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twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)?

rmwdum



 =u,fpifwyGifh.txk`Wd  vdyfjym  trSefw&m;

pm-(4) pm-(5) pm-(6)

pm-(7) rS (8)

pm-(9) rS (14)

pm-(15) rS (19)  ynm&Sdrsm;.tqdktrdef@  oifh0ef;usifrSaq;wr,f  yvyfpwpfESifhusef;rma&;

1

pm-(20) pm-(21) pm-(22)

 onfvdk=ujyefawmhvnf;a=umufwwfom;yJ

pm-(26)

 umv0dygwfaemufydk;wuf

pm-(30)

wm0efausESifhonfh=u,faºuwyGifh pm-(33)

pm-(36) rS (44)

APRIL, 2011


aiG a wmif * sme,f



2

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u&ifeo D wif;at*sipf rD x S w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)?

u&ifeDtrsKd;om;wdk;wufa&;ygwD/ ygwDt&HA[dkaumfrwD0if u&ifeDwyfrawmf trSwf=(3) wyf&if;/ wyf&if;rª;'k=Adkvfrª;}uD;rdka&S;. ud k , f a &;txk y ` w W d 

apmrdka&S;udk tzzdk;vrm;ESifh trdar&Dwdk@rS 1959-ckESpfY a'ga&mclòrd@/ bmwdk&GmwGifarG;zGm;chJ onf? twef;ynmudk vGdKifaumfòrd@/ trSwf(1) txufwef;ausmif;wGif '\rwef;txd oif=um;chJ 3 onf? 1988-ckEpS w f iG f u&ifet D rsK;d om;ckcaH wmfveS af &;od@k 0ifa&mufco hJ nf? tajccHppfynmoifwef; tygwpf Of 22§88 qif;+yD; eef;tGrt f aumufceG Xf meY &k;H pma&;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifco Jh nf? 1989ckEpS w f iG f aumfv(H 2) &k;H xdik rf ;ª tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifco Jh nf? aumfv(H 4) wd;k cs@J z@JG pnf;csed w f iG f aumfv(H 4) a&;&mrª;tjzpf wm0eftyfESif;jcif;cHchJ&onf? 1998-ckEpS w f iG f wyf&if;-(2) wyfa&;Adv k }f uD;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifc+Jh yD;/ wyf&if;(2)/ wyfc-JG (4)wGif wyfcGJrª;tjzpf qufvufwm0efxrf;aqmifchJonf? 2004-ckESpfwGif trSwf-(2)wyf&if;/ 'k-wyf&if;rª;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifchJ+yD;/ 2008-ckESpf/ trSwf-(3) wyf&if;wdk;cs@JzGJ@pnf;onfhtcsdefwGif trSwf-(3)wyf&if;/ wyf&if;rª;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif chJonf? 2009-ckESpf/ {+yDvwGif usif;yðyvkyfaom (11)}udrfajrmuf u&ifeDtrsKd;om;wdk;wufa&;ygwD/ ygwDuGef*&ufY ygwDt&HA[dkaumfrDwD0iftjzpf a&G;aumufwifajrmufjcif;cHchJ&onf? trSwf-(3)wyf&if;/ wyf&if;rª;tjzpfESifhvnf;aumif;/ ygwDt&HA[dkaumfrDwD0iftjzpfESifhvnf; aumif; us&mwm0efrsm;udkxrf;aqmif&if; 2011-ckESpf/ {+yDv (1)&ufae@n (10;30)em&DtcsdefwGif wdkif;jynfESifhvlrsKd;twGuf toufay;pGef@oGm;chJonf? 'k-Adkvfrª;}uD;rdka&S;uG,fvGefcsdefwGif ZeD;jzpfolaemfy&D;'DESifh om;/ orD; (5)OD;usef&pfcJhonf?

APRIL, 2011


aiG a wmif * sme,f

-u,fpifwyGih. f txkyw ` Wd

4

ysHavOD;awmh odef;iSuf}uD;a& [dk;--tjrifhqHk;rSm tawmifawG tqHk;pGefjzef@ wdk@rsm; csufðryf&m aiGawmifjynf&Jh aumif;uif,HrSmaygh---? wcsdefu u&ifeDjynfwv$m; e,fpGefe,fzsm;rusef wawm0ifwawmifxGuf jynfol@twGuf &efpG,frsm;udk&Sif;cJhwm u&ifeDordkif;u armfuGef;xdk;&pfygrSmyg--?

usef&pfwm 0rf;enf;p&myg? &Jabmf}uD;a& E_wfrquf/ vufrjy &kwfw&ufxGufcGg oGm;+yDqdkawmhvJ aumif;&modk@om oGm;ESifhyg? &Jabmf}uD;u b0eJ@&if;I wm0efauscJhyg+yD/ wdkif;jynfeJ@ vlrsKd;twGuf trsm;}uD;xrf;&GufcJhyg+yD u&ifeDordkif;rSm aumif;aom &mZ0if

uAsnf;wifcJhyg+yDav---? wae@aomtcg Tc&D; b,folrSr+iD;pwrf; av#mufvSrf;&rSmjzpfayrJh (1-4-2011 &ufae@wiG f a&S@wef;e,fajrwae&mY wm0efxrf;aqmif&if; usq;kH oGm;onfh u&ifew D yfrawmf trSw-f (3) wyf&if;/ wyf&if;rª; wdkif;jynfeJ@vlrsKd;twGuf 'k Ad v k r f ; ª } u ; D rd a k &S; twGuf trSww f &a&;zG@J onf) wdk@vkyfp&m r+yD;ao;wJhtcsdef aomoDckd (05-04-11/ 14;55) vrf;w0ufrSm

u&ifeo D wif;at*sipf rD x S w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)?

5

vdyfjym [dkwkef;uvdk wa,moHoJhoJh rD;cdk;awGtla0wJh okn&SdwJh t&yfrsufESmudk igjyefrrSwfrdawmh? ESif;yGifhwJhaqmif;/ trdk;tHk@tHk@rkef@qkdif oDcsif;oHrSm jyefcHpm;}unfhcsif? aus;vufnawG aps;wef;av;&Jh&eH@ taumifAavmifav;&Jh&o igbmrSrrSwfrdawmh?

tarhta=umif;/ ausmif;ta=umif; tAsmta=umif;/ cspfolta=umif; bmqdkbmrSrrSwfrd? ighudk,figvnf;rrSwfrd tdyfrufav;a& uqkefayguf&vGef;vdk@ armvS+yD; ighqD igjyefa&mufygawmhrvm;?

(aerif;) APRIL, 2011


aiG a wmif * sme,f

trSefw&m;

6

jzpf±kd;jzpfpOfxJrSmawmif ig[m tkyfcGJcHvdkuf&wJhusm; pum;aemufrSm w&m;awG? vmrajymeJ@ odk;[mvnf;wd&p>mef pm;-r,f tdyf-r,f vdifudpP&Sdr,f cifAsm;bmajymrvJ ? urWmay:rSm ig[m igyJjzpfw,f vuf0JokEN&r[kwf teE Wol&d,r[kwf eydkvD,Hr[kwf ? b0udk rsOf;ajzmifhqGJwdkif; r&vdkufwmtm;vHk;udk iwfw,f? xyfajym&&if urWmay:rSm ig[m jrpfvufwufr[kwf ighrdb&J@udk,fyGm;r[kwf ewfbk&m;&J@wrefawmfr[kwf? ig[m aumifuifawmfqDudk vGwfvGwfvyfvyfpD;aewJh yifrjrpf bk&m;+yD;&if t&mcyfodrf;&J@ A[kdcsufjzpfw,f? 'gayr,fh bk&m;±kSd@xm;wJhrD;udk +idrf;zdk@usawmh-----

(aeae) u&ifeo D wif;at*sipf rD x S w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)?

7/ rwfv? rwfv-(7) &ufae@/ eHeuf 7;50 em&Dtcsed cf ef@wiG f &Sr;f -u&ifeeD ,fpyf/ vdKG ifzaD wmiftajcpdu k f cr&-332 rS Adv k }f uD;pd;k &mZmOD;pD;wyfceJG ,fajr&Si;f vif;&efcsw D ufpOf u&ifejD ynfwyfrawmf/ wyf&if;-(3) rSwyfz@JG wzG@J u apmifh óuw d u kd cf u kd cf &hJ m eHeuf 7;50 rS 8;30 em&Dtxd wdu k yf jJG zpfymG ;+y;D &efob l ufrS 2 OD;aoqH;k +y;D / 3 OD;'%f&m&&So d mG ;onf? 9/ rwfv? rwfv-(9) &ufae@/ rGe;f vG-J (2) em&Dtcsed w f iG f &Sr;f -u&ifeeD ,fpyf/ vdKG ifzaD wmifteD;Y e,fajrv_y&f mS ;ae aom &efocl r&-332 wyfrS ppfa=umif;wpfa=umif;tm; u&ifew D yfrawmf/ wyf&if;-(3)rS wyfz@JG wpfz@JG u xyfryH pf cwfwu kd cf u kd cf &hJ m &efox l cd u kd rf r_ od&/ rdrb d ufrx S cd u kd rf r_ &S?d 9/ rwfv? rwfv-(9) &ufae@/ nae-(4) em&Dtcsed w f iG f u&ifeaD &S@wef;e,fajr/ tifawmuke;f xdik f cv&-(72) wyfz@JG rS a&cyfqif;pOf u&ifew D yfrawmf/ wyfz@JG wpfz@JG rS ajymufusm;ypfcwfc&hJ m &efob l ufrS wyf=uyfwOD;aoqH;k oGm;onf? 7 14/ rwfv? rwfv-(14) &ufae@/ nae-(4;30) em&Dtcsed w f iG f armfcs;D / xif;&l;awmifpcef;tajcpdu k f cv&-(135) rS wyfz@JG wpfz@JG a&cyfqif;pOf u&ifew D yfrawmfraS xmifxm;aom rdik ;f eif;rdI &efow l yf=uyfwOD; nmbufajcaxmuf 'l;atmufyikd ;f rSjywfxu G o f mG ;onf? 16/ rwfv? rwfv-(16) &ufae@/ nae-(6) em&Dtcsed w f iG f ,d;k pyf&m;&Gmod@k 0ifvmaom &efol cr&-275 ppfa=umif;ESihf u&ifejD ynf/ trSw-f (3) c&dik t f wGi;f a&;rª;OD;pDonfh c&dik af jymufusm;wyfw@kd wdu k yf jJG zpfymG ;&m &efox l cd u kd rf r_ od& rdrd bufrS c&dik t f wGi;f a&;rª;vufarmif;wGif usnif ,f&yS x f o d mG ;onf? 18/ rwfv? rwfv-(18) &ufae@/ eHeuf-(10) em&Dtcsed w f iG f armfcs;D -(6) rdik pf cef;xdik /f &efow l yf cv&-134 udk u&ifeD wyfrawmf/ wyf&if;-(1) rSwyfz@JG wpfz@JG u 0ifa&mufypfcwf&m &efob l ufrw S yf=uyfwpfO;D '%f&mtjyif;txef&&So d mG ; onf?

APRIL, 2011


aiG a wmif * sme,f 7/ {+yD? {+yDv (7) &ufae@/ eHeuf (10) em&Dtcsed Yf tv,fyikd ;f cGi/f 'D;armqdòk rd@e,f/ a'gwr}uD;&GmteD;wGif u&ifeD jynfwyfrawmf/ wyf&if;-(2) rSwyfz@JG wpfz@JG EiS hf &efocl r&-(576) wd@k wdu k yf jJG zpfymG ;&m &efob l ufrx S cd u kd rf r_ od&/ rdrd bufrx S cd u kd rf r_ &S?d 7/ {+yD? {+yDv (7) &ufae@/ rGe;f vGJ (1) em&Dtcsed Yf armfcs;D òrd@/ 13 uke;f wGif u&ifejD ynf/ trSw-f (2) c&dik af jymufusm; wyfrS &efol cr&-(134) tm;ypfcwfwu kd cf u kd cf &hJ m &efox l cd u kd rf u _ rkd od&&dS yg? 12/ {+yD? 2011-ckEpS /f {+yDv (12) &ufae@/ n (10) em&Dtcsed w f iG f zmaqmif;òrd@e,f/ 13 rdik &f dS cJrjzLjynfo@l ppf pcef; wGif pcef;rª;apmzd;k cGg;/ wyfz@JG 0ifausmOf ;D / apmv,fx;l / armifviG Ef iS Zhf ;D ZD (4) OD;wm0efusv#u&f cdS sed w f iG f wyfom;ausmOf ;D rS pcef;rª;jzpfol apmzd;k cGg;udyk pfowfI wyfom;apmt,fx;l ESiahf rmifviG u f kd ac:,lIpcef;rSxu G af jy;cJyh gonf? vrf;ckvwfY wyfom;ausmOf ;D rS u&ifew D yfz@JG EiS hf pum;ajymppfjzifq h ufo, G af c:,laepOf apmt,fx;l rSuikd af qmifaomvufeufjzifh wyfom;ausmOf ;D udyk pfowf+yD;/ cJrjzLod@k jyefvnfowif;yd@k cahJ =umif;od&&dS ygonf? 16/ {+yD?

8

2011-ckEpS /f {+yDv (16) &ufae@/ rGe;f vGJ (2;20) em&Dtcsed w f iG f abmvcJòrd@e,f/ eef;zJpcef;xdik f 'k-wyf&if;rª; 0if;òz;d jrwfO;D pD; cv&-(135) rSwyf=uyfr;kd ausmo f Ol ;D pD; (6) OD;/ ig;&Sm/ zm;&SmxGu+f y;D tjyefwiG f u&ifew D yfrawmf wyfz@JG wpfz@JG rq S ;D óudwu kd cf u kd &f m rGe;f vGJ (2;20) em&DrS (2;40) em&Dtxd tjyeftvSeyf pfcwfrj_ zpfymG ;+yD;aemuf &efob l ufrS wyf=uyfr;kd ausmo f /l wyf=uyf=unfvi_d Ef iS w hf yfom; (2) OD;aygi;f (4) OD;usq;kH oGm;onf rdrb d ufrx S cd u kd rf r_ &S?d 22/ {+yD? 2011-ckEpS /f {+yDv (22) &ufae@/ rGe;f vGJ 3 em&DcJG tcsed w f iG f zmaqmif;òrd@e,f/ xl;csyt f ay:em;wGif cJwif vmonfh &efob l ufrjS ynfo@l ppfAv kd b f vl;'dyk ikd f &§u-4296 ,mOftm; u&ifew D yfrawmf wyfz@JG wzG@J r&S yfwef@ppfaq;I um;ay:yg ,leaD zmif; (2) pHt k m;odr;f qnf;um ,mOfarmif;atmifatmifEiS hf ul;ulEpS Of ;D tm; ppfaq;&efac:,lxm;+yD; um;udk rD;&d@_ zsuq f ;D vdu k o f nf? ,mOfarmif;atmifatmifEiS u hf ;l ulEpS Of ;D tm; ppfaq;&m‚if;wd@k (2) OD;rSm t&yfom;rsm; omjzpfa=umif;xGuq f =kd uonf? 24/ {+yD? 2011-ckEpS /f {+yDv (24) &ufae@/ rGe;f wnfh (12) em&Dtcsed w f iG f zmaqmif;òrd@e,f/ xd;k 'dak v;cdEk iS hf yGg'&dk mG t=um;wGif u&ifew D yfrawmfrS ppfa=umif;wpfa=umif;ESihf &efow l yf cv&-134 rS Adv k }f uD;rif;xGe;f OD;pD;wyfcJG &ifqikd f wdu k yf jJG zpfymG ;&m rdrb d ufrx S cd u kd rf r_ &S/d &efob l ufrw S yfom;wOD; xdcu kd 'f %f&m&&So d mG ;a=umif;od&&dS ygonf? 29/ {+yD? 2011-ckEpS /f {+yDv (29) &ufae@/ eHeuf 10;30 em&Dtcsed w f iG f xif;&l;awmifpcef;xdik f Adv k o f ef;0if;udk OD;pD; wyfpt k m; u&ifew D yfrawmf wyfpw k pkrS aysmuf=um;ypfcwfwu kd cf u kd &f m &efob l ufrw S yfom;wOD;aoqH;k oGm;onf/ rdrb d ufrS xdcu kd rf r_ &S?d

u&ifeo D wif;at*sipf rD x S w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)?

