Page 1

Trade Facilitation

Cost of Non-Cooperation to Consumers in the ASEAN Economic Community

Nimnual Piewthongngam S.J.D. • Prasert Vijitnopparat


Trade Facilitation

Cost of Non-Cooperation to Consumers in the ASEAN Economic Community

Authored by Nimnual Piewthongngam S.J.D. & Prasert Vijitnopparat


Contents Abbreviations Foreword

6 7 8

Executive Summary ASEAN and Trade Facilitation ................................................................. 15

Trade Structure ......................................................................................... 19 Obstacles to Trade Facilitation ............................................................... 23

Scenario Analysis for Trade Facilitation Cooperation .......................... 29

Policy Recommendations ........................................................................ 35

Appendix Index


List of Tables and Figures

6

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


Abbreviations

AHN ASEAN ASW

HS

NSW

NTM

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN

7


Foreword


Véronique Salze-Lozac’h

The Asia Foundation

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN

9


Preface

Nimnual Piewthongngam S.J.D

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 11


Executive Summary

12 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


Scenarios

Time

days

days

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 13


ASEAN and Trade Facilitation T

he

ASEAN’s efforts to improve trade facilitation

to enhance export competitiveness and investments

Tariff liberalization

ASEAN Secretariat

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 15


ASEAN Single Window (ASW) Elimination of non-tariff measures and non-tariff barriers

The

AMS ASEAN Secretariat reported that the

NTM database maintained by the ASEAN Secretariat

Customs modernization and integration

The ASEAN product content in their exported

transparency between the business community

16 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


three other the

Enhancement of ASEAN Rules of Origin (ROO) requirements The ASEAN Secretariat reports that the ASEAN

Harmonizing standards and conformance procedures

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 17


to undertake the

Economic

many actions that have to be taken in order to

ASEAN Economic

““

ASEAN

associate parties should have general awareness.

If trade facilitation has improved, shipping cost and

18 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


Trade Structure I to the

Source: Author estimation from data obtained from International Trade Center

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 19


Source: Author estimation from data obtained from International Trade Center

Source: Author estimation from data obtained from International Trade Center

products to

20 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


Country

ASEAN 6

PRC

ASEAN 4

Rest of the world

Cambodia

4.77

1.16

7.81

86.25

Thailand

12.98

10.99

10.94

65.08

Myanmar

39.91

12.67

1.68

45.74

Malaysia

7.42

12.60

17.98

61.99

Lao PDR

61.96

35.67

0.20

2.16

Viet Nam

13.07

10.36

7.06

69.51

PRC

4.48

-

4.20

91.32

Source: Author’s estimation from data obtained from International Trade Center

Country

ASEAN 6

PRC

ASEAN 4

Rest of the world

Cambodia

2.67

1.12

2.2

94.02

Thailand

7.32

4.41

12.02

76.25

Myanmar

31.95

4.83

4.95

58.27

Malaysia

4.65

4.34

20.50

70.51

Lao PDR

48.01

2.27

0.19

49.53

Viet Nam

5.83

9.43

11.16

73.58

PRC

3.05

-

3.86

93.09

Source: Author’s estimation from data obtained from International Trade Center

Country

ASEAN 6

PRC

ASEAN 4

Rest of the world

Cambodia

28.49

39.92

82.41

15.15

Thailand

29.04

26.06

127.6

-1.19

Myanmar

16.00

23.77

8.78

8.85

Malaysia

16.66

26.98

1.94

2.69

Lao PDR

21.75

69.04

13.03

11.57

Viet Nam

35.15

21.9

14.89

19.35

PRC

28.22

-

23.82

22.7

Source: Author’s estimation from data obtained from International Trade Center

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 21


Source of intra - ASEAN 6 country’s exports (%) Country

Destination of intra- ASEAN 6 country’s imports (%)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

2001

2010

2001

2010

Cambodia

0.21

0.21

1.72

0.98

Thailand

0.83

0.83

2.12

1.72

Myanmar

21.63

11.69

14.83

9.58

Malaysia

4.69

2.41

2.47

1.78

Lao PDR

25.12

20.09

19.13

11.58

Viet Nam

4.63

7.74

6.00

7.07

PRC

42.88

57.02

53.72

67.30

Total

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

Source: Author’s estimation from data obtained from International Trade Center

“ 22


Obstacles to Trade Facilitation T

his section is based on

ASEAN

trade

Time and costs associated with the

current

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 23


24 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


Myanmar

Myanmar

Myanmar

Laos

Laos

Item

668

Transport cost per

Obstacles to trade facilitation

associated with trade in each ASEAN country

process

shipment

process

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 25


border

Thai borders are

ASEAN Map of the Asian Highway Network in the GMS Region

transport infrastructure

26 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


In In

In

In

products to their destination on time because

improved communications system and data

For

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 27


in

Lack of competition in logistics services consignments

providers in

The

Note: $US per container or semi-trailer Source: World Bank (2007)

