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HUE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH ------***------

NGUYEN VAN TUAN

TRANSLATION 1&2

HUE - 2006


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INTRODUCTION An increasing number of universities in Vietnam have added courses in translation to their curricula; however, the textbooks available for such courses are few. This unit has been written with these courses in mind. The unit is designed to provide the learners with some basic principles of translation which will be generally useful to translation courses in universities and colleges, to help the learners avoid some errors they may encounter when they translate a text, to provide the learners with essential English sentence patterns that could be very useful for the learners in learning and practicing translating and to provide the learners 20 assignments related to the theory they have learned. The desire of the author is to make available the principles of translation which have learned through personal experience in translation and teaching translation, and through interaction with colleagues involved in translation projects in many universities in Central Vietnam. Since it is assumed that the students will be speakers of Vietnamese language, many of these exercises involve translating from or into their mother tongue. The material is presented in a way that it can be used in a self-teaching situation or in a classroom. An attempt has been made to keep technical terms to a minimum. When technical vocabulary is used, every effort is made to clarify the meaning of such vocabulary or to provide its meaning in Vietnamese. This has been done so that the unit can be used by any student translator, even though his exposure to linguistic and translation theory has been minimal. This is an introductory unit. The lessons give an overview presenting the fundamental principles of translation and the rest of the unit illustrates these principles. The overriding principle is that translation is meaning-based rather than form-based. Once the learner has identified the meaning of the source text, his goal is to express that same meaning in the receptor/target language. Many examples of cross-language equivalence are used to illustrate this principle. Since the coursebook has been written for the students to learn either by themselves in their distant learning course or in class with a teacher, there will be a coursebook and 20 assignments. By the end of the course, the students will be able to: 1. obtain general knowledge of the principles of translation . 2. get familiar with and effectively use the English sentence patterns in their translations. On the completion of this coursebook, I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Ton Nu Nhu Huong for her encouragement. I would also like to be grateful to Dr. Tran Van Phuoc and other colleagues of the College of Foreign Languages and the English Department for their kind help. Errors are unavoidable in this coursebook. Therefore, I appreciate and welcome any criticism on the course book. Hue, June 24th, 2001 Nguyen Van Tuan


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CHAPTER 1:

THEORY OF TRANSLATION

LESSON 1:

FORM AND MEANING

1.What is translation? 1.1. Translation is the expression in another language (target language) of what has been expressed in one language (source language), preserving semantic and stylistic equivalencies. (By Roger T. Bell). 1.2. Translation is the replacement of a representation of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent text in a second language. (By Roger T. Bell). The author continues and makes the problems of equivalence very plain: Texts in different languages can be equivalent in different degrees (fully or partially different), in respect of different levels of presentation (in respect of context, of semantics, of grammar, of lexis, etc.) and at different ranks (word-for-word, phrase-for-phrase, sentencefor-sentence). However, languages are different from each other; they are different in form having different codes and rules regulating the construction of grammatical stretches of language and these forms have different meanings. To shift from one language to another is, by definition, to change the forms. Also, the contrasting forms convey meanings which cannot but fail to coincide totally; there is no absolute synonym between words in the same language, why should anyone be surprised to discover a lack synonym between languages. Something is always „lost‟ (or might one suggest „gain‟?) in the process and translators can find themselves being accused of reproducing only part of the original and so „betraying‟ the author‟s intentions. Hence the traitorous nature ascribed to the translator by the notorious Italian proverb: “ Traduttore traditore”. Faced by a text in a language, we are able to work out not only the meaning of each word and sentence but also its communicative value, its place in time and space and information about the participants involved in its production and reception. We might take, as a light-hearted model of the questions we can ask of the text, the first verse of a short poem by Kipling. I keep six honest serving men; (They taught me all I knew); Their names were What? And Why? And When? And How? And Where? And Who? What? is the message contained in the text; the content of the signal. Why? orients us towards the intention of the sender, the purpose for which the text was is used. (Informing, persuading, flattering, etc.) When? is concerned with the time of communication realized in the text and setting in its historical context; contemporary or set in the recent or remote past or future.


3 Where? is concerned with the place of communication, the physical location of the speech event realized in the text. How? refers to whether the text is written in a formal or informal way. Who? refers to the participants involved in the communication; the sender and receiver. 1.3. Translation is rendering a written text into another language in a way that the author intended the text. (By Bui Tien Bao- Hanoi National University) “ Translators are concerned with written texts. They render written texts from one language into another language. Translators are required to translate texts which arrange from simple items including birth certificates or driving licences to more complex written materials such as articles in journals of various kinds, business contracts and legal documents.” (Bui Tien BaoHanoi National University). 1.4. Translation, by dictionary definition, consists of changing from one state or form to another, to turn into one‟s own or another‟s language. (The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 1974). Translation is basically a change of form. When we speak of the form of a language, we are referring to the actual words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc. The forms are referred to as the surface structure of a language. It is the structural part of language which is actually seen in print or heard in speech. In translation the form of the source language is replaced by the form of the receptor/target language. But how is this change accomplished? What determines the choices of form in the translation? The purpose of this lesson is to show that translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. This is done by going from the form of the first language to the form of the second language by a way of semantic structure. It is meaning that is being transferred and must be held constant. Only the form changes. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation, then, consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon, grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. Let us look at an example. Assume that we are translating the Vietnamese sentence ‘‘ C¸m ¬n b¹n ®· gióp ®ì t«i tËn t×nh.’’ into English. This Vietnamese sentence has the verb ‘gióp ®ì tËn t×nh’, but to convey the same meaning in English one would use a noun phrase: „ your kind help‟. To do effective translation one must discover the meaning of the source language and use the receptor language forms which express the meaning in a natural way. It is the purpose of this unit to familiarize the learners with the basic linguistic and sociolinguistic factors involved in translating a text from a source language into a receptor language, and to give them enough practice in the translation process for the development of skills in cross-language transfer.


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2. Characteristics of language which affect translation There are certain characteristics of languages which have a very direct bearing on principles of translation. First, let us look at the characteristics of meaning components. Meaning components are packaged into lexical items, but they are packaged differently in one language than in another. In most languages there is a meaning of plurality, for example the English -s. This often occurs in the grammar as a suffix on the nouns or verbs or both. In Vietnamese, however, plurality is expressed in an isolated word ‘ nh‚ng/c¸c’. Many times a single word in the source language will need to be translated by several words. For example, a projector was called the thing that shows pictures on the wall by the Chipara Bolivia.

Second, it is characteristic of languages that the same meaning component will occur in several surface structure lexical items. In English, the word „sheep‟ occurs. However, the words „lamb‟,‟ ram‟ and „ewe‟ also include the meaning „sheep‟. They include the addition meaning components of young (in „lamb‟, adult and male in „ ram‟ and adult and female in „ewe‟. In Peru, „lamb‟ would need to be translated by „sheep its child‟, „ram‟ by „ sheep big‟ and „ewe‟ by „sheep its woman‟. Third, it is further characteristic of language that one form will be used to represent several alternative meanings. This again is obvious from looking in any good dictionary. For example, the Reader‟s Digest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary gives 54 meanings for the English word „run‟. Most words have more than one meaning. There will be a primary meaning-the one which usually comes to mind when the word is said in isolation-and the secondary meaningthe additional meanings, which a word has in context with other words. In English, we can say „ the boy runs‟, using „run‟ in its primary meaning. We can also say „ the motor runs, the river runs, and his nose runs‟, using runs in its secondary meanings. This principle is not limited to lexical items for it is also true that the same grammatical pattern may express several quite different meanings. For instance, the English possessive phrase „my house‟ may mean „the house I built‟, „ the house I rent‟, „the house I live in‟, or the house for which I drew up in my plans.‟ Only the larger context determines the meaning. Notice the following possessive phrases and the variety of meanings: my car

ownership

my brother

kinship

my foot

part-whole

my singing

action

my book

ownership or authorship ( the book I own, or, the book I wrote)

my village

residence ( the village where I live)

my train

use


5 (the train I ride on) Whole sentences may also have several functions. A question form may be used for a nonquestion. For example, the question: “ Mary, why don‟t you wash the dishes?” has a form of a question, and may in some context be asking for information, but it is often used with the meaning of command rather than a real question. A simple English sentence like “ He made the bed.” May mean either “He made (as a carpenter would make) the bed”, or “ He put the sheets, blanket, and pillows in neat order on the bed.” Just as words have primary and secondary meanings, so grammatical markers have their primary function and often have other secondary functions. The preposition „on‟ is used in English to signal a variety of meanings. Compare the following uses of „on‟ with the corresponding form used in Vietnamese. John found the book on the floor. nhµ.

John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch trªn sµn

John found the book on mathematics. m«n to¸n.

John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch viÕt vÒ

John found the book on Tuesday. thø Ba.

John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch vµo

John found the book on sale. ®ang bµy b¸n.

John

t×m

thÊy

cuèn

s¸ch

Compare also the following uses of ‘ by’ John was stopped by the policeman. John was stopped by the bookstand. In the first, by is used to signal the meaning that the policeman is the agent of the action. In the second, by is used to signal that the bookstand is the location. We have seen that one form may express many meanings. On the other hand, another characteristic of languages is that a single meaning may be expressed in a variety of forms. For example, the meaning “ the cat is black” may be expressed by the following: the cat is black, the black cat, and, the cat, which is black, depending on how that meaning relates to other meanings. In addition, the meanings of “ Is this place taken?” “Is there anyone sitting here?” and “ May I sit here?” are essentially the same. Also, the meaning is essentially the same in the following English sentences: Others blamed John because of the difficulty. Others blamed John for the difficulty. Others blamed the difficulty on John. Others said John was responsible for the difficulty.


6 Others accused John of being responsible for the difficulty. We have seen that even within a single language there are a great variety of ways in which form expresses meaning. Only when a form being used in its primary meaning or function is there a one-to-one correlation between form and meaning. The other meanings are secondary meanings or figurative meanings. Words have these extended meanings and in the same way grammatical forms have extended usages (secondary and figurative function). This characteristic of “skewing”; that is, the diversity or the lack of one-to-one correlation between form and meaning is the basic reason that translation is a complicated task. If there were no skewing, then all lexical items and all grammatical forms would have only one meaning and a literal word-for-word and grammatical structure-for- grammatical structure translation would be possible. But the fact is that a language is a complex set of skewed relationship between meaning (semantics) and form (lexicon and grammar). Each language has its own distinctive forms for representing the meaning. Therefore, in translation the same meaning may have to be expressed in another language by a very different form. To translate the form of one language literally according to the corresponding form in another language would often change the meaning or at least result in a form which is unnatural in the second language. Meaning must, therefore, have priority over form in translation. It is meaning that is to be carried over from the source language to the receptor language, not the linguistic forms. For example, to translate the English sentence “ he is cold hearted” i.e. His heart is cold (meaning „he is unfeeling, has no emotional sympathy.‟) literally into Mambila in Nigeria would be understood to mean, “ he is peaceful, not quick-tempered.” And if translated literally into Cinyanja in Zambia, it would mean, “ he is frightened.” The nature of language is that each language uses different forms and these forms have secondary and figurative meanings which add further complications. A word-for-word translation which follows closely the form of the source language is called a literal translation. A literal translation does not communicate the meaning of the source text. It is generally no more than a string of words intended to help someone read a text in its original language. It is unnatural and hard to understand, and may even be quite meaningless, or give a wrong meaning in the receptor language. It can hardly be called a translation. The goal of a translator should be to produce a receptor language text (a translation) which is idiomatic; that is one which has the same meaning as the source language but is expressed in the natural form of the receptor language. The meaning, not form is retained. The following is a literal translation of a story first told in the Quiche language of Guatemala: “It is said that being one man not from here, not known where the his or the he comes where. One day the things he walks in a plantation or in them the coastlands, he saw his appearance one little necklace, or he thought that a little necklace the very pretty thrown on the ground in the road. He took the necklace this he threw in his mouth for its cause that coming the one person another to his behind ness, for his that not he encounters the one the following this way in his behindness not he knows and that the necklace the he threw in his mouth this one


7 snake and the man this one died right now because not he knows his appearance the snake or that the he ate this not this a necklace only probably this snake.” Now compare the above with the following less literal translation of the same story: “ It is said that there once was a man not from here, and I do not know his town or where he came from, who one day was walking in a plantation (or in the coastlands). He saw a little necklace, or rather, what he thought was a very pretty little necklace, lying on the road. He grabbed this necklace and threw this into his mouth because there was someone coming along behind him, and he did not want the other person to see it. He did not know that the necklace he threw into his mouth was really a snake. The man died in short order because he did not recognize from its appearance that it was a snake. He did not know that what he had put in his mouth was not a necklace, but rather a snake.” In the first, each quiche word was replaced by the nearest English equivalent. The result was nonsense. In the second translation, the natural forms of English lexicon and grammar were used to express the meaning of the Quiche story. Below the story is again rewritten in a more idiomatic English style. “I am told that there once was a stranger from some other town who was walking in a plantation along the coast. As he walked along he suddenly saw a very pretty little necklace lying on the road. He snatched up this necklace and threw this into his mouth because there was another person walking behind him and he did not want him to see the necklace. The stranger did not know that the necklace was really a snake. The man died immediately. He died because he did not realize that it was a snake. He did not know he put a snake into his mouth rather than a necklace.” Anything which can be said in one language can be said in another. It is possible to translate. The goal of the translator is to keep the meaning constant. Wherever necessary, the receptor language form should be changed in order that the source language meaning should not be distorted. Since a meaning expressed by a particular form in one language may be expressed by quite a different form in another language, it is often necessary to change the form when translating.

