, Monitoring, and Closing. In the field of architecture, the Executing step contains the five phases of design; Schematic Design, Design Development, Construction Document, Bid, and Construction . The Initiating Phase of a project starts the process. In architecture this is writing a proposal to obtain the right to do a project. This is normally done by a Principal, Project Manager, Project Architect, or designated salesmen. The planning phase is where the Project Manager will create a schedule and budget for the phases of design to follow. The Executing phase is the longest phase. It is when the project team works on the five phases of design and the Project Manager coordinated the team’s work with the clients, contractors, vendors, etc. The project is ended at the Closing Phase, where the Project Manager hands over the final deliverables to the client. For the architect, this could be a new building, set of drawings, or other such documentation. Throughout the entire project process, the Project Manager is Monitoring all of the endeavors. This way they are able to take action if anything were to arise.

The term Project Architect did not turn up in any professional organizations database. What were found were company’s job descriptions of a Project Architect. This lead into further investigation of the job titles ‘Project Manager’ and ‘Project Architect’. According to the American Institute of Architects (AIA), a Project Manager is defined as: Senior management architect or nonregistered graduate; responsible for major department(s) or functions; reports to a principal or partner . According to the AIA’s Definition of Architect Positions does not list ‘Project Architect’ as a position. The job that closely resembles as what is known as a Project Architect is Architect/ Designer III. So why do every one of these firms, all of which are affiliated with the AIA, use the term Project Architect? It may be because a Project Manager serves as both a Project Manager and an Architect. According to an article by La Femme Architect there are three factors that lead to Project Architects and Project Manager’s becoming interchangeable. First, an office’s man power can affect the distribution of the workload. A Project Manager will be used if there are more employees and a Project Architect will be used if there are fewer employees. Second, the finical situation of the firm will regulate who

can be hired on. Sometimes it is cheaper to have an employee assume the responsibilities of Project Architect than to hire a new Project Manager/ Project Architect. Finally, the scope of the project can decide wither the employee needs to fill more of a Project Manager or Project Architect role. If the scope of work in more involved, then the employee will need to take on a Project Manager role because they have more to manage. Models Just because professional organizations state that Project Managers and Project Architects have these certain role, doesn’t indicate that the working profession reflects the same ideas. Looking at and analyzing different firms should show how they utilize Project Architect and Project Manager. Four firms, varying in size and specialists, have been chosen as models for this study. They include: Mark English & Associates, LLC, Earth Environment, LLC, WTA Architects, and Progressive AE. Mark English & Associates, LLC is a four person firm residing in Southfield, MI. Mark English & Associates have done projects consisting of addition and renovations of existing and historic buildings . The building types they work with vary from

project to project. Two of the employees are recently hired due to a new project that has a large scope. With so few employees, each employee must be a Jack of all trades, assisting the project by any means. At Mark English & Associates, the Project Architect is responsible for meetings , review the projects schedule and budget, delegate work to the other employees, and produce drawings and other documents. Earth Environment, LLC is an architecture and landscape architecture firm that specializes in historic preservation and landscape design and development. They operate from Remo, MI. This firm of six employees works on approximately four projects at a time. Earth Environment chose to use a Project Manager to coordinate the projects . The Project Manager supervise all of these projects using typical project management services, organize meetings , review the projects schedule and budget, and delegate work to the other employees. Because the Project Manager spends most of their time managing project, the other employees are responsible for producing the drawings and other documentations.

MANAGEMENT POSITIONS

PROJECT MANAGERS VS PROJECT ARCHITECTS Thesis Project Architects and Project Managers are both viewed as leaders within the field of architecture. They are the people who make sure the project is completed while reaching the scope with the given schedule and amount of resources. Although these positions are imperative to the project’s process, only one of them is required for each project. Regardless, these two positions still exist. Does this indicate that each position is valuable in certain situations, if so what factors of those situations determine wither a Project Architect or Project Manager is necessary? Or do the two have roles that are so parallel that a Project Architect should be knows as an Project Manager or vice versa?