Myanmar


Scenario Analysis for Trade Facilitation Cooperation

I transportation

Myanmar

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 29


The

second

Scenarios

scenario

assumes

Time

days

days

Results of the Simulation

improved in both scenarios and that and

30 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN

that

the


Laos

Myanmar

Laos

Myanmar

Laos

Myanmar

Processed Food

Sea Transport

Processed Food

Sea Transport

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 31


Exporter

Importer Laos

Myanmar

Laos

Myanmar

Laos

Myanmar

Laos

Myanmar

“

Exporter

Importer

We still have room to improve trade facilitation. We better infrastructure.

32 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


Laos

Myanmar

Laos

Myanmar

Processed Food

Sea Transport

Processed Food

Sea Transport

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 33


Policy Recommendations T

2) Establish institutional reform

the

in trade facilitation

introduce competitive pressures in the customs at

the system more transparent and easy to

Poor

transportation

we recommend increased partnership with with the

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 35


5) Encourage the establishment of industrial clusters across regional production zones

4) Encourage greater

causes

cost

36 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


References

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 37


Appendix


0.296 0.068 0.052 0.416

0.017 2.647 2.664

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.323 0.024 3.548 3.895

65.82 22.68 0.029 106.15 194.69

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

49.748 0.425 15.529 65.702

1.445 1.680 0.042 0.643 3.810

ROW

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

Viet Nam

5.416 0.418 0.016 0.002 5.852

Laos PDR

51.964 0.005 0.001 51.970

Malaysia

Thailand

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

Myanmar

From/to

Cambodia

01

1.259 1.259 02 4.192 0.244 4.436 03 1.091 0.070 0.028 1.189 04 17.869 1.783 19.652

31.353 0.452 0.002 0.005 31.812

16.597 0.008 16.605

1.852 0.239 3.777 5.868

103.02 5.868 0.662 3.795 0.016 113.36

15.877 0.033 7.090 23.000

22.700 0.530 23.230

0.023 17.480 1.923 19.426

0.023 60.545 0.050 4.882 7.672 73.172

0.031 50.43 35.14 0.011 55.15 140.77

0.541 0.340 0.881

0.081 60.13 41.81 102.03

0.112 112.52 100.96 64.59 0.040 165.2 443.47

3.638 0.403 4.041

24.211 0.002 24.213

5.275 3.378 8.653

100.74 1.445 7.266 0.042 16.57 126.07

0.093 0.316 0.409

0.006 0.006

2.635 0.878 3.513

2.750 2.326 1.521 0.002 5.511 12.110

05 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.006 0.420 0.426

40 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN

2.326 0.643 0.002 4.775 7.746

0.010 0.010


Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.074 2.311 2.385

1.746 0.040 1.786

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

1.333 0.024 0.024 4.274 5.655

0.822 25.913 5.759 6.452 2.440 41.386

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

4.583 0.335 14.367 19.285

1.901 5.813 2.770 61.495 71.979

06 0.517 0.517 07 0.612 0.028 0.640 08 12.450 0.001 12.451

0.328 0.022 0.350

0.833 0.304 1.137

0.044 2.898 0.047 0.076 3.065

0.044 4.650 1.793 0.076 2.677 9.240

15.400 37.717 16.563 69.680

0.290 13.536 13.826

4.276 0.595 0.364 5.235

0.822 21.911 63.654 6.406 6.816 36.813 136.422

7.101 1.008 10.521 18.630

11.969 3.236 15.205

19.046 0.286 0.041 19.373

55.149 2.909 6.435 2.811 89.619 156.923

0.001 1.757 0.758 0.947 0.003 0.041 102.377 1.801 104.083 10 0.822 2.027 246.116 2.482 0.033 452.909 2.060 702.329 11 3.221 123.885 0.282 0.014 11.652 3.235 135.819