3. Notes Form-based translation:

dÞch dùa vµo h×nh thøc hay cÊu tróc

Meaning-based translation: chuyÓn t¶i

dÞch dùa vµo nghÜa, dùa vµo néi dung cÇn

Source language:

ng«n ng÷ gèc

Receptor language:

ng«n ng÷ dÞch

Context:

v¨n c¶nh/ ng÷ c¶nh

Principle of translation: Meaning component:

nguyªn t¾c dÞch/kü thuËt dÞch thµnh tè nghÜa


8 Lexical:

(thuéc vÒ) tõ vùng

Surface structure:

cÊu tróc bÒ mÆt

Deep structure:

cÊu tróc s©u/cÊu tróc ng÷ nghÜa

Meaning/ sense:

nghÜa

Primary meaning:

nghÜa chÝnh/nghÜa gèc

Secondary meaning:

nghÜa ph¸i sinh

Literal translation:

dÞch tõng tõ mét

One-to-one correlation:

quan hÖ mét ®èi mét

Figurative meaning:

nghÜa bãng

Function:

chøc n¨ng dÞch ®óng, dÞch s¸t nghi·

Idiomatic translation:

4. Self-study 4.1 Questions for discussion 1. What is translation? What definition do you think is the most appropriate? Can you give your own definition of translation? 2. What is a literal translation? Can you give some examples of literal translations? 3. What is an idiomatic translation? Give some examples of idiomatic translations. 4. What characteristics of language affect translation? 5. What are the secondary meanings? Give ten sentences, each of which contains a word used in a secondary sense. 6. What is the primary meaning? Give ten sentences, each of which contains a word used in a primary sense. 4.2 Exercises A. Identify change of meaning versus change of form. Some of the following pairs of sentences differ in their form. Some differ in meaning. Indicate if the primary change is in the form or in the meaning. Example:

They robbed the old man. The old man was dropped by them. Answer: Change of form

1. The students like to study translation. The students like studying translation. 2. I bought a pair of horseshoes. I bought a pair of leather shoes. 3. He saw the bird. He heard the cat.


9 4. Phillip went walking. Phillip took a walk. 5. Go to bed. I want you to go to bed. 6. I came; I saw; I conquered. I came, saw, and conquered. 7. Two weeks later he came. After two weeks he came. 8. There is a table in the book. There is a book on the table. 9. The young man had an English grammar book stolen. An English grammar book was stolen from the young man. 10. He was awaken by a thunderclap. A thunderclap awakened him. B. List as many grammatical forms as you can which realize the same meaning as the one given below. Then put the same meaning into a language other than English in as many forms as you can. Example:

the cat is black the black cat the cat, which is black

1. the jug water 2. John bought a car 3. a hot day 4. mother‟s long blue dress 5. Peter‟s house C. All of the following have the same grammatical form. With the change of lexical items, there is a change of meaning which is signaled by that lexical item, apart from the referential meaning of the word itself. What meaning is signaled in each of the following possessive phrases? Answer by restating. How can that meaning best be expressed in another language which you speak? Example:

The man‟s car - the man owns the car The man‟s eye - the eye is part of the man

1. the doctor‟s office 2. the doctor‟s patient 3. the doctor‟s book 4. the doctor‟s brother


10 5. the doctor‟s hand 6. the doctor‟s house D. For each pair of sentences, state whether the two sentences are 1. the same in meaning or 2. different in meaning. Example: (a) It rained all night. (b) Rain fell all night. (a) There is a book on the table. (b) There is a table on the book. 1. (a) John was very surprised when he heard the news. (b) The news very much amazed John when he heard it. 2. (a) It was a hot day. (b) The day was hot. 3. (a) Peter‟s house (b) The house that belongs to Peter 4. (a) He remained silent. (b) He did not say anything. 5. (a) I bought cloth to make Mary a new dress. (b) I bought a new dress for Mary. 6. (a) I bought vegetables in the market. (b) I bought tomatoes and onions in the market. 7. (a) My parents are well. (b) My mother and father are well. 8. (a) John is ill: he has a bad case of malaria. (b) John is very ill indeed. 9. (a) There are four rooms in the house. (b) The house has four rooms and a kitchen at the back. 10. (a) In my opinion, the government is doing well and making many improvements in the country. But there are many people who do not agree that this is so. (b) Opinions are divided concerning the government. Some say they are doing well and making many improvements in the country. Others do not agree.

LESSON 2:

KINDS OF TRANSLATION

1. Literal versus idiomatic


11 Because a given text has both form and meaning, as discussed in the previous lesson, there are two main kinds of translation. One is form-based and the other is meaning-based. Form-based translations attempt to follow the form of the source language and are known as literal translation. Meaning-based translations make every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Such translations are called idiomatic translations. An interlinear translation is a completely literal translation. For some purposes, it is desirable to reproduce the linguistic features of the source text, as for example, in a linguistic study of that language. Although these literal translations may be very useful for purposes related to the study of the source language, they are of little help to speakers of the receptor language who are interested in the meaning of the source language text. A literal translation sounds like nonsense and has little communication value. For example: Vietnamese:

Mêi b¹n vÒ nhµ t«i ch¬i

Literal translation:

Invite friend about house me play.

This literal translation makes little sense in English. The appropriate translation would be: Would you like to come to my home? If the two languages are related, the literal translation can often be understood, since the general grammatical form may be similar. However, the literal choice of lexical items may the translation sounds foreign. The following bilingual announcement was overheard at an airport ( Barnwell 1980:18) Literal English: Madame Odette passenger with destination Domda is demanded on the telephone. This English version is a literal translation of the French. French: Madame Odette, passager µ destination de Domda, est demandeÐ au telefon. An idiomatic translation into English would be: Miss Odette, passenger for Domda. You are wanted on the phone. Except for interlinear translation, a truly literal translation is uncommon. Most translators who tend to translate literally actually make a partially modified literal translation. They modify the order and grammar enough to use acceptable sentence structure in the receptor language. However, the lexical items are translated literally. Occasionally, these are also changed to avoid complete nonsense or to improve the communication. However, the result still does not sound natural. Notice the following example from a language in Papua New Guinea: Ro abombo ngusifu pamariboyandi. I my

heart

fastened-her. (literal)

I fastened her in my heart.

(modified literal)


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The modified literal translation changes the order into English structure. However, the sentence still does not communicate in clear English. An idiomatic translation would have used the form: “ I never forgot her.” Or “ I‟ve kept her memory in my heart.” A person who translates in a modified literal manner will change the grammatical forms when the constructions are obligatory. However, if he has a choice, he will follow the form of the source text even though a different form might be more natural in the receptor language. Literal and modified literal translations consistently err in that they choose literal equivalents for the words, i.e. lexical items being translated. Literal translations of words, idioms result in unclear, unnatural, and sometimes nonsensical translations. In a modified literal translation, the translator usually adjusts the translation enough to avoid the nonsense and wrong meanings, but the unnaturalness still remains. Idiomatic translations use the natural forms of the receptor language, both in the grammatical constructions and in the choice of lexical items. A truly idiomatic translation does not sound like a translation. It sounds like it was written originally in the receptor language. Therefore, a good translator will try to translate idiomatically. This is his goal. However, translations are often a mixture of a literal transfer of the grammatical units along with some idiomatic translation of the meaning of the text. It is not easy to consistently translate. A translator may express some parts of his translation in very natural forms and then in other parts fall back into a literal form. In one translation, the source text said, ‘‘ NhiÒu du kh¸ch n-íc ngoµi ®· giíi thiÖu cho chóng t«i vÒ kh¸ch s¹n H-¬ng Giang.’’ It was translated, “ Many foreign tourists have introduced us about Huong Giang Hotel.” It would have been translated idiomatically, “ Huong Giang Hotel has been recommended to us by a number of foreign tourists.” The translator‟s goal should be to reproduce in a receptor language a text which communicates the same message as the source language but using the natural grammatical and lexical choices of the receptor language. The basic overriding principle is that an idiomatic translation reproduces the meaning of the source language in the natural form of the receptor language.

2. Translating grammatical features Parts of speech are language specific. Each language has its own division of the lexicon into classes such as nouns, verbs, adjectives and so on. Different languages will have different classes and subclasses. It will not always be possible to translate a source language noun with a noun in the receptor language. For example, English has many nouns which really refer to actions while Vietnamese prefers to express actions as verbs rather than nouns. In one translation, the source text said, “ There is a general agreement that the government has given top priority to education.” It was translated, ‘‘ Cã mét sù ®ång ý chung r»ng chÝnh phñ ®· dµnh nhiÒu sù -u tiªn cho gi¸o dôc’’. This would


13 have been translated idiomatically, ‘‘Ai còng ®ång ý r»ng chÝnh phñ ®· dµnh nhiÒu -u tiªn cho gi¸o dôc.’’ Similarly, a translator in Papua New Guinea was asked to translate the Eight Point Improvement Plan for Papua New Guinea. One point reads, “Decentralization of economic activity, planning and government spending, with emphasis on agricultural development, village industry, better internal trade, and more spending channeled through local and area bodies.” Such sentences are very difficult for translators who want to translate into the native language of the country. Words such as Decentralization, activity, planning, government spending, emphasis development, trade would have to be rendered by verbs in most languages. When verbs are used, then, the appropriate subject and object of the verb may need to be made explicit also. The form in the receptor language is very different from the source language form and yet this kind of adjustment, using verbs rather than using nouns, must be made in order to communicate the message. An idiomatic translation was made which used verbs as in the following. “The government wants to decrease the work it does for businesses and what it plans and the money it spends in the capital, and wants to increase what people and groups in local area do to help farmers and small businesses whose owners live in the villages, and help people in this country buy and sell things made in this country and to help local groups spend the government‟s money.” Most languages have a class of words which may be called pronouns. Pronominal systems vary greatly from language to language and the translator is obliged to use the form of the receptor language even though they may have very different meanings than the pronouns of the source language. For example, if one is translating into Kiowa (USA), the pronouns will have to indicate a different between singular, dual and plural person even though the source language does not make this three-way distinction. Or if a translator is translating into Balinese, he must distinguish degrees of honor even though nothing in the source language indicates these distinctions. He will need to understand the culture of the Balinese and the cultural context of the text he is translating in order to choose correctly. In English, the first plural pronoun we is often used when the real meaning is second person you. The reason for the use of we is to show empathy and understanding. The nurse say to the sick child, “ It‟s time for us to take our medicine now.” Or the teacher says, “We‟re not going to shout, quietly to our we‟ll walk places.” Clearly , the pronouns do not refer to the nurse or the teacher but to the children whom she is addressing you. In translating these pronouns into another language, a literal translation with first person plural would probably distort the meaning. The translator would need to look for the natural way to communicate second person and the feeling of empathy carried by the source language. Grammatical constructions also vary between the source language and the receptor language. The order , for example, may be completely reserved. The following simple sentences from Vietnamese is given with a literal English translations: ChÞ sèng ë ®©u? You live where ?


14 C« Êy th-êng

mÆc

¸o s¬ mi

v¶i silk

mµu xanh

cì nhá.

She often wears a shirt silk blue small. It will readily be seen that understandable translations into English requires a complete reversal of the order: She often wears a small blue silk shirt. It is not uncommon that passive constructions will need to be translated with an active construction or vice versa, depending on the natural form of the receptor language. For example, Vietnamese people tend to use active constructions to express their ideas whereas English people prefer to use passive constructions. English: Vietnamese: (active)

Nguyen Du is considered to be a great poet. ( passive) Ng-êi

ta

xem

NguyÔn

Du

mét

nhµ

th¬

®¹i.

English: A: What has happened to all your money after the will was settled and the business was sold? (passive) B: The usual thing, false friends, fast-living style and bad investment. Vietnamese: A: ChuyÖn g× ®· x¶y ra víi toµn bé sè tiÒn mµ b¹n cã ®-îc sau khi gi¶i quyÕt xong chuyÖn chóc th- vµ b¸n ®i c¶ s¶n nghiÖp. (active) B: Còng lÏ th-êng t×nh th«i, b¹n bÌ gi¶ dèi, ¨n ch¬i hoang ®µn vµ ®Çu t- sai chç. The above translated sentences are only examples to show some types of grammatical adjustments which will result if a translator translates idiomatically in the source language. Certainly, there will be times by coincidence they match, but a translator should translate the meaning not concern himself with whether the forms turn out the same or not.

3. Translating lexical features Each language has its own idiomatic way of expressing meaning lexical items. Languages abound in idioms, secondary meanings, metaphors, and other figurative meanings. For example, notice the following ways in which a fever is referred to ( literal translations are given to show the source language form): Greek:

The fever left him.

Aguaruna:

He cooled.

Vietnamese:

He cooled. Or: The fever was no more in him.


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Ilocano:

The fever was no more in him.

The English translations of all six would be : His fever went down, or His temperature returned to normal. All languages have idioms, i.e. a string of words whose meaning is different than the meaning conveyed by the individual words. In English to say that someone is bullheaded means that the person is „stubborn‟. The meaning has little to do with bull or head . Similarly, in Vietnamese to say that someone is cøng ®Çu cøng cæ means that the person is „stubborn‟. The meaning has little to do with ®Çu or cæ. Languages abound in such idioms. The following are a few English idioms using in and into: run into debt, rush into print, step into a practice, jump into a fight, dive into a book, stumble into acquaintance, fall in love, break into society. In spite of all these combinations, one cannot say the following break into debt, fall into print, rush into a fight, dive into debt, etc. The combinations are fixed as to form and their meaning comes from their combination. A literal word-for-word translation of these idioms into another language will not make sense. The form cannot be kept, but the receptor language word or phrase which has the equivalent meaning will be the correct one to use in the translation. The following idioms occur in Vietnamese. In the first column is a literal translation from Vietnamese. In the second is an idiomatic translation. The literal English is misleading. LITERAL I don‟t have my eye on you.

IDIOMATIC I don‟t remember you.

He is as strong as a buffalo.

He is as strong as a horse.

I have buried my head into my business.

I have been busy with my work.

Translators who wants to make a good idiomatic translation often find figures of speech especially challenging. A literal translation of strong as a horse might sound really strange in a language where the comparison between a strong person and a horse has never been use as a figure of speech. In Vietnamese it would be more natural to say strong as a buffalo. Similarly, a literal translation of blind as a bat might sound really strange in a language where the comparison between a blind person and a bat has never been use as a figure of speech. In Aguaruma it would be more natural to say blind as a fox. There is a legend in which the sun borrowed the fox‟s eyes and then returned to heaven taking the fox‟s good eyes with him and leaving the fox with the sun‟s inferior eyes. That is why they say, when the fox is trying to see, he stretches back his head and looks with his throat. Figures of speech are often based on stories or historical incidents. Names of animals are used metaphorically in most languages. But the comparison is often different and so the figure will be misunderstood unless some adjustment is made. For example, when someone is called a pig in English, it usually means he is dirty or a greedy eater. In Vietnamese, it has different meanings. It could means that the person is stupid or that the person is a greedy. Care would need to be taken if pig were used metaphorically or a wrong meaning might result in the receptor language.