[KhcugnH yg,kyeGg bkdfga;dJh byglkKl;Kg bf: z c;Gh 24. 2011// ey bkKokatgamky (2)bFh sf jfga;fhbJh cdtvGh sdtg [KhcugnH bkmyhsf wuhbtyh sfgukg K (34)sfg sdtg yg,kyeGg bkdfg;kKga;dJh ug[t lrkGhaHh a;dJhjf ygcdf jkfhug byglkKl;Kg Ggb(14) jfgbJh ey Ggiyh a;dJhjf vfhcdJ sdtgrK fgvyh[katg zKzyg jfgvu ;fgjkFh skyadfh skyeGg jkGgrJg nHdJhsdtg/ ey bf:zc;Gh (19)iGh sdtg bkdfg;kKg bthvHg oHoJg ;yg'ku:zky: fgbf 3^27-1 rK kJsf juhzdtnFg skysf a;dJhjf jfgqyh jfgqkfg fgjkFg (30) sdtgjug nHdJhsdtg/ 9 idfnHsdtg ey bf:zc;Gh (22)iGhsdtg ;ugvfh;ug [KhnH lfgskG jfg[kxth yg,kFeGg odthkK byglkKl;Kg Ggb(14) jfgbJh bkf[t bkdfg;kKga;dJh fgbf (134) ygcdf jkfhug ey Ggiyh a;dJhjf (64)btTh ugsdtg/

a;dJh uglkK [Khcug jfglrkGg oJga;dfg Jg l rtg ; Gh (12)iGh . 2011// a;dJhnH uglkK [Khcug bkf[t bkdfg;kKga;dJh sKhoHg;kfg lrkGgeKhidu bkdfg;kKg jfgkJg ugey vGhbfgndHg (13)btTh bmkyhsf zdKgHh sdtg vGidJh skyadfh Gga;dJhjfgvHg nuhvmfh odth yg;ugsky wKh;GgGog Hh sf btI; g mtyg rK oJga;dfgl;G [t Ggiyh a;dJhjf ey bkKvy fgvGhsdtg/ jfg[tgrK wKhGg;GgoHh sdtg vGidJhadfh zdKgHh ey zdKgHh ,fzF l;muhoFh afgdfh;kyga;dJh fgvGh/ wKhGg;GgoHh sdtg a;dfgakfgvdJh [t vGhbfgndHg jfaHh ey sdtgjfgpJh jfg[tgrK btIg;mtyg sdtg iGygcJh akfgjktGg jfgnkatjkath/ bfgsfrK btIg;mtyg sdtg akfgjkdtvdJh [t vGhbfgndHg jfaHh ey fgsug jfgruhsdtg/

APRIL, 2011


aiG a wmif * sme,f bkdfg ; kKg a ;dJh idJh b kJG Jglrtg;Gh (16)iGh. 2011// afgdfh;kyg a;dJhnH jfgbkHg uglkK vGcFg bkdfg;kKga;dJhnH ug[t skfhnGhjf a;dJhlrku fgbf (135) ey Ggiyh zdtbdflkHh lkFJg[yg rK akfgvdJh fgvGhsdtg/ nHsdtgrK bkdfg;kKg a;dJhnH idJhskyadfh ;mkyhlrkGg bmkyhsf bkuhzdKgiHg. zdyg;ktTg. dGhbtyh sf itfhwkKgmtyh/ bkdfg ; kKg a ;dJh jfg b Gg s ky [t jfg c faHh Jglrtg;Gh (24)iGh. 2011// afgdfh;kyg a;dJhnH jfgbkHg lkKhjkfhcFg sf bkdfg;kKga;dJh ugey a;dJhlrku fgbf (134) [t a;dJhvHg btyhothYHh jkGglt;kGh ey oug[ug ;kJhvug sf lmfg[ug [Khl;Gg ey bkKodtg cdtvGh/ bkdfg;kKg a;dJhnH bmkyhsf zdygvtTg jfgbGg skyadfh. jfg[tgrK afgdfh;kyga;dJh jfgadJh jfgbF jfgbGg skysfjug/ afg d fh ; kyg - a;dJh yg c Fadfh ;kKg ; kyg [dfg s kylrkGh jfg v Hg Jg l rtg ; Gh (22)iGh . 2011// afg d fh ; kyg a;dJh n H jfg b kHg ug l kK lkFcFg ;kKg ; kyg jfgvHg [dfgsky lrkGh rK kdfhjkdtey oHh odJh;kdfhbkxt vHgodfg fgvGh sdtg/ rK 10 ygcF Fhjkfhadfh ;kKg;kygsdtg/ ndJsky a;dJhkdJgzkfg sdJhimu odth lkFsky lrkGgqkG ;kKg;kyg sdJhlrkGg/ GgiyhkJ sf Ggiyh bfg [KhcugnH zKzFlrG/ odth ;kKg;kyg sdtgbfg bkf a;dJhuglkK-[Kh a;dJhvHg e;Hh[ug jGh iGpJhsky nHdJhsdtg/ bkdfg ; kKg a ;dJh - vmy jkGg z myg o K bkdfg;kKga;dJh ug[t a;dJhlrku fgbf a;dJh n H jkGg j fg r yg zfodfg k K [t (428) jfgkJg zdtjkdt [t vuhifhbkK-[Kh ugey nrHgcug qkyhbthaHh sdtgsf ndJl;K afg d fh ; kyg - akJ lrkGgsfgzkG sfgug (28)sfg sf fgvHgodfg bf: z c;Gh (31)iGh . 2011// fg b mkyg i Gg . lrkGg s fg z kG jfg l rkGg [t bkdfg ; kKg a ;dJh - vmy jkGg j fg r yg sf fgbmkyglfg jfglrkGg kJcuglkJ nHdJh/ zmyg o Kl;K a;dJh i Gh Hlfg j yg [t [Gh j kfh ; kdth fg r kJsHg . vuh p kfvGh #dJhbfgbkf afg;H jfgbkfh [t bkdfg;kKg omkuhodfg bkfkK sf zfodfg ndJl;K a;dJh jfgkJg zfodfg bkJg;kdthodfg a;dJh lrkGgsfgzkG sfgug (18) sfg sf fgvHgodfg jkGgzmyg oKl;KiGh Hlfgjyg ey [Ghjkfhug jfgkJg ey afgdfh;kyg-akJ fgrkJ zfodfgey [t sfgkJsHg sdtg.$ fgkJ/ bf:zc;Gh (29)iGh lrkGgndJ jkGgrJg [r odthrK ey bf:zc;Gh (30)iGh sdtg bkf akJaHh jfg l rkGg [dJiGpJh skylkJ bkdfg;kKga;dJh sdtgjfgbkHg lrG oJgzdt nHdJh/ [t ;kKvFvHg-[Kh sf [KhedfgaHh rK zfodfg (l;muhoFh l;Jgkdfh [t ;ygl;yh sdJhl;Gg u&ifeo D wif;at*ssdtg ipf rD x S- w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)?

lrkGg vdf ;kdfg iHgiG sf lrkGgvdfzK jfgkJg lrkGgsfgzkG oFhvGh vupkf sdtg Gjfgayg iGpJh o mku jfg ; muzkdf sf ey Gg i yh omkuhlrkGglfh fgvGh Ggiyh jfgkJg bkJgzdt cuhnf cuhrkdfg jkGgbkJg jkGgbkJg nHjJh sdtgjug/ bkJgjJh kJrK jkGg[dfgbf [dfgjJh eGgadfsf Ggiyh jkGgndJ jkGgbkJg jfgkJg ;kJbdflkHh iGpJh sdtg ugadfh Gjug fgvHg fgvdJh sdtglrG/ wKh b kKg r Gg . kdfh u g j kfh ey akJ;kdfh vfh;kJ sdtg [t GgsfgzkG oFhvGhlfh odthrK [Hgodfg fgvGh omkuha;dJh [t aHh;fh oFhvGh odth fgsugsdtg akfguag kath sf vmywKcmJg ey nrHgcug sdtg/ jkdtkK sf bkdfg;kKg kdfhskxthjkdt [t afgdfh;kyg-akJ odth odJhakJrJg cHcf rK vmywKcmJg oJgzdt jfg n fh a dfh [e nrHg c ug fg v Gh Gg o Jg z dt rkuakath sf vmywKcmJg [t lrkGh a Hh zyskxth jfgadJh/

(cGgjJh;H)

btfh t I g i tfh ; kJh . ug [ t lfh ; Gh a;FoFh akJzy;kdfg jfgadJh rK oJgzdt jfgnfh sf Gg k yg n dfh - nH jkdt[t akJoJg o dfg jfgadJh sf bkJgjkGg [t aHh;fha;dJh-aHh 11 ey bkdfgakJ skyeGg ;fhcy akJ eGgeFg;fh cyjug fgvGhsdtg/ ey bkdfgakJ skyeGgodth akJ-eGgeFg;fh fgsug sdtg akfgjkdt [t afgdfh;kyg-akJ odth bkJgjkt jkGgbkJg sf afgdfh;kyg [HgvHg jfgkJg/ vfnuh. ug[t akJadfh jfgadJh lfgitUg qkyhbth rK omkuha;dJh [t aHh;fh jfaHh/ bkJgjkGg [t lkF cypkfg[Hg jfgadJh/ zfodfg ey bkdfgakJ skyeGgodth akJ-eGgeFg;fh fgsug sdtg eKidu sf afgdfh;kyg [HgvHg jfgkJg eK zf bkJgrkujkGg idfnH at bkJgcygl;G akfg v dJh afg d fh ; kyg - nH [t bkdfg jkGglt;kGh sdtg/ bkJgidusky afgdfh;kyg a;dJh a ;uh jfg k Jg sf jkGg l kF sKh J g cypkfg[Hg fga;df fga;uh jfgkJgsdtg/

APRIL, 2011


aiG a wmif * sme,f zfodfg ey afgdfh;kyg jkGgpkfh afgoKg cfcFg jkGg l t odfg j uh fg a Hh [Hg v Hg jfg k Jg arkFha;Gh vdJh;Hh. skdthaHh vdJh;Hhjug rK jkGg b kJg i dJh bkJg b kJ vdJh [ Fg ; Hh jug b fg s f bkdfg l kF skyadfh jug b fg s f eKiduadfh sf bkdfga;dJh/ fgjfg[Fg sdtg jkdt[t jkGglt odfgjuh fgaHh lrkGglt edfeFh [HgvHg jfgkJg uglfhjug/ eysdtg fgvGh Ggiyh idthlrkGg sdtg zkHhJg vdJh;Hh sf ltzdtrku vdJh;Hh nH jkGglt odfgjuhdJh at ugjfg[Fg adfhjug fgpJhsdtg/ idfnH jkGglt odfgjuh sdtg at zdtoHh sf jfg[Fgzkdf sf sfg lfgjy fgaHhjug sdtgrK Ggiyh jfgryg bdflkHh ugzdt vfh;kJ vfhedfg [t at ug [ Hg ;kdfodfg sf eKidu vGvuhzkdf sf bdJhztg [t fga;Kh jfgkJg sdtg r K ltjfg r yg afg o Jg [t akJztoJg 12 odJhvdJg ;kdfhbkxt zyoJg jfgadJh/

zyoJg jfg a dJh fg v Hg fg v dJh Gg i yh jfg r yg akfg v dJh sf at akGeG odJh v dJg ;kdfhbkxt sdtg/ ey Ggiyh jfgryg akGeG odJhvdJg fgvGh bdf odJgeGg sf jkGgjfgakGg uglkK eKgeFg Ggiyh a;df/ nHsdtg r K Gg i yh at akGeG odJhvdJg sdtg fgzkdf lfhjug/ nHsdtgrK zkHh J g vdJh ; Hh sf wKh b kKg r Gg sdtg at l;muh ; ug afg ; kdfg rdu fg s kJ sf odJhvdJg odth btfhtigI tfh;kJh sdtg ltsky a;dJhnH ugadfhakath sf GgjfgkJg rK dfzF akGeG odJhvdJg sdtglrG/ odth bdfodJg jkfhcFg akfgvdJh;Hh [t lrkGhaHh zyskxth jfgadJhlfg sdtg/ wKh b kKg r Gg sdtg cyg l ;GeG fg s kJ sf l;muh;ug jkfh fgskJ sf odJhvdJg. jfg[tgrK btfh t I g i tfh ;kJh sf fg a ;dJh n H jfg k Jg bdfodJgeGg sf bkdfg;kKga;dJh jkGgeKg jfgqkfgcFg [t odJh a;uh zyskxth jfgadJh/ idfnH bdfodJglfg a;df[t ;kJcygl;G zdtjfg;mu sdtg uglfh jug fgvHg fgvdJh fgjfg[Fg sdtg [dfgjkfhadfh Gg iyh cypkfg [t bkdfg;kKga;dJh ug sf vdfsKh lkF GgiyhskJ sdtglrG/

ey jkdtkK odJhvdJg ;kdfhbkxt zyoJg jfg a dJh rK bdfodJg jkfh c Fg sf odJhakJnH ugey zyoJg jfgkJg fgvGh idfnH bdfodJg iGpJhsK sf skykath iGpJh ugsJg jkGgrJgjug fgvHg fgvdJh. odJhakJnH jfgkJg ,kFJg sf ltaFh a;dJh a ;uh kdfhskxthjkdt [t Ggiyh vfh;kJ vfhedfg/ ey bkdfg;kKga;dJh lkFskyadfh btfhtIg bdfodJg Ggiyh sf afgdfh;kyg-a;dJh jfgkJg itfh;kJh sf fgvuh jfgkJg fgsug sdtg [dfgug bkfjug / Gg i yh [t iyry[Kh rK oFzJh s ky Gg i yh / odJhakJnH jfgkJg zfodfg l;muhoFh sf sdJh j dfg j ug Gg i yh oJg a ;dfg l;GvdJh bkdfga;dJh ug[t ndfH[Kh sf lrkJcyjug jfg l rkGg odth jfg lrkGg / jfg [ Fg s dtg jfg k Jg / bkdfg ; kKg a ;dJh jfg k Jg zfodfg btfhtigI tfh;kJh sdtg a;dfg l;Gsky odth eKg j fg q kfg jkfh j kFh Gg i yh a;df;kJ akfgl;KzFh vdJhidf sf [HgvHg fgrkxtg akfg v dJh [t lrkGh a Hh jfg a dJh sdtg / jfgkJg/ bkdfg;kKga;dJh ug[t lrkJcyjug jfgkJg ;kFgvG Ggiyh [t odJhvdJg ;kdfhbkxt ey bkdfg ; kKg a ;dJh - vHg skJg m tyh sf fga;dJh jfgkJg lkFzKh [HgvHg jfgkJg odth

u&ifeo D wif;at*sipf rD x S w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)? zdtl;Jg k dfh jkGg n dJ jkGg b kJg [t jkGglkdf jkGgcGh fga;Gh sdtgbfg lrkGg[Hg odfgsug vuhpkfvGh jfgkJg bdfodJg iGpJhomu GlrkGg sfjug/ bkJgjJh kJrK Ggiyh eGgeGg [t jkGglt odfgjuh fgaHh eGgeGg rfhbf rfhjJh bkJga;kKg bkJgbfgsky jkGgndJ jkGgbkJg zf[t [HgvHg jkdt lrkGgarmkuh a;dJhnH GbkHg sdtg iG;kKh kJeGgcFg sf skJgmtyh a;uhnH jfgkJg sdtgbfg jkGgjkfhnkatg eGvHg a;dJh v Hg fg b kHg fg l ;K idfnH ugG pfgzK/ jkGg j fg z kH jfg e G at ug a kfg v dJh bkf;fg a uh [t odJh a kJ aHh sf at jfg[tgrK bkf[t Ggiyh jfgkJg bfg lrkGg[t [dJjkfh ;tefhlkJ GbkHg fgjkGg iG,kF [tg ; kdth e Gg sf ,kHh a ;df ,kHh a ;uh jfg k Jg s dtg / jfg [ tg r K jkfg k JeGg kJcFh lkJlkGg [tpJh sf lkGgjuhaKg bkJgzdtrku jkfhcFg vdJh;Hh sdtg ugpkJh jdfgjug fgsug l;Jg k dfh jkGg n dJ jkGg b kJg [t Gg i yh sdtg fg l dJadfh / fg l dJadfh nHdJh bkJg l ;F skyjig rK [dfg a dfh lkJlkGg bfg b kf bkdfg vtg Y bdHg s y: jfg k Jg sf sdtgjfgkJg sdtglrG/ bkf Ggiyh jkGgvdfzkdJh ltaFh fg b kHg fg l ;K jfg k Jg zdt vdfzkFg sf oKkGh oKrJg rK bkJgbmkuhl;yh amyh n dJl;K fg b Hg fg r f sf zmyg l ;K skylkJlkGg a;df[tpJh jFrK vuhpkf lkGg oKzFh odJhakJnH fgvHg fgvdJh bkdfg;kKg Jg r kdfg nmyh , dJg sf bdfodJg e Gg sf 13 sdtg [dfgug akatadfh jkGgugaH ugadf jkGglkdf jkGgcGh uglfgjy fgvHg fgvdJh lkGgjuh sdtglrG/ kJemy jfgrdJh sf bdfeFh Ggiyh jkGg[tg;kdth sf jkGgug ifhrdfh edfeFh jfgkJg sdtg;fh`/ jkdtsf Ggiyh bkxtlrkG afg;kdfg nFgsf jkGgidJh jfgpJh sdtg Ggiyh dfzF oKkGh oKrJg sf vdf;kKhiHg ;kKhiG bkJgedfeFh

ltskyadfh odJh a kJ ,Jg l rkug ug k K jfgsfg;t fgvGh sdtg zfodfg GcFg fgbkHg fgl;K lrkGgcfaug Ggiyh jfgkJg ug[t bkygiHg bkyga;Gh sf ;kJbdf odJg jkfhcFg kJeGg jtglfg vdJh;Hh sf odJh akJ jkGgjfgzkH jfgeG fgpJh ey fgsfg 1963 sdtg/