0.202 0.440 0.642

0.006 0.120 4.557 5.243 9.926

0.007 3.298 1.958 15.017 5.553 156.460 182.293

11.937 6.884 18.821

1.199 79.483 1.335 8.016 90.033

3.094 344.607 3.762 1.705 29.341 462.003 844.512

0.180 5.173 0.950 6.303

2.268 11.069 0.612 0.156 14.105

2.448 146.294 0.289 7.323 0.156 35.651 192.161

09 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.461 0.002 0.173 0.636

1.011 10.455 0.310 53.429 65.205

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

5.044 1.917 6.961

1.073 1.280 0.337 21.325 0.293 24.308

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

2.946 1.949 10.755 15.650

0.007 4.748 12.294 17.049

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 41


Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

1.362 0.003 0.163 1.528

1.302 0.576 0.954 4.257 25.776 32.865

12 2.147 2.147

0.176 6.933 0.166 0.002 7.669 14.946

0.195 0.005 0.020 0.220

0.506 10.954 2.964 0.487 14.911

1.984 21.591 0.742 3.926 4.746 33.628 66.617

0.405 0.458 0.115 0.978

0.038 0.006 0.044

0.491 0.273 0.083 0.847

2.578 0.479 0.416 0.486 0.278 4.237

0.098 0.075 0.173

0.017 0.017

0.026 6.163 0.059 6.248

0.142 0.615 18.922 0.950 0.662 21.291

0.511 226.404 0.794 227.709

5.318 0.285 0.006 5.609

0.351 29.444 359.796 0.002 389.593

0.862 350.827 648.649 0.002 41.815 1,042.1

30.404 0.005 7.414 37.823

2.222 0.008 2.230

1.752 1.454 3.206

58.494 0.005 6.319 39.443 104.261

0.002 191.495 0.142 17.693 209.332

25.159 0.164 25.323

141.192 28.316 169.508

0.547 658.434 0.142 34.323 2.439 40.320 736.205

13 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.206 0.206

0.021 0.140 0.403 0.157 0.721

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.014 0.014

0.615 12.714 0.891 0.587 14.807

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

27.953 4.218 40.921 73.092

118.498 0.094 118.592

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

15.117 0.164 7.765 23.046

4.665 24.256 28.921

1.438 0.003 1.441 14 0.001 0.031 0.032 15 61.708 165.852 227.560 16 8.999 0.036 9.035 17

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

281.167 2.857 3.798 287.822

42 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN

0.545 3.085 2.439 18.665 24.734

19.421 0.065 19.486


Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

1.255 0.243 2.121 3.619

37.448 0.741 38.189

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

53.990 7.583 47.984 109.557

73.478 6.082 101.962

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

17.495 0.686 1.120 19.301

0.077 13.649 1.481 2.676 17.883

18 3.774 0.459 4.233 19 62.694 6.735 0.316 71.945 20 14.857 0.067 14.924

11.301 6.793 18.094

1.945 0.048 1.993

3.286 7.133 10.419

21.561 45.283 9.703 76.547

0.009 111.032 0.075 2.947 138.671

43.627 4.412 48.039

49.654 37.684 91.221

0.009 320.997 0.075 125.480 61.741 561.395

0.015 28.490 0.272 3.675 32.452

14.097 0.766 14.863

3.115 3.266 0.032 6.413

0.015 78.054 0.349 17.668 1.513 8.237 105.836

46.391 0.087 19.537 66.015

51.333 0.154 51.487

54.075 27.748 81.823

373.048 0.090 101.481 0.014 35.679 510.312

37.070 0.131 5.257 42.458

37.814 1.510 39.324

3.468 88.500 96.728 0.098 188.794

3.468 465.179 0.131 190.442 0.151 49.842 709.213

68.870 5.266 50.170 124.306

22.943 1.970 24.913

0.038 67.589 19.200 86.827

0.038 219.635 6.835 23.628 0.073 95.917 346.126

21 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

93.801 0.728 4.692 99.221

0.003 70.128 0.014 10.775 80.920

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

145.883 6.424 26.356 178.663

86.704 0.053 16.719 103.476

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

52.876 0.173 35.738 88.787

1.569 3.924 0.073 7.458 13.024

127.448 2.877 0.521 130.846 22 155.912 0.586 156.498 23 7.357 0.331 0.581 8.269

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 43


Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

1.224 2.120 0.491 11.045 14.880

0.370 34.055 3.799 4.671 42.895

24 1.151 0.015 0.531 1.697

2.000 5.180 0.003 10.145 17.328

0.185 2.332 2.480 4.997

2.090 5.658 23.186 1.400 32.334

4.645 15.545 0.003 59.376 5.690 28.872 114.131

62.267 3.849 66.116

43.085 10.990 54.075

0.014 100.212 9.427 13.084 122.737

0.014 467.112 0.301 24.495 17.057 29.857 538.836

1.271 6.243 0.532 8.046

0.007 0.256 0.263

0.007 1.233 0.644 1.884

0.007 1.996 8.565 2.488 1.831 0.760 15.647

1,195.8 1,931.9 3,127.8

576.703 106.560 683.263

0.001 0.001 741.755 3,358.6 2,595.4 317.284 2,115.6 0.011 284.3 3,081.8 1,059.0 11,435.9