16 Some lexical combinations of the source language may be ambiguous. The meaning is not clear. For example, “ It is too hot to eat,” could mean any of the following: The food is too hot to eat; the weather is too hot for us to feel like eating; the horse is too hot after running a race and does not want to eat. In the process of making an idiomatic translation, such ambiguities must often be resolved and only the intended meaning communicated.

4. Conclusion It is obvious that translation is a complicated process. However, a translator who is concerned with transferring the meaning will find that the receptor language has a way in which the desired meaning can be expressed even though it may be very different from the source language form. Considering the complexity of language structures, how can a translator ever hope to produce an adequate translation? Literal translation can only be avoided by careful analysis of the source language: by, first of all, understanding clearly the message to be communicated. A translator who takes the time to study carefully the source language text, to write analysis of it, and then to look for the equivalent way in which the same message is expressed naturally in the receptor language, will be able to provide an adequate, and some times brilliant translation. His goal must be to avoid literalisms and to strive for a truly idiomatic receptor language text. He will know he is successful if the receptor language readers do not recognize his work as a translation at all, but simply as a text written in the receptor language for their information and enjoyment.

5. Notes Form-based translation : Meaning-based translation:

dÞch dùa vµo h×nh thøc dÞch dùa vµo nghÜa

Literal translation:

dÞch tõng tõ mét

Idiomatic translation:

dÞch ®óng nghÜa

Interference :

sù can thiÖp

Mother-tongue interference:

sù can thiÖp cña tiÕng mÑ ®Î

To make adjustments:

hiÖu ®Ýnh/ ®iÒu chØnh

Translating grammatical features:

®Æc tr-ng ng÷ ph¸p dÞch

Parts of speech: Subclass: Indo-European language: Pronominal system:

tõ lo¹i nhãm nhá ng«n ng÷ Ên-¢u hÖ thèng ®¹i tõ

6. Self-study 6.1 Questions for discussion 1. What are the differences between a literal translation and an idiomatic translation? 2. What should you do to translate a text idiomatically?


17 3. What grammatical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. 4. What lexical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. 5. Why do you have to take the time to read the source language text carefully before translating it? 6.2 Exercises A. In each of the following pairs of sentences, which is more idiomatic English, a or b? How would the meaning be expressed idiomatically in the language you speak? 1.(a) The storekeeper said that we will refund your money. (b) The storekeeper promised to refund our money. 2.(a) A certain boy told me this little story at a party. (b) He is one boy. He told the one little story. This is a game he said. 3.(a) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform as well. How many children have shed hot tears about spelling? (b) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform ,too. And how many hot childrenâ€&#x;s tears have not been shed on spelling? 4.(a) He then reported his misfortune to the police, who are searching diligently for the thief. (b) He then his mishap reported to the police, who are the thief searching intensively B. Look for literalisms in the following translations into English and underline the words or phrases that do not sound natural in English. Suggest a more idiomatic way of saying it. All of these examples are from published translated material. 1. The third-year students often visit the schools in the city for the attendance of the class. 2. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for their friends have introduced to them very much about this hotel. 3. Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam, many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam. 4. After saying lies many times, he lost our belief in him. 5. Hue is famous about its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. 6. The participants discussed about the causes of pollution environment. 7. Every time my mother goes to work , I feel my house absent anybody. 8. One thing makes me proud of my village is a large green field that provides one part of life for people. 9. A robbery took place of a motorcycle rider at Kampung early yesterday morning. 10. I left my village for three years, a time not long but like a century. C. Each of the following are sentences written by some Vietnamese who are not yet fluent English speakers. The forms used shows examples of how their mother-tongue language


18 structures have been carried over into English. The same information is then given in parenthesis in idiomatic English. What changes were made in correcting the English? These changes point out some of the differences between Vietnamese and English. 1. Sir, the problems of before don‟t forget. ( Sir, please don‟t forget the problems we discussed before.) 2. If there is any means, send me a letter to Saigon. (If there is any way to do so, send a letter to me in Saigon.) 3. I will think you time to time day and day. ( I will be thinking about you often every day.) 4. I am very grateful to inform you with this letter. ( I am very happy to be able to send/write you this letter.) 5. I am a man who has been to Hanoi for 12 years. ( I have now lived in Hanoi for 12 years.) D. Translate the following Vietnamese sentences as idiomatically as possible. 1. ChÞ may ¸o s¬ mi nµy ë ®©u vËy? 2. Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n-íc s«ng Hång, s«ng §µ, s«ng Cöu Long vµ ®· sèng chÕt víi s«ng n-íc nµy. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh- tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. Trong tiÕng ViÖt, th× ‘‘n-íc’’ (trong s«ng, trong hå, trong biÓn....) l¹i ®ång nghÜa, ®ång ©m víi ‘‘n-íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h-¬ng. - cha «ng:

ancestors

- thèng nhÊt : uniformity - ®ång nghÜa : synonym/ synonymous - ®ång ©m : homonym - trong ý nghÜa : to mean/ to signify - tæ quèc quª h-¬ng: homeland/ fatherland/ motherland - sèng chÕt: to try hard to protect them/ to spare no pain to protect them 3. §µ L¹t chiÕm cø mét vïng ®Êt réng trªn cao nguyªn L©m Viªn, xung quanh toµn lµ nói ®åi hïng vÜ. - chiÕm cø : take up/ to be situated/ to occupy - cao nguyªn : plateau - xung quanh: to be surrounded by/ with 4. Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ cña ViÖt Nam ph¶i ®-îc xÐt trong hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi. Hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh Êy ®· g©y ra


19 nhiÒu thiÖt h¹i vÒ sinh m¹ng vµ tµi s¶n còng nh- c¸c c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng vµ tµi nguyªn. - sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ : the economic development - ®-îc xÐt : to be viewed/ to be considered/ to be taken into account - hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi : in the context of the long period of war - g©y ra thiÖt h¹i : to cause damage to - tµi s¶n : property - c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng : public facilities - tµi nguyªn : resources 5. MÆc dï ®Þa vÞ cña phô n÷ ®· cã nh÷ng b-íc tiÕn kú diÖu, nh-ng ng-êi ta ph¶i thùc hiÖn nhiÒu chuyÖn kh¸c ®Ó c¶i thiÖn t×nh tr¹ng søc khoÎ, dinh d-ìng vµ gi¸o dôc cho phô n÷. - ®Þa vÞ : status - cã nh÷ng b-íc tiÕn kú diÖu: to be dramatically improved - dinh d-ìng : nutrition 6. M¹ng l-íi truyÒn h×nh ®ang x©y dùng réng kh¾p c¶ n-íc. Ngoµi nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh t-¬ng ®èi hiÖn ®¹i, cã tõ l©u ®êi nh- ®µi truyÒn h×nh Hµ Néi vµ Thµnh Phè Hå ChÝ Minh, cßn cã 25 ®µi thuéc c¸c tØnh ®-îc thµnh lËp vµo n¨m 1988. Nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh nµy sÏ truyÒn nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh quan träng cña ®µi truyÒn h×nh trung -¬ng vµ ph¸t ch-¬ng tr×nh cña ®µi m×nh. - m¹ng l-íi : network - ®µi truyÒn h×nh : television station - l©u ®êi: long-standing - thµnh lËp : to establish/ set up - truyÒn nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh : to relay the transmissions - ph¸t: to broadcast 7. Ngµy nay thÕ giíi ®ang ®-ong ®Çu víi nhiÒu vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng cho dï ®· cã nhiÒu b-íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ trong lÜnh vùc khoa häc, c«ng nghÖ vµ tri thøc. Mét trong nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò ®ã lµ sù bïng næ d©n sè, ®Æc biÖt ë c¸c n-íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn. D©n sè ®ang t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n trong lóc s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ l¹i t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng. - ®-¬ng ®Çu : to face - vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng : serious problem - cã nhiÒu b-íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ : to take great strikes


20 - sù bïng næ d©n sè : population explosion/ population boom - t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n : to grow in geometric progression - t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng : to grow in arithmetic progression - s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ : the production of goods 8. Charles Dickens lµ mét trong nh÷ng nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt lín nhÊt thÕ giíi, thuéc tr-êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n thÕ kû 19. §iÒu mµ chóng ta ®¸nh gi¸ cao vÒ nh÷ng t¸c phÈm cña Dickens lµ sù phª ph¸n vÒ téi ¸c vµ sù t-¬ng ph¶n gi÷a giµu vµ nghÌo cña x· héi t- s¶n Anh lóc bÊy giê. ThÕ giíi mµ «ng ta miªu t¶ lµ thÕ giíi cña giai cÊp trung l-u vµ h¹ l-u ë Lu©n §«n. - nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt : novelist - tr-êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n : the school of critical realism - ®¸nh gi¸ cao : to value/ highly appreciate - sù phª ph¸n : criticism - téi ¸c : evil - sù t-¬ng ph¶n : contrast - giµu vµ nghÌo : wealth and poverty - x· héi t- s¶n Anh : the English boutgeois society - giai cÊp trung l-u vµ h¹ l-u : the middle and lower classes 9. Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô vµ chñ tÞch héi ®-îc Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng ®Ó ®iÒu lÖ liªn quan ®Õn

N÷ ViÖt Nam ®-îc cö ®¹i diÖn ë Quèc Héi quyÒn tham dù c¸c cuéc häp th-êng kú cña bµy tá quan ®iÓm cña Héi vµ ®Ò nghÞ nh÷ng phô n÷.

- Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô N÷ ViÖt Nam : The Vietnam‟s Women Union - cö ®¹i diÖn : to be represented - Quèc Héi : the National Assembly - ®-îc quyÒn lµm g× : to have the right to do something - cuéc häp th-êng kú : regular meeting - Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng : the Council of Ministers - bµy tá quan ®iÓm : express one‟s points of view - ®iÒu lÖ : regulations 10. Gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam chÞu ¶nh h-áng râ rÖt cña nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp. Do chÝnh s¸ch më cöa, nÒn v¨n minh c«ng nghiÖp ®ang t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy, tõng giê vµo cuéc sèng gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam. - chÞu ¶nh h-áng : to be affected by


21 - nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp : agricultural civilization - chÝnh s¸ch më cöa : the open-door policy - t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy tõng giê : to have daily and hourly impact /influence on

LESSON 3:

STEPS IN A TRANSLATION PROJECT

Before beginning an actual translation, it is important to have in mind the total translation project and what is involved in producing a good translation. Each of these steps will be elaborated on in more detail in the last section of the book.

1.Establishing the project Before one considers beginning a translation project, there are a number of matters which need to be clearly understood by all who will be involved. These can be summarized under four T‟s- the text, the target, the team, and the tools. The text refers to the source language document which is to be translated. The desirability of translating a particular text must be determined. Texts are chosen to be translated for various reasons. Most often it is to communicate certain information to people speaking another language, or it may be to share the enjoyment of the source text. The translator should examine his reasons for choosing the text and the potential for its use by the receptor language audience. The target refers to the audience. For whom is the translation prepared? The form of translation will be affected by questions of dialect, educational level, age level, bilingualism, and people‟s attitudes towards their languages. Will it be used in school, in business, or read orally in a meeting or at home? The team refers to the people who will be involved in the project. If a person is a competent speaker of both the source language and the receptor language, it may be that the project can be done completely by one person. But even so there should be other available for evaluation and consultation. Most translation projects require a team, a number of people who are going to contribute to the translation at some stage in the project. The working relationship between these people needs to be established before the project gets underway. It may, however, also change as the project moves along and new factors come into focus. There are certain essentials to any translation project. Not all these need to be found in one person. There are various kinds of programs which may be set up depending on the abilities and backgrounds of those who will be involved. The team may consist of 1. co-translators, where one is a specialist in the source language and the other a specialist in the receptor language, or 2. a translator with capability to handle both source language and receptor language matters and an advisor or consultant, or 3. a committee working together with specific responsibilities delegated to each one. Which kind of program is developed will depend on who is available and qualified to determine the meaning of the source language, who is most skilled at drafting in the receptor language, and who has an understanding of translation principles. The team may include the translators, a consultant, testers, and reviewers.


22 Tools refer to the written source materials which will be used by the translators as helps. These include, in addition to the document to be translated, any dictionaries, lexicons, grammars, cultural descriptions. etc.. .. of both the source language and receptor language which are available. The team will want as much in formation available as possible while translating. All of these tools should be brought to the translation site in preparation for the project. For some projects, there will be a wealth of materials that can be used to help in interpreting the source language text and in finding equivalents in the receptor language. For other projects, there may be a scarcity of such material, but whatever is available should be there to make the work easier.

