After becoming president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt used government programs to combat the Depression.
THE NEW DEAL
Franklin D. Roosevelt became candidate president in 1932. At that time, the depression conquered, people suffered from lack of work and food. The new president overwhelming public flavour comparison to Hoover. He had a cando attitude and made a set of new policies that aided the economy, and changed how the financial system worked, this was known as the New Deal.
The Hundred Days were intensive working says in the Roosevelt administration that expanded the government’s role in the economy with new legislation passed. During this period, the president reached out to his people by having frequent informal “chats” on the radio.
Glass-Steagall Act is the act that was established the Federal Insurance Corporation, an organization that provided insurance money for banks, up to $5,000. This backed up in case they failed, preventing and/or reducing the effects of financial catastrophes, such as the Great Depression. Federal Securities Act is the act that forced participants to provide full information in stock exchange to avoid misinterpretation. This act also allowed alcohol and taxed alcohol
HELPING AMERICAN PEOPLE Agriculture Adjustment Act lowering production to raise prices. Civilian Conservation Corp: men from 18 to 25 must work on planting trees, building roads, helping soil-erosion-control and flood-control projects. Many of the people lost their farms due to the Great Depression.
National Industrial Recovery (NIRA) focused money on schools and community buildings. Also, NIRA promoted fair practices by interrupting trend of wages cut, falling prices, and layoffs. 4
THE NEW DEAL COMES UNDER ATTACK Roosevelt agreed to policy of deficit spending, or spending more than the government makes, a “necessary evil” to help the country out of financial crisis. The Supreme Court made a few decision that powered the opposition against the New Deal that the NIRA was declared unconstitutional, AAA was rejected because the Supreme Court, appointing new justices. This shift in made the Supreme Court favour the New Deal.
Senator Huey Long, a former supporter of the New Deal, turned against the president and launched his win campaign called “Every Man a King”, which promised everybody an improvement in their lives. Long was assassinated later in his campaign. Huey Long’s Campaign Huey Long Assassinated
The Second New Deal included new programs to extend federal aid and stimulate the nationâ€™s economy.
THE SECOND HUNDRED DAYS By 1935, the Roosevelt administration was seeking ways to build on the programs established during Hundred Days. Although the economy had improved during the New Deal, the gains were not as great. So the Second New Deal was established under president Rooseveltâ€™s second term. In 1936, Franklin D. Roosevelt won against Alfred Landon and get nominated for second term. He won the election and The Second New Deal was established, like the first New Deal, it included programs that help improved the economy and life condition of the citizens.
HELPING FARMER Second Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) In mid-1930s, lots of farmers lost their farms. After the first Agricultural Adjustment Administration was removed. The second AAA was established and aimed to aid farmers and regulated crop production.
“Migrant Mother” (1936), Dorothea Lange PHOTOJOURNALISM
In February 1936, Dorothea Lange visited a camp in Nipomo, California, where some 2,500 destitute pea pickers lived in tents or, like this mother of seven children, in lean-tos, Lange talked briefly to the woman and then took five pictures. The last photo “Migrant Mother” (at right) was published in the San Francisco News March 10, 1936.
“Migrant Mother”, was recognized as the symbols of the Depression and encourages the New Deal program.
The Farm Security Administration: Loaned more than 1 billion dollars to help improve farmers’ land help farmers and migrant farmers buy lands, own lands. Works Progress Administration: Headed by Harry Hopkins (at right). The organization-helped people to get jobs provided as many job as possible. The organization spent more than 11$ billion to give jobs to more than 8 million people. Men worked to build airports, repaired roads and streets, built public buildings. Women worked in sewing groups.
National Youth Administration: was established within the Works Progress Administration (WPA) on June 26, 1935. Provided education, jobs, recreation and counselling for young people, graduated students, teenagers that dropped out of schools and young children. Wagner Act, known officially as the National Labour Relations Act, was established in 1938 to protect workerâ€™s right. Fair Labour Standards Act maximized the working hour to 44h/ week. After 2 years, it decreased to 40 hours. Minimum wages 25 cents, in 1945, increased to 40 cents Social Security Act: Provided a pension for retired workers and their spouses and aid people with disability
Rural Electrification Administration: The Second New Deal also included laws to promote Rural Electrification - which is to provide affordable electricity for isolated rural areas
New Deal policies and actions affected various social and ethnic groups.
NEW DEAL BRINGS OPPORTUNITIES New Deal brings new chances for women but what they gained was limited, because of the prejudice and discrimination. In the earlier centuries, they were not allowed to take any important positions. But the New Deal turned their lives in the different ways; several women took important government positions. Frances Perkins (at left) was the first America female cabinet member; she created the Social Security system and the supervised labour legislation.