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in order to complete these projects in-house. Matrix Organization structure is used to unify the different disciplines and properly distribute them to the active projects . Each disciple reports to their functional manager, who is responsible for assigning employees to projects. Then the employee will report to the Project Architect or Project Manager for that project. One major advantage of a matrix organization is that it is easier to track where the resources are being allocated. At Progressive AE, PMs mainly work on the large scale project. They are in charge of; organize meetings, review the projects schedule and budget, and delegate work to their team. Their team potentially being about a dozen employees from the different disciplines. In larger projects, the Project Manager will spend all of their time working managing that project. Smaller projects tend to be simple, requiring only a few employees and have a quick turnaround time. Progressive AE uses Project Architect for these projects. Progressive AEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Project Architect have several of the same responsibilities as the Project Manager, but they also have to work with the team to produce the drawings. Project Architects are used due to two factors.

First, the job has less to coordinate (employees, clients, contractors and vendors). Allowing the Project Architect more free time to work on drawings. Second, having a team members working closer to the other members will allow information to be moved faster between the team. Analysis The size of the firm does not determine wither a Project Manager or Project Architect will be used. That is why Project Manager can be found in a six-, 22-, and 170-man firm and Project Architect in a four- and 170man firm. What matters is the scope of the project. This idea is enforced while looking at how Progressive AE utilizes Project Manager and Project Architect. They dedicate their Project Managers to larger projects because they know that there will be more to oversee. Then their Project Architects work on the smaller projects because that are able to delegate work to a team while being an active team member. The two small firms, Mark English & Associates and Earth Environment, have a Projectized Organization Structure. In this form, the President/Principal assigns a Project Manager/Project Architect to a project. Then Project Manager/Project Architect then delegates the

work to the other team members. It is interesting that of these two firms, one decided to use a Project Architect and the other a Project Manager. This might be due to the amount of projects each firm typically has. Mark English & Associates tends to have two projects at a time, while Earth Environment has at least four. Assuming that the Project Manager/Project Architect for each firm spends the same amount of time on each project, then their work load can be compared. The Project Architect at Mark English & Associates has two projects to manage, while the Project Manager at Earth Environment has to manage at least four projects at a time. Then that means Earth Environmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Project Manager spends late least twice as much time managing the project. This also indicates why Earth Environment has more employees. Half of the time the Project Architect at Mark English & Associates spends is allocated to drawings and documents. To make up for that lost time, Earth Environment needs more employees to work on projects. If Earth Environment were to employ another PM, then both PMs could transition to a Project Architect position. Similarly, if Mark English & Associates were to hire another draftsmen, then the Project Architect could become a Project Manager.

Conclusion From the information gathered, it is clear that Project Manager and Project Architect have very similar job descriptions. They both organize meetings , review the projects schedule and budget, delegate work to the other employees. The difference is how much time each profession spends managing a project. A Project Architect spends less of their time managing the project. This allows them to take an active role in producing drawings and documents for the project. A Project Manager spends all of their time managing a project. What decides whether a Project Manager or Project Architect is needed is the size of the project and resources the firm has to use on the project.

MANAGEMENT POSITIONS

WTA Architects (Wigen Tincknell Associates) is a midsize (22 person) firm located in Saginaw, MI. Their projects consist of addition and renovations of existing and completely new structures . WTA Architects works on several projects at the same time. Each Project Manager is in charge of a portion of those projects. The Project Manager in charge of: organize meetings, review the projects schedule and budget, and delegate work to the other employees for each of their projects. Their project teams tend to say on the same project, but will be moved to another project if needed. Additionally, some of the Project Managers here have been known to work on drawings and documents. This firm causes a discrepancy to what has already been stated. This is due to the fact that some Project Managers spent part of their time working on the drawings and documents. Progressive AE is a full service architecture and engineering firm located in Grand Rapids, MI. With 170 employees, they are able to work on several projects at a time. The scale of these projects vary in size and scope. They have designed several large scaled projects (college residences, education centers, healthcare center, museums, ect. ) and many prototype projects . Progressive AE needs an architect, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer, civil engineer and structural engineer

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• Joachim, Mitchell, Melanie Fessel, Nurhan Gokturk, and Philip D. Plowright. Ecotarium: Terminum Non Vita Cyclus Consilium. Lexington, KY: Moncaster, 2015. Print. • Joachim, Mitchell. “Terreform.” Terreform. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2016. <http://www.terreform.org/about.html>. • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giant_hummingbird#/media/ File:Patagona_gigas.jpg • https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/ Opuntia_littoralis_var_vaseyi_4.jpg

MISSING MIDDLE

• “Home Page - Missing Middle Housing.” Missing Middle Housing. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2016. <http:// missingmiddlehousing.com/>. • “Demand: Market - Missing Middle Housing.” Missing Middle Housing. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2015. • Yung, John. “APA14: Demographic Preferences Shifting in Favor of Walkable, Urban Communities”. UrbanCincy. Retrieved April 28, 2014. • http://uli.org/report/uli-asks-the-tough-questions-about-thefuture-of-real-estate/ • “Google Maps.” Google Maps. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2016. <https://www.google.com/maps?hl=en>.

