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CONTENTS PAGES: [4,5,6,7] [8,9,10,11] [12,13] [14,15,16,17] [18,19] [20,21] [22,23] [24,25,26,27] [28,29] [30,31,32,33]


THE SPACE RACE The Space Race involved pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites, suborbital and orbital human spaceflight around the Earth, and piloted voyages to the Moon. It effectively began with the Soviet launch of the Sputnik 1 The Space Race was a artificial satellite on 4 October 1957, mid-to-late 20th century and concluded with the co-operative competition between the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project human Soviet Union (USSR) and spaceflight mission in July 1975. The the United States (US) Apollo-Soyuz Test Project came to for supremacy in space symbolize dĂŠtente, a partial easing of exploration. Between 1957 strained relations between the USSR and 1975, Cold War rivalry and the US.The Space Race had its between the two nations origins in the missile-based arms race focused on attaining firsts that occurred just after the end of the in space exploration, which World War II, when both the Soviet were seen as necessary Union and the United States captured for national security and advanced German rocket technology symbolic of technological and personnel. The Space Race and ideological superiority. sparked unprecedented increases in spending on education and pure research, which accelerated scientific advancements and led to beneficial spin-off technologies.


YURI GAGARIN April 12 was already a huge day in space history twenty years before the launch of the first shuttle mission. On that day in 1961, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin (left, on the way to the launch pad) became the first human in space, making a 108-minute orbital flight in his Vostok 1 spacecraft. Newspapers like The Huntsville Times (right) trumpeted Gagarin’s accomplishment.

Gagarin became an international celebrity, and was awarded many medals and honours, including Hero of the Soviet Union, the nation’s highest honour. Vostok 1 marked his only spaceflight, but he served as backup crew to the Soyuz 1 mission (which ended in a fatal crash). Gagarin later became deputy training director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre outside Moscow, which was later named after him. Gagarin died in 1968 when a MiG 15 training jet he was piloting crashed.In 1960, after the search and selection process, Yuri Gagarin was chosen with 19 other pilots for the Soviet space program.

YURI GAGARIN 1934 – 1968



NEIL ARMSTRONG Neil A. Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon, was born in Wapakoneta, Ohio, on August 5, 1930. As a research pilot at NASA’s Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., he was a project pilot on many pioneering After serving as a naval aviator from high speed aircraft, including the well 1949 to 1952, Armstrong joined known, 4000-mph X-15. Armstrong the National Advisory Committee for transferred to astronaut status in Aeronautics (NACA) in 1955. His 1962. He was assigned as command first assignment was with the NACA pilot for the Gemini 8 mission. Gemini Lewis Research Center (now NASA 8 was launched on March 16, 1966, Glenn) in Cleveland. Over the next 17 years, he was an engineer, test pilot, and Armstrong performed the first astronaut and administrator for NACA successful docking of two vehicles and its successor agency, the National in space. As spacecraft commander Aeronautics and Space Administration for Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission, Armstrong gained the (NASA). distinction of being the first man to land a craft on the moon and first to step on its surface.


Kennedy’s goal was accomplished with the Apollo 11 mission when The Apollo program astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz was the spaceflight Aldrin landed their Lunar Module (LM) effort carried out by the on the Moon on July 20, 1969 and United States’ National walked on its surface while Michael Aeronautics and Space Collins remained in lunar orbit in the Administration (NASA), command spacecraft, and all three that landed the first landed safely on Earth on July 24. humans on Earth’s Five subsequent Apollo missions Moon. Conceived also landed astronauts on the Moon, during the Presidency of the last in December 1972. In these six spaceflights, 12 men walked on Dwight D. Eisenhower, Apollo began in earnest the Moon. These are the only times humans have landed on another after President John F. Kennedy proposed the celestial body.[3. national goal of “landing Apollo ran from 1961 to 1972, a man on the Moon and following the Mercury and Gemini programs. It used Saturn family rockets returning him safely to as launch vehicles. Apollo / Saturn the Earth” by the end vehicles were also used for an Apollo of the 1960s in a May Applications program which consisted 25, 1961 address to of three Skylab space station missions Congress. in 1973–74, and a joint U.S.–Soviet mission in 1975.


SKYLAB America’s first experimental space station, Skylab, was designed for long durations. Skylab program objectives were twofold: To prove that humans could live and work in space for extended periods, and to expand our knowledge of solar astronomy well beyond Earth-based observations. The program was successful in all respects despite early mechanical difficulties.

Skylab was launched into Earth orbit by a Saturn V rocket on May 14, 1973. Through the use of a “dry” third stage of the Saturn V rocket, the station was completely outfitted as a workshop area before launch. Crews visited Skylab and returned to Earth in Apollo spacecraft. Three, three-man crews occupied the Skylab workshop for a total of 171 days and 13 hours. It was the site of nearly 300 scientific and technical experiments, including medical experiments on humans’ adaptability to zero gravity, solar experiments and detailed Earth resources experiments. The empty Skylab spacecraft returned to Earth on July 11, 1979, scattering debris over the Indian Ocean and the sparsely settled region of Western Australia. A view of the Skylab Orbital Workshop in Earth orbit as photographed from Skylab 4 on its return home. Image credit: NASA


COLUMBIA CHALLENGER DISCOVERY ATLANTIS ENDEAVOUR NASA’s space shuttle fleet began setting records with its first launch on April 12, 1981 and continued to set high marks of achievement and endurance through 30 years of missions. Starting with Columbia and continuing with Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour, the spacecraft has carried people into orbit repeatedly, launched, recovered and repaired satellites, conducted cutting-edge research and built the largest structure in space, the International Space Station.