At that time, President Roosevelt was encouraged to support of women voters; he appointed two female diplomats and a female federal judge.
However, they still faced with the discrimination in the workplace from the male workers. During New Deal, the percentage of female workers grew from 11.7 percent to 15.6 percent in 1930s and in 1940. They had many new programs created to aide in their education and trained for occupations, gave more advantages to their youth. By the end of 1933 thirty-five women had received appointments to prominent government positions. By the end of the decade, fifty-five women held key positions in government.
AFRICAN AMERICAN ACTIVISM African Americans took leadership roles during the New Deal, Roosevelt appointed more than 100 African Americans to key positions in the government. Mary McLeod Bethune – an educator who dedicated to promote opportunities for young African Americans. Bethune helped to organize a “Black Cabinet” of influential African Americans to advise the Roosevelt administration on racial issues. Finally, the African Americans had a voice in the White House, which never happened before. Bethune also supported the New Deal.
Roosevelt failed to support civil rights: He never committed to full civil rights of the African Americans. He was afraid of upsetting white Democratic voters in the South, the important segment of his supporters. He refused to approve a federal anti-lynching law and an end to the poll tax. During the New Deal, the National Rifle Association not only offered whites with the first crack at jobs, but also authorized separate and lower pay scales for blacks. Beside, the Federal Housing Authority (FHA) also refused to guarantee mortgages for blacks that tried to buy in white neighbourhoods. Furthermore, the Social Security Act excluded the job categories blacks traditionally filled. However, the African Americans supported the Roosevelt administration and the New Deal
MEXICAN AMERICAN FORTUNES They also supported for the New Deal although they received fewer benefits than the African Americans. The Mexican Americans mostly worked labouring on farms when they moved to the United States, but they were unprotected by any laws. In the Great Depression, the wages for an hour of Mexican Americans on the farm were about nine cents.
NATIVE AMERICANS GAINED SUPPORT In contrast, the Native Americans received full citizenships by laws. In 1933, the President appointed John Collier â€“ the commissioner of Indian affairs, he helped to create the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, this act moved away assimilation toward the Native American, restore some reservation lands to tribal ownerships. This act mostly mandated changes in economic, cultural, and political
NEW DEAL COALITION The New Deal Coalition was created by FDR; it was the alignments of many diverse groups support the Democratic Party. With the result of Wagner Act, union members enjoyed the better working conditions and increased bargaining power. Between 1933 and 1941, the “Unionization” affected coal miners and workers in mass-production industries. The labour movement was developed. The American Federation of Labour (AFL) opposed industry wide unions. Labour disputes: in 1930s, the labour refused to work but still remained inside the plants or also called sit-down strike or violation of private property. FDR won in 1936 The urban voters also voted for the New Deal. Some Northern cities: New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Chicago supported for the Democratic Party. Beside, the New Deal also gained many supports from various religious and ethnic groups, such as Roman Catholics, Jews, Italians, Irish, and Polish, etc… Women, African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and workers were greatly affected by the New Deal. It might bring the good opportunities to turn their lives as a better “pages of the book”.
Motion pictures, radio, art and literature blossomed during the New Deal
THE LURE OF MOTION PICTURES AND RADIO In the 1930s was cold the golden age for the motion picture and radio industries. About 65% of the population was attending the movies once a week and the number of theatres approximately 15000, that is more than numbers of banks and hotels. On the other hands, 90% of American households owned a radio. People call this period of time is the golden age because people start to develop many things to dedicate for the entertainment industry. They began to add sounds to motion pictures, stop using silent picture and replace with actions picture like chasing, running and singing. Not only that, they began to have sounds effect and know how to use background
music. A great example is the incredible and amazing Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs made in 1937. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
Gone with the Wind Gone with the Wind showed life of plantation owner during the Civil War As for radio entertains, Orson Welles- an actor, director, producer and writer who created a well known broad casts named â€œThe War of the Worldsâ€? . He also directed Citizen Kane and Touch of Evil. The Federal Art Project supports artists by paying them to make public arts. These arts much show sober and serious of life. Art also played an important
part in national life as well. One of the out standing artist at that time was Grant Wood who made the famous painting American Gothic. Finally, a African-American named Richard Wright made a novel Native Son- about a young man trying to survive in a racist world. Another authors, John Steinbeck published The Grapes of Wrath showed people a harsh life of a person named Oklahomans left Dust Bowl and ended up in California; before his success, he had to endure the difficulties of Depression.