PHOTO

• “Google Maps.” Google Maps. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2016. <https://www.google.com/maps?hl=en>.

PRESIDENTS

• “Maslow’s Hierarchy.” Scanned Retina A Resource for the People. N.p., 24 July 2014. Web. 11 Feb. 2016.

PHOTO

• “Google Maps.” Google Maps. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2016. <https://www.google.com/maps?hl=en>.

CONTEMPORARY BUILDING

• Lynch, By Scott. “How to Launch a Career in Construction Management.” Direct Capital Blog. N.p., 27 May 2014. Web. 08 Oct. 2016. <http://blog.directcapital.com/business-insights/ small-biz-news/how-to-launch-a-career-in-constructionmanagement/>.

ROAD TRIP

• “Chippewa Nature Center.” The Kubala Washatko Architects Inc. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 June 2016. http://www.tkwa.com/ chippewa-nature-center/ • “About Us.” Chippewa Nature Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 June 2016. <http://www.chippewanaturecenter.org/aboutus/>.

HEATHROW AIRPORT TERMINAL 5: SUCCESSFUL CONSTRUCTION, FAILURE TRANSITION

• “BA postpones long-haul move to T5”. BBC News. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008. • Brady, Tim. “Heathrow Terminal 5 - Success or Failure?” YouTube. University of Brighton, 13 June 2012. Web. 24 Mar. 2016. • Doherty, Sharon. Heathrow’s Terminal 5: History in the Making. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2008. Print. • “Facts and Figures.” Facts and Figures. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2016. • Harrison, Jeremy, and Bartlett, Mike. Case Study 2 – Heathrow Terminal 5 - a New Paradigm for Major (n.d.): n. pag. Web. 23 Mar. 2016. • “Heathrow Terminal 5.” Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2016. • Oystryk, Gareth, Jeff Brown, Mohammed Alsharif, Nima Boostani, and Sara Eslami. “Heathrow Terminal 5 Case Study.” (2010): n. Simon Fraser University. Web. 5 Apr. 2016. • Sky News. “Chaos at Heathrow Terminal 5.” YouTube. N.p., 29 Mar. 2008. Web. 23 Mar. 2016. • “What Went Wrong at Heathrow’s T5?” BBC News. BBC, 31 Mar. 2008. Web. 05 Apr. 2016. • Terminal 5 – a construction epic; NCE T5 Supplement, Feb 2004, p5

RESOURCES

ECO-CREATURE

PROJECT ARCHITECT vs. PROJECT MANAGERS

• “Definition of Architect Positions.”(2008): n. pag. AIA, Jan. 2008. Web. 8 Nov.2015. • “Defining the Architect’s Basic Services.” PS Psychiatric Services 14.5 (1963): 246. AIA. Web. 10 Nov. 2015. • Earth Environments LLC |. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2015. • Gervais, D. (2015, November 5, 2015) Telephone Interview • Kloppenborg, Timothy J. Contemporary Project Management: Organize, Plan, Perform. Third ed. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2015. Print. • Margenau, M. (2015, November 5, 2015) Personal Interview • “Progressive AE.” Progressive AE. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Nov. 2015. • “Project Architect vs. Project manager.” La Femme Architect, 24 Sept. 2008. Web. 02 Oct. 2015. • Rachel, R. (2015, November 5, 2015) Personal Interview • “What Is Project Management?” Project Management Institute, n.d. Web. 09 Nov. 2015. • WTA Architects | SProject ArchitectCE SOLVED. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2015.

BACKGROUND

• Lynch, By Scott. “How to Launch a Career in Construction Management.” Direct Capital Blog. N.p., 27 May 2014. Web. 08 Oct. 2016.

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NICHOLAS J. STRAHLE

MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO ARC 6833 PRACTICE PORTFOLIO: FALL 2016 LAWRENCE TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN 21000 WEST TEN MILE ROAD SOUTHFIELD, MI 48075-1058


LTU Graduate Portfolio - Nicholas Strahle