As humanity’s first reusable spacecraft, the space shuttle pushed the bounds of discovery ever farther, requiring not only advanced technologies but the tremendous effort of a vast workforce. Thousands of civil servants and contractors throughout NASA’s field centers and across the nation have demonstrated an unwavering commitment to mission success and the greater goal of space exploration. The final space shuttle mission, STS135, ended July 21, 2011 when Atlantis rolled to a stop.


HUBBLE Orbiting the Earth for over two decades, Hubble has helped to answer some of the most compelling astronomical questions of our time – and uncovered mysteries we never knew existed. Investigating everything from black holes to planets around other stars, Hubble has changed the face of astronomy, ushering in a new chapter of humanity’s exploration of the universe.

Hubble has shown us some of the universe’s earliest galaxies and defined the limits of their age. Its vision has uncovered evidence of black holes and discovered the mysterious, unexplained phenomenon called dark energy. Hubble has watched stars and planetary systems in the making, examined planets around distant stars, and witnessed the destructive power of cosmic impacts. Galaxies are where the action happens in space, islands of activity in a sea of emptiness. Hubble has helped identify the sources of the universe’s most powerful explosions, learned how galaxies came to be, and observed stars in the last stages of their lives.

DISCOVERY Images made using the Hubble Space Telescope in 1995, by Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen, greatly improved scientific understanding of processes inside the nebula. One of these, a famous photograph known as the “Pillars of Creation”, depicts a large region of star formation. Its small, dark areas are believed to be protostars.

The pillar structure of the region resembles that of a much larger star formation region, imaged with the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2005, in Cassiopeia, which is designated W5 and has been dubbed the “Pillars of Creation”. These columns––which resemble stalagmites protruding from the floor of a cavern––are composed of interstellar hydrogen gas and dust, which act as incubators for new stars. Inside and on their surface astronomers have found knots or globules of denser gas, called EGGs (“Evaporating Gaseous Globules”). Stars are being formed inside a portion of these EGGs. The brightest star in the nebula has an apparent magnitude of +8.24, easily visible with good binoculars.

A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives impact with the Earth’s surface. Meteorites can be big or small. Most meteorites derive from small astronomical objects called meteoroids, but they are also sometimes produced by impacts of asteroids.

When a meteoroid enters the atmosphere, ram pressure (not friction) causes the body to heat up and emit light, thus forming a fireball, also known as a meteor or shooting/falling star. The term bolide refers to either an extraterrestrial body that collides with the Earth, or to an exceptionally bright, fireball-like meteor regardless of whether it ultimately impacts the surface.

METEORITE More generally, a meteorite on the surface of any celestial body is a natural object that has come from elsewhere in space. Meteorites have been found on the Moon and Mars. Meteorites that are recovered after being observed as they transited the atmosphere or impacted the Earth are called falls. All other meteorites are known as finds. As of February 2010, there are approximately 1,086 witnessed falls having specimens in the world’s collections.

Meteorites have traditionally been divided into three broad categories: stony meteorites are rocks, mainly composed of silicate minerals; iron meteorites are largely composed of metallic iron-nickel; and, stony-iron meteorites contain large amounts of both metallic and rocky material. Modern classification schemes divide meteorites into groups according to their structure, chemical and isotopic composition and mineralogy.


INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION The International Space Station marked its 10th anniversary of continuous human occupation on Nov. 2, 2010. Since Expedition 1, which launched Oct. 31, 2000, and docked Nov. 2, the space station has been visited by 202 individuals. At the time of the anniversary, the station’s odometer read more than 1.5 billion statute miles (the equivalent of eight round trips to the Sun), over the course of 57,361 orbits around the Earth. A total of 161 spacewalks have been conducted in support of space station assembly totaling more than 1,015 hours. As of August 2011, there have been 135 launches

to the space station since the launch of the first module, Zarya, at 1:40 a.m. EST on Nov. 20, 1998: 74 Russian vehicles, 37 space shuttles, two European and two Japanese vehicles. The final space shuttle mission July 8-21 by Atlantis delivered 4 1/2 tons of supplies in the Raffaello logistics module.

WHAT NEXT NASA is designing and building the capabilities to send humans to explore the solar system, working toward a goal of landing humans on Mars. We will build the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, based on the design for the Orion capsule, with a capacity to take four astronauts on 21-day missions. NASA is also moving forward with the development of the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new national capability for human exploration beyond Earth’s orbit. The SLS rocket will use a liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propulsion system, which will include shuttle engines for the core stage and the J-2X engine for the upper stage. We are developing the technologies we will need for human exploration of the solar system, including solar electric propulsion, refueling depots in orbit, radiation protection and highreliability life support systems.

NASA is researching ways to design and build aircraft that are safer, more fuelefficient, quieter, and environmentally responsible. We are also working to create traffic management systems that are safer, more efficient and more flexible. We are developing technologies that improve routing during flights and enable aircraft to climb to and descend from their cruising altitude without interruption. We believe it is possible to build an aircraft that uses less fuel, gives off fewer emissions, and is quieter, and we are working on the technologies to create that aircraft.




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