The New Deal affected American society not only in the 1930s but also in the decades that followed.
NEW DEAL REFORMS ENDURE President Roosevelt want to create the Third New Deal for million of families disaster day-by-day, ill-housed, ill -clad, ill nourished. 1937, Depression was ending but actually the economic still causing troubles for the Nation. Roosevelt faced a lot of trouble to scale back New Deal Programs from Congress. Supporters and critics of the New Deal 1937, Depression was ending but actually the economic still causing troubles for the Nation. Roosevelt faced a lot of trouble to scale back New Deal Programs from Congress. The number of employed increased: 7.7 millions in 1937 and 10.4 millions in 1938. In 1939, the New deal was over; Roosevelt was participated events in Europe, and Hitlerâ€™s rise power in Germany. His polices made the federal government too powerful. Liberal critics angry that Roosevelt did not do enough to socialize the economy. However, he had to face lots of struggles to balance two extremes: unregulated capitalism and over-regulated socialism.
Expanding Governmentâ€™s Role in the Economy The Roosevelt administration expanded the power of the federal government by regulate supply and demand. They also established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation(FIDC) and the Securities and Exchange Commission(SEC) - regulate banking and investment activities. Not only that but it also help to reduce the suffering of thousands of men, women and children by provide foods, jobs, and money. And because of that, the government have to go deeply into dept. 1937- 1938, it dropped to $100 million but next year it rose back to $2.9 billion. As the result, it end the Depression but that money is used by the government for gun, tanks, ships, airplanes which need for World War II.
Protecting Workers’ Rights the National Labor Relations Board(NLRB) was created under Wager Act and it continued to act as protection of the worker’s rights. Banking and Finance the FIDC had saved the banking system by assures that the depositor’s money can be saved in the bank failure. FDIC, SEC but also Social Security can have to provide the nation’s finance and economy. It provides the old-age insurance, an unemployment recompense systems.
The New Deal is also effect the nationâ€™s agriculture by the Second Agricultural Adjustment Act was pass in 1938, said that the farmerâ€™s loan was made by the surplus crops and the parity1 price
About the environment, Civilian Conservation Corps purposed to protect the environment in the farm and forest by plant trees, create hiking trails, and fire lookout tower. In the other hand, the Soil Conservation Service taught the farmers how to conserve the soil. Congress also pass the Taylor Grazing Act in 1934 which reduce grazing in the dust storm of 1930s.
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) that helped to prevent flood in the Tennessee Valley. The government continues to add national park in 1930s, but they also cause the air, land, and water pollution. In the end, the New Deal legacy brought many hope to people for their benefits, protection. in the other hand, it also brought the anger to people who thought that they spent more money for taxes. In the end, the New Deal did not end the Depression but also selling weapon for the nations that want to enter the World War II
CITATION Section I Federal Security Act: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USARsecurities.htm Agricultural Adjustment Act: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1639.html National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA): http://law.jrank.org/pages/8731/National-Industrial-Recovery-Act-1933.html
Supreme Court: http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1958/3/1958_3_24.shtml
Huey Long’s Campaign: http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/hueyplongking.htm
Huey Long’s assassinated: http://www.lawsch.uga.edu/academics/profiles/dwilkes_more/other_4kingfish.html
Section II Hundred Days: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Days New Deal: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1851.html Alfred Landon: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alf_Landon First Agricultural Adjustment Act: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agricultural_Adjustment_Act
Section III Frances Perkins: http://www.aflcio.org/aboutus/history/history/perkins.cfm Trained for occupations: http://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/26434.html Key position in government: http://www.bookrags.com/research/women-of-the-new-deal-gdnd-01/
Mary McLeod Bethune: http://www.africawithin.com/bios/mary_bethune.htm 20
Social Security Act: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=477
Indian Reorganization Act: http://www.maquah.net/Kafkaesque/IndianCourt/IRA.htm
Section IV Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs: http://disney.go.com/vault/archives/characters/snow/snow.html
Whistle While You Work: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oY3aljAO7qU Gone With the Wind: http://www.filmsite.org/gone.html Orson Welles: http://home.bway.net/nipper/home.html Grant Wood: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma98/haven/wood/home.html American Gothic: http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/6565
Section V Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FIDC): http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Federal_Deposit_Insurance_Corporation.aspx
Security and Exchange Commission (SEC): http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0844269.html
National Labour Relations Board (NLRB): http://www.nlrb.gov/ Civilian Conservation Corps: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1586.html The Tennessee Valley Authority (TAV): http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1653.html