(kt l;Jg k dfh [t ;yg l ;yh sdJh l ;Gg sdtg odthrK bkdfg;kKga;dJh fgbf (428) sdtg ;H,kf ndJnJg kJgvHg sf ;kJefbuh bkJgidu jkfhsky a;dJhiGh fgpJh sdtg [KhcugnH jfgkJg vHga;Gh ey ;kKzkdfg. [Kh;kKvHg sf bfgvrKg cdJ [KhvfhcdJ jfgqyh jfgqkfg sdtg/ [dJiGpJh zmkusJg skJedfgzGg jug odth l;fakfgvdJh fg'kHg fglrkyg jfgeGjug/ jkGg ; kKl;yh dJh j fg k Jg omkuh o dfg ey lrkGg s fg z kG GlrkGg eJg , kKg eJg i yg u g sf bkdfg;kKga;dJh jfgryg zmygoK cmugcKh ;kJomkuh a;dJhnH zfodfg [dJiGpJh ey sfgkJsHg sdtg/ lrkGgsfgzkG-nH iG;kKh omkuhsf bkdfg;kKga;dJh jfglrkGjug idfnH Ggiyh bkJgzkdJhzkFg [KhcugnH zfodfg [t Ggiyh kdfhug cKjkfh Ggiyh a;dJhjf ey akJaHh dJhsdtglfh/

APRIL, 2011


aiG a wmif * sme,f bkdfg;kKga;dJh sKhyglrkyg l;f;kdJh cGgJg cGguh sf [KhcugnH jfg k Jg Jglrtg;Gh (8)iGh. 2011/ 2011// afgdfh;kyg a;dJhnH jfgbkHg lkFjkFhcFg bkdfg;kKga;dJh cGgJg cGguh jfgkJg ey Ggiyh sKh,fiHh sf [KhcugnH ug[e [KhbHhbfg sdtgjfgkJg ey Jglrtg;Gh (4)iGh sdtg skyeGg jkGgrJg nHdJh/ #bkdfg;kKga;dJh-vHg ugey [KhbHhbfg sdtg sKhcmugcKh [KhcugnH sf ;kJiHh zdtlkJ Ggiyh a;dJha;uh ug[t jfg'Hhcug (;mGgnygcug) ey afgdfh;kyg sf lrkJakJaFh sdtg/ bkdfg;kKga;dJh armkuhzdtakath sfjug/ qfh jfgskJg sf afgdfh;kyga;dJh jfgkJg iGpJh oFzJheGg ugzmkusJg jkGgrJg auh;Jg/ jFrK Ggiyh Gugakat jkfhjkFh [KhcugnH [t a;df;kug sf ndJnJg ;kKhadfh cGgJg cGguh jfgkJg.$ lrkGgbkJgjkGg-nH ug[t vfh;kJ eysdtg jfglrkGg kJcuglkJ nHdJh/ fgsug jfgpJh bkdfg;kKga;dJh-vHg ugey lrkJcyjug sdtg Gjkfh l;K;kKh [Khbkxt [KhnGh ugjfgqkyh jfgqkfg ey lrkJcyjug-qkyh sdtgsf lkFug a;kKgadfh Ggiyh/ odth kJjkfh [KhcugnH sf juhylg rkyg akfgvdJh ;kdJhvdJh cGgJg cGguh jfgkJg. ay bkfjug kJbfg l;muhvdJh sf [Khbkxt [KhnGh lkFug jfgkJgjug nHdJh sdtglrG/ 14 cGgJg cGguh jfgkJg bfg vKhnygbyw. cy;yeHh. bygnuh. cy;y iwKg;Gg. bygzyg. cyg;yg bygl;Kg. ygimy iyhruhbFg sf kath jfgkJg 'kHglrkyg eGgryg;kKh bkdfgrFh 99.600 eGg sdtglrG/

a;dJh[Khcug-nH jfglrkGg jfgryg oJga;dfg Jglrtg;Gh (13)iGh. 2011// a;dJh[Khcug-nH ;mkyhlrkGg jfgryg oJga;dfg [t Ggiyh a;dJhjfaHh ugey vGhbfgndHg ey Jglrtg;Gh (12)iGh sdtg jfg[tgrK fgcygl;G sfjug skykath iGpJhsky jkGgrJg nHdJh/ #zdKgHh sdtg vGidJhsky Gg[HgvHg nuhvmfh ltsky vGhbfgndHg-jf sdtg/ odth yg;ugsky Gg;GgoHh sf btI; g mktyg rK oJga;dfgrku vdJh;Hh/ ey zdKgHh jfgryg l;muhoFh sf afgdfh;kyg a;dJha;uh ug jfgqyh jfgqkfg vfh;kJ eysdtg fgvGh Gg;GgoHh vGidJhadfh zdKgHh odth a;dfgakfgvdJh [t vGhbfgndHg a;dJjfaHh/ afg;H sdtg btIg;mktyg iGygcJh akfgrku sf Gg;GgoHh jfg[tgrK fgsug jfgruh sdtg fgakfg jkdtvdJh [t vGhbfgndHg jfaHh sdtglrG$ lrkGgiHh jkGgrJg kJcugsky nHdJh/

HhlJh eGgeGg ay jkGgrJg ug kJbfg iG,kF iHhlkJ bfg fgskylrG/ u&ifeo D wif;at*sipf rD x S w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)?

u&ifetD rsKd;om;wd;k wufa&;ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm; wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;aumifpD tpnf;ta0; wufa&muf NDJ: 15 March

2011-ckEpS /f rwfv(14) &ufrS (15) &ufae@txd xdik ;f Edik if /H vGwaf jr‡mufe,fajr wae&mwGif usif;ycJhonfh wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd; rsm;aumifpD/ 'kwd,oufwrf;/ owWrt}udraf jrSmuf A[dt k vkyf tr_aqmifaumfrwD oH;k vywf yHk rSet f pnf;ta0;od@k u&ifet D rsK;d om;wdk;wufa&;ygwDrS ygwD'kOuUXcGe;f atb,fw'G /f ygwt D &HA [dkaumfrwD0if cGef;a&$rsKd;oef@ESifh clyvl;&,fwdk@ wufa&mufcJh=uyg onf?

tpnf;ta0;wGif wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;aumifpD vkyf ief;tzGJ@acgif;aqmifrsm;rS wifjy onfh vkyfief;aqmif&Gufr_tajc taersm;ESifh jynfe,fndSEd_if;a&; aumfrwDrsm;rSay;yd@k vmonfh vkyf ief;tpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk zwf=um; jcif;ESihf aqG;aEGo;kH oyfjcif; wdik ;f &if;om;ta&;udpPrsm;ESifh ywf oufI r[mAsL[mudpaP qG;aEG; jcif;ESihf a&S@vyk if ef;pOfrsm;udk aqG; aEG;cJ=h uygonf?

iHawmfacgif;aqmifrsm;/ {nfhonf awmf r sm;/ ausmif ; om;rd b rsm;/ ausmif ; ol / ausmif ; om;a[mif ; rsm;ESifh oifwef;qif;vufrSwf&,l =urnfh ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm; ponfjzifhpkpkaygif;vlOD;a& (150) ausmf wufa&muftm;ay;cJh=uyg onf? oifwef;qif;yGJtcrf;tem; wGif u&ifeDEdkifiHawmfacgif;aqmif wpfO;D vnf;jzpf/ u&ifev D rl z_ @HG òzd;a&; oifwef;ausmif;. t}uHay;yk*~dKvf vnf;jzpfonfh q&m}uD;clOD;&,frS oifwef;qif;ausmif;ol/ ausmif; om;rsm;tm; *k%fðytm;ay;pum; ajym=um;cJ+h y;D / oifwef;ausmif;. 'kwm0efcHjzpfolcl&D&,frS oifwef; ausmif;. vuf&t dS ajctaersm;ESihf ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm;. u&if eDvrl t _ odik ;f t0dik ;f twGuf jyefvnf tvkyt f aºuG;ðycJo h nfrsm;tm; {nfh 15 y&dowfrsm;odk@ jyefvnf&Sif;vif;

u&ifeDtrsKd;om;xktwGuf tvkyftaºuG;ðyrnfholrsm;wdk;vm 1/ {+yD?

xdkif;-u&ifeDe,fpyfwae &mwGif zGiv hf pS x f m;&S+d yD; u&ifejD ynf . wpfcw k nf;aom vl@tcGit hf a&;/ obm0ywf0ef;usifESifh Oya'oif wef;ausmif;jzpfonfh u&ifev D rl _ zG@H òzd;a&;oifwef;ausmif;. (8)}udrf ajrmuf/ ausmif;qif;yGJtcrf;tem; wpf&yfudk 2011-ckESpf/ rwfv(30) &ufae@wGif pnf;um;odkufòrdufpGm usi;f yðyvkycf ahJ =umif;od&&dS onf? tcrf;tem;od@k u&ifeED ikd f

oifwef;ausmif;qif;yGJtcrf;tem;ESifhwufa&mufvmaom u&ifeDacgif; aqmifrsm;udkpifjrifhay: YawG@&pOf?

APRIL, 2011


aiG a wmif * sme,f wifjycJo h nf? “usaemfwdk@ 'Du&ifeDvlr_ zG@H òzd;a&;oifwef;ausmif;udk 2003ckEpS u f q&m}uD;atmifqef;jrifeh @J w jcm;ausmif;om;a[mif;(2) a,muf wd@k u pwifwnfaxmifc+hJ yD;/ ausmif; vnfygwcf &hJ mrSm 'DEpS af usmif;qif;yGJ uawmh (8)}udraf jrmuf&o dS mG ;+yDjzpf ygw,f/ 'Dausmif; uae+y;D usaemfw@kd u&ifev D @l tcGit hf a&;eJ@ obm0ywf 0ef;usiv f y_ &f mS ;ol vli,f (149)OD;udk arG;xkwEf ikd cf +hJ yjD zpfygw,f? olw@kd xu J (75) a,mufavmufuawmh 'Dxikd ;f u&ifeeD ,fpyfrmS u&ifejD ynfov l x l k twGuf tvkyt f aºuG;ðyae+yD;/ (15) a,mufausmaf usmu f awmh jynfwiG ;f

rSm jyefvnfvkyfaqmifae=uwm awG@&ygw,f? 'Dae@uawmh u&ifeD vl@todkif;t0dkif;udk tusKd;ðyEdkifzdk@ twGuf aemufxyf vli,f(25) OD;udk xyfraH rG;xkwEf ikd cf w hJ myJjzpfygw,f” [k ajym=um;cJyh gonf? u&ifeDvlr_zGH@òzd;a&; oif wef;ausmif;rS ausmif;ol/ ausmif; om;trsm;pkrSm vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh obm0ywf0ef;usit f m; t"du xm; v_y&f mS ;aeaom u&ifet D ajcðyvlr_ toif;tzGJ@rsm;/ u&ifeD'kuQonf pcef;twGi;f &Sd tkycf sKyfa&;/ w&m;a&; Xmersm;wG i f tvk y f t aºuG ; ðyae onfuakd wG@&&dS +y;D / bmom&yfrsm; xl; c|epf mG oif=um;Edik o f nfh ausmif;ol/

ausmif;om;rsm;rSm vl@tcGifhta&;/ obm0ywf0ef;usif/ Oya'bmom &yfrsm;ESiq hf ufpyfonfh ausmif;rsm; od@k qufvuf wufa&mufoif=um; EdkifcJh=uygonf? t"duwufa&muf EdkifcJhonfh ausmif;rsm;rSm Earth rights International School, Law Academic (BLC) ESihf tjcm; vl@tcGit hf a&; oifwef;rsm;jzpfa=umif;od&&dS onf?