51.514 4.044 32.452

11.975 0.234 14.863

41.855 16.284 0.006 6.413

113.562 0.006 64.878 0.021 7.893 105.836

303.703 10.325 66.015

22.640 1.216 51.487

0.059 148.280 129.683 0.045 81.823

0.059 528.419 393.497 0.045 37.195 510.312

25 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

107.822 1.905 109.727

0.301 10.518 3.973 13.093 27.885

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.461 0.461

2.322 1.255 1.187 0.228 4.992

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

515.729 2.363 834.744 1,352.6

2,595.4 1,771.9 284.33 208.61 4,860.2

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

3.680 0.121 1.716 19.301

0.006 47.392 0.015 1.889 17.883

153.726 4.550 0.020 158.296 26 0.001 0.001 27 328.580 24.116 352.696 28 4.538 1.081 0.010 14.924 29

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

11.663 0.244 4.675 99.221

44 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN

263.171 18.476 80.920

42.133 0.399 2.503 130.846


Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

26.550 3.595 5.902 178.663

0.001 4.586 1.536 103.476

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

44.203 0.062 94.593 140.626

0.155 0.176 145.349 1.359 12.338 390.194

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

14.080 4.262 4.725 23.067

36.576 10.035 46.611

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

78.360 0.841 5.892 85.093

0.014 0.055 33.222 18.960 52.251

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

50.229 0.377 26.587 77.193

0.005 31.233 0.002 7.830 39.070

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

1.331 0.496 4.670 6.497

6.284 0.013 3.436 9.733

30 40.493 6.995 4.058 156.498 31 9.434 3.644 0.547 51.874 32 16.522 3.461 0.064 20.047

0.092 20.041 6.789 42.458

9.011 0.072 1.516 39.324

0.153 57.849 8.624 188.794

0.245 153.944 0.001 23.872 19.801 709.213

2.246 37.258 176.822

13.896 12.308 29.529

2.734 23.910 498.007

0.155 72.513 0.176 172.965 1.359 157.044 1,287.0

30.279 5.616 35.895

8.614 0.384 8.998

27.537 46.074 73.611

97.032 90.373 20.824 208.229

134.021 1.024 8.776 143.821

22.534 0.050 0.208 22.792

0.003 70.677 29.691 100.371

0.017 346.339 1.079 65.945 33.974 447.354

69.320 41.901 111.221

23.919 0.046 23.965

0.009 46.885 18.206 65.100

0.014 217.021 54.345 0.002 76.425 347.807

23.779 2.935 26.714

2.099 0.050 2.149

13.769 8.467 22.236

44.059 16.378 0.013 11.092 71.542

33 40.747 2.141 0.138 43.026 34 26.668 4.529 0.061 31.258 35 3.081 1.131 0.001 4.213

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 45


Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.259 0.139 0.398

1.684 0.014 0.022 1.720

36 1.433 0.313 1.746

1.117 0.320 1.437

0.558 0.707 0.142 1.407

0.153 0.153

3.367 2.857 0.153 0.484 6.861

8.614 0.899 9.513

0.638 0.638

0.957 3.175 4.132

11.630 14.593 1.478 27.701

39.243 19.291 58.534

10.672 2.134 12.806

88.811 39.9 128.7

0.001 175.5 0.101 229.8 0.015 75.499 481.0

0.385 536.3 0.004 66.948 603.6

59.343 0.158 10.054 69.555

0.431 527.4 235.8 0.623 764.4

0.830 1,297.1 0.005 694.0 1.045 241.1 2,234

7.992 1,965. 92.394 451.62 2,517.6

43.018 0.026 7.162 50.206

61.695 302.51 63.389 0.357 427.95

72.342 2,452. 92.414 214.13 0.462 496.42 3,328.0

0.511 226.404 0.794 227.709

5.318 0.285 0.006 5.609

0.351 29.444 359.796 0.002 389.593

0.862 350.827 648.649 0.002 41.815 1,042.1

37 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.495 0.043 0.143 0.681

11.130 0.436 11.566

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

16.786 2.032 8.755 27.5

0.001 0.101 181.8 0.015 43.928 225.8

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

74.455 8.584 0.177 77.138 160.3

0.014 0.001 422.7 0.245 83.726 506.7

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

94.921 1.435 13.419 109.77

2.655 0.020 146.7 0.105 21.840 171.34

0.926 0.245 1.171 38 20.0 5.974 1.391 27.450 39 99.508 26.645 3.284 129.4 40 46.199 2.563 2.377 51.139 41