2. Exegesis Exegesis is used to refer to the process of discovering the meaning of the source language text which is to be translated. It is the step which includes the preparation and analysis which must be done before anything at all can be written in the receptor language. The text must be understood completely. This is the process which takes place in moving from the source language form to the meaning of the text. The translator should begin by reading the text several times, then by reading other materials that may help in understanding the culture or language of the source text. As he reads the text, he will be looking for the authorâ€&#x;s purpose and the theme of the text. He will look for the larger groupings or sections. He may want to outline the text. The purpose is to understand the text as a whole. Once he has done this, he is ready to work on the material a section at a time. The analysis of the source text will include resolving ambiguity, identifying implicit information, studying key words, interpreting figurative senses, recognizing when words are being used in a secondary sense, when grammatical structures are being used in a secondary function, etc. It will involve doing the kind of analysis which this book is all about. The goal of exegesis is to determine the meaning which is to be communicated in the receptor language text. The translator carefully studies the source language text and using all the available tools, determines the content of the source language message, the related communication situation matters, and all other factors which will need to be understood in order to produce an equivalent translation. 3. Transfer and initial draft After a careful analysis of the source language text, as indicated above, the translator begins drafting piece by piece, section by section. The transfer results in the initial draft. In preparing this draft, the translator is transferring from the source language into the receptor language. As he does so, he must always keep his target audience in mind. Before any extensive drafting can be done, the key terms must be determined. Every text has a set of words which re crucial to the content and correct communication of the theme. These need to be decided upon and may need to be checked with other speakers of the receptor language. There are two ways of approaching the transfer and initial draft. Some translators prefer to do a quick rough translation so that the material flows naturally. Then they go back and tighten up the details to be sure that there is no wrong information, and no omissions or additions. In this way, the receptor language text is more apt to be in the natural style of the receptor language. Others prefer to prepare a proposition-like semantic draft, being sure that all the information all the information is accounted for, and then reword it for naturalness; that is,


23 reword it in the idiomatic form of the receptor language. Either method will lead to an idiomatic translation if careful work is done. It may be necessary to rework the initial draft several times before the team is satisfied that all the adjustments needed have been made, that no information is wrong or omitted, that the text communicates clearly in the receptor language, and that the form chosen will communicate to the desired audience. While making and reworking this draft, the audience must always be kept in mind. Once the translation team has sufficiently reworked the initial draft, they arrange for copies to be made so that adequate evaluation. 4. Evaluation The purpose of evaluation is threefold: accuracy, clearness, and naturalness. The questions to be answer are: 1. Does the translation communicate the same meaning as the source language? 2. Does the audience for whom the translation is intended understand it clearly? 3. Is the form of the translation easy to read and natural receptor language grammar and style? Those helping with the evaluation should be mother-tongue speakers of the receptor language. There are a number of kinds of evaluations which need to be done. The translator will want to compare the translation with the source text at several points during the translation process to be sure no additions, deletions or change of in formation have crept in . Others may help with this work. It is especially advantageous to have a consultant check over the material. The translator will want to have receptor language speakers read the text and then tell back what the text communicated to them. As they read, there will be parts that are hard to read or hard to understand. Any time there is an indication of a problem in reading , this should be noted for further checking . Another way to check is by asking questions of those who read the text , or to whom it is read. Questions need to be carefully formed so that they bring out the theme, the authorâ€&#x;s purpose , and the relevant facts of the text. Any wrong understanding should be noted and then checked with others as well. It is best to have someone who has not worked on the translation, but know both the source language and receptor language, translate back from the receptor language into the source language without the reference to the original source language text. Does the back translation carry the same information as the original source language text? Any difference will need to be checked further. It is very important that sufficient time and effort be given to evaluation. If many of the people who will eventually be using the receptor language text can be involved in the evaluation process, this will also create interest in the translated material when it is finally published.

5. Revised After evaluation is done carefully, there will need to be a revised draft made on the basis of the feedback received. Those with whom the translator has checked may have suggested many rewordings, may have expressed misunderstanding, etc. The translation team now works through this material , honestly accepting the evaluation , and rewording the material accordingly. If any key words are changed, the text will need to be checked carefully for consistency in the change made. If some parts were hard for people to read, they may need to be made easier by more redundancy( or less redundancy in another language), by adding more information to clarify participants or theme or whatever. How much re-drafting will be needed will vary depending on the results of the evaluation.

6. Consultation


24 In many translation projects, there are advisors or consultants who are willing to help the translator. The translator(s) will expect that the consultant is interested in three matters:1.accuracy of content 2. naturalness of style, and 3. effect on the receptor language audience. It is important that translators check their materials with a trained consultant after completing a section or two of a long document. If they continue , and do large amounts of translation work without this kind of a check, they will miss out on the training which a consultant can give as they go over the material together. Asking a consultant to work through the material with him will give the translator insights which will not only help his final draft of the material being worked on, but will help him do better transfer drafts on the sections of the document remaining to be done.

7. Final draft The translator incorporates into the translated text the suggestions made by the consultant, checks them again with mother-tongue speakers to be sure they are warranted, and makes any other minor changes which have come to his attention. However, before he prepares the final draft, decisions about format need to be discussed with the whole translation team, the consultant, the potential publisher and those who will promote distribution. Some matters may need special testing before the final draft is prepared. If the publication is to include pictures, these will need evaluation. If a special size of print is being recommended, it will need to be tested. A final editing for spelling and punctuation will need to be made. When all matters are cared for, a number of copies should be prepared and distributed for proofreading by various people before the actual printing takes place. Every translator wants his final copy to be as accurate as possible. The time spent in careful checking and preparation of the final draft will improve quality and will make the translation more acceptable to the audience for whom it is being prepared.

8. Notes Target:

®äc gi¶

Target language audience:

ng-êi ®äc b¶n dÞch

Dialect:

ph-¬ng ng÷

Educational level:

tr×nh ®é häc vÊn

Bilingualism: To come into focus:

song ng÷ chó ý/ tËp trung

Co-translator:

ng-êi cïng dÞch

Specialist:

chuyªn gia

Tools:

tµi liÖu tham kh¶o khi dÞch

Lexicon:

tù ®iÓn tõ vùng

Exegesis:

hiÓu nghÜa v¨n b¶n tr-íc khi dÞch

Initial draft:

b¶n th¶o ®Çu tiªn

Revised draft:

b¶n th¶o ®· d-îc hiÖu ®Ýnh


25

9. Self-study 9.1 Questions for discussion 1. Name and discuss the four T‟s of a translation project. 2. Explain what is meant by exegesis. 3. What are the goals of the translator as he prepares the initial draft? 4. What is the purpose of the evaluation? 5. What kinds of evaluation checks can be made? 6. What is the consultant concerned about when he checks a translation? 7. How will the final draft be different from the revision draft done earlier? 8. How is the revision draft different from the initial draft? 9.2 Exercises A. Read the English text and answer the questions.

DEFORESTATION Population growth is one factor in rainforest destruction. However, it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. The majority of deforestation in Latin America, South-east Asia and the Pacific is caused by clearing land to grow cash crops for export and by commercial logging operations, and not by „shifting‟ cultivators or landless peasants. Each year commercial logging eliminates 45000 square kilometers of forest, much of the timber being exported to the United States and Japan. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil, where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. These heavy payments, which affect the poor the most, have arisen largely from external loans taken out to finance the purchase of luxury items and arms by military and governing elite. The establishment of large ranch-style cattle grazing properties is the principal reason for the elimination of 20000 square kilometers of rainforest each year in Central or South America. The cleared land is mainly devoted to the export of beef for the fast-food industries in North America, Europe and Japan- the aptly named „hamburger connection‟. 1. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. What is the text about? 3. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? 4. Do you have any difficulty in finding the Vietnamese meaning of the English words : subsistence agriculture, cash crops, commercial logging operations, shifting cultivators, landless peasants, affluent society, external debt payment, military and governing elites, ranch-style cattle grazing property, hamburger connection ? 5. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent Vietnamese structures of the following English sentences? a. However, it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor.


26 b. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil, where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. 6. Translate the text into Vietnamese. B. Read the Vietnamese text and answer the questions.

NON N¦íC Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n-íc s«ng Hång, S«ng §µ, S«ng Cöu Long vµ tõng sèng chÕt víi s«ng n-íc nµy. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh- tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. ë ViÖt Nam th× ‘‘n-íc’’( trong s«ng, hå, biÓn.) l¹i ®ång nghÜa, ®ång ©m víi ‘‘n-íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h-¬ng. S«ng n-íc vµ con ng-êi ë ®©y kÕt hîp víi thiªn nhiªn vµ lÞch sö nh- mét khèi bÊt tö bÊt diÖt bëi mét thø xi m¨ng tr-êng tån. §ã lµ lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi cña d©n téc ViÖt Nam. Trªn thÕ giíi, cã nhiÒu quèc gia tõ tØnh nä sang tØnh kia nãi lµ kh«ng hiÓu nhau råi. Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam, dï bÊt kú ë ®©u, ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c, hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. 1. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. What is the text about? 3. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? 4. Do you have any difficulty in finding the English meaning of the Vietnamese words : cha «ng, sèng chÕt, sù thèng nhÊt, kÕt hîp chÆt chÏ, xi m¨ng tr-êng tån, lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi, hiÓu nhau? 5. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent English structures of the following Vietnamese sentences? a. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh- tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. b.Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam, dï bÊt kú ë ®©u, ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c, hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. 6. Translate the text into English.


27

LESSON 4:

STRATEGIES FOR TRANSLATORS

The following strategies have been suggested by translators, commissioners of translations, and others involved in translating as ways to approach difficulties in translations from English into Vietnamese.

1. STRATEGY 1 : How to deal with non-equivalence at lexical level It is often the case that no direct equivalents can be found in Vietnamese for English words. It may be that the concept or idea is new to Vietnamese translators, as in the case of „gender‟, which is, in fact, a relatively new concept in general, and a very difficult concept to understand and explain in many languages. It may also be that the concept is known or understood but there is no specific word in Vietnamese used to express it. Another difficulty is that, in addition to their concrete meaning, some words have special connotations that are not conveyed by the Vietnamese word for the same thing. The strategies listed below can be used to handle cases of non-equivalence. 1.1 Translating by a more specific word In some cases, it may be appropriate or necessary to use a more specific word to translate an English word into Vietnamese. This usually involves choosing among several different words, as there may be many Vietnamese words that correspond to the general category or meaning expressed by English word. For instance, Vietnamese has many words that mean “ to carry” with distinction being made depending on the size and shape of the object; its animate ( e.g. a child as opposed to a box); and how it is carried (e.g. in the hand, or in the arms...). Similarly, the English word for “rice” can be translated by many different Vietnamese words, depending on whether one is planting it, harvesting it, cooking it, or eating it. In these cases, the English word alone is not enough to determine the appropriate Vietnamese translation, and it is necessary to examine the English context. 1.2 Translating by a more general word In other cases, it may be appropriate to use a more general word to translate an English word with no specific Vietnamese equivalent. For example, English makes distinctions among mopeds, scooters, and motorcycles, the latter having larger wheels and engines than both mopeds and scooters. Vietnamese, on the one hand, refers to all two-wheel, motorized vehicles as ‘‘ xe m¸y’’. Similarly, the English words “paw”, “foot”, or “leg” may all be translated by the Vietnamese word ‘‘ch©n’’, which does not suggest any problems of comprehension in Vietnamese, as it should be clear from the context which of these words is meant. Another example can be found in a manual on community development, which translates the word “matrix” by the Vietnamese word ‘‘ma trËn’’. However, in Vietnamese, ‘‘ma trËn’’ has a specific use in mathematics only, and does not have the additional sense of a model or a plan according to which something is developed. In this example, “matrix” is better translated ‘‘b¶n’’, which is a more general word used to classify a written plan or formula. 1.3 Translating by cultural substitution This strategy involves replacing a culture-specific item or expression with one of the different meanings but similar impact in the translated text. Because of their self-described “respect”


28 for the original text, most Vietnamese translators object to this strategy and tend to translate directly, even though it is in appropriate. For example, a farmer‟s manual that has been translated into Vietnamese suggests the planting of different types of fruit trees which are not even grown in Vietnam. The original manual, which was developed in other parts in Asia, was not modified at all for the Vietnamese context. Though some translators argue that it is not the responsibility of the translator to chance the text in this way, the translator is in fact playing an important role in this task. Translators should be encouraged to consider the appropriateness of the documents they are translating and suggest changes to make them more culturally appropriate. However, this is not only the burden of the translator, but also of the commissioners of the translation and the editor. 1.4 Translating by using a loan word plus explanation There is some objection to this strategy in Vietnam, as many translator prefer to coin new words in Vietnamese rather than borrow English words. However, this strategy is very useful when the translator deal with concepts or ideas that are new to Vietnamese audience, culturespecific items, and proper names of diseases or medicines that are widely known in English names. For instance, HIV and AIDS are two loan words that are frequently used in Vietnamese, as they are referred to by their English names in almost every part of the world. Because these words have been in common used in Vietnam for a long time, they are often used without any accompanying explanation. Whenever a loan word is used , it is better to give an explanation. Another example is the acronym for oral dehydration salts, or ORS, which is printed on every package and hence easily recognized; this is normally written in English with an explanation in Vietnamese : ORS (muèi bï mÊt n-íc) 1.5 Translating by using a paraphrase This strategy can be used when we translate an English word or concept that does not exist in Vietnamese, or when the Vietnamese term for it does not include all the meanings conveyed by the English term for the same concept. For example, in the sentence: “ Pregnant women should avoid alcohol.”, the English „alcohol‟ includes all alcoholic drinks in its meaning. The Vietnamese word ‘r­îu’ does not include beer in its definition, so the Vietnamese translation should add the word beer to reflect the full meaning of the source language sentence. Another example is that the English words „abuse‟ and „neglect‟ signify a whole range of behaviors, some of which are not conveyed by the Vietnamese words alone. As a result, the English sentence: “Children should be protected from abuse and neglect.” cannot be translated as simply as ‘‘trÎ em nªn ®-îc b¶o vÖ khái sù l¹m dông vµ l¬ lµ.’’. This translation does not account for their full meaning , which must be unpacked for better understanding. This can be done by paraphrasing as a translator has attempted in the following translation: ‘‘trÎ em cÇn b¶o vÖ chèng l¹i mäi h×nh thøc b¹o lùc, g©y tæn th-¬ng hay xóc ph¹m, bá mÆc hoÆc xao nh·ng trong viÖc ch¨m sãc’’. Back translated roughly into English, this sentence reads, : “Children must be protected from all forms of violence causing harm or offense, and from abandonment and negligence in their care.” 1.6 Translating by omission Though some translators may reject this strategy as too drastic, it is sometimes appropriate to omit words or phrases that are not essential to the meaning or impact of the text. This is especially true for words that would require lengthy explanations, awkward paraphrases, or literal and unnatural translations, which would interrupt the flow of the text and could distract


29 the reader from the overall meaning. For example, the sentence “ Much can be done even without being physically present in the meeting.” is best translated into Vietnamese by, ‘‘ nhiÒu viÖc cã thÓ lµm ngµy c¶ khi kh«ng cã mÆt t¹i cuéc häp’’ which omit the word “physically” in the translation. The difference in meaning between “ being physically present” and being present” is so minimal that it does not justify translation into Vietnamese, which cannot easily express the slight emphasis implied here by the author, and would not do so by emphasizing the physicality of a person‟s presence.