TAYA ZAW AUNG (KIC)

(11) ESpjf ynfh u&ifeaD usmif;om;or*~EpS yf wfvnfnvD mcHusif;y 16

NDJ: 1/ {+yD?

u&ifeDausmif;om;or*~ onf jynfwiG ;f ppfa=umifh rdrw d @kd .ae &yfXgaeudkpGef@cGgI xdkif;-jrefrme,f pyf&dS 'kuo Q nfpcef;od@k rdbrsm;ESihf t wla&muf&Sd tajccsaexdkifv#uf&Sd aom u&ifeaD usmif;om;rsm; tae jzifh ynmudak umif;rGepf mG qufvuf oif=um;Edik &f eftwGuf ulnyD yhH ;kd ay; onfh tzG@J jzpfygonf? u&ifeaD usmif; om;or*~ukd 2000-jynfEh pS /f {+yDv (1) &ufae@wiG f pwifz@JG pnf;cJ+h y;D u&if eDtxufwef;vGeaf usmif;ESihf u&ifeD tpdk;&ynma&; Xmevufatmuf&Sd ausmif;toD;oD;wGif ynmoif=um; aeaomausmif;om;rsm;. ynm oif=um;r_taxmuftulðyEdkif &ef twGuf wpdu k rf wfrwfaqmif&u G cf hJ ygonf? 2011-ckEpS /f {+yDv (1) &uf ae@wGif or*~zGJ@pnf;vmcJhonfrSm (11) ES p f a jrmuf c J h + yD j zpf o nf h t

nDvmcHt+yD; wufa&mufvmaomu&ifeDacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh ausmif;om;or~tzGJ@0ifrsm;tm; twlwuGawG@&pOf

avsmuf/ or*~.vkyfief;pOfrsm;jyef vnf oH;k oyfEikd &f ef/ tvSnu fh sA[dk aumfrwD0ifrsm;udk jyefvnfa&G;cs,f wifajrmufEdkif&efESifh a&S@vkyfief;pOf rsm;a&;qGJcsrSwftwnfðyEdkif&ef t wGuf or*~. (11) ESpaf jrmufEpS yf gwf vnf nDvmcHukd 2011-ckEpS /f {+yDv (1) &ufae@wiG f xdik ;f -u&ifeeD ,fpyf vGwaf jrmufe,fajrwae&mY usi;f y cJ&h m ESpyf gwv f nfnv D mcHo@kd u&ifeD

trsKd;om;wdk;wufa&;ygwDrS acgif; aqmiftcsKd@/ u&ifeDausmif;om; or*~.A[dt k vkyt f r_aqmif aumfr wD0ifrsm;/ or*~tzG@J 0ifrsm;/ tjcm; aom u&ifeDvlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifhzdwf=um;xm; aom{nfhonfawmfrsm;ponfjzifh pkpkaygif;vlOD;a&(70)ausmf wuf a&mufcahJ =umif; od&&dS ygonf?

u&ifeo D wif;at*sipf rD x S w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)?

u&ifeDtrsKd;orD;tpnf;t&Hk;rS u&ifeDjynfwGi f; usef;rma&;ynmay; vkyfief;rsm;aqmif&Guf

KNWO: 06, April



u&ifejD ynfwiG ;f &Sd trsK;d orD;ESifhuav;i,frsm;twGuf use;f rma&;qdik &f m tajccHvt kd yf csujf zpfonfh wud, k &f nfoef@&iS ;f r_udk taxmuftulðyEdkif&ef t wGuf u&ifet D rsK;d orD;tpnf;t &H;k rS trsK;d orD;acgi;f aqmifrsm;t aejzifh 2008-ckEpS f rS 2010-jynfh ESpt f wGi;f / trSw-f (2)c&dik o f @kd ESpf }udrfoGm;a&mufI aus;&Gmaygif; (38) &Gm&St d rsK;d orD;ESihf vli,frsm; twG u f v nf ; aumif ; ? 2010jynfEh pS rf S 2011-ckEpS t f wGi;f / t rSwf-(3) c&dkifodk@oGm;a&mufI aus;&Gmaygi;f (20)&St d rsK;d orD;ESihf vli,f rsm;twGuf vnf;aumif; tajccH wudk,f&nfoef@&Sif;a&; qdik &f m toH;k taqmifypPn;f rsm; jzef@a0ay;+yD; use;f rma&;ynmay; vkyfief;rsm;jzpfonfh rsKd;yGm;jcif; qdik &f muse;f rma&;/ rdcifEiS u hf av; t[m&"mwf & &S d a p&ef t wG u f ynmay;a&;tpDtpOfEiS hf tajccH use;f rma&;ynmay;r_ vkyif ef;rsm;

pmrsuEf mS (35)rS

aea&mifr&SI d tH@k qikd ;f r_id ;f &Dae aom aumif;uifxufuakd i; =unfah e &mrS wpHw k &mudk owd&vm[efjzifh tdyf ,mxufrSpmzwfaeaom rdcifudk vSr;f ar;vdu k o f nf? “arar/ azazb,fomG ; vJ[if/ orD; ol@uw kd cgrrS awG@&ygvm;”

u&ifeDtrsKd;orD;tpnf;t&Hk;rS jzef@csDay;onfh wudk,fa&oef@&Sif;a&; toH k ; taqmif y pP n f ; rsm;ud k v uf c H & &S d r _ a =umif h auseyf a ysmf & $ i f a e=uaom jynfwGif;rS uav;i,frsm;?

udk aqmif&u G cf yhJ gonf? xdk@tjyif tajccHusef;rm a&;ynmay;apmifha&Smufr_vkyfief; rsm;ESifhqufpyfI tajccHEdkifiHa&; ynmay;vkyif ef;rsm;jzpfonfh tajccH vl@tcGifhta&;/ trsKd;orD;tcGifht a&;/ uav;tcGit hf a&;ESihf +idr;f csr;f a&;qkid &f mtcGit hf a&;wd@k ukd od&v dS m ap&ef tvky&f akH qG;aEG;yGrJ sm;udk usi;f yðyvkycf yhJ gonf? 2011-ck ESpt f wGi;f tdyf,mxufrS rdef;r&G,f onf rsu0f ef;od@k p@kdwufvmaom rsuf &nfpwd@k ukd rsuaf wmifwcsuf ESpcf suf cwfum odr;f vdu k &f if; “arar orD;udkc%c% ajymjyxm;wmbJ/ orD;azazc&D; oGm;aew,fv@kd ” orD;i,fonf rdcif&Sd&m bufo@kd vSnu hf m -

APRIL, 2011

ynmay;tpDtpOfrsm;udk wdk;csJ@ aqmif&GufcJh&m rsKd;yGm;r_qdkif&m usef;rma&;ynmay; vkyfief;jzpf onfh rdom;pkprD u H ed ;f ESi0hf rf;av#m a&m*g avsmeh nf;usqif;a&;/ vdif uGJjym;r_qdkif&mynmay;vkyfief; rsm;udk wdk;csJ@aqmif&GufcJha=umif; od&&dS ygonf?

KNWO “azazc&D;oGm;wmuvnf; t=um }u;D bJ” “[kww f ,f orD;&,f/ orD; azaz 'Dwcgc&D;oGm;wmav wtm; eJ@u=kd umygvrd rhf ,forD;&,f”

17


aiG a wmif * sme,f

2750-jynfhESpf/ u&ifeDESpfopful;ae@usif;y 

NDJ: 4/ {+yD?

u&ifeDouU&mZf 2750 jynf h E S p f / vJ ; [sm (1)&uf § c&pf ouU&mZf2011-ckEpS /f {+yv D (4) &uf/ jrefrmaumZmouU&mZf 1372 ckEpS /f wefcl;vqef; (1)&uf wevFmae@ wGifusa&mufonfh u&ifeDESpfopf ul;ae@ tcrf;tem;w&yftm; u&ifeD ae@x;l ae@jrwfrsm;usi;f ya&; aumfr wDrS}uD;rª;I trSwf(1) bef@rdkifEdkif; qG,f u&ife'D u k o Q nfpcef;Y usi;f y ðyvk y f c h J & m tpD t pOf t & c&pf ouU&mZf 2011-ckEpS /f {+yDv(3)&uf ae@/ noef ; acgif , H t cgor,Y ESpo f pfu;l ae@óudqykd JG usi;f ycJyh gonf/ óudqykd t JG crf;tem;wGif vmrnfEh pS f 18 opftcgor,Y u&ifeDjynfw0Srf; +idr;f csr;f om,mI qefa&pyg;aygrsm;

ºu, G 0f apjcif;iSm &d;k &mbmom/ Ak'b < m om/ c&pf , mef b momponf j zif h bmomaygi;f pH0k wfðyqkawmif;r_rsm; ðyvkyfjcif;/ ºuGa&mufvmaom {nfh y&dwfowfrsm;tm; &dk;&mtqdktu rsm;jzif h wif q uf a zsmf a jzjcif ; ES i f h ESpfopful;tcgor,a&mufcsdefwGif u&ifeD tpd;k &'k-0ef}uD;csKyfrS ESpo f pf ul; rde@f ceG ;f ¹rGu=f um;jcif;/ u&ifet D rsK;d om;wdk;wufa&;ygwD/ ygwDtwGif; a&;rª ; -(1)rS u&if e D E S p f o pf u l ; t a=umif; a[majymjcif;ESihf n(12;00) em&D wdww d iG f Happy New Year [k oHòyid t f wlwuG atmf[pfóuq d =kd u +y;D u&ifeED pS o f pfu;l udók uq d akd om tm; jzifh za,mif;wdik rf ;D rsm; xGe;f !Sjd cif;p onfh tpDtpOfrsm;udk aqmif&u G cf =hJ u ygonf? ESpo f pfu;l ae@ tcrf;tem;od@k

u&ifet D rsK;d om;wd;k wufa&;ygwrD S ygwD acgi;f aqmifrsm;/ u&ifet D pd;k & Xmersm;rS 0ef}uD;rsm;ESifh wm0ef&Sd acgif;aqmifrsm;/ pcef;tkyfcsKyfa&; ydik ;f rS wm0ef&adS cgi;f aqmifrsm; wuf a&mufc=Jh uonf? 2011-ckESpf/ {+yDv(3) &ufae@ESifh (4) &ufae@ ae@cif;ydkif; wGif u&ifeED pS o f pfu;l ae@txdr;f t rSwf &d;k &mtm;upm;òydiyf rJG sm; usi;f y+y;D nydik ;f wGit f rsK;d om;,Ofaus;r_ tursm;/ aw;oDcsi;f rsm;jzifh azsmf ajzwifqufchJ=ua=umif; od&Sd&yg onf?

u&ifepD pfwyfjzwfawmufonfh etz&dumQ &Gmom;rsm;tpm;jyefvnfay;avsmf& KSWDC: 5/ {+yD?

u,m;jynfe,f/ &Sm;awm òr@d ajrmufzuf &Sr;f u,m;e,fpyfteD; &Sd vG,fzDawmifac: wil;qdkawmif pcef;xdkifetzppfwyfonf wyft wGu&f u d mQ rsm;udk a'gr;l rm &Gmom; rsm;tm; vkòH caH &;ray;bJ o,faqmif apcJhonf? xdkodk@o,faqmifonfh &dumQ rsm;udk 2011-ck ESp/f {+yDv(4) &ufae@wiG f u&ifeD wyfrawmfrS odr;f qnf;,laqmifomG ;ojzifh &Sm;awmòr@d xdik f cr&-(332) wyfr;ª rS teD;em;&Sd aus;&Gmol}uD;rsm;udk ac:,lzrf;qD;

xde;f odr;f xm;+y;D &dumQ rsm;tpm;xd;k jyef 0 ,f a y;yd k @ &ef awmif ; qd k x m; a=umif;ESihf tpm;xd;k jyef0,fay;yd@k r_ rvkyrf csi;f &Gmol}u;D rsm;udk csKyfaESmif xm;rnfjzpfa=umif; &Gmom;rsm;. ajymjycsuu f kd ud;k um;I KSWDC uGi;f qif;vkyo f m;wOD;. owif;ay; yd@k csut f &od&&dS ygonf? u&ifew D yfrS odr;f ,lomG ; onfh wyf&u d mQ rsm;rSm aumfzrD pf (16) xky/f pD;u&ufaq;vdyjf zL (2) xky/f "gwrf ;D (1) vuf/ vSausmf aq;vdyf

(9) xky/f rD;jcpf (6)ck/ [if;csKrd e_ @f (4) xky/f "gwcf }J uD; (6) vH;k / tarG;wdik f txky}f uD; (5) xkyEf iS hf qefwtdwf jzpf+yD; ypPn;f rsm;. pkpak ygi;f umv wefz;kd rSm 99600 usyf jzpfa=umif; od&&dS ygonf?

R

u&ifeo D wif;at*sipf rD x S w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf

E DUCE E USE E CYCLE


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)?

(11) }udraf jr‡muf u&ife&D ;kd &mpkaygif;wefceG wf ikd yf aJG wmfusif;y NDJ: 15/ {+yD?

ES p f p Of u sif ; y+rJ j zpf o nf h u&ifepD ak ygi;f wHceG w f ikd yf aJG wmfukd ,ck ESpw f iG f (11) }udraf jr‡muftjzpf t vSnhfus u&ifeD'kuQonfpcef; t rSw-f (1) wGiu f si;f ycJyh gonf? yGaJ wmfukd 2011-ckEpS /f {+yD v (11) &ufae@rS (14) &ufae@txd usi;f ycJ+h yD;yGaJ wmftwGi;f u&iferD sK;d EG,pf rk sm;tvdu k f ,Ofaus;r_tqdt k uòydifyGJrsm;usif;yjcif;/ &dk;&myGJawmf ESifhywfoufonfh yef;csD/ uAsmESifh pmpD p muH k ; òyd i f y G J r sm; usif ; yjcif ; / u&ifeDtpdk;&/ omoema&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_0ef}uD;Xme0ef}uD;armfa';a';azgrS trSmpum;ajym=um;pOf (xuf) ESihf yG J a wmf o d k @ wuf a &muf v m=u aom {nfyh &dwo f wfrsm;udk wefceG w f ikd x f o l nfh ae@wiG af wG@&pOf (0J)?

rsK;d EG,pf , k Ofaus;r_armif/ r,f tvS òydifyGJrsm;usif;yjcif;/ &dk;&mwefcGef wdkifyGJawmfESifhywfoufonfh a&S; a[mif;tD&;kd &d;k &maw;pyfou D ;kH oDqkd r_òydiyf rJG sm;usi;f yjcif;/ &d;k &mebef;ESihf tjcm;tm;upm;òyid yf rJG sm; usi;f yjcif; ESit hf wl nydik ;f wGif (3) nqufwu kd f pwdw&f ;_d ESi, hf Ofaus;r_tuya'om rsm;jzifh azsmaf jzwifqufc=hJ uygonf? u&ifeD&dk;&mwefcGefwdkifyGJ awmfwiG f yg0ifqifEo JG nfh rsK;d EG,pf k

(8) rsK;d EG,rf mS u&iferD sK;d EG,rf sm;jzpf onfh u&ife/D u,ef;/ ua,m/ bG/J rEl/ yul; wd@k EiS t hf wl tjcm;rsK;d EG,f rsm;jzpfonfh &Sr;f ESiyhf td0k rhf sK;d EG,f ,Of aus;r_tzGJ@rsm;uvnf; 0ifa&muf qifE=JG uygonf? yGaJ wmftwGi;f ºuG a&mufvm=uaom {nfhy&dwfowf rsm;udk &d;k &macgi&f nf/ t&uf/ xrif; [if;vsmrsm;jzifh wnfcif;{nfch cH =hJ u ygonf? ,ckEpS w f iG f usi;f yonfh pk

APRIL, 2011

aygif;wefcGefwdkifyGJawmftcrf;tem; udk 14-4-2011 &ufae@wiG f usi;f y &m tcrf;tem;odk@ u&ifeDacgif; aqmifrsm;/ a'oqdkif&mxdkif;tm %mydik rf sm;/ bmoma&;acgi;f aqmif rsm;/ pcef;rSwm0ef&ydS *k Kd~ vfrsm;ESihf t wl {nfyh &dwo f wfppk ak ygi;f 700 cef@ wufa&mufcyhJ gonf? tvSnfhuspkaygif;wefcGef wdik yf aJG wmfukd 'kuo Q nfpcef;aumfr wDESifh &dk;&maumfrwDwdk@rSOD;aqmif usif;yay;cJh+yD; ESpfpOfu&ifeDae&yf rsm;jzpfonfh 'kuo Q nfpcef;trSw-f (1)/ trSw-f (2)/ u,ef;om,m&Gm/ a[Gu;l uJEiS ahf [Gp,faxmuf&mG rsm; wGifESpfpOf wae&mESifhwae&ma&$@ ajymif;ItvSnu hf susi;f y=uygonf?

19


aiG a wmif * sme,f

ynm&Sdrsm;. tqdktrdefhrsm; 

1. Everything goes wrong if you care too much. oif*&kpu kd v f eG ;f vsif t&m&mtqifrajyjzpfwwfonf?

2. Delay means death in love and war. aESmifah ES;jcif;onf tcspEf iS phf pfwiG af ojcif;rnf.?

3. The ripest fruit first falls.

trSnq hf ;Hk opfo;D yxrqk;H aºu&onf?

4. You cannot please everybody. oifvw l ikd ;f udk ESpo f ufatmifrvkyEf ikd ?f

5. The best ideas are common property.

taumif;qk;H aom tawG;tac:rsm;onf trsm;ydik yf Pnf;rsm;jzpfonf? 20

6. There is always someone worse off than yourself. oifx h uftajctaeydI k qd;k aomolwpfa,muf t+r&J o dS nf?

7. Love truth but pardon error.

trSew f &m;udk cspjf rwfE;kd yg/ od@k &mwGif trSm;udv k nf;cGiv hf w G yf g?

8. One flower makes no garland. yef;wpfyiG w hf nf;ESihf yef;uk;H rjzpfao;?

9. Never promise more than you can perform. oifaqmif&u G Ef ikd o f nfxufyI kd *wdray;ygEiS ?hf

10. While we stop to think, we often miss the opportunity.

u|Eykf w f @kd pOf;pm;r_ukd acwW&yfqikd ;f cdu k w f iG f tcGit hf a&;udk r=umc% vufvw $ v f u kd &f onf?