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

27.953 4.218 40.921 73.092

46 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN

118.498 0.094 118.592

61.708 165.852 227.560


42 1.460 0.109 1.569 43 0.020 0.020 44

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

1.195 0.095 0.183 1.473

0.002 3.169 0.221 6.120 9.512

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.001 0.002 0.040 0.043

1.479 0.015 0.099 1.593

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

1.862 0.232 0.301 1.121 3.516

0.104 72.405 196.0 51.010 2.748 322.3

1.987 0.298 0.087 2.372

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.001 0.001

0.225 0.225

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.487 0.012 0.499

0.002 0.276 0.159 0.926 1.363

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.005 0.009 0.014

0.944 6.374 1.266 0.298 8.882

0.049 0.049 46 1.749 0.005 1.754 47 0.111 0.045 0.156

3.301 6.150 9.451

0.432 0.226 0.658

1.966 0.476 2.442

0.002 8.354 3.849 0.221 12.679 25.105

0.124 0.124

0.689 0.689

0.063 0.018 0.081

0.897 1.499 0.015 0.139 2.550

103.2 23.558 0.030 39.060 165.875

2.049 0.030 0.730 2.809

4.188 80.559 76.616 1 324.398

4.292 189.6 95.963 273 214.376 43.746 821.3

0.002 0.002

0.028 0.028

-

0.080 0.225 0.305

0.516 0.106 1.355 1.977

0.821 0.112 0.933

0.001 0.102 0.103

0.003 3.675 0.382 0.164 2.405 6.629

3.175 0.022 3.197

0.128 0.128

0.510 2.035 1.020 0.316 3.881

0.510 5.454 0.944 7.439 1.582 0.329 16.258

45

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 47


Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

40.796 4.281 23.818 68.895

0.155 0.007 85.092 0.004 12.017 97.275

48 14.616 2.716 0.215 17.547

0.005 146.02 29.945 175.97

24.388 0.036 7.830 32.254

0.098 143.96 42.99 0.002 187.06

0.258 369.7 0.007 135.1 0.006 73.825 579.0

0.011 3.133 0.004 0.013 0.324 3.485

5.415 0.010 0.094 5.519

5.548 1.014 6.562

0.017 16.388 0.009 6.303 4.298 2.819 29.834

0.082 0.007 0.089

0.053 4.128 4.181

0.001 0.032 0.033

0.001 0.173 0.013 0.040 8.828 9.055

0.060 0.026 0.086

0.001 0.001

0.073 0.004 0.077

0.171 0.498 0.001 0.057 0.727

0.032 26.415 55.430 81.877

23.663 0.021 2.134 25.818

0.037 34.932 23.535 0.002 58.506

0.069 146.07 3.928 28.328 0.146 101.50 280.05

0.127 0.025 0.350 0.502

0.029 0.020 0.049

0.034 0.002 0.036

0.212 0.026 0.166 0.264 0.381 1.049

49 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.117 0.348 0.001 1.521 1.987

0.006 0.005 4.857 4.284 0.880 10.032

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.006 2.993 2.999

0.013 0.040 1.700 1.753

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.033 0.007 0.040

0.494 0.001 0.002 0.497

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

20.305 0.530 7.081 27.916

3.928 4.179 0.144 36.762 45.013

2.175 0.074 2.249 50 51 0.004 0.022 0.026 52 40.760 0.063 0.098 40.921 53

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.004 0.006 0.010

48 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN

0.001 0.164 0.264 0.005 0.434

0.018 0.018


Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

6.463 1.139 17.323 24.925

0.014 0.061 21.497 0.077 134.38 156.03

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

5.365 2.053 42.744 50.162

3.301 0.019 26.371 29.691

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

19.368 0.243 3.233 22.844

13.531 1.665 15.196

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.739 0.086 0.099 0.924

0.960 0.006 0.065 1.031

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

3.314 0.882 3.536 7.732

0.003 0.233 0.107 1.658 2.001

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

1.020 1.169 1.633 3.822

2.415 6.622 9.037

54 20.174 0.892 1.118 22.184 55 17.541 0.169 0.233 17.943 56 28.855 0.399 0.581 29.835