STRATEGY 2 : How to deal with idioms and set expressions Idioms and set expressions can be dealt with in the ways similar to those mentioned above. With idioms, however, there is another difficulty that the translator may not realize that s/he is dealing with an idiomatic expression, since more idioms may make sense when translated literally. 2.1 Using an idiom or a set expression of similar meaning and form It is sometimes possible to find a Vietnamese idiom or expression with a similar meaning to an English idiom or expression, and which is expressed in the same way. One example is the idiom “ to fight like cats and dogs”, which is expressed using the same words in Vietnamese: ‘‘ c·i nhau nh- chã víi mÌo.’’; another is “ Better than never.”, which is translated : ‘‘Thµ muén cßn h¬n kh«ng ®Õn’’. It is ideal if such a match can be found, but this kind of correspondence is not common, and it is usually necessary to use other strategies in dealing with idioms and set expressions. 2.2 Using an idiom or a set expression of similar meaning but different form It is possible and easy to find a Vietnamese idiom with a similar meaning for an English idiom or set expression. A good example can be found is the translation for to carry coals to Newcastle”: ‘‘Chë cñi vÒ rõng." ,which is translated as “ to carry firewood to the forest.” The meaning here is clearly the same for both idioms- to bring something to a place that has an abundance of that thing- but the way in which each language expresses is bound to be the culture of that language. It is far more cumbersome to translate this idiom literally into Vietnamese with an explanation that Newcastle is a well-known coal-producing city in England (as was suggested by some Vietnamese translators), which would unduly interrupt the flow of the text and greatly diminish the idiom‟s impact. By substituting a similar Vietnamese idiom, then, the flow and the impact of the source text are retained in the translation. 2.3 Translating by paraphrasing When Vietnamese equivalents cannot be found, paraphrasing may be the best way to deal with an idiom or set expression in English. A good example can be found in an article on maternal mortality, which includes the sentence, “ But before the new estimates replace the old as a way of packaging up the problem, it should be said that a mistake has been made in allowing statistics such as these to slip into easy language. The expression “packaging up the problem” caused the problems in translation, as it was misinterpreted to mean “assembling” or “gathering”. However, even if this phrase were clearly understood, it would be difficult to find a precise equivalent in Vietnamese. In fact, it would be difficult to restate concisely in English. This phrase is best dealt with by paraphrasing, which in English could be understood as something like “summing up the problem by referring to it simply as a number, which does


30 not reflect its true magnitude or impact.” The expression “to slip into easy usage” is problematic for the same reasons, and is also best dealt with by paraphrasing, as a literal translation into Vietnamese would be meaningless. 2.4 Translating by omission This strategy could be used when we translate words or phrases that would require lengthy explanations, awkward paraphrases, or literal and unnatural translation. This strategy has also be used when we translate phases which has two meanings one of the meanings may be sacrificed for the other. For instance, a book entitled “ Being Positive-Living with HIV/AIDS” causes problems in translate because of the double meaning of “ being positive”. The meaning of the phrase could be that a person is suffering from positive HIV and that s/he should have an optimistic outlook on life. This may be clear to the translator , who may interpret the phrase to mean that this book is for and about people who are HIV positive. However, the double meaning should be made clear through collaboration with the commissioner, after which a choice must be made between the two meanings, for it would not be possible to translate both meanings by one Vietnamese phrase. As the emphasis is on positive outlook on life but not on the fact of being HIV positive, one translator has suggested the translation: ‘‘H·y Sèng Yªu §êi Dï NhiÔm HIV’’. This translation expresses the notion of being positive about life without mentioning anything about being HIV positive status.

STRATEGY 3 : How to deal with voice, number and person 2.1 Voice The passive voice is used very often in English and poses some problems in Vietnamese translation. Passive voice can be translated from English into Vietnamese in the following ways: a. English : Vietnamese:

A is/was/has been done by B (i)

A ®-îc+ ®éng tõ+(bëi B) A ®-îc/do+(B)+®éng tõ (ii)

A bÞ +®éng tõ + bëi B

A bÞ +(B) + ®éng tõ Example: This house was built by Frank in 1930 Ng«I nhµ nµy do Frank x©y n¨m 1930

Tom is given a present by Mary Tom ®-îc Mary tÆng mét mãn quµ


31

Tom was attacked by a stranger last night Tom bÞ mét kÎ l¹ mÆt tÊn c«ng tèi h«m qua

b.English :

A is/was/has been done.

Vietnamese:

(i) (ii)

A ®-îc+ ®éng tõ A bÞ+ ®éng tõ

(iii)

Ng-êi ta/ai ®ã + ®éng tõ + A

Example: Tom has been promoted recently. Tom míi ®-îc ®Ì b¹t gÇn ®©y. The CD has been broken. ChiÕc ®Üa CD ®· bÞ vì/ Ai ®ã ®· lµm vì chiÕc ®Üa CD. The positive and negative connotation is not often conveyed in English, so it is difficult to know what way used to translate into Vietnamese. Example:

The children were given injections.

Vietnamese translation : ‘‘C¸c ch¸u ®-îc tiªm.’’, or ‘‘C¸c ch¸u bÞ tiªm.’’ depending on whether the receiving injection is considered a positive or negative experience. On the other hand, when the positive or negative connotation of the sentence is clear it is more appropriate to retain the passive voice in Vietnamese. Example:

The H‟Mong people do not like to be called Meo. They prefer to be called H‟Mong.

Vietnamese: MÌo. Hä

Ng-êi d©n téc H¬ M«ng kh«ng thÝch bÞ gäi lµ d©n

téc

thÝch ®-îc gäi lµ d©n téc H¬ M«ng.

In Vietnamese, there are some cases where one can see the words ®-îc/bÞ but they are not translated into English passive sentences at all. Example: - Anh Êy bÞ ng·. : - ChÞ Lan bÞ ho.

:

He fell. Lan has a cough.

- H«m nay chóng ta ®-îc ®¸nh chÐn no nª.


32 We had and enormous meal today. 2.2 Number Though both languages have similar notions of number and countability, each language has its own way to express these notions. In English, number is expressed as a grammar category; that is, there are different grammatical forms for singular and plural nouns. In Vietnamese, however, no such distinction is grammatically made. Example : Phô n÷: can mean either woman or women

In Vietnamese, some plural markers such as ‘‘c¸c’’, ‘‘nh÷ng’’, tÊt c¶’’, ‘‘mäi" ,’’mçi’’ can be used in addition to the noun. ‘‘c¸c’’ generally means all of the given category of things, whereas ‘‘nh÷ng’’ refers only to some of the total number of things being discussed. ‘‘Mçi’’ emphasizes the identity of the individual member of the category without indicating anything of their totality; ‘‘mäi’’ expresses both the individuality of the items and the totality of the category. If it is clear from the English context which of these plural markers should be used in the Vietnamese, then the translator should choose accordingly. 2.3 Person Participants‟ roles and forms of address are expressed in Vietnamese through a very complicated system of personal pronouns based largely on kinship terms. Unlike English pronouns, Vietnamese pronouns bear a number of semantic components depending on the relationship within a family, age, sex, familiarity, social status, and even one‟s particular mood or attitude in a given situation. These distinctions are not always explicitly expressed in English and can usually be determined by the context in which the language operates. If it is not possible to determine the distinctions of the English pronouns, the attention should be focused on the tone and the overall purpose of the text to be translated. Example: A book on health-care contains many sections written especially for children and adults. In the sections for children the pronoun “you” is translated as “em” or ‘‘c¸c em’’. In the sections for adults, “you” should be translated as ‘‘chóng ta’’ .

4. STRATEGY 4 : How to deal with non-subject sentences ( Vietnamese- English translation) The following techniques could be used to translate the non-subject sentences in Vietnamese texts: 4.1. Passive voice 4.2. It + to be + Adj + to infinitive 4.3. There + to be... 4.4. Use the subject that is found in the previous sentence(s) Example: CÇn ®¶y m¹nh c«ng nghiÖp hãa, hiÖn ®¹i hãa.


33 Industrialization

and

modernization

should

be

industrialization

and

promoted. Or: It is modernization

necessary

to

promote

VÉn ch-a cã c¸ch ch÷a khái bÖnh AIDS. There has been no cure for AIDS.

5. STRATEGY 5 : How to deal with newspaper headlines Some main follows.

characteristics

of

newspaper

headlines

are

as

5.1. Present tense = past events 5.2. Present participle = event

in progress

5.3. To infinitive = future events 5.4. Past participle = passive voice 5.5. Nouns 5.6. Verb + noun Example: 1. Chinese Professors Turn To Business C¸c gi¸o s- Trung Quèc chuyÓn sang kinh doanh 2. US President Visiting Vietnam Tæng thèng Hoa Kú ®ang th¨m ViÖt Nam 3. Oil Price To Rise? Gi¸ dÇu sÏ t¨ng 4.

Three More Investment Projects Licensed This Year

Thªm ba dù ¸n ®Çu t- n÷a ®-îc cÊp giÊy phÐp trong n¨m nay 5.

Investment Boom

Bïng næ ®Çu t6.

See You In Court HÑn gÆp t¹i tßa

LESSON 5:

PATTERNS AND SOURCES OF ERRORS MADE BY VIETNAMESE TRANSLATORS

What is mother tongue interference in translation? In the narrow definition, interference in translation takes place when apparently, any feature of the source language – notably a syntactic structure, a lexical item, and idiom, a metaphor,


34 word order or culture is carried over or literally translated as the case may be into the target language(TL) text. In a wider definition, interference includes cases when sentence length, punctuation, proper names, culture words are evidently transferred in the translation in fact all cases where the language of the translation is manifestly affected whether appropriately or not by the language of the original. When the mother tongue interference is an error, a “false friend”, a sign of the translator‟s ignorance, a mark of the effect of the source language (SL) or the SL culture, it can be categorized as follows.

1. LINGUISTIC ERRORS The linguistic errors can be divided into the following groups:


35

1.1 Lexical Errors Lexical interference traps are common enough but more invidious are innocent looking collocations which appear to make sense until one asks oneself what they mean in particular context. E.g. in English “ to cook an account” translated as ‘‘nÊu sæ s¸ch’’ is meanigless and it must be translated as ‘‘gi¶ m¹o sæ s¸ch’’. Lexical interference is very dangerous because it can distort the meaning of a sentence. 1.1.1 Context The context itself determines the meaning of words. Therefore, their meaning should be solved in the context. It is commonly known that a word may have equivalents and accordingly the analysis of its meaning has to be made carefully in order to pick out the most appropriate word. There are many ways of translating of some nouns related to professions, classes, fields in society. For example, in a text written about Buddhism in which there are two words “clergy” and “death”. Some translated transferred “clergy” as ‘‘gi¸o sÜ’’ and “death” as ‘‘c¸i chÕt’’ for Buddha. It sounds strange and funny. In fact, “clergy” translated as ‘‘gi¸o sÜ’’ for Catholicism but ‘‘giíi t¨ng ®å’’ for Buddhism. The word “death” is normally translated as ‘‘c¸i chÕt’’ but ‘‘vua b¨ng hµ’’ in “King‟s death” and as for Buddhism this word should be translated as ‘‘viªn tÞch’’. When translators are asked to translate these sentences into English a. Kha Lu©n Bè ®· t×m ra T©n thÕ giíi vµo n¨m 1842. b. T«i ®ang t×m cuèn s¸ch. c. Michael Faraday ®· t×m ra m¸y ph¸t ®iÖn. Obviously, there are many equivalents in English for the word ‘‘t×m’’ such as “seek”, “look for”, “search for”, “find”, “find out”. In addition, there are two more words related to this meaning: “to invent” and “ to discover”. However, in sentence (1) the word ‘‘t×m’’ has an equivalent in English as “discover”. In sentence (2) the word ‘‘t×m’’ is understood as “look for”, search for” or “seek”. In sentence (3) the word ‘‘t×m’’ has an equivalent as “invent”. The three above-mentioned sentences can be translated as follows. 1. The New World was discovered by Christopher. 2. I am looking for my book. 3. Michael Faraday invented the generator. It is characteristic of word that a single lexical item may have several meanings. For example, the word “ head” in isolation means something like” the upper part of the body”. But the same word used in the context of talking about a company or an organization has nothing to do with the human body though the idea of the upper position of something still remains. Example: 1. He is the former head of the Chemistry Section of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. ( leader) 2. Although he is the head of the company, he has no head. ( leader-intelligence)


36 The following examples show that the translators do not treat words in context but rely on the meaning in dictionary: 1. “In 1999, some major commodities were stockpiled because of poor quality.” It is not accurate at all when “stockpiled” was translated ‘‘l-u tr÷’’. In fact, due to poor quality, major commodities were not sold out leading to stockpile. Therefore, the sentence should be translated as ‘‘ N¨m 1999 mét sè mÆt hµng chñ yÕu bÞ tån kho do chÊt l-îng kÐm.’’ 2. “The Prime Minister has also assigned relevant agencies to formulate a law on industrial zones to provide a complete legal background/frame for the operation of Izs and EPZs in Vietnam.” was translated ‘‘Thñ t-íng ®· bæ nhiÖm nh÷ng chÝnh s¸ch thÝch hîp ®Ó ®-a ra luËt vÒ khu c«ng nghiÖp ®Ó cung cÊp mét bèi c¶nh hoµn toµn hîp ph¸p cho c¸c ho¹t ®éng cña khu c«ng nghiÖp, khu chÕ xuÊt ViÖt Nam. ’’. This translation is quite vague in Vietnamese. In fact, a word in source language has many equivalents in target language. The word “ assign” is equivalent with ‘‘ph©n c«ng/ bæ nhiÖm’’; “ relevant with ‘‘thÝch ®¸ng, thÝch hîp, cã liªn quan’’; ‘‘ agency’’ with ‘‘ ®¹i lý, c¬ quan, chi nh¸nh’’; “foundation’’ ‘‘nÒn mãng, nÒn t¶ng, c¬ së’’. For this reason, in this context it should be chosen the most appropriate equivalents to create an idiomatic translation: ‘‘ Thñ t-íng ®· giao cho c¸c c¬ quan cã liªn quan ban hµnh bé luËt vÒ khu c«ng nghiÖp nh»m cung cÊp mét sè c¬ së ph¸p lý hoµn chØnh cho viÖc ho¹t ®éng cña khu c«ng nghiÖp vµ khu chÕ xuÊt ë ViÖt Nam.’’ In brief, the translators have a habit of translating literally and depending largely on the meaning in dictionary due to the mother-tongue interference. In order to avoid committing errors of context, words should be solved in context and the analysis of their meaning has to be made carefully to pick out the most appropriate equivalent. 1.1.2 Word collocation Word collocation consists of the associations a word acquires on account of the meanings of words which tend to occur in its environment. Each of language has its own principle in word collocation. For example, the word “ pretty” often goes with girls and women, while the word “handsome” often goes with boys or men. Some translators do not realize this, which leads to wrong and funny collocation. For instance, in Vietnamese the word ‘‘uèng’’ (drink) can go with many different kinds of liquid including water, beer, alcohol, medicine and even poison. However, in English these are clear distinction as follows: Drink beer/ water/ wine/ coffee. Take medicine/ poison. Another example indicates that in Vietnamese the word ‘‘nãi’’ (say) can be collocated with ‘‘lêi t¹m biÖt’’ “goodbye”, ‘‘lêi chµo hái’’ “hello”, ‘‘dèi’’ “a lie”, ‘‘sù thËt’’ “ the truth”, ‘‘tiÕng Ph¸p’’ “French”. However, in English it is quite different. Say hello/ goodbye/ yes/ no. Tell a lie/ the truth/ a story.