11. Win without boasting, Lose without excuse. Edik v f #iv f nf;rºuGm;ygEiS /hf &H;ª v#iv f nf;qifajcray;ygEiS /hf

ASM &SmazGpkaqmif;wifjyonf? u&ifeo D wif;at*sipf rD x S w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)?

oih0f ef;usifuaq;wr,f (warmxsm)

,ckwacgufwGif em;a&m *gtrsK;d rsK;d twGuf ukoEdik af om enf; vrf;rsm;udk cGjJ cm;+yD;wifjyay;oGm;yg rnf? 1? em;udu k /f em;jynf,/kd em;tl/ av xGu/f em;av;/ em;yif;jcif;rsm; jzpf ygu atmufygenf;rsm;udk tok;H ðy =unhyf g? - [if;*vmtjzLav;ig;&Guu f kd oef@ pifatmifvyk I f vufz0g;ay:wGif yGwf acs+yD;em;xJo@kd t&nfnp‡ cf s+yD; wpfrd epfavmuf+ird +f ird af eyg? xd‹k aemufem; xJrt S &nfrsm; oGecf svu kd yf g? - qdwzf ;l ckEpS v f mG / rken f if;aph ckEpS af ph/ y'dik ;f ckEpS af ph/ vif;aeckEpS v f mG Taq; av;yg;udt k r_e@f ðy (y'dik ;f oD;udk tn‡m ujzwfItaphux kd w k +f yD; ,cifaq; r_e@f rsm;xnh/f ESr;f qDtenf;i,fxyf xnhyf g)/ rD;zdak y:rSm aEG;aEG;wif wpf ae@(7)}udrf em;wGi;f od@k tpufcsay; yg? - qifw;Hk rEG,u f kd xkacsI =uufo;D aE$;r#ðywf+y;D xdðk ywf&nfukd em;Yaq; a=umay;cJah omf em;wGi;f &Sd tnpft a=u;rsm;uif;pifI em;udu k /f em;em

jcif;rsm;aysmuf.? 2? em;udkufjcif;oufouftwGuf udrk l atmufygenf;rsm;teuf wpf enf;enf;udk prf;oyf=unhyf g? - =uufoeG ef u D kd rD;zkw/f t&nfaEG;aEG; em;xJxnhaf y;yg? - yifv,fuopfyiG hf owWK&nfukd em; xJcwfay;yg? - jrefrmukuUdK&Gufudk t&nfn‡pfI rD;jzifah EG;ap+yD; em;wGix f nhyf g/ - ukuKdU &GuEf iS hf o&uf&u G u f kd rD;uif IylaEG;aEG;cHom&krH # em;rSmn‡px f nhf yg? - awmifr&d;k tap;udk ESr;f qDEiS ahf &m I em;usyaf y;yg? - jrefrmukuKdU aphukd xkaxmif;I rkef nif;qD od@k r[kwf ESr;f qDjzifch suyf g? em;udkufaomtcgqD=uufoD;aEG; jzpfatmif ZGe;f wGix f nhI f rD;yljy+yD; cyfaEG;aEG;wpfpufEpS pf ufem;rSmxnhf yg? - yef;vdejf rpf/ opf}uHy;kd tyg;/ uef@ csKyef /D xef;v#u/f xef;aphyef;Ek/ oHpm;/ 'kwmW ,if;aq;tpkukd ijzL}uD;taph ESi}hf udwf em;emvl;ay;yg? - ijzL}uD;&Guf &ifh&ifhudk axmywf okwI f rD;uif+yD;v#if t&nfun kd p‡ f ,lyg? ,if;t&nfukd em;wGi;f od@k t puf c say;ygu em;ud k u f / em;em aysmuf.? - refusnf;yifwGifwG,fI ayguf aomrd_udk tnuf}udwf/ ESrf;qDESifh azsm/f =uufawmifEiS hf usyaf y;yg? 3? em;avxGujf cif;jzpfygu T enf;

APRIL, 2011

rsm;udk tok;H ðy=unhyf g? - w&kypf um;yGiu hf kd em;wGif ydwq f @kd xm;yg/ tyGiu hf kd vufoyk v f yk pf m;yg? - ESr;f qDwpfZeG ;f / EGm;usiif ,f&nf ig; ZGe;f wd@k ukd rD;ESichf suf wpfyu G Ef pS yf u G f qlv#if em;usyaf wmifEiS hf usyaf y;yg? - oabFm&Guf rD;tk;H I twd@k tðryf vkypf m;yg? - a=umifv#mjrpfukd nufatmif t r_e@f ðy/ ESr;f qDEiS afh &m+y;D rD;wGicf su/f em; xJo@kd / cyfaEG;aEG;usyaf y;yg? 4? em;jynf , d k o l r sm;twG u f r l atmufygenf;rsm;udk tok;H ðy=unhf apvdyk gonf? - us;D tmoD; }udwzf wfukd tke;f qD 21 ESiahf &mI =uufawmifEiS hf usyaf y;yg? - ESr;f qD (5)usyo f m;/ =uufoeG jf zL t enf;i,f/ av;nif;(2)yGifhcef@xnhf ðywfI em;wGiyf yl al EG;aEG;xnhaf y;yg? - jynfanmif;tacgu/f oD;oD;pdr;f t &nf (8)yJp/D xdak q;ESpyf g;udk ysm;&nf ESiahf zsmI f wpf&ufEpS }f udrv f rd ;f ay;yg? - a=umifyef;&Gu/f owWK&nfukd ESr;f qDjzifh ysm;&nftenf;i,fxnh/f em; wGiu f syaf y;yg/ - ukuKdU aphtqDY qD;jzLyGiu hf kd xnhf a=umfyg? oihaf wmfonhf tcsed w f iG cf s I tat;cHxm;um pif=u,fpmG ppf +y;D ykvif;xJwiG x f nhx f m;yg? n/ reuf ESppf ufo;Hk puf em;wGix f nhaf y;yg? - =uufoeG ef t D &nfnp‡ I f em;xJ wpf ae@o;Hk }udrx f nhaf y;yg? - }udwrf eS &f u G af jcmuftr_e@f ukd tke;f qDppfppfrmS azsmI f em;usyaf y;yg?


aiG a wmif * sme,f - ik&u G /f a=umifyef;&GuEf pS yf g;udk t &nfnp‡ I f em;usyaf y;yg? 5? em;yif;/ em;av;jcif;twGuf enf; rsm; - usnfoD;qefr_ef@udk 0ufacs;yeJ owWK&nfEiS ahf zsmI f em;usyaf y;yg? - awm=uufarmuf/ qm; (3)usyf om;/ ESr;f qD (6)usyo f m;/ a& (25) usyo f m;udk qDcsuo f vdck su+f yD; em; usyaf y;yg? - aoG;ikyu f if;I em;yif;aom a&m *gtwGurf l a=umifv#moD;udk oHy&k m &nf E S i f h o k y f p m;/ yk Z G e f w k y f r D ; zk w f / a&Smufo;D ESihf okypf m;/ aemufxyf qD xrif;udpk m;/ ESr;f qDEiS ehf m;udu k syf ay;

yg? uef@uvm&Guu f kd oHy&k m&nfEiS hf pdwóf uduo f yk pf m;yg? 6? em;wGi;f temESihf yd;k aumif0ifjcif; rsm;jzpfygrl - c&rf;uapmho;D udk rD;±d@_ +y;D tcd;k cH/ rkef nif;qDEiS hf em;udu k syaf y;yg? - a=umifv#mjrpftr_e@f nufukd ESr;f qDEiS hf rD;wGicf su/f cyfaEG;aEG;usyaf y; yg/ - em;wGi;f aumfrI d tem'g%&f m& v#if [if;*vmtjzL&nf n‡px f nhf ay;yg? tawmftwefpyfonf? rcH Edkifatmifpyfv#if vlEdk@&nftenf; i,fudk em;xJodk@cyfxnhfyg? odk@r [kwf pGev f ufonf;yift&Guu f kd t

&nfn‡pfIcyfyg? tpyfjy,foGm;yg rnf? em;av;/ em;r=um;olrsm; twGurf l }udwrf eS &f u G t f &Guaf jcmuf udk tr_ef@axmif;I EGm;Edk@ESifhwpfv aomuf y g? tusKd ; xl ; rnf / vk H ; 0 aysmufuif;&ef wpfESpfjynfhatmif aomufyg? qG@H tol/ oGm;eJ@o/l rsupf d r_eo f rl sm;twGuyf gaumif;.?



yvyfpwpfEiS u hf sef;rma&; 22 wreufrmS rke@f [if;cg;pm; zd@k tmoDo&Sw d meJ@ rke@f [if;cg; oGm; 0,fcsed rf mS qdik &f iS t f r}uD;u rke@f [if; cg;zwfukd iSuaf ysmzufe@J xky+f yD;ay; wmawG@awmh q&mr*sK;&Jh “u|erf cspf aomòrd@wpfòrd‹” udk oGm;+yD;owd&rd w,f? q&mr&Jhòrd‹av;eJ@&if;ESD;ae awmh aea&mifjyxm;wJh zuf&u G af v; eJ@xyk x f m;wJrh ek @f [if;cg;uzufe@H av; oif;vd@k ? wlrav; awGuawmh ajym wmayhg? 'Dqikd u f acwfoyd rf rSb D ;l aemf tefwDav;wJh? olwdk@arG;wnf;u u|wu f |wt f w d ef @J &if;ES;D cJ&h awmh iSuf aysmzufeJ@xkyfwmudk rawG‹zl;ao; bl;? “u|efrcspfaomòrd‹wpfòrd‹” t a=umif ; ud k a y;zwf & OD ; r,f ? tck aemufyikd ;f rSm u|wu f |wt f w d o f ;kH wJh ,Ofaus;r_u tawmfudkavsmhenf; oGm;+y?D u|wf u|wt f w d &f hJ tEœ&m,f

udk [ef@wm;vmEkid +f yq D akd wmh/ aemuf wpfcx k yf+yD; pOf;pm;&rSmu yvwfp wpfawG&hJ tEœ&m,f? u|efrwdk@pm;oHk;aewJh t pm;tpmawGxJrSm yvwfpwpfeJ@ uif;w,fqdkwm tawmfudk&Sm;yg w,f? tpm;taomufawGukd 0,f jcrf;wmuae jyifqifcsuðf ywfwt hJ xd oH;k wJyh pPn;f wdik ;f rSm yvwfpwpf rygwyhJ pPn;f qdw k m odyrf &Sb d ;l ? ukef xkwv f yk rf t _ qihq f ihrf mS yvwfpwpf udk tajccH+y;D xkwv f yk x f m;wJyh pPn;f awGuo kd ;kH =uw,f? tpm;tpmawG udk wae&muaewae&mudk yd@k aqmif wJu h eG w f ed ef m (Container) awG/ tpm;tpmxnhw f Jb h ;l / pnfow G b f ;l / rkef@bl;awG/ tdrfxJrSmwdkvDrkwfp xnhw f b hJ ;l / odr;f qnf;wJb h ;l / tpm; tpmawGujkd yefaEG;wJh wefqmyvm

u&ifeo D wif;at*sipf rD x S w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)? awGtxd yvwfpwpfu toH;k wGif us,faeygw,f? tJ'DvdkrsKd;yvwfp wpfeJ@ ywfoufwJhypPnf;awGtoHk; wGiu f s,f vmwmeJ@tr# use;f rma&; udx k cd u kd rf &_ /dS r&Sq d w kd mudyk g xnho f iG ;f pOf;pm;zd@k vdv k mygw,f? od y f r =umao;cif u 'D jy\emudktajz&Smr,fqdk+yD; prf; oyfra_ wG trsm;}uD;ðyvkycf yhJ gw,f? tJ'rD mS Biphenyl A vdk@ac:wJh "gwyk pPn;f Chemical [m use;f rma&;udk qdk;qdk;0g;0g;xdcdkufapwm udo k mG ;awG@ygw,f? Biphenyl A qdw k m tpm;taomufawGukd xkyf ydk;jyifqifwJhtcgrSm t"duxm;+yD; oH;k wJh Chemical yg? vGecf w hJ EhJ pS f aygi;f rsm;pGmuwnf;uBiphenyl A udk tEœ&m,fuif;w,fv@kd ,lq xm;=uayr,hf tckawmh Biphenyl A eJ@ywfouf+y;D ar;p&mar;cGe;f awGtrsm;}uD;&Sdvmyg+yD? tpm;t aomufawGjyifqifz@kd / pm;aomufz@kd / odr;f qnf;zd@k txd tqifajyayr,hf ol@a=umihf use;f rma&;rSm jy\em awGjzpfay:vmw,fv@kd qd=k uyg+yD? tpm;taomuf x nh f xm;wJh yvwfpwpf Container xJuae Chemical tenf;i,f [m tpm;taomufawGxu J kd pdrfh xGufvmygw,f? tJ'Dvdktpm;t aomufawGxJ pdrhfxGufvmwmudk Migration vdk@ ac:=uygw,f? Container awGux kd w k v f yk v f u kd f wJh puf¶akH wGtaeeJ@uvnf; 'Dvrkd sKd ; ajymif;a&$Œ0ifa&mufwmudk [ef@wm; vdk@r&ygbl;? b,favmuf yrm% txdqdkwmudk twdtusrod&ay r,hf tpm;taomufawGxnhw f b hJ ;l awG/ cGuaf wGxu J "gwyk pPn;f wdik ;f

APRIL, 2011

[m tpm;taomufawGxJudk 0if a&mufomG ;Edik w f mcsn;f ygy?J yvwfpwpf Container xJrmS xnhx f m;wJt h pm; taomuf awGudk tylay;vdkuf&if "gwkypPnf; awG a&$Œajymif;r_uydjk refygw,f? tqD rsm;rsm;ygwJh tpm;tpm/ tiHygwJh tpm/ tcsOyf gwt hJ pm; tpmawGukd xnhx f m;wJh Container awG[m tyle@J xad wG@&if a&$Œajymif;0ifa&muf r_u ydkjrefygw,f? cE<mudk,fxJudk b,favmuftwdik ;f twmtxd 0if oGm;w,fqw kd mudak wmh twdtus ajymzdk@cufygw,f? rD;zdkacsmifoHk; ypPnf;awG ðyvkyfwJhae&mrSmvnf; trsm;pk[m ab;uif;w,fv@kd owf rSwx f m;=uayr,hf vnf; t+rJwrf; twGuaf wmh tóuH;r0ifygb;l ? tpm;tpmawG x nh f w J h yvwfpwpf Container awGuae 23 xGuv f mwJh "gwyk pPn;f awG[m use;f rma&;udk b,fvx dk cd u dk v f q J w kd mudk okawoevkyx f m;wmawG[menf; ao;wma=umihb f ,favmuf twdik ;f twmtxd pdwfcsvufcsoHk;vdk@& w,fqdkwmudkawmh ajymzdk@cufyg w,f ? txl ; ojzih f tcsd e f b ,f avmuf =um=umoH;k vd@k &ovJ qdw k hJ tcsuf[m t"duygyJ? 'Dae&mrSm xnho f iG ;f pOf;pm;&r,hf "gwyk pPn;f (2) rsK;d &Syd gw,f? wpfcu k awmh Biphenyl A jzpf+yD; aemufwpfcu k awmh Phthalates yg? Biphenyl A [m rm+y;D aygyh g;wJh Polycarbonates vd@k ac:wJh yvwfpwpfwpfrsK;d yg? uav; toHk;taqmifawG/ a&bl;awGudk Biphenyl A eJ@ ðyvkyx f m;ygw,f? wpfEpS rf mS Biphenyl A xkwv f yk rf _


aiG a wmif * sme,f

24

wdkif;wm=unhfvdk@&avmufwJh yrm %txdrsm;aewwfygw,f? cE<m ud, k x f u J kd 0ifvmEdik w f hJ "gwyk pPn;f awGxrJ mS Biphenyl A [m yd+k yD; xif&mS ;ygw,f? ol[m a[mfrek ;f awG &Jv h yk af qmifr/_ txl;ojzihf Oestrogen vd@k ac:wJh trsK;d orD;a[mfrek ;f &Jh vkyfaqmifr_udk aESmihf,Sufay;yg w,f? "gwcf cGJ ef;awGrmS wd&p>mefav; awGudk prf;oyf=unhfwJhtcg Biphenyl A [m rsK;d yGm;t*F gawG&hJ zG@Hòzd;r_udk [ef@wm;wmudkawGŒ&yg w,f? vlawGqu D kd a&mufvmEdik w f hJ Biphenyl A yrm% [m t&rf; enf;aeayr,hu f , kd 0f efaqmifwhJ t csed rf mS oaE<om;udk xdcu kd rf a_ wG jzpf apwwfygw,f? 'Dawmh u|erf wd@k pm;r,hf t pm;tpmawGxrJ mS Biphenyl A yg0ifru _ rkd jzpfraeudak v#mch s&ygr,f? tJ'v D akd v#mch sz@kd twGuq f &kd if 1? pnfoyG x f m;wJh tpm;tpmawG tpm; vwfqwfwt hJ pm;tpm (od@k ) a&cJaowœmxJ xnhx f m;wJh tpm; tpmrsK;d udk ydpk m;ay;oihyf gw,f? 2? uav;awGukd Ed@k re_ @f b;l awGwu kd f r,hftpm; rdcifEdk@udkom t"du+yD; wdu k af u|;wm[m taumif;qH;k yg? 3? uav;awG t wG u f toH k ; t aqmifypPn;f awG a&G;cs,w f t hJ cgrmS wwfEikd o f r# yvwfpwpfygwyhJ pPn;f awGuakd &Smifyg? oHb;l vdk [mrsKd ;awG udo k m a&G;cs,yf g? 'gawGu Biphenyl A yg0ifru _ [ kd ef@wm;wmyg? aemufwpf rsKd ;avsmch sz@kd óud;pm;&rSmu Phthalates?