21.152 0.126 19.496 40.774

5.012 6.076 11.088

86.801 38.451 0.013 125.26

0.014 139.60 0.187 61.979 0.090 178.40 380.27

0.013 10.123 28.914 39.050

8.748 3.513 6.716 18.977

0.432 115.010 12.758 0.196 128.396

0.445 156.787 21.794 0.215 104.978 284.219

20.872 0.003 5.106 25.981

3.781 0.382 4.163

14.375 7.627 0.048 22.050

87.251 0.003 21.800 0.048 10.967 120.069

7.899 0.654 8.553

0.364 0.002 0.366

4.058 0.535 4.593

13.417 1.581 0.006 0.820 15.824

1.574 0.010 0.127 1.711

4.279 0.814 5.093

0.021 10.674 0.342 11.037

0.024 22.644 0.010 1.512 0.107 6.620 30.917

0.001 9.024 9.828 18.853

1.019 0.116 1.135

0.007 14.445 1.136 15.588

0.008 27.041 4.798 19.731 51.578

57 0.357 0.357 58 2.803 0.055 0.485 3.343 59 1.533 0.078 1.532 3.143

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 49


60 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

41.019 81.663 72.850 195.532

0.012 4.074 0.131 6.974 11.191

1.917 0.072 0.189 2.178

0.271 10.394 9.232 19.897

32.710 2.406 3.726 38.842

0.164 41.821 7.016 0.086 49.087

0.447 127.861 95.231 0.217 92.971 316.727

1.279 12.306 0.070 0.010 10.152 23.817

0.019 6.391 2.416 8.826

0.369 3.250 0.641 0.929 5.189

2.210 39.113 0.071 7.485 2.341 19.741 70.961

0.023 19.863 3.559 13.229 36.674

1.848 0.004 1.530 3.382

0.013 6.413 1.620 0.005 8.051

0.040 44.867 4.384 6.621 2.280 21.851 80.043

0.377 8.374 3.626 10.542 22.919

0.950 0.009 1.068 2.027

0.446 1.795 6.286 8.527

1.314 29.897 3.673 17.214 0.164 42.711 94.973

0.139 3.335 0.004 55.470 58.948

2.020 1.384 3.404

0.657 5.753 2.332 8.742

0.836 42.302 6.230 11.471 0.056 108.443 169.338

0.017 0.198 0.002 0.481 0.698

1.077 1.077

0.015 0.155 0.130 0.300

0.036 3.504 0.002 0.237 0.004 1.336 5.119

61 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

9.438 3.412 0.005 2.108 14.963

0.543 0.001 3.423 1.397 5.063 10.427

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

3.462 0.743 1.196 5.401

0.004 0.821 4.191 2.275 5.884 13.175

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

8.618 1.507 8.675 18.800

0.491 0.047 8.019 0.164 22.094 30.815

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

6.596 0.008 0.148 29.255 36.007

0.040 6.218 8.943 0.056 22.331 37.588

7.728 0.009 0.002 7.739 62 13.281 0.067 0.012 13.360 63 10.160 1.393 0.332 11.885 64 24.598 0.048 0.003 24.649