37 Speak English/ French/ Chinese. In Vietnamese, the word ‘‘®µn’’ can be collocated with many different nouns such as ‘‘c¸’’(fish) “chim” ( bird), ‘‘s- tö’’ (lion), ‘‘gia sóc’’ (cattle). On the contrary, in English there are many words meaning ‘‘®µn’’ as follows. A flock of birds/ sheep: §µn chim/ cõu A herd of cattle/ buffaloes: §µn gia sóc/ tr©u A pack of dogs/ calves: §µn chã/ bª A school of fish/ chickens: §µn c¸/ gµ A pride of lions/ deer : §µn s- tö/ nai Similarly, the word “decision” can be collocated with many word such as “to make/ to reach/ to arrive at/ to come to... a decision”. The following examples show the wrong collocations of some translators: 1. ChÝnh phñ ®· tiÕn thùc hiÖn nhiÒu biÖn ph¸p nh»m ng¨n chÆn viÖc bu«n lËu ma tóy. (The government has made many measures to stop the drug smuggling.) 2. Chóng t«i ph¶i hoµn thµnh nhiÖm vô tr-íc khi tæ kiÓm tra chÊt l-îng s¶n phÈm. ( We have to complete our duty before the investigators control the product quality.) 3. Sau khi nghiªn cøu thÞ tr-êng, chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®-a ra thÞ tr-êng mét s¶n phÈm g©y Ên t-îng cã søc c¹nh tranh víi hµng ngo¹i nhËp. (After making a market research, we decided to launch an impressive product which can compete against the imported ones.) 4. Tõ khi Mü bá lÖnh cÊm vËn ViÑt Nam, nhiÒu n-íc trªn thÕ giíi ®x ®Çu t- vµo c¸c lÜnh vùc kh¸c nhau. (Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam many foreign countries have been investing in many different fields.) It is the mother tongue interference that leads to the mechanic collocation which is unacceptable in target language. In fact, each language has its own principles of word collocation. Neither English nor Vietnamese is an exception. As a result, the above-mentioned examples should be translated more accurately and idiomatically as follows. 1. “The government has made many measures to stop the drug smuggling.” should be corrected as “The government has taken many measures to stop the drug smuggling.” 2. “We have to complete our duty before the investigators control the product quality.” should be corrected “We have to fulfill our duty before the investigators control the product quality.”


38 3. “After making a market research, we decided to launch an impressive product which can compete against the imported ones.” should be corrected “After doing a market research, we decided to launch an impressive product which can compete against the imported ones.” 4. “Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam many foreign countries have been investing in many different fields.” should be corrected “Since the USA lifted the embargo against Vietnam many foreign countries have been investing in many different fields.” In a word, it is inevitable for the translators to obey the principles of English and Vietnamese word collocations. In order to avoid this type of errors, the translator should read as many English books and magazines to take notes of collocated words under the English standard. 1.1.3 Misuse of personal pronouns and prepositions In Vietnamese, there are many ways to express the thoughts and feelings or attitude which differ from those in English. The social status, age, sex, and the family order are distinguished clearly and systematically. This is reflected in a distinguished clearly and systematically. This is reflected in a number of words for addressing such as ‘‘cô, «ng, bµ, b¸c, c«, chó, thÝm, d×, d-îng, cËu, anh, chÞ, ngµi, quÝ vÞ, mµy, em, ..’’ such words are generally expressed by English people in one word “you”. The following examples show clearly that the translator sometimes do not master the relationship between the speaker and the hearer leading to a funny translation. A mother was taking care of her child in hospital. She said: “ I love you very much, dear.” Which was translated as ‘‘ Em yªu anh l¾m , c-ng µ.’’ instead of ‘‘ MÑ yªu con l¾m, c-ng µ.’’ In Vietnamese, each preposition has a fixed meaning which does not change regardless of the noun, adjective or verb proceeding it. On the contrary, the meaning of a preposition in English depends on its preceding word. This difference leads to errors in using prepositions of TL. For example, the Vietnamese preposition ‘‘vÒ’’ can be expressed by different prepositions in English: a talk on history :

mét cuéc nãi chuyÖn vÒ lÞch sö

be disappointed in :

thÊt väng vÒ

be interested in :

quan t©m vÒ

lay emphasis/ stress on :

nhÊn m¹nh vÒ

be worried about :

lo l¾ng vÒ

be proud of/ take pride in :

tù hµo vÒ

be famous for :

næi tiÕng vÒ

instead of “disappointed about”, “ proud about”, “famous about” as the translator may use. These are the typical errors made by the translators: 1. “According to Mr Thien, his plant currently produces lubricants under the API (American Petroleum Institute) standards” (Theo «ng ThiÖn th× hiÖn nay nhµ m¸y cña «ng ®ang s¶n xuÊt dÇu nhên d-íi tiªu chuÈn cña


39 ViÖn x¨ng dÇu Mü.) 2. “It is so easy to be misunderstood when talking on the phone.” ( Nãi chuyÖn trªn diÖn tho¹i th× dÔ bÞ hiÓu nhÇm.) 3. ‘‘Tßa ¸n Nh©n D©n quyÕt ®Þnh kÕt ¸n chóng 15 n¨m vÒ téi bu«n lËu ma tóy.’’ (The People‟s Court decided to condemn them to 15 years imprisonment about the drug smuggling.) 4. ‘‘Lµ gi¸o viªn -u tó trong nhiÒu n¨m, «ng Nam cã nhiÒu kinh nghiÖm vÒ viÖc gi¶ng d¹y häc sinh.’’ (As a qualified teacher for many years, Mr.Nam is experienced about educating and teaching the pupils.” 5. ‘‘Chóng t«i thµnh thËt chia buån vÒ viÖc ra ®i cña bè b¹n.’’ (We really condole with you about the loss of your father.” As can be seen from the above-mentioned examples, the translators tended to choose the English prepositions basing on Vietnamese meanings without paying attention to their variations. These errors could be corrected as follows. 1. “According to Mr Thien, his plant currently produces lubricants under the API ( American Petroleum Institute) standards” should be translated (Theo «ng ThiÖn th× hiÖn nay nhµ m¸y cña «ng ®ang s¶n xuÊt dÇu nhên theo tiªu chuÈn cña ViÖn x¨ng dÇu Mü.) 2. “It is so easy to be misunderstood when talking on the phone.” is equivalent with (Nãi chuyÖn qua ®iÖn tho¹i th× dÔ bÞ hiÓu nhÇm.) 3. ‘‘Tßa ¸n Nh©n D©n quyÕt ®Þnh kÕt ¸n chóng 15 n¨m vÒ téi bu«n lËu ma tóy.’’ should be translated (The People‟s Court decided to condemn them to 15 years imprisonment for the drug smuggling.) 4. ‘‘Lµ gi¸o viªn -u tó trong nhiÒu n¨m, «ng Nam cã nhiÒu kinh nghiÖm vÒ viÖc gi¶ng d¹y häc sinh.’’ should be translated (As a qualified teacher for many years, Mr Nam is experienced in educating and teaching the pupils.” 5. ‘‘Chóng t«i thµnh thËt chia buån vÒ viÖc ra ®i cña bè b¹n.’’ should be translated (We really condole with you for the loss of your father.” Due to the mother tongue interference, the translators found themselves in a confusing situation when they use prepositions n English. In order to avoid this type of errors the translators should learn the prepositions going with nouns, adjectives or verbs by heart. If they do not know how to use prepositions exactly, they tend to the Vietnamese ones into English or vice versa. As a result, the translators should be provided with as many structures with


40 prepositions systematically as possible to help them take notes and draw out the formation and rules. 1.1.4 Misuse of synonyms Some translators depend largely on the meaning in dictionary picking out the synonyms without paying much to the context. In fact, the pairs of synonyms share at least one sense in common but do not share all their senses. To some extent, they can hardly substitute for each other. The misuse of synonyms makes the meaning of one of the following sentences unacceptable. “ You have my deep/ profound sympathy.( acceptable) “ The river is deep.”( acceptable) “ The river is very profound.” (unacceptable) Another example shows that some translators do not realize the connotational meaning, which leads to the distorting of the meaning of the sentence. Take “famous’’(næi tiÕng) and “notorious” (khÐt tiÕng) as an example. While “famous” means “well-known/ celebrated”, and therefore contains some features of positive meaning, “notorious” means “well-known” especially for unfavorable reason & negative meaning. The following can be seen as the misuse of the synonyms by some of the inexperienced translators. 1. “CËu bÐ nµy rÊt b-íng bØnh.’’ (This boy is very stubborn/unyielding.) ( right) 2. “Ng-êi ViÖt Nam cã tinh thÇn bÊt khuÊt.’’ (The Vietnamese people are really stubborn.) (wrong) 3. ChÝnh phñ cã kÕ ho¹ch x©y hµng ngµn ng«i nhµ cho ng-êi v« gia c-.’’ (The government plans to build thousands of homes for homeless people.) ( wrong) In Example 1 “stubborn” synonymous to “unyielding” means ‘‘cøng ®Çu/b-íng bØnh’’ in Vietnamese. In Example 2 “stubborn” fails to evoke the features of positive meaning which praises the Vietnamese people on their heroism expressing the speaker‟s admiration. In contrast, it expresses the speaker‟s anger and discontent. In Example 3 “home” and “house” are places where one lives, meaning ‘‘nhµ’’ in Vietnamese. However, in terms of the connotational meaning they are quite different. “House” refers to the building or structure while “home” refers to the atmosphere or feeling found in the house. Example: - There is no place like home. (Ch¼ng cã n¬i ®©u nh- ë nhµ.) - Home is where the heart is. (Nhµ lµ n¬i con tim tró ngô.)


41 Most of the synonyms have the same meaning in certain context. If a translator use synonyms without referring to the context,(s)he can make wrong & funny for his readers. In order to avoid the misuse, the translator should carefully take the synonyms into consideration before using them. In addition, it would be better for the translator to consider the differences of the pairs of synonyms when translating. 1.1.5 Idioms & terminologies The meanings of idioms are not definitely related to grammatical rules or the lexical meaning of each word because they feature the metaphor and figures of speech. For example, “ wet blanket” should be translated ‘‘ng-êi rÇu rÜ’’ instead of “c¸i ch¨n -ít’’ or “to read one‟s palm” translated as ‘‘xem chØ tay’’ instead of ‘‘®äc c¸i g× ë lßng bµn tay’’. In fact, idioms can be translated satisfactorily by considering the context, if not, it is difficult to find the exact meaning. An English idiom must be translated into Vietnamese by an equivalent one. It is very important to be aware that we must not choose the equivalents of every word forming the idiom but we do find the equivalent ways of expression which exist in both languages. If we stick to each word, the meaning becomes strange, unnatural and funny. For instance, “to sell like a hot cake” is usually translated as ‘‘b¸n ®¾t nh- t«m t-¬i.” Instead of ‘‘b¸n nh- b¸nh nãng”. “ There is no time like present.” is usually translated as ‘‘viÖc h«m nay chí ®Ó ngµy mai’’ instead of ‘‘kh«ng cã thêi gian nh- b©y giê’’. “Live and learn” is usually translated as ‘‘cßn sèng cßn häc’’ instead of ‘‘sèng vµ häc’’. The following errors were found in some of the translated texts and should be corrected. 1. “Every time, we have our children‟s birth certificates signed at the local People‟s committee, we have to go though a lot of red tape.” was translated as ‘‘Mçi khi nhê hä ký giÊy khai sinh t¹i ñy ban nh©n d©n ph-êng, chóng t«i ph¶i ®i qua nhiÒu b¨ng ®á.’’ 2. “At first we intended to stay at home. On the second thought, we decided to go out.” was translated as ‘‘Tho¹t ®Çu chóng t«i cã ý ®Þnh ë nhµ. Trong lÇn suy nghÜ thø hai chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®i ra ngoµi.’’ 3. “ She rarely saves her time to do her homework. She often lets the grass grow under her feet.” was translated as ‘‘C« Êy hiÕm khi tiÕt kiÖm thêi gian ®Ó lµm bµi tËp ë nhµ. C« th-êng ®Ó cá mäc d-èi ch©n.’’ The above-mentioned translations could be improved as follows. 1. “Every time, we have our children‟s birth certificates signed at the local People‟s committee, we have to go though a lot of red tape.” should be translated as ‘‘Mçi khi nhê hä ký giÊy khai sinh t¹i ñy ban nh©n d©n ph-êng, chóng t«i ph¶i lµm nhiÒu thñ tôc giÊy tê r-êm rµ.’’ 2. “At first we intended to stay at home. On the second thought, we decided to go out.” should be translated as ‘‘Tho¹t ®Çu chóng t«i cã ý ®Þnh ë nhµ. Sau khi suy ®i tÝnh l¹i, chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®i ra ngoµi.’’