[m (6) bDv, D ef avmuf&ydS gw,f? Biphenyl A [m a&bl;awGrmS tqdyfoihfapwJht&mwpfcktaeeJ@ od=uayr,hf wu,fwrf; oleJ@xd awGŒr_rsm;wm[m tpm;taomuf awG xnhw f hJ pnfoyG b f ;l awG&t hJ em; a=umihyf g? Biphenyl A [m pnf oGyb f ;l E_wcf rf;xJuae xGuv f m+yD; txJrSmodrf;xm;wJh tpm;tpm awGqu D kd a&mufomG ;ygw,f? tpm; tpmxJrmS ygvmwJh Biphenyl A [m aoG;pD;a=umif;udka&mufvmyg w,f? vl 90 &mcdik Ef e_ ;f &Jh aoG;xJ rS m &S d a ewJ h B iphenyl A [m Plastic and Phthalates

oluawmh Plasticizer vdk@ac:wJh"gwkypPnf;tkyfpk}uD;jzpf+yD; ol@ukd PVC yku d u f ae a&ar$;txd wGifwGifus,fus,f toHk;ðy=uyg w,f? ESppf Of wefcsed af ygif bDv, D ef aygi;f rsm;pGm xkwv f yk +f yD; ae&mwdik ;f rSm toH;k ðyygw,f? tar&duefvrl sK;d awGrmS ppfwrf;aumufavhvmr_awG t&olw@kd qu D vlawmfawmf rsm; rsm; &Jh cE<mud, k x f rJ mS Phthalates udk twdkif;twmwpfcktxd awGŒ&yg w,f? okawoeðyolawGtae eJ@ Phthalates awG cE<mud, k x f J ud0k ifvmwmudk ,H=k unfayr,hf b,f vd0k ifvmw,f/ b,favmuftwdik ;f twmtxd&adS ew,fqw kd mudak wmh wdwu d susrodygb;l ? aumufyo J ;D ESH awGuae pm;r,ht f pm;tpmawGqD udak &mufvm wmrsK;d jzpfEikd o f vdk odk avS m if x m;wJ h bl ; awG x J u ae tpm;taomuf x J ud k 0ifvmwmvnf; jzpfEikd yf gw,f? Phthalates oHk;xm;wJh rsufESmjyif/ =urf;jyifawGuaewqihf olŒudk&SLrd wwfygw,f? Phthalates yg0ifwhJ Skin Care awG/ toH;k taqmif awGa=umihv f nf; ta&jym;uaew qihf cE<mud, k x f u J kd 0ifomG ;wwfyg w,f? Phthalates [m tck toH;k rsm;aewJh Chemicals awG xJu wpfcktygt0ifyg? u|efrwdk@ toH;k tðyaewJh a&csK;d cef; vdu k u f m uae vufonf;qdk;aq;xkwfvkyf wJt h xd ae@pOftoH;k ðyaewJh ypPn;f awGxrJ mS ol@uakd wG@Eikd yf gw,f? Phthalates [m cE< m ud k , f x J u d k a&muf&if tvG,fwulacszsufcH

u&ifeo D wif;at*sipf rD x S w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)? vdu k &f ayr,hf tjyifuakd wmh xGurf oGm;wJt h wGuf aoG;awG/ qD;awGukd ppf=unhv f u kd &f if Phthalates udk awG@&ygw,f? ol[mcE<mud, k &f hJ Endocrine System tvkyfvkyfwJh ae&mrS m csKd Π,G i f ; r_ a wG j zpf a p+yD ; Hormones awG tvkyv f yk w f m udk t[ef@twm;awG jzpfapygw,f? a[mfrkef;awGtm;vHk;xJu trsKd; om; a[mfrek ;f jzpfwhJ Testerone udk taESmiht f ,Suaf y;ygw,f? cE<m ud, k x f rJ mS Testerone awGtvkyf vkyfvdk@r&atmif [ef@wm;xm;yg w,f? txl;ojzihf trsK;d om;rsm;&Jh rsK;d yGm;t*F gukd xdcu kd af povdk rsK;d yGm;

tonf ; uif q mjzpf a pygw,f v d k @ vnf; qdx k m;=uygw,f? trsK;d orD;awGrmS awmh ae &mvG+J yD;ud, k 0f efaqmifwmrsK;d awGukd jzpfapygw,f? aygifcsdefrjynhfbJarG; zGm;vmwJh uav;i,fawG&hJ aoG;xJ rSm Phthalates yrm%jrihw f uf aewmudk awG@&ygw,f? rde;f uav; i,fawGrmS qd&k ifvnf; &ifom;zHŒG òzd;r_ awGapmvm+yD; tysKjd refjrefjzpfEikd yf g w,f? r=umao;cifu ðyvkycf w hJ hJ avh vmr_awGt&awmh Phthalates [m uav;i,fawGrmS t0vGeaf p w,fv@kd qd=k uygw,f? cE<mud, k x f J rSm Phthalates rsm;aewJh trsK;d om;wpfa,muf&hJ qJvaf wG[m tif

xJukd tylawGxnhw f m/ olw@kd ukd tyl ay;wmrsKd;awGvnf; owdxm;&yg r,f? uav;awGtwGuf Edk@bl;vdk toH;k taqmifypPn;f awGa&G;wJt h cg rSm yvwfpwpfawGtpm; zefawGukd om a&G;cs,foihfygw,f? tpm;t aomufxnhx f m;wJh yvwfpwpfb;l awG/ cGuaf wGrmS ta&mifajymif;vm wm/ yHpk aH jymif;vmwmrsK;d &S&d if olw@kd udk roH;k oihaf wmhygb;l ? trSew f u,f awmh u|efrwdk@&Jhvlaer_b0tqihf twef;jrih+f y;D tqifajy vG,u f al pzd@k yvyfpwpfypPnf;awG jzpfay:vm& wmyg? olwdk@&JhtusKd;aus;Zl;awGu vnf;trsm;}uD;ygyJ? 'gayr,hf vGef vG e f u J u J x d a wG @ r_ rsm;vm&if

uav;awGtwGuf toH;k t aqmifypPn;f awG a&G;cs,fwthJ cgrSm wwfEikd of r#yvwf pwpfygwJyh pPn;f awGuakd &Smifyg? r_e@J qikd w f hJ jy\emawGuv kd nf; jzpf ay:apygw,f? wd&p>meftxD;awGrmS prf; oyfr_awGvkyf=unhfawmh Phthalates a=umihf vdit f *F gawGao;i,f wm/ rzG@H òz;d wm/ okuaf umif awGenf; wmrsK;d awGukd oGm;awG@ygw,f? ud, k f 0efaqmifumvrSm Phthalates eJ@xad wGŒr_rsm;&if arG;vmr,hf om; a,musfm;av;rSm yHkrSefr[kwfwJh toGit f jyifawG ay:ayguv f mwwf ygw,f? Phthalates ygwhJ =urf;cif; udo k ;kH xm;&if arG;uif;puav;awGrmS touf&_ vrf;a=umif;eJ@ywfoufwhJ a&m*gawGuckd pH m;&apygw,f? vlawG a&m/ wd & p> m ef a wG r S m yg

qlviftvkyv f yk w f mudk rwH@k jyefwhJ twGuf aoG;xJrmS o=um;"gwaf wG jrihf wufvm+yD; qD;csKad &m*gukd cHpm; &apygw,f? odik ;f &GKd ufe@J ywfoufwhJ jy\emawG/ yef;em&if=uyf/ ta& jym;"gwrf wnhrf a_ wGujkd zpfapygw,f? 'Dvq kd &kd if u|erf wd@k twGuf yvwfpwpf[m tEœ&m,f&w dS yhJ pPn;f qdw k mudk tm;vH;k vnf; odomG ;yg+yD? yvwfpwpf[m vl}u;D / vli,f/ trsK;d orD;/ trsK;d om;ra&G; tEœ&m,fjzpfap wma=umihf ole@J xad wGŒr_ukd wwfEikd f or#avsmch s&ygr,f? yvwfpwpfb;l awGxu J kd tqDawG/ tcsOo f eyfawG t=um}uD;xnhx f m;+yD;pm;wmrsK;d udk a&Smif&ygr,f? yvwfpwpfcGufawG

APRIL, 2011

tEœ&m,fjzpfapvdk@ a&Smif=uygvdk@ owday;vdu k yf g&ap? TAMALA (KnHD) ud;k um;? ? tma&m*sH r *~ Z if ; / (azazmf0g&D 2011)

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25


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APRIL, 2011

“ppfa&;t& 0ifa&mufpuG f zufrr_ sKd; jrefrmEdik if zH ufukd ajcOD;vSnhf cJhaomf ppfa&;t& jyefvnfwkef‹jyefEdki f zdk‹twGuf ppfa&;owd&Sdzdk‹eJ‹ tqifoifh wduk yf 0JG ifEikd af tmif jyifqifxm;=uzd”‹k tjyifbufu 0ef;&Hapmif=h unfzh @kd ap vGwcf w hJ t hJ wGuf ypfcwfra_ wGjzpfymG ; +yD; aoqH;k r_awG&cdS w hJ t hJ xdjzpfcw hJ ,f vd@k o&d ygw,f? tm%m&SiAf v kd cf sKyfawG t aeeJ@ ppfwyfuw kd aoG;woHwrde@f e@J quf+yD;tkyfcsKyfxm;zdk@qdkwm t&if uavmufawmh rvG,v f yS gb;l / ppf wyfudk,fwdkif&Jhb0[m ppftm%m &Sif awGtyk cf sKyfwhJ e0w/ etzvuf xufrmS tqd;k &Gm;qH;k taetxm;udk a&muf&cdS yhJ gw,f/ wygwt D m%m&Sif 27 }uD;OD;ae0if; vufxufrSmawmif ppfwyfu tckcsed af vmufxd qif;&J 'kuQra&mufcJhygbl;/ ppfwyfudk wpHk w&mtwdik ;f twmtxd =unfch w hJ hJ twGuf t&ifuatmufajct&m&Sd t=uyfwyfom;rsm;[m twdkif;t wmwcktxd tdajEN&&aeEdkifcJh=uyg w,f? tckcsdefrSmuawmh atmuf ajc wyfrawmfrdom;pkrsm;[m t ajccHjynfov l x l ek nf;wl qif;&JcsKw d rhJ _ '%f u d k c H p mae=u&+yD ; txuf atmuf zdEydS rf '_ %fuykd g xyfqifch pH m; ae=u&wJt h wGuf ppfwyftay: pdwf ysuf v m=uyg+yD / rd o m;pk & S d a ewJ h atmufajc t=uyfwyfom;rsm;t wGuf aemufwef;wyf&if;rSmuse&f pf wJh rdom;pkudkiJhuGufae&wJhtwGuf wyfuxGufrajy;omayrJh rdom;pk r&Sw d ahJ tmufajc&Jabmf/ t=uyfwyf


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rSm twif;wdu k af y;+yD; ppftiftm; }uD;xGm;a&;udw k nfaqmufaew,f qdak yrJh txufuqdck o hJ vdpk pfonf awGudk xif&mpdkif;cGifhay;xm;+yD;t ajccH tcuftcJawGudkajz&Sif;ray; ygbl;? trSefwu,fwdkif;jynfwpf jynf&Jh tiftm;&Sdr_[m acwfpepf awG tvdu k f wacwfe@J wacwfawmh rwlygbl;/ ordkif;OD;bHkajracwfu awmh vufeuftiftm;}uD;xGm;r_ [m wdik ;f jynfwjynf&hJ tiftm;jzpf r,f/ udv k ekd aD cwfrmS awmh wdik ;f jynf wjynf & J h t if t m;}uD ; xG m ;r_ [ m "Wealth is power" "eOpPm ºuG,0f r_tay:rlwnfygw,f/ 21 &m pk'Dae@acwftcgrSm wdkif;jynfwpf jynf&Jhtiftm;}uD;rm;r_[m tody nm/ twwfynmtay:rSmom t"d urlwnfygawmhw,f? "Knowledge is Power" acwfukd a&muf ae+yDjzpfygw,f/ tdkifwDacwfvdk@ac: wJh 'Dae@acwf}uD;rSm enf;ynmeJ@ ygwo f ufv@kd tm;ay;wdu k w f eG ;f r_r&Sd bl;qd&k iforl sm;Edik if aH wGxuf trsm;

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tay: tcGit hf a&;csK;d azmufra_ wG r &Sad tmif/ tjynfjynfqikd &f m vlom; jcif;pmemr_qikd &f m Oya'rsm;udk pm emem;vnfvdkufemwwfwJh wyfr awmfw&yfjzpfatmif jyefvnfðyjyif ajymif;vJra_ wGvyk &f ygr,f? 'DvkdrSr[kwfbJ vufeuf udkifwyfrawmfudk trsKd;om;a&;t pGef;a&muf0g'awG oGwfoGif;ay;+yD; rdrdwdk@uom jrifhjrwfwJhvlwef;pm;/ wd k i f ; jynf } uD ; ud k r òyd u G J a tmif u m uG,fwJhae&mrSm xif&mvkyfcGifh&Sd w,fqdkwJh tjrifawGoGwfoGif;ay; +yD;xif&mpdkif;cGifhðyxm;&if 'Dwdkif; jynfrmS ppfreS w f +hJ idr;f csr;f a&;udk wnf aqmufEikd rf mS r[kwyf gb;l ? 'Dxufydkqdk;wmu wdkif; jynfwckrmS jynfov l x l &k hJ touf tdk;tdrfpnf;pdrfudk umuG,fapmifh a&Smufzdk@ t"duwm0ef&SdwJh wyfr awmfudk vlwdkif;ucspfcifav;pm;r_ &Sad tmif usi0hf wfou d mQ &Sw d hJ wyfr awmfw&yfjzpfatmifxl axmifay; &rJt h pm; wm0ef&w dS x hJ yd yf ikd ;f u t &m&SdawGukd,fwdkifu tusifhysuf atmif raumif;wJt h usiphf &du k af wG udk oGwo f iG ;f ay;aewmudk ðyjyif&yg r,f/ 'Dvrkd rS [kwb f 'J t D wdik ;f vGwf xm;r,fq&kd ifawmh 'Draumif;'%f udk wyfrawmf}uD;udk,fwdkifujyefcH pm;&ygvrd rhf ,f? rdrðd yaomuH&'hJ %f rdrjd yefc&H p+rJjzpfygw,f? uHraumif; ta=umif ; rvS & if umv0d y gwf aemufy;kd wuf wwfygw,f?