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

1.175 0.021 0.004 0.345 1.545

0.004 0.081 0.493 0.578

0.899 0.005 0.017 0.921

65

50 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


66 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.024 0.005 0.069 0.098

0.001 0.004 0.025 0.030

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.071 0.071

0.001 0.009 0.010

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

24.992 1.846 3.600 30.438

0.074 9.459 0.020 1.192 10.745

0.282 0.282 67 0.020 0.042 0.062 68 13.508 2.071 0.068 15.647

0.034 0.034

0.068 0.002 0.070

0.101 0.007 0.108

0.509 0.001 0.016 0.096 0.622

0.029 0.088 0.117

0.003 0.003

0.083 0.083

0.206 0.001 0.139 0.346

12.856 0.015 3.912 16.783

24.813 0.008 2.554 27.375

0.004 25.625 8.326 0.004 33.959

0.004 101.794 0.089 21.710 0.024 11.326 134.947

24.776 0.006 18.735 43.517

0.012 28.180 2.174 30.366

5.814 5.410 11.224

0.930 85.250 0.017 24.699 0.005 70.702 181.603

0.064 30.037 0.110 110.284 140.495

9.313 0.754 10.067

47.275 8.926 56.201

0.064 104.777 0.110 43.734 0.027 127.437 276.149

0.501 39.735 0.002 0.452 40.690

1.315 1.315

0.009 65.385 3.255 68.649

1.435 126.584 0.653 207.781 6.888 343.341

69 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

11.831 0.381 18.818 31.030

0.918 0.011 18.170 0.005 29.376 48.480

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

6.485 0.641 7.960 15.086

33.601 0.027 8.417 42.045

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

19.731 0.033 19.764

0.925 0.651 204.371 6.403 212.350

14.649 0.738 1.599 16.986 70 11.667 0.566 0.022 12.255 71 0.418 0.155 0.573

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 51


72 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

33.386 0.070 219.149 252.605

0.123 162.438 0.139 109.052 271.752

65.626 0.238 9.135 74.999

125.114 248.294 373.408

85.298 61.014 146.312

2.686 166.393 397.418 0.128 566.625

2.686 475.817 0.123 560.164 0.267 646.644 1,685.7

0.104 171.509 0.488 95.738 267.839

59.897 0.006 30.604 90.507

0.094 168.135 64.489 0.001 232.719

0.533 495.756 0.565 379.268 0.568 218.921 1,095.6

115.567 8.091 2.119 0.671 126.448

0.941 3.762 4.703

56.081 18.126 88.378 162.585

175.253 25.144 166.332 399.715 37.048 803.492

0.180 0.022 0.202

0.015 0.015

0.096 1.161 1.257

0.293 1.824 0.022 2.139

0.920 54.125 4.022 59.067

4.900 0.358 2.508 7.766

1.232 30.081 55.398 0.063 86.774

2.152 117.542 0.006 233.088 0.064 35.153 388.005

73 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

49.743 4.034 64.646 118.423

0.335 0.077 280.474 0.567 26.019 307.472

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.547 0.109 0.186 0.842

17.053 147.638 309.218 32.384 506.293

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

-

0.663 0.663

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

12.234 6.755 16.474 35.463

0.006 164.081 0.001 12.059 176.147

46.472 30.265 1.914 78.651 74 2.117 0.459 0.045 2.621 75 0.002 0.002 76 16.202 6.496 0.090 22.788 77

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

52 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


78 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.038 0.010 0.048

0.020 9.358 0.152 1.234 10.764

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.441 0.410 0.851

3.191 0.028 3.633 6.852

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.011 0.276 0.287

6.451 0.007 6.458

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.004 0.004

0.362 3.458 3.820

0.063 0.442 0.505 79 1.692 0.180 1.872 80 0.078 0.078 81 0.009 0.009

0.106 2.049 2.155

0.017 0.008 0.025

3.392 3.521 6.913

3.616 0.020 13.321 0.152 3.301 20.410

4.876 0.291 5.167

12.131 0.236 12.367

8.924 1.483 10.407

28.064 4.854 0.028 4.570 37.516

4.882 0.419 24.034 29.335

0.089 0.020 0.109

3.417 12.808 0.891 17.116

8.399 0.419 19.337 0.891 24.337 53.383

0.028 0.130 0.158

0.072 0.072

0.075 0.075

0.188 0.362 3.588 4.138

0.014 8.724 3.699 12.437

7.783 0.038 7.821

9.919 13.744 23.663

0.014 32.994 0.008 50.767 0.019 5.763 89.565

0.001 53.972 0.076 2.437 56.486

6.485 0.428 6.913

40.138 17.980 58.118

0.001 114.058 0.102 36.194 0.021 19.638 170.014

82 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

3.510 0.012 0.130 3.652

0.008 36.700 0.019 1.896 38.623

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

5.549 1.100 3.277 9.926

0.026 16.990 0.021 13.402 30.439

3.058 0.311 3.369 83 7.914 0.124 0.094 8.132

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 53


Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

198.396 0.001 10.380 0.022 31.592 240.391

132.523 0.234 2,330.2 12.003 300.805 2,775.7

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

301.136 5.668 0.278 75.417 382.499

0.580 0.067 2,313.7 19.211 572.435 2,906.0

84 104.602 23.764 1.813 130.179 85 106.998 10.872 3.383 121.253

0.997 2,307.9 0.078 0.005 115.4 2,424.4

0.004 247.659 2.440 8.030 258.133

0.748 899.244 326.863 0.954 1,227.8

134.272 3,757.8 0.313 2,693.6 12.984 457.685 7,056.7

0.547 1,674.4 2.067 0.006 233.012 1,910.0

0.451 76.846 3.175 18.208 98.680

0.689 349.682 373.113 1.892 725.376

2.267 2,509.0 2.134 2,706.6 21.387 902.455 6,143.9

1.680 1.241 2.580 5.501

0.384 0.384

0.007 0.046 2.036 2.089

0.831 2.356 1.243 20.283 0.114 3.179 28.006

0.755 1,161.6 34.0

271.139 0.007 25.292

7.047 379.060 11.012 0.164 -

13.065 2,090.6 0.059 217.2 7.895 201.273

27.159 0.005 0.004 0.062 27.230

0.747 0.081 0.092 0.920

0.006 0.179 1.699 1.884

0.009 28.129 0.005 14.917 0.004 0.298 43.362

287.840 1.358 289.198

0.226 0.226

3.140 0.335 277.256 280.731

3.270 289.558 434.862 0.001 4.862 732.553

86 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.079 0.007 0.193 0.279

0.824 0.002 15.824 0.114 0.406 17.170

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam

171.400 6.643 0.017 28.761

5.263 0.059 194.961 7.714 112.710

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.025 0.098 0.123

0.003 12.754 0.046 12.803

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.245 2.339 2.584

0.130 157.581 0.001 1.165 158.877

54 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN

0.167 2.416 2.583 87 107.468 4.646 0.413 88 0.044 0.358 0.402 89 0.912 0.025 0.937