42 3. “She rarely saves her time to do her homework. She often lets the grass grow under her feet.” should be translated as ‘‘C« Êy hiÕm khi tiÕt kiÖm thêi gian ®Ó lµm bµi tËp ë nhµ. C« th-êng ®Ó n-íc ®Õn ch©n míi nh¶y.’’ In addition to this, due to the limited knowledge of social background and some special fields, some translators mistranslated the terminologies causing vagueness, inaccuracy to readers. It is not very easy for some translators to translate the following terminologies if they are not familiar with business texts. - cash flow:

l-u l-îng tiÒn mÆt

- insurance policy:

hîp ®ång b¶o hiÓm

- acknowledgement:

giÊy b¸o cho biÕt ®· nhËn ®-îc

- credit terms:

nh÷ng ®iÒu kho¶n tÝn dông

- hard currency:

®ång tiÒn m¹nh

- marginal: gi¸ b¸n)

biªn tÕ

- total working capital:

tæng sè vèn l-u ®éng

- sales promotion campaign:

chiÕn dÞch khuyÕn m¹i

chªnh lÖch gi÷a gi¸ mua vµ

In conclusion, some inexperienced translators committed the lexical errors mentioned above including those of context, word collocation, prepositions, synonyms and idioms & terminologies. They are committed by those who have little knowledge of both source language(SL) and target language (TG). At the same time, they thought that although English is different from Vietnamese, both languages have a one-to-one correlation of lexical items. In practice, in terms of translation, it can be chosen the only one appropriate equivalent from this into that language. Even more, that equivalent hardly keeps the meaning of the word itself but that of context. In some dictionaries, the authors present series of synonyms of SL in comparison with TL. However, the synonyms are those of the context in which the are operating . Another problem is that some translators did not realize the linking meaning of word units. It is obvious that these units link together to create a larger unit of meaning in a given text to be translated. The linking meaning itself does not exist in separate word units but in the link of the units constituting the whole text. 1.2. Structural Errors Each language has its own division of lexicon into classes such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc. It is not always possible to translate a SL noun with a noun in TL. In English, there is a tendency of using more nominal structures while verbal structures are used more in Vietnamese. Some translators keep the same structures when translating, leading to vagueness in TL texts. For example, “Thank you for your pretty present.” was translated as ‘‘C¸m ¬n anh v× mãn quµ ®¸ng yªu.’’ instead of ‘‘C¸m ¬n anh ®· tÆng em mãn quµ ®¸ng yªu.’’ In addition, there is also a tendency of using more passive constructions in English than in Vietnamese. For instance, “The USA is said to be a powerful country.” was translated as:


43 ‘‘Mü ®-îc nãi lµ mét c-êng quèc.’’ instead of ‘‘Ng-êi ta nãi r»ng Mü lµ mét c-êng quèc.’’ The following examples of structural errors were made by some of translators. 1. The Vietnamese Airlines has coped with difficulties due to the regional financial crisis. ( Hµng kh«ng ViÖt Nam gÆp ph¶i nh÷ng khã kh¨n do cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh vïng trÇm träng.) 2. Schools teach mathematics because of its very important roles. ( Tr-êng häc d¹y to¸n v× tÇm quan träng cña nã.) 3. Thank you for your letter. ( C¸m ¬n l¸ th- cña em.’’ 4. Hue was recognized as the world‟s cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1994. ( HuÕ ®-îc xem lµ di s¶n v¨n hãa thÕ giíi bëi UNESCO vµo n¨m 1994.) 5. I was rewarded with a trip to Nha Trang by my parents after a year of hard work. (T«i ®· ®-îc th-ëng mét chuyÕn ®i ®Õn Nha Trang bëi bè mÑ cña t«i sau mét n¨m lµm viÖc vÊt v¶.) The above-mentioned translations do not sound Vietnamese, lacking the coherence and smoothness, not conveying the desired meaning of the SL sentences. It would be more idiomatic to translate as follows. 1. Do ¶nh h-ëng cña cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh trÇm träng trong khu vùc, nªn H·ng Hµng Kh«ng VN ph¶i ®-¬ng ®Çu víi nh÷ng khã kh¨n. 2. Tr-êng häc d¹y to¸n v× to¸n häc ®ãng vai trß rÊt quan träng. 3. C¶m ¬n em ®· viÕt th- cho em. 4. UNESCO ®· c«ng nhËn HuÕ lµ di s¶n v¨n hãa thÕ giíi vµo n¨m 1994. 5. Sau mét n¨m häc hµnh ch¨m chØ, bè mÑ ®· th-ëng cho t«i mét chuyÕn du lÞch ®Õn thµnh phè Nha Trang.

As can be seen from the examples mentioned above, some translators focused on the structures of SL so much that they fail to convey all the implicit meaning of TL. In fact, it is not necessary to keep the form at all. The most important thing is that the translations must be done on the basis of the TL grammar that is familiar to the readers. This principle suggests that the translator should not depend largely on the structures of the SL but break them , conveying the meaning as much as possible in an appropriate structures in the TL. Another problem is that some translators was not aware of the relationship between form and function of language. It is commonly known that in some languages, on function is expressed by many forms and vice versa. For example, in English the way of giving an advice could be expressed by a number of structures : “Why don‟t you..?”, “You should/ ought to..”, “If I were


44 you, I‟d..”, “You‟d better” or “ I advise you to.”. In addition, some translators did not realize the conversational implicature understood implicitly as follows. 1. What‟s the time? ( Why are you so late?) 2. Are you my teacher? ( You want to teach me.) 3, Why don‟t we go to the cinema? ( a suggestion) 4. Why did you say so? ( You should not have said so) 5. Unless he has done the work to my satisfaction, I will not pay him for this.(If he has not done.) Those sentences should be translated as follows. 1. Cã biÕt mÊy giê råi kh«ng? 2. Mµy ®ßi lµm thÇy cña tao µ? 3. Chóng ta ®i xem phim hÌ? 4. LÏ ra anh kh«ng nªn nãi nh- vËy! 5. NÕu h¾n kh«ng lµm viÖc võa ý t«i , th× ®õng hßng t«i tr¶ l-¬ng cho h¾n.

As mentioned in the previous part, the structural difference between the SL and the TL is likely to make it difficult for the translators. The translators were not aware of dividing or combining the sentences within a text to be translated. If they try to keep the same punctuation of the SL text, the correspondent TL text will have clumsy, run-together, long and complex sentences. It is much better to divide long sentences into short ones aiming at creating coherence, attraction for readers in the translations. These are the translated sentences with their structural errors made by some of inexperienced translators. 1. “The dividing gap between the rich and the poor as well as corruption and social unrest caused by the relocation of people in industrialized areas, have made many people hesitate in further changes.” (Kho¶ng c¸ch lín gi÷a ng-êi giµu vµ ng-êi nghÌo còng nh- sù tham nhòng vµ t×nh tr¹ng bÊt an cña x· héi g©y ra do sù ph©n bè l¹i d©n c- ë c¸c khu c«ng nghiÖp ®· lµm cho nhiÒu ng-êi ph¶i do dù khi chÊp nhËn nh÷ng thay ®æi lín.)

2. “ It is also necessary to invest in increasing capability of battery production establishments to meet the demand for automobile and motorbike manufacturing and assembling in accordance with the localization program.”


45 ( Nã còng rÊt cÇn thiÕt ®Ó ®Çu t- vµo viÖc t¨ng n¨ng suÊt cña nh÷ng c¬ së s¶n xuÊt ¾c qui ®Ó ®¸p øng nhu cÇu d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt vµo viÖc chÕ t¹o « t« vµ xe m¸y phï hîp víi ch-¬ng tr×nh ë trong n-íc.)

3. “It takes much time to deliver goods to remote areas by backward means of transport.” (Nã lÊy nhiÒu thêi gian ®Ó ph©n phèi hµng hãa ®Õn c¸c vïng xa x«i b»ng c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn giao th«ng l¹c hËu.)

All above translated sentences should be corrected as follows. 1. “The dividing gap between the rich and the poor as well as corruption and social unrest caused by the relocation of people in industrialized areas, have made many people hesitate in further changes.” (Sù thay ®æi chç ë t¹i c¸c vïng c«ng nghiÖp hãa ®· lµm cho kho¶ng c¸ch gi÷a ng-ßi giµu vµ ng-êi nghÌo còng nh- sù tham nhòng vµ t×nh tr¹ng bÊt an cña x· héi ngµy cµng lín. ChÝnh ®iÒu nµy ®· lµm cho nhiÒu ng-êi ph¶i miÔn c-ìng nh÷ng thay ®æi lín h¬n n÷a.) 2. “ It is also necessary to invest in increasing capability of battery production establishments to meet the demand for automobile and motorbike manufacturing and assembling in accordance with the localization program.” ( §Çu t- vµo viÖc t¨ng n¨ng suÊt cña nh÷ng c¬ së s¶n xuÊt ¾c qui ®Ó ®¸p øng nhu cÇu d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt vµo viÖc chÕ t¹o « t« vµ xe m¸y phï hîp víi ch-¬ng tr×nh ë trong n-íc lµ rÊt cÇn thiÕt.) 3. “It takes much time to deliver goods to remote areas by backward means of transport.” ( Ph¶i mÊt nhiÒu thêi gian ®Ó ph©n phèi hµng hãa ®Õn c¸c vïng xa x«i b»ng c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn giao th«ng l¹c hËu.)

In order to overcome this type of structural errors, the most effective way for translators is to master the structures of bot languages. It is clear that a translator who is proficient in English cannot help being good at Vietnamese and vice versa.

2. STYLE ERRORS Styles play an important role informal translation and strongly affect the second language meaning. Due to the context, text-type and audience, the levels of language in translation can be different - the informal language used in informal situations ; colloquials used in spoken language; familiar language used among friends, relatives, members in a family; formal


46 language used in formal texts such as speeches in conference, legal documents, business letter & documents, research papers. The examples given below clearly indicate that the same massage could be expressed in different styles.


47

1. Drop me a line.

( informal language )

2. Remember to write me a letter.

( neutral)

3. I look forward to your letter.

( informal language )

4. They can escape from family suprvision.

( formal)

5. Their parents can‟t keep an eye on them. (colloquial) 6. They are completely armed.

( formal)

7. They are armed to teeth.

( colloquial)

Style error is an acute problem to the translators. There are translators did not master the difference when using various styles such as conversational, academic, scientific, literary styles. Many translators failed when coming across the unfamiliar styles due to being unaware of degrees of formality (informal or formal style), usage of vocabulary ( informal, colloquial, formal) These are some style errors taken out from some Vietnamese- English translations. 1. NÕu chóng t«i ®Æt hµng víi sè l-îng lín, liÖu doanh nghiÖp anh cã b¸n víi gi¸ rÎ kh«ng? (If we place substantial orders, can your enterprise get us with soft price?) It is impossible to use informal style in a business letter. Instead of using “soft price” , the translator should use “cheaper price”. 2. Thêi tiÕt ë HuÕ kh«ng thÝch hîp cho ng-êi giµ. Mïa hÌ trêi nãng nh- thiªu ®èt, trong khi mïa ®«ng l¹nh ®Õn x-¬ng tñy. (The weather in Hue is favorable for the old. It is burning hot in summer while it chills to the bones in winter.) It is impossible to use informal style to tanslate a formal text. Instead of using “burning hot” , the translator should use “exceedingly hot”.

3. CULTURAL ERRORS Culture could be understood as the total set of beliefs, attitude, customs, behaviour, social habits etc. of the member of a particular society. In the broad sense, it includes mode of production, production activities, community organization, spiritural life, knowledge of nature and society, emotions, and moral conceptions. Language is regarded as both a component of a culture and network through which other elements of culture operate. Language , therefore uses almost all other cultural elements so as to perfect its universal and self-sufficient nature. It could be said that we will not translate from this to that language perfectly unless we know its relation to its culture. It is common ly known that “ao dai” is a traditional costume of the Vietnamese women and we never find an equivalent word in English to translate “ao dai”. However, some translators translated mechanically “ ao dai” into “ a dress”. How funny it is! It would be preferredcto


48 writing down “ao dai” to express the cultural feature to making foreign people misunderstand “ao dai” as”a dress”. * ‘‘ Trang phôc truyÒn thèng cña ng-êi phô n÷ ViÖt Nam lµ chiÕc ¸o dµi t-îng tr-ng cho sù duyªn d¸ng.’’ should be translated as “ The traditional costume of the Vietnamese women is ‘‘ao dai’’ which symbolises the grace. Translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions." As this statement implies, translators are permanently faced with the problem of how to treat the cultural aspects implicit in a source text (ST) and of finding the most appropriate technique of successfully conveying these aspects in the target language (TL). These problems may vary in scope depending on the cultural and linguistic gap between the two (or more) languages concerned. The cultural implications for translation may take several forms ranging from lexical content and syntax to ideologies and ways of life in a given culture. The translator also has to decide on the importance given to certain cultural aspects and to what extent it is necessary or desirable to translate them into the TL. The aims of the ST will also have implications for translation as well as the intended readership for both the ST and the target text (TT). Considering the cultural implications for a translated text implies recognising all of these problems and taking into account several possibilities before deciding on the solution which appears the most appropriate in each specific case. Before applying these methods to the chosen text, this essay will examine the importance of culture in translation through a literature review. The different general procedures of treating the cultural implications for translation will be examined as well as analysing the ST and the aims of the author. The translation process will also be treated using specific examples found in the ST before discussing the success of aforementioned theoretical methods applied to the TT. Although corresponding to cultural categories examined, the title will be considered separately in order to determine the pertinence of conserving, highlighting, or excluding certain aspects. Due to these considerations, the title will be considered after the other aspects as all other cultural implications need to be examined before reaching relevant conclusions.


45

CHAPTER 2:

ASSIGNMENTS

ASSIGNMENT 1: I.THEORY: 1. What is translation? What definition do you think is the most appropriate? Can you give your own definition of translation? 2. What is an idiomatic translation? Give some examples of idiomatic translations. 3. What are the secondary meanings? Give ten sentences, each of which contains a word used in a secondary sense. 4. What is the primary meaning? Give ten sentences, each of which contains a word used in a primary sense.

II. EXERCISES: A. Identify change of meaning versus change of form. Some of the following pairs of sentences differ in their form. Some differ in meaning. Indicate if the primary change is in the form or in the meaning. Example: They robbed the old man. The old man was dropped by them. Answer: Change of form 1. The students like to study translation. The students like studying translation. 2. He saw the bird. He heard the cat. 3. Go to bed. I want you to go to bed. 4. I came; I saw; I conquered. I came, saw, and conquered. 5. The young man had an English grammar book stolen. An English grammar book was stolen from the young man. B. List as many grammatical forms as you can which realize the same meaning as the one given below. Then put the same meaning into a language other than English in as many forms as you can.