&kyfajymif umwGef;rsm;udk vnf; ay;ydk@Edkifygonf

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wm 0ef aus ESifh onfh -u,faºuGwyGifh

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33

xdyu f ek ;f jzpfI aevH;k eDeaD rS; wifv#uf &S d a oma=umif h vd a rR m f & if h a &mif awmuf aumif;uiftem; owfvi_d ;f udk wdrw f u kd u f if;pifonfh tjym&ifh rd_if;rd_if;aumif;uif}uD;udk aemufcH xm;I awG@ae&ao;onf? nae qnf;qmESifhtwlaygufcsvmwwf onfh avjyif;ESit hf at;'%fukd rcHEikd f =uIom usaemfw‹kd ww J iG ;f 0if xdik af e =ujcif;jzpfonf/ usaemfw@kd qdak omf vnf ; vl r sm;rsm;pm;pm;&S d o nf r[kwfyg/ usaemfESifhu&ifeDwyfr awmfAsL[m&Hk;rS 'k-Adkvfpdk;&,f ESpf a,mufwnf;om/ usaemftaejzifh u&ifeDwyfrawmfXmecsKyfnmrdkp cef;odk@ wufonfhtcgrsm;Y &Hzef&H

APRIL, 2011

cgqdkovdktjrifhqHk;AsL[mukef;odk@ wuf+yD; Adkvfpdk;&,f.wJwGif tdyf wwfonf/ usaemft h wGuw f yf&if;rS xkwfay;xm;onfh apmifcGJwrf;udk vnf;/ Adv k pf ;kd &,fww J iG x f m;cJo h nf? tckvnf; (61)-ESpaf jrSmuf u&ifeD trsK;d om;ckcaH wmfveS af &;ae@ tcrf; tem;udk nmrdkpcef;wGif usif;y&ef twGuf tcrf;tem;usi;f ya&; aumf rwDtwGi;f a&;rª;wm0efjzifh óudwif jyifqifEikd &f eftwGuf usaemf awmif ay:a&mufaejcif;yif? reufapmapmu wufcJh onfw h ikd f &Snv f sm;onfh awmifwuf c&D;udk av#mufvmcJh&ojzifh udk,f vufawGu rv_yjf cifavmuf atmif


aiG a wmif * sme,f yif udu k cf aJ eouJo h @kd awmifay:t at;'%fuvnf; qGaJ qmifaeonf rd@k ESpaf ,mufom; u&ifecD sut f &uf udk vufzufow k t f +r;D jzifh 0dik ;f zG@J ae=u jcif;jzpfonf? ycHk;atmufavsmhae+yDjzpf onfh ykvif;xJrSt&ufudk usaemfh cGuftwGif;jznfhxJhay;+yD; aemuf Adv k pf ;kd &,f ud, k u f akd emufveS I f tdyf ,may:vScJ svu kd o f nf/ b,fvufjzifh acgif;tHk;atmuftwGif; vufo#Kd Edu k v f u kd +f y;D aemuf "gwyf w kH yHu k kd xkwf I=unfhaeonf/ +yD;rSxdkifaeqJjzpf onfh usaemfx h v H ufurf;I“orD;avq&m tckq&kd if awmh av;ESpcf aJG vmuf&adS &myg/h ol@ tarudk tazb,fomG ;vJv@kd c% c%ar;w,fv@kd ajymw,f/ ol@tar u c&D;oGm;aew,fajymawmh taz 34 'Dwacgucf &D;oGm;wm wtm;eJ@=um w,fv@kd ajymw,fw”hJ usaemf u vS r f ; ,l & if ; =unfv h u kd o f nf/ tom;jzLjzL00 upf upf uav;rav;wa,mufonf "gwyf w kH iG ;f rSòyH;Iusaemfu h kd =unfah e avonf? “bmvdkvdkeJ@ olwdk@oGm; wm b,fEpS f ESpaf vmuf&o dS mG ;+yDv”J “oHk;ESpfausmfausmf avmuf &Sad &mayg”h “olwdk@om;trdu b,f Edik if rH mS vJ” “qG'D ifrmS ”

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“yxrtdraf xmif uwnf; u rdef;ra&m/ a,muQrawG a&m vdu k o f mG ;zd@k tonf;toef ac:=uyg w,f/ 'gayrJu h saemf&u S w f ,f/ u&ifeD awmfveS af &;uaºuG;wJx h rif;udpk m; +yD ; awmf v S e f a &;ud k p G e f @ oG m ;&rS m usaemft&Suq f ;kH bJ/ aemuf+y;D tJ'v D kd a&ajrrSm usaemfaewwfrSmr[kwf bl;/ bmrSvyk w f wfrmS vJr[kwb f ;l / usaemfb h 0rSm t&G,af &mufuwnf; u &Jabmfbv J yk cf w hJ ,f/ rdom;pkukd vnf;&Jabmfvkyf+yD;bJ &SmaºuG;cJh w,f” usaemf&JabmfbJvkyfwwfw, “usaemf ,f” aemufqufwZJG wfvrf;wd@k udk Adv k pf ;kd &,fpum;rqufao;onfh wdik f usaemft h m&Hw k iG f &ky&f iS Zf wfum; wck t m;=unf h a e&onf h tvm; wjznf;jznf;jrifa,mifIvmonf? rdef;rESifha,muQrrsm;u wwd,Edik if o H @kd omG ;a&muftajccs&ef Adkvfpdk;&,ftm; 0dkif;0ef;azsmif;zsac: ,lyHk/ Adkvfpdk;&,fcg;cg;oD;oD;jiif;cJhyHk/ rnfo@kd yifac:ac: ac:Ir&onf jzpfI EdkifiHjcm;oGm;vdkaomZeD; tvdkus uGm&Si;f jywfp+J y;D a=umif; vufrw S af &; xd;k ay;vdu k yf ?kH r=umrSD 'kw, d tdraf xmif usyHk/ orD;av;wa,muf&yHk/ pm aumif;pGmrwwfonfh awm&Gmol 'kw, d tdraf xmifonfvnf; trsm; ajrmufay;r_ut kd m;us+yD; wwd,Edik f iHodk@oGm;a&muftajccs&ef Adkvfpdk; &,ftm; wdu k w f eG ;f vmyH/k wdu k w f eG ;f r&onft h qH;k a,musmf ;rygbJ tar &duefEikd if o H @kd oGm;a&muftajccs&ef qH;k jzwfcsucf sy/kH aemufq;kH Adv k pf ;kd &,f uGm&Sif;vufrSwfa&;xdk;ay;vdkuf&yHk

u&ifeo D wif;at*sipf rD x S w k af 0jzefc‹ so D nf


twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)? ponfjzifhwuGufjcif;/ wuGufjcif; jrifa,mifIvmonf? tckawmhAdkvfpdk;&,fonf taESmiftzGJ@r&Sd/ odk@jzpfI awmpGef awmifzsm;rS v#ypf pfr;D r&S/d vnfywf p&mqdI k wawmifqif;I wawmif wuf&onfh wyfpcef;rsm;om&SdI ysif;&dbG,faumif;aom nmrdkwyf cef;wGif +rJaeawmhonf? ESpv f / oH;k vaeIrS awmifatmufrqif;/ Adv k f pdk;&,ftwGuf tyrf;ajzp&mum; EdkifiHjcm;rSa0;a0;wcg zkef;ac:vm wwfonfh pum;ryDuvm yDuvm ajymwwfae+yDjzpfaom yxrtdrf axmifESifh&onfh orD;}uD;.pum; oHrsm;om? ESpfa,mufom; udk,fht awG; ESiu hf , kd +f idro f ufae,if;jzifh n onfyI kd eufarSmifvm./ apmapm u w0D;0D;wdu k af eaom avjyif;wd@k onf ,ckawmhb,fqDa&mufoGm;av+yD rod? aomufxm;aom t&Sdefjzifh wajz;ajz;idu k rf nf;Ivmonf od@k EiS hf usaemf rnfonfhtcsdeftdyfarmus oGm;onfudkyif udk,fhudkudk,frod vdu k af wmh? aemufwreufwiG f Adv k pf ;kd &,fESifhusaemf tcrf;tem;usif; yrnfh avhusiahf &;uGi;f bufo@kd qif; =uonf/ wm0ef&Sd wyfAdkvfwyfrª; tcsK@d EiS hf pifjrifjh yifqifa&;udp/P *k%ðf y wyfz@JG upd /P vma&mufrnfh {nfyh &dwf owfrsm;em;ae&efae&m/ csufðywf a&;ESihf vHòk cHa&;udprP sm;udk aqG;aEG;+yD; awmifatmuf usaemfjyefqif;cJh onf? aemufydkif;u&ifeD trsKd; om;ckcaH wmfveS af &;ae@/ wyfrawmf ae@w@kd wiG f Adv k pf ;kd &,fEiS ahf wG@jzpfonf/

tcrf;tem;usi;f y&mae&mESihf Adv k f pdk;&,fae&mAsL[mukef;rSm awmif xdyEf iS hf awmifajcjzpfaeaoma=umifh usaemftcrf;tem;usif;y&mae&m avhusifha&;uGif;wGifom tdyfjzpf onf/ odk@jzpfI Adkvfpdk;&,fESifhat; at;aq;aq;pum;ajymcG i f h r óuH awmh? aemuf y d k i f ; wG i f tzG J @ t pnf;rSay;tyfaom wyfaygif;pka&; &mudprP sm;jzifh usaemfc&D;r=umc% xGujf zpfonfjzpf&m a0;a0;wcg zke;f jzifhtjyeftvSef qufoG,fajymqdk =uonfrv S I JG Adv k pf ;kd &,ftajcpdu k f &m nmrdpk cef;od@k umv twef=um ra&muf j zpf a wmh ? Ad k v f p d k ; &,f w a,muf j ynf w G i f ; c&D ; od k @ ygoG m ; onf[k =um;vdu k &f +y;D aemufyikd ;f wGif tquftoG,fu jywfoavmuf jzpfomG ;awmhonf? 2010-jynfh/ atmufwdk bmvaESmif;ydik ;f wreufwiG f usaemfh vufudkif zkef;ac:oH rnfvmonf/ r[mrdwfwyfaygif;pka&;&mudpPESifh ywfoufI usaemfe,fpyfwae&m a&mufaecdu k jf zpfonf? “[vd”k [kusaemfx;l vdu k af wmh? “q&m=um;+y;D +yv D m;” “bmudpv P ”J “Adv k pf ;kd &,fusomG ;+y”D usaemf&kwfw&ufpum; rqdkEdkifjzpfoGm;I rSifoufaeaom a=umifh wzufrzS ek ;f ac:olu “q&m=um;&J h v m;” [k qufar;vmrS uysmu,myif “a=omf [ k w f u J h =um;yg w,f/ b,fvjkd zpfwmvJ/ b,frmS vJ Asm”

APRIL, 2011

“yGefacsmif;wdkufyGJ+yD; vlcGJ jyefqw k =f uwJt h cg olw@kd wyfpk u yGef acsmif;ta&S@bufurf;awmxJ wae &mrSm rd;k csKyfawmh ntdypf cef;cs=u w,f/ tJ'n D rSmbJ avjyif;awGwu kd f awmh opfyif}uD;awGvu JS swm ajy;r vGwb f J opfyify+d yD; qH;k oGm;w,fv@kd ajymw,f q&m” wzufrSajymoHtqHk;wGif a=omfjzpfrjS zpf&av[ku=H urRmudk ,d;k r,f z G J @ vd k u f c sif a wmh o nf AH k ; t ajrmufusnfqH=um; ra=umufr&GH@ wd k u f & J c d k u f & J o l w a,muf uH r aumif;ta=umif;rvSpmG jzihf wku d yf JG a=umifrh [kwb f J usq;kH cJ&h av+yD? “cifAsm; aemufqHk;xGuf ouftxd wm0efausomG ;cJyh gw,f/ Adv k pf ;kd &,f/ cifAsm;[m pHerlemxm; avmufwJh&Jabmf aumif;}uD; w a,mufyg/ aumif;&mok*wduakd &muf 35 ygapAsm” usaemft h eD;tem;wGif wpHk wa,mufr&S rdS aeonfjzpfI txuf ygpum;pkw@kd onf usaemfh E_wrf x S u G f vmjcif;r[kwfyg/ &ifwGif;rSwD;wdk; a&&Gwfae&if; nmrdkawmifukef;n wnu Adv k pf ;kd &,f. toGif o¾mef wd@k onf usaemft h m&Hw k iG f ryd0;kd w0g; jzifh xif[yfvmv#u— f ? qD'G ifEikd if /H pawmh[rk ;f òrd@peG w f ae&m ESpx f yfwu kd cf ef;wck. t ay:xyftdyfcef;wGif;wGif av;ESpf ausmcf ef@t&G,0f 0upfupfEiS hf csppf &maumif ; aom uav;rav;w a,mufonf rSefjyLwif;rSwqifh

pmrsuEf mS (17)od@k


aiG a wmif * sme,f

T H E Loyal

C O M R A D E S The loyal comrades are little known by the new generation of today for the roles they played in the national movement, and the challenges they faced until their last 36 breaths. The road they took wasn’t as easy as expected, however no matter what happened to them, they willingly confronted obstacles to pave a smooth way for the next comers. They never did things for personal gain, only in the interest of their people. Alongside them, there are many more to be mentioned who laid down their lives for freedom of their people. It has been over a half century since a better day for the national movement, and the movement they were involved in from the very beginning is still up in the air % further pooling into a vicious circle. Saw Maw Reh, who settled in Kyehpoegyi when he was young and worked as a personal guard for the last Kyehpoegyi’s chief during the British rule in Burma,

- By Hsetayluu shouldered the bulk of the burden when Burma was freed from British rule and Karenni politics turned into hysteria. Initially, he hesitated to take up the load, as he was inexperienced in politics. Mahn Aung Than Lay, who had a very uncertain future orientation, unknowingly had a long and hard walk to the northeast from the delta. He finally made up his mind to take up the bumpy path with fellow Karennis after his work with military police ended soon after Burma’s independence. He was skillful in using rifles during his heyday; he was famous in shooting among his comrades and was known as “oneshot-hit Aung Than Lay”. Kha Poe, who was seemingly from the same area of his original birthplace in the delta, like Mahn Aung Than Lay, made his way to the Karennis a bit later than Mahn Aung Than Lay. His service with alliance forces had left him well versed in the field of artillery. With his uncanny skills he was

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twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)? able to train several Karenni armed men to be well capable of fighting against the Burmese troops in the battlefield. They were named as three loyal comrades when several senior leaders in the movement were either killed by or surrendered to the Burmese troops. At this time, many followers were at loose ends with the movement as it went into a nosedive. No one dared any longer to throw their hat into the ring to take up the leadership and free the movement from its predicament. By recognizing that the movement was on the rocks, the three comrades upheld their pledge to the Karenni people and were determined for the movement to go ahead come hell or high water rather than call it quits. They made bricks without straw and paddled their own canoes, as they couldn’t count on anyone in their surroundings. Even at their wit’s end with scant resources -when they saw the movement wouldn’t be over anytime soon, and would continue to drag on down a long and difficult path ahead- they continued to put their hands to the plow to break new ground. It was about early 1960s, and they struggled on a long walk to the northeast in search of new territory. When they reached the eastern part of the Salween River, they were met with hostility and new challenges. As they were strangers to the inhabitants, who failed to come to terms with them, no local broke their fall. Instead, the locals were making contact with a nearest Burmese post to smash them. Realizing their effort had fallen flat and a foul game was on the horizon, in the nick

of time they decided to escape. With help of locals, the Burmese troops had cornered them into a tight spot by posting their men along the west bank of Salween River in an attempt to gun down them. After having sworn an oath to keep their loyalty to one another through thick and thin- but without putting all of their eggs in one basket % Saw Maw Reh made a narrow escape by floating down himself through Salween River while Mahn Aung Than Lay was left behind along with a handful fellows to find their way out from the encirclement of Burmese troops. Since no exodus was in sight and their adventure seemed to be coming to a bad end, Mahn Aung Than Lay and his loyalists finally surrendered unconditionally to the Burmese troops. Due to their surrender, the entire 37 movement fell through, nearly putting the national struggle on permanent hold. A few years later, Mahn Aung Lay luckily reunited with Saw Maw Reh and Kha Poe after he escaped from the detention cell. One year after the Burmese military coup in 1963, on the spur of the moment, General Ne Win, the coup leader, announced through the state media an offer of peace talks to all jungle-based armed groups. Upon agreement between three non-Burman ethnic armed groups to meet the coup-makers to discuss a peace accord, Saw Maw Reh together with the Karen National Union (KNU) and New Mon State Party (NMSP) went to Rangoon for the meeting after consulting the other leaders of KNPP and people’s representatives. However, the talks were a failure when the regime accused the

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aiG a wmif * sme,f Communist Party of Burma (CPB) and the KNU of using the discussion to gain ground by organizing people and collecting tax in both towns and villages. Under the leadership of the three comrades and as they hung tough, the movement gradually regained its strength; it was nearly out of the frying pan and into the fire, so to speak. Steadily, from month to month many young men from both urban and rural areas joined their hands with hearts and souls allowing the movement gain momentum once again.