90 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

10.729 0.019 0.684 5.052 16.484

0.040 1.437 418.070 1.517 162.253 583.317

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.248 0.050 0.026 0.324

1.618 12.436 14.054

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.141 0.141

0.499 0.380 0.177 1.056

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.025 0.070 0.095

-

6.645 2.536 1.052 10.233 91 0.201 0.201 92 0.019 0.073 0.092 93 -

0.004 105.192 0.013 35.939 141.148

7.469 0.756 4.844 13.069

0.117 66.400 37.666 0.024 104.207

0.161 196.435 1.456 459.712 1.554 209.140 868.458

1.046 0.030 1.076

0.022 0.004 0.026

0.299 0.175 0.474

1.816 1.843 12.496 16.155

0.020 0.102 0.002 0.124

0.380 0.380

0.007 3.073 3.080

0.020 0.508 3.786 0.380 0.179 4.873

0.825 0.825

0.010 0.829 0.839

0.002 0.072 0.074

0.837 0.926 0.070 1.833

1.138 32.726 0.065 0.004 45.173 79.106

8.240 0.029 6.342 14.611

0.207 24.478 19.845 0.005 44.535

1.349 80.374 2.428 44.633 0.713 91.877 221.374

5.051 4.395 9.446

1.133 0.015 0.042 1.190

2.809 2.770 5.579

0.066 12.638 7.567 0.173 7.990 28.434

94 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

6.336 1.697 9.706 17.739

0.004 2.363 21.274 0.704 22.494 46.839

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.706 1.073 0.800 2.579

0.066 3.397 0.173 2.750 6.386

8.594 1.788 8.162 18.544 95 2.939 0.312 0.003 3.254

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 55


Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

5.209 3.055 16.071 24.335

0.006 0.010 6.919 0.012 16.270 23.217

Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

0.036 0.103 0.139

0.020 0.056 0.092 0.051 0.219

96 10.092 0.198 0.264 10.554 97 0.006 0.006

0.130 8.610 0.437 7.466 16.643

3.980 0.754 4.734

0.003 10.073 5.453 0.007 15.536

0.139 37.964 0.447 15.625 0.019 40.825 95.019

0.120 0.008 0.080 0.208

0.007 0.007

0.010 0.152 0.012 0.174

0.030 0.321 0.064 0.207 0.131 0.753

0.028 0.688 0.011 7.324 8.051

0.026 0.060 1.976 2.062

0.436 26.432 0.003 26.871

0.531 0.688 78.975 0.077 9.627 89.898

98 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW 99 Cambodia Thailand Myanmar Malaysia Laos PDR Viet Nam ROW

2.012 0.063 0.242 2.317

56 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN

0.039 43.588 0.061 43.688

0.002 6.883 0.024 6.909


HS

Description

HS

Description

preparations and products preparations

tobacco substitutes and tubers

and extracts nes

preparations nes

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 57


HS

Description

HS

Description

tapestry etc

knit or crochet knit or crochet

66 67

pictures etc

58 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN

68

human hair


HS

Description

HS

Description

88 76

structures

78

etc apparatus

accessories

86 87

tramway

Source: Thai customs

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 59


commodities

and Fruit Processed Food

6

Heavy

7

Sea Transport

8

Sea transport

Transport

60 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


Laos

Myanmar

Trade Facilitation in ASEAN 61

Transport

Sea Transport

Heavy

Processed Food

and Fruit


Index

W

62 Trade Facilitation in ASEAN


About the Report This report highlights the current state of trade facilitation in the to consumers. It further provides a critical assessment of the obstacles to trade including shipping time and costs, transport infrastructure, logistical services, and delivery reliability. Analysis bases on interviews of key public and private stakeholders as well as statistical data provides a clear picture of what is needed to

This report provides policy makers, investors, and other stakeholders policy a clear picture of the current trading environment and gives recommendations that will ensure ASEAN countries can take advantage of the single market under the ASEAN Economic Community.

Trade facilitaion  

Trade facilitaion

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