46 Example: The cat is black The black cat The cat, which is black 1. The water jug 2. John bought a car 3. A hot day 4. Mother‟s long blue dress 5. Peter‟s house C. All of the following have the same grammatical form. With the change of lexical items, there is a change of meaning which is signaled by that lexical item, apart from the referential meaning of the word itself. What meaning is signaled in each of the following possessive phrases? Answer by restating. How can that meaning best be expressed in another language which you speak? Example: The man‟s car - the man owns the car The man‟s eye - the eye is part of the man 1. The doctor‟s office 2. The doctor‟s patient 3. The doctor‟s book 4. The doctor‟s brother 5. The doctor‟s hand 6. The doctor‟s house D. For each pair of sentences, state whether the two sentences are 1. the same in meaning or 2. different in meaning. 1. (a) It rained all night. (b) Rain fell all night. 2. (a) There is a book on the table. (b) There is a table on the book. 3. (a) John was very surprised when he heard the news. (b) The news very much amazed John when he heard it. 4. (a) It was a hot day. (b) The day was hot. 5. (a) Peter‟s house (b) The house that belongs to Peter


47 6. (a) He remained silent. (b) He did not say anything. 7. (a) I bought cloth to make Mary a new dress. (b) I bought a new dress for Mary. 8. (a) My parents are well. (b) My mother and father are well. 9. (a) John is ill: he has a bad case of malaria. (b) John is very ill indeed. E. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. ChÞ may ¸o s¬ mi nµy ë ®©u vËy? 2. §µ L¹t chiÕm cø mét vïng ®Êt réng trªn cao nguyªn L©m Viªn, xung quanh toµn lµ nói ®åi hïng vÜ. 3. MÆc dï ®Þa vÞ cña phô n÷ ®· cã nh÷ng b-íc tiÕn kú diÖu, nh-ng ng-êi ta ph¶i thùc hiÖn nhiÒu chuyÖn kh¸c ®Ó c¶i thiÖn t×nh tr¹ng søc khoÎ, dinh d-ìng vµ gi¸o dôc cho phô n÷. 4. Ngµy nay thÕ giíi ®ang ®-ong ®Çu víi nhiÒu vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng cho dï ®· cã nhiÒu b-íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ trong lÜnh vùc khoa häc, c«ng nghÖ vµ tri thøc. Mét trong nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò ®ã lµ sù bïng næ d©n sè, ®Æc biÖt ë c¸c n-íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn. D©n sè ®ang t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n trong lóc s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ l¹i t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng. 5. Charles Dickens lµ mét trong nh÷ng nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt lín nhÊt thÕ giíi, thuéc tr-êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n thÕ kû 19. §iÒu mµ chóng ta ®¸nh gi¸ cao vÒ nh÷ng t¸c phÈm cña Dickens lµ sù phª ph¸n vÒ téi ¸c vµ sù t-¬ng ph¶n gi÷a giµu vµ nghÌo cña x· héi t- s¶n Anh lóc bÊy giê. ThÕ giíi mµ «ng ta miªu t¶ lµ thÕ giíi cña giai cÊp trung l-u vµ h¹ l-u ë Lu©n §«n.

ASSIGNMENT 2: I.THEORY: 1. What are the differences between a literal translation and an idiomatic translation? 2. What grammatical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas.

II. EXERCISES: A. In each of the following pairs of sentences, which is more idiomatic English, a or b? How would the meaning be expressed idiomatically in the language you speak? 1. (a) The storekeeper said that we will refund your money. (b)The storekeeper promised to refund our money. 2. (a) A certain boy told me this little story at a party. (b) He is one boy. He told the one little story. This is a game he said.


48 3. (a) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform as well. How many children have shed hot tears about spelling? (b) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform,too. And how many hot children‟s tears have not been shed on spelling? 4. (a) He then reported his misfortune to the police, who are searching diligently for the thief. (b) He then his mishap reported to the police, who are the thief searching intensively. B. Look for literalisms in the following translations into English and underline the words or phrases that do not sound natural in English. Suggest a more idiomatic way of saying it. All of these examples are from published translated material. 1. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for their friends have introduced to them very much about this hotel. 2. Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam, many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam. 3. Hue is famous about its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. 4. The participants discussed about the causes of pollution environment. 5 . A robbery took place of a motorcycle rider at Kampung early yesterday

morning.

C. Each of the following are sentences written by some Vietnamese who are not yet fluent English speakers. The forms used shows examples of how their mother-tongue language structures have been carried over into English. The same information is then given in parenthesis in idiomatic English. What changes were made in correcting the English? These changes point out some of the differences between Vietnamese and English. 1. Sir, the problems of before don‟t forget. ( Sir, please don‟t forget the problems we discussed before.) 2. If there is any means, send me a letter to Saigon. (If there is any way to do so, send a letter to me in Saigon.) 3. I will think you time to time day and day. ( I will be thinking about you often every day.) 4. I am very grateful to inform you with this letter. ( I am very happy to be able to send/write you this letter.) 5. I am a man who has been to Hanoi for 12 years. ( I have now lived in Hanoi for 12 years.) D. Translate the following sentences into Englisgh. 1. Th¸c M¬ lµ c«ng tr×nh thuû ®iÖn cã c«ng suÊt thiÕt kÕ 150.000 Kw, s¶n l-îng ®iÖn trung b×nh hµng n¨m 600 triÖu Kw giê.


49 2. §Ó x©y dùng c«ng tr×nh nµy cÇn ph¶i ®µo ®¾p gÇn 15 triÖu m3 ®Êt ®¸, ®¾p h¬n 350.000 mÐt khèi tÇng läc, ®æ kho¶ng 220.000 mÐt khèi bª t«ng cèt thÐp vµ l¾p ®Æt gÇn 7.000 tÊn thiÕt bÞ vµ kÕt cÊu kim lo¹i. 3. Víi khèi l-îng c«ng viÖc lín nh- vËy, nh-ng chÝnh phñ quyÕt ®Þnh ph¶i hoµn thµnh viÖc thi c«ng trong hai n¨m do nhu cÇu cung cÊp ®iÖn cho c¸c ®Þa ph-¬ng phÝa Nam ®· trë nªn hÕt søc cÊp b¸ch. 4. Tõ ngµy khëi c«ng ®Õn nay, c¸c ®¬n vÞ thi c«ng ®· thùc hiÖn ®-îc kho¶ng 90% khèi l-îng ®µo ®Êt, ®æ kho¶ng 40% khèi l-îng bª c«ng cèt thÐp. 5. Theo «ng NguyÔn B¸ MÉn, Tr-ëng ban Qu¶n lý c«ng tr×nh, th× hÇu hÕt c¸c h¹ng môc c¨n b¶n ®Òu ®¹t ®óng yªu cÇn vÒ tiÕn ®é thi c«ng. 6. Trung tuÇn th¸ng 11/1993, Thñ t-íng Vâ V¨n KiÖt ®· ®Õn kiÓm tra t×nh h×nh thi c«ng c«ng tr×nh thuû ®iÖn th¸c M¬. 7. Nh÷ng ng-êi l·nh ®¹o c«ng tr×nh kh¼ng ®Þnh víi Thñ t-íng r»ng ®· cã ®Çy ®ñ c¬ së ®Ó ®¶m b¶o khëi ®éng tæ m¸y sè 1 vµo th¸ng 6 n¨m 1994. 8. ViÖc chÆn dßng s«ng BÐ tiÕn hµnh vµo th¸ng 12 nµy. 9. Nh- vËy sÏ cã mét sù trïng hîp cã ý nghÜa lµ cïng mét thêi ®iÓm víi viÖc khëi ®éng tæ m¸y sè 1 thuû ®iÖn th¸c M¬, hÖ thèng t¶i ®iÖn 500 Kw B¾c Nam còng ®-îc hoµn thµnh. 10. Víi c¸c c«ng tr×nh nµy, n¨m 1994, miÒn Nam ®· tho¸t khái t×nh tr¹ng ®ãi ®iÖn. E. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese 1. Although the state budget for teaching aids at schools of all levels has been icreased since 1990, it is still far below the demand to fully equip schools and improve training quality. 2. President Putin affirmed that Russia has always attacted importance to its relations with Vietnam, its traditional friend and stragic partner in Southeast Asia. 3. It is projected to extend integration opportunities to 3000 disabled children in three provinces, one in mountainous areas, one in the central coast and one in remote areas. 4. They discussed a series of measures intended to ensure comprehensive cooperation in economy, trade, science and technology. 5. Efforts are being made to raise women‟s awareness of their rights to have labour safety or hygiene conditions at work through an expanded communication network. 6. It is more likely that schools in the southern provinces have more computer labs used in teaching foreign languages than schools in the northern provinces. 7. There have been four foreign invested projects in education, with investment capital from the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank.


50 8. Of 50 foreign language students surveyed recently by the Vietnam Courier, 38 said they are not interested in working for foreign invested companies. 9. Vietnam and China agreed to set up negotiations for the signing of a land border agreement delineating the sea boundary in the Bac Bo ( Tonkin ) Gulf no later than 2000. 10. Most recently the government has offered incentives like tax reduction or preferential loans to employers who have employed a large number of women.


51

ASSIGNMENT 3: I. THEORY: 1. What lexical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. 2. Why do you have to take the time to read the source language text carefully before translating it?

II. EXERCISES: A. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Ngay tõ nh÷ng ngµy ®Çu th¸ng Ch¹p ( ¢m lÞch) TÕt ®· l¶ng v¶ng ë vïng ngo¹i thµnh Hµ Néi. 2. Cã lÏ bµ con n«ng d©n ngo¹i thµnh lµ ng-êi c¶m nhËn thÊy TÕt h¬n ai hÕt bëi tõ viÖc vun xíi rau qu¶, cá hoa cho viÖc vç bÐo lîn, gµ ®Ìu nh»m phôc vô tÕt. 3. NÕu ®i tõ phÝa Kinh B¾c xuèng, ta sÏ nh×n thÊy b¹t ngµn hoa xu©n, nhÊt lµ lay¬n khoe s¾c ®ñ mµu. 4. S¸t víi vïng Néi Thµnh lµ vïng hoa NhËt T©n , Nghi Tµm, Qu¶ng B¸ víi nhiÒu lo¹i : ®µo hång th¾m, quÊt vµng méng, tim tÝm vi«lÐt vµ ®á rùc hoa ®ång tiÒn. 5. Vµi ba n¨m trë vÒ tr-íc, n¬i ®©y lµ rõng hoa, ®ñ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu cña ng-êi Hµ Néi vÒ hoa c¶nh. 6. Bµ con vïng nµy lµ nh÷ng nghÖ nh©n cã truyÒn thèng trång hoa l©u ®êi. 7. TiÕc thay, ®Êt trång hoa hiÖn nay bÞ thu hÑp dÇn do sù chuyÓn h-íng lµm ¨n cña kh«ng Ýt nghÖ nh©n. 8. Ng-êi th× b¸n ®¸t bá nghÒ, ng-êi th× tù bá vèn hoÆc lµ liªn kÕt víi ng-êi bá vèn hïn h¹p x©y dùng c¸c biÖt thù sang träng dïng lµm kh¸ch s¹n mi ni phôc vô kh¸ch n-íc. 9. Cöa hµng, cöa hiÖu mäc lªn nh- nÊm ®ñ lo¹i hµng ho¸ tõ b×nh d©n ®Õn cao cÊp. 10. Ch¼ng cßn nghi ngê g× n÷a, Hµ Néi thêi më cöa ®ang ®æi thay, ®ang ph¸t triÓn. Mong sao Hµ néi vµ ng-êi Hµ Néi m·i m·i xøng danh víi m¶nh ®Êt ngµn n¨m v¨n hiÕn. B. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese. 1. The centerpiece of the festivities was a show entitled “ A Flock of Birds to Good Land” staged simultaneously on the three different grand stages in the downtown area. 2. The whole area around the temple was virtually packed with people, leaving only a small opening for the rituals to proceed. 3. To reduce the costs while increasing accessibility of education for disabled children, the government has launched a program of community-based education and integration.


52 4. In recent years, to restore public order, Hanoi removed a number of unofficial marketplaces into designated areas. But out of the four marketplaces targeted, only Dong Tam market was moved from the Dong Da residential quarter to the Dai La area. 5. Besides the investment from the State budget, all the schools had to look for other financial sources to buy teaching equipment. However, these sources made up only 13% and 21% of the state budget for general education schools and universities respectively. 6. State budget revenues have approximately achieved the level originally set. Regular expenditure has been ensured, while irregular spending in support of area hit by storms, floods and droughts have been made. The budget deficit has been kept at a permissible level of 3.6% of GDP in 1998, down from 4.2% in 1997. 7. The economic development of Vietnam has to be viewed in the context of long periods of wars. It is the context of long periods of wars that has caused loss of people‟s lives and damage to property, public facilities and resources. 8. The television network is being established throughout the country. Apart from the relatively modern and long-standing television stations in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, 25 provincial stations were set up in 1988. These relay the important transmissions of the central TV stations and broadcast their own program. 9. The Vietnam‟s Women Union is represented in the National Assembly and its president is entitled to attend the regular meeting of The Council of Ministers where she can express the Women Union‟s view-points and propose the regulations related to the Union. 10. The Vietnamese families have been affected by the agricultural civilization. Due to the open-door policy, the industrial civilization has exerted a daily and hourly effect on the life of Vietnamese families.

ASSIGNMENT 4: I. THEORY: 1. Name and discuss the four T‟s of a translation project. 2. Explain what is meant by exegesis.

II. EXERCISES: A. Read the English text and answer the questions.

Deforestation Population growth is one factor in rainforest destruction. However, it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. The majority of deforestation in Latin America, South-east Asia and the Pacific is caused by clearing land to grow cash crops for export and by commercial logging operations, and not by „shifting‟ cultivators or landless peasants. Each year commercial logging eliminates 45000 square kilometers of forest, much of the timber being exported to the United States and Japan. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil, where tropical forest has been converted to grazing


53 land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. These heavy payments, which affect the poor the most, have arisen largely from external loans taken out to finance the purchase of luxury items and arms by military and governing elite. The