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TYPO GRA PHY as we KNOW

it.

For Designers, Students & Teachers


Created by Oscar, Nick and Wes


Th bo ty sim


he purpose of this ook is to understand ypography in a short, mple & efficient manner.


Contents


introduction

1 2 3

Dissecting Typography Anatomy, 2 Size + Scale 4

Selecting Your Type Type Classification, 7 Type Families, 8 Classic Typefaces, 10

Putting It Together Alignment, 12 Kerning,Tracking + Leading, 14

credits, 16


CHAPTER 1

Dissecting Typography


2

Anatomy of typography

cap height

1 x-height

baseline

2

descender line

There is a standard set of terms to describe the parts of a character. These terms, and the parts of the letter they represent, are often referred to as “letter anatomy” or “typeface anatomy.” By breaking down letters into parts, a designer can better understand how type is created and altered and how to use it effectively. A few extra terms, such as baseline and x-height, are included to help understand and describe the letter anatomy.


3

7

4

6

5

8

3

10

9

1. Bar

6. Finial

2. Stem

7. Ascender

3. Loop

8. Descender

4. Ear

9. Spine

5. Bowl

10. Cross Bar


?

a * 8

5

H

;

size

+

) SCALE


5

Typographic size & scale

Size The point system is the standard used today. One point equals 1/72 inch or .35 millimeters. Twelve points equal one pica, the unit commonly used to measure column widths. Typography can also be measured in inches, millimeters, or pixels. Most software applications let the designer choose a preferred unit of measure; picas and points are standard defaults.

A dramatic

Abbreviating Picas and Points

8 picas = 8p 8 points = p8, 8 pts 8 picas, 4 points = 8p4 8-point Helvetica with 9 points of line spacing = 8/9 Helvetica

type size change will always draw attention.

Scale Scale is the size of design elements in comparison to other elements in a layout as well as to the physical context of the work. Typography needs to be legible and readable at different sizes. Typographic scale creates hierarchy in information. Scaling the space between lines of type creates a vertical rhythm through your text. Changes in scale help create visual contrast, movement, and depth as well as express hierarchies of importance. Scale is physical.

+1

+2

+3

USE SCALE AND CONTRAST USE

SCALE AND

CONTRAST

+12

Minimal differences in size make this look provisional and random.

Strong contrast and scale gives this design depth, energy, and decisiveness.


CHAPTER 2

Selecting Your Type


7

Type Classification

Choosing Appropriate Fonts— Fonts are the Wusthof knives of graphic design. In the hands of a capable, educated and trained professional, fonts can achieve amazing results. In the hands of an amateur – dangerous.

Serif

Serifs are semi-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. Sans-Serif is one that does not have the small features called “serifs” at the end of strokes. The term comes from the Latin word “sine”, via the French word sans, meaning “without”. Transitional typefaces show more accentuation between thick and think strokes, flat serifs, and very slightly inclined axes on curves.

Has small features at the ends of the letters. Now you see them! No extra features. Now you don’t! A blend of the two. Indentity Crisis?

Sans-Serif

Transitional


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Type Families

Roman Italic Bold all caps caps and small caps


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key principles

...the questions always come up at least once: “What should I look for in a font?� Selecting fonts can be a tricky process, when in doubt do some research. The most important things to remember about font selection are: Is it legible?

Is it appropriate and strategic?

If the answer to that question is anything but a definite yes do not be afraid to find another font. The most important concept in good advertising is to communicate your message effectively. Is it appropriate and strategic? A good way to think of fonts is that they have personalities. A traditional serif font is usually used for conservative and formal purposes. San-serif fonts are modern and casual. There are casual, masculine, feminine, retro, fancy, grungy fonts, and the list goes on.


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CLASSIC TYPEFACES

Fonts are the ones that help a text or design stand out. There are a huge number of different font types available. Some of them have been used and adapted by designers and organizations for decades, making them the most influential fonts in graphic design. This list is about those fonts. Each of the typefaces represent a distinct stage in the evolution of type design and they remain among the most popular and widely used typefaces today. Use them to your advantage.

Helvetica Futura Garamond Bodoni Frutiger

Trajan Myriad Minion Bembo Baskerville


CHAPTER 3

Putting it Together


12

Proper

Alignme n


13

ALIGNMENT

The spacing of text can be used to make a single word, or entire pages more legible. If text is too close it becomes jumbled and hard to depict. If text is spaced too far apart it is difficult to read. The types of line spacing that exist are Leading, Kerning, and Tracking.

Flush Left

Centered

Designers prefer this alignment because it is the easiest to read, that is why it is the most common.

This style is usually meant for poems. It is seen as classical and formal. Creates an organic shape within a body of text.

Flush Right

Justified

This alignment is odd to read and should be used for captions. Can also be used to fit well with images.

Offers a crisp, handsome look if done correctly. It uses a effeciate amount of space and creates a clean shape.

Text aligns to the left side

Text aligns to the right side

This is evenly distributed from the center

Left and right edges are even


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SPACING OF TEXT

The spacing of text can be used to make a single word, or entire pages more legible. If text is too close it becomes jumbled and hard to depict. If text is spaced too far apart it is difficult to read. The types of line spacing that exist are Leading, Kerning, and Tracking.


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Leading

The horizontal space between lines of text. Measured from baseline to baseline.

This is an example of leading. Notice the difference in space between the lines of text.

Tracking

The overall spacing between characters. Also known as letter spacing.

Tracking

Tracking

Kerning

The space between individual characters. Commonly used to create uniformity.

Kerning Kern in g


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SOURCES AND CREDITS

“How did they know that?” because we know you’re wondering


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*

This information was obtained from the following

Ellen Lupton’s Thinking With Type

Attending the Rocky Mountain College of Art and Design

James Craig’s Designing With Type


Now that I think of it, I think I can start to really comprehend th typography stuff.


his


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THIS BOOK INCLUDES

typography anatomy typeface families typeface classification size and scale alignment and kearning leading and tracking

Typography As We Know It  

A short and simple typography book.

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