The loyal comrades worked unselfishly, giving their whole hearts and souls beyond their means to the cause until they met their end. Few people are well aware of and take into account the role they played in the past, since they left few records behind before their last breaths. However, the road they took still leaves us a long way to go and we all must bear their cross and take up the challenge to the bitter end since a better future still remains on the horizon.

News from Inside during the months Military conscription of new Burmese government begin 38 in Karenni Mar 31, 2011 - A recently dissolved military conscription law from the Burmese military regime came into effect in the Karenni state starting on March 29 this year. This happened just a day before the military handed down its ruling state power to the said new government. Troops of Burmese military LIB no. 428 visited villages around Khothamaw, located in Prusoe Township, and collected lists of young men over the age of 18 and forced them to undersign alongside with their names, according to a young man who himself forced to do so by the troops. “This is the first step of implementation of the former regime-backed new Burmese government’s military compulsory law imposed last year,” added the source.

Further, on March 30 the same Burmese military battalion’s troops proceeded to Lawkukhu and Daw Byaku and collected names of young men over the age of 18 and asked them to sign on the presented paper form. Lands for new military training ground have also been confiscated from the locals of Lawjar, Daw Lawkhu and Markrawshe villages of Prusoe early this year without prior notice to the owners and no compensation was made for the seized lands by the Burmese military battalion no. 428. These moves have happened suddenly amidst many young men who are in great fear and were wondering how to make up their mind since the military compulsory law was announced last year. The same source added that no local young man is willing to join the Burma army which have been badly treated them in many forms for many years since their presence in the area.

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twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)? Burmese threatens locals to A militia fails in substitute military rations attempted escape seized by KA April 8, 2011: A platoon of Karenni forces seized Burmese military rations from Daw Mumar villagers while they were transporting military rations headed for Loiphisoe Burmese army camp on the morning of April 4. “The Daw Mumar Burma army camp’s commander forced villagers to transport the military rations to Loiphisoe army camp which is located near the Shan and Karenni border without providing security guard. I think Karenni troops have learned about it and they stopped villagers while they were on the way to Loiphisoe camp and took all rations,” a field source from the area explained. The next day, village’s chiefs of villages located nearby Shadaw town were called by the Shadaw-based of Burmese army no. LIB 332’s commander to show up at his military base. All gathered village’s chiefs at the Shadaw army base were detained by the Burmese troops and their villagers were told to purchase and substitute the seized military rations without fail. “If they failed to substitute the rations, the detained village’s chiefs will not release,” added the source. The seized military rations were coffee mix, cigarette, torch lights, cheroots, matches, dry cells, ajinomoto, and rice which was valued over 99,600 kyat at current local market prices.

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April 13, 2011: Four militias from a former cease-fire armed group known as the Karenni National Solidarity Organization from Kemaphyu camp of Pasaung Township managed initially to escape to the Karenni army control area on April 12, but their attempt later failed, reported an inside source from the area. “Kyaw Oo killed his officer Poe Kwah, who is commanding the camp, then convinced Eh Leh Htoo and Mauang Lwin to make their way out of the camp. Unfortunately, Kyaw Oo was gunned down by Eh Leh Htoo while he was contacting the Karenni forces operating nearby with an Icom,” said the source. Eh Leh Htoo then made his way back to 39 Kemaphyu camp the same day. Maung Lwin was initially reluctant to go along with him in the beginning. However, Maung Lwin then returned to Kemaphyu the next day, the source further explained. A few men from the Karenni army formed the KNSO in 2001 after they surrendered to the Burmese regime. Most of their young armed men turned themselves into local militias in 2009 when the Burmese regime forced all cease-fire armed groups to join their Border Guard Force plan when they saw no alternative.

Your articles are welcomed

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7 March At 7:50 AM on 7 March, a column from Loi Phe base LIB-332 led by Captain Soe Yar Zar launched area clearance operation at the Shan-Karenni border and the column was ambushed by a unit from Karenni Army Battalion (3). The clash took place between 7:50 to 8:30 AM. Karenni casualties: Nil. SPDC casualties: 2 dead and 3 injured.

9 March At 2:00 PM on 9 March, a unit from Karenni Army Battalion-(3) launched an attack at a column of SPDC’s LIB-332 that were on active patrol near Loi Phe mountain at the Shan-Karenni border. Karenni casualties: Nil. SPDC casualties: Unknown.

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9 March At 4:00 PM on 9 March, Karenni troops ambushed ating unit of SPDC soldiers from IB-72, which were positioned at the Inndaw post at the front-line area, near the ThaiKarenni border. The SPDC soldiers were collecting water. Karenni casualties: One corporal dead.

14 March At 4:30 PM on 14 March, a unit of soldiers from SPDC’s LIB-(135) based at the Htinyu Taung post were collecting water and stepped on a land-mine laid by the Karenni army. SPDC casualties: One corporal lost his right leg.

16 March At 6:00 PM on 16 March, there was a clash between SPDC troops LIB-135 that had entered into Yoesupyar village, and the District Guerillas Force (3) led by the District secretary of Karenni. The incident to enemies was unknown, the district secretary has small injured in arm from Karenni side.

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twG J - (2)/ trS w f - (2)? 18 March At 10:00 AM on 18 March, a troop from Karenni Army Battalion-(1) attacked SPDCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s IB-(134) who were posted 6 miles from Mawchi. SPDC casualties: One corporal badly injured.

7 April At 10:00 AM on 7 April, a clash took placed between Karenni army battalion-(2) and a column from LIB-576 near Dawtama Gyi village, in the central part of Karenni state. Karenni casualties: Nil. SPDC casualties: Unknown.

7 April At 1:00 PM on 7 April, a unit from District-(2) Guerilla Force of the Karenni Army attacked SPDC troops LIB-134 at Sehthone Kone (13 Hills) of Mawchi. Karenni casualties: Nil. SPDC casualties: Unknown.

16 April On 16th April, 2011 at 2:20 PM, six soldier led by corporal Moe Kyaw Thu from LIB-135 led by Second Battalion commander Win Phyoe that based at Nanpeh, Bawlakeh Township went out for fishing and seeking diet. Upon their return, a unit of Karenni army launched ambushed attacked to the group. Karenni casualties: Nil. SPDC casualties: 4 dead included Corporal Moe Kyaw Thu.

24 April On 24th April, 2011 at 12:00 PM, a clashed took place between a column of Karenni army and a column of SPDC troop from LIB-134 led by Captain Min Tun; between Htoedolaykho and Pyardo of Phasaung Township. Karenni casualties: Nil. SPDC casualties: One soldier baddy injured.

29 April On 29th April, 2011 at 10:30 AM, a unit from Karenni Army launched attacked to SPDC troop led by commander Than Win Ko based at Htinyu Taung. Karenni casualties: Nil. SPDC casualties: One soldier dead.

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The different lives of the jungle and cit cityy 

On a moonlit night, a hungry fox was going from lane to lane and looking for his food. While he saw a happy fat dog jogging alone on the street, he thought that dog had never ever starved as he has. Therefore, he went to that dog and asked “Hi friend, why are you so happy? You seem to have got enough food to eat. One thing I am quite sure is that I have explored more places than you have. I know about logia and understood it well. But why couldn’t I find enough food? Do you know that? “The dog said, “Friend Fox, you can be like me, just do as I did, and you will become fat and have a happy life.” The Fox then asked him again “so what should I do?” The dog said “What you have to do is: At night, guard 42 the house carefully, in order to prevent thieves from coming and taking your boss’s property.” “Hmm…. It’s not so bad. I think I can do it. I will have a warm place to stay and will get food regularly, I need not worry and the rain and hunting for food.” “ That’s right, friend.” The dog reaffirmed it and took the fox with him. While they were walking along, the fox saw the chain on the dog’s neck. He was so curious to know what it was. He could not hold back and ask his friend, the dog. At First the dog didn’t want to tell him, when he saw that his friend was so eager to know, at last he decided to tell him the truth. “Well, if you really want to know, I will tell you the truth. It was put on by my boss so as to chain me to the gate to keep me from biting the guests during the day. I am released in the night time. It is only then that I can run and jump freely and happy. In the day time, I closed my eyes and ears and tried to sleep in order to ease my heartache and try to forget the world and

my life of being locked to the gate.” After the fox heard the dog story, he stopped following his friend. When the dog didn’t see his friend coming with him, he looked back to find out what happened. Then he saw his friend’s face full of emotion. He asked, “Dear, what’s up?” The fox replied, “I am sad. You said you have got a perfect life; it might be true for you. You can enjoy your life happily. But for me, I can’t be satisfied with this. I love to be free. If I lose my freedom, my life would seem dead even if I were a king, I wouldn’t be happy.” Then he turned back to the forest where he came from. The dog went back to his home alone and thought that the fox was very strange. How do all our friends feel after reading this short story? I don’t know how whether you will see this story as the situation of people from inside Burma? The different lives of the fox and housedog. Their viewpoint, their standpoint, and the way they made decisions about their lives, between a life where one never ever enjoys the taste of freedom and rights and one where on does. I would rather get some views from a discussion of this short story than have a story put in journal. BY TAYA ZIN AUNG

Ngwe Daung Journal

Your Manuscripts, can be sent to the following email address

Khu Oo Reh: bosco.aurora@gmail.com Aung Sun Myint: ttzaung@gmail Shwe Myo Thant: tawthikho@gmail.com

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;Let not wait too long to solve it otherwise it will be too lateâ&#x20AC;? Prior to 20 years ago, the Kachin people made a livelihood by digging for jade and gold using traditional means at site deposits discovered by the British colonizers at Nam Byu, Shwi Gu, Indaw Gyi and Uru River. During those years, there were no neither professional nor corporate mining operations, but only small enterprises such as at Indaw Gyi Lake. It was only the local people who depended on mining to provide for their families; gold mining was not popular as a business venture. During that time, the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) and the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) had no interest in gold mining, focusing instead on the jade mines. In 1984 the KIO established a Taxation Committee to collect taxes from local jade mining. At the time, the SPDC was aware that the KIO was earning and benefiting from the Hpa Kan jade mining area, and unsuccessfully developed a strategy to take control of the jade mining area from the KIO. In 1986 KIO leaders made economic concessions with the central Chinese government for jade and gold mining. The KIO allowed Chinese business people to come to Kachin state and invest in jade and gold mining operations, and built roads from Nahpaw to Pa Jau to the Chinese border. Chinese investors were allowed to come freely under the KIOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s control. The trade and investment was encouraged by the central governor of Yunnan province. In 1994, after the cease-fire between the SPDC and the KIO, opportunities for Chinese investment, and mining concessions increased, as the wealthy Chinese business people were able to make the appropriate payments to reach agreements with SPDC.

Since then, jade and gold mining has increased considerably, and has brought great economic and political benefit to both the Chinese and the SPDC. Widespread corruption means that the SPDC receives significant payment in exchange for mining concessions. The military government also began cooperating with the Northern Star corporation, to increase investment relations. Northern Star has first say over mining concessions, and if any other company wishes to invest or seek a concession, they must first make a request to Northern Star, and then the military government. In Kachin state, the cost of a gold mining permit for a one kilometer tract is 500 million Kyat for three years. In the past, the price started at just 5 million Kyat. In certain places, however, the cost of corruption and bribes has driven the price up to 1000 million Kyat. A standard permit allows a company to set up two ships for mining in the river, and one for prospecting. But with the payment of bribes, many business people are able to set up 10-20 ships for mining in the river and 40-50 for prospecting. The mining ships, which cost 30,000 Yuan in China, cost 150,200 Kyat in Kachin state. Chinese owners are able to smuggle the machines into Kachin state, where they can set up individual or co-operative mining operations; because of this, there are far more opportunities for Chinese business people to profit from mining than there are for local people. 80 percent of the gold mining property in Kachin state is held in mainland Chinese, Hong Kong and Taiwanese ownership. The mining is focused along the Mali Hka, Nam Hka, Danai, Nambyu and U Ru rivers as well as Nam Yung Indaw Gyi, Shwe Gu, Man Maw and Putau. The mines produce an average 2,000

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to 2,800 kilograms of gold, significant income which does not filter down to Kachin state communities. Most of the money in banks in Kachin state comes from gold mining. In 2002 at the Lahpa gold mines alone, 1,000 kilograms of gold was produced. $60 million in revenue is generated from the gold mines in a year, and black market jade generates $600 million a year. The majority of jade markets are controlled by Yunnan province, Shanghai, Gwangdung, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore. The SPDC has made big plans for opening up the economy, and they have used the business of gold mining and logging to geoperdize the exitence of the Kachin people. All of the gold mining areas are controlled directly or indirectly by the military government; the KIO and some Kachin ceasefire groups have become too weak to maintain their control of the mining areas. The SPDC secured a great accomplishment in signing a cease-fire agreement with the KIO. After the cease-fire agreement, the Kachin cease-fire groups began to break down, losing control of the social, economic and political situation to the SPDC. The SPDC’s border development project further eroded the power of the Kachin groups; the Kachin owned BUGA company came under SPDC control and the KIO lost its ability to make decisions freely. The local Kachin business people have not had a chance to invest in gold and jade mining, because the Chinese investors and corruption among the SPDC has weakened local businesses and made it difficult for them to invest. Corruption among the Chinese business people has caused a lot of social problems in the local Kachin communities. Many local people have lost their livelihoods which depended on mining. Through mining, the SPDC, Chinese business people and Kachin business people who cooperate with the Chinese companies, have caused environmental damage such as local weather change and deforestation. The local people are struggling just to survive. The

Chinese companies investing in gold mining are also engaging in logging in Kachin state. The Chinese mining companies have also sought logging concessions from the military government to increase their own profits. The Chinese business people also have relationships with loggers in Kachin state who have furniture factories in Gwangdung and Shanghai. The wood is logged and treated in Kachin state, and then exported to the factories in China. The Chinese investors receive an average of $1 billion in annual income from exporting lumber to the factories in Gwangdung and Shanghai. The combined income of the Kachin cease-fire groups, the Kachin Independence Organization and the New Democratic Army (Kachin), is not more than $ 100 million annually. The China Central Bank indirectly supports the Chinese business people in Kachin state with the Burmese government also encouraging the Chinese to invest there. The Burmese junta benefits greatly from Chinese investment while in Kachin state bear the burnt of detrimental out come such as pollution from the gold mining. The junta has used the cease-fire negotiations to gain control in Kachin state and to manipulate the agenda of the cease-fire groups. The KIO leaders understand the strategy of the military government, but they have made their own wellbeing and profit a priority. The junta’s policy is to divide and conquer. They have bred dissent and disunity among the Kachin armed groups by allowing them to do business with Chinese investors. These small and controlled privileges to do business has created conflict between the cease-fire groups’ leaders who are now focused on maximizing their own profit, rather than cooperating in the political movement for democracy in Burma.

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By (Yaw Na)



Ngwedaung Journal Vol.2 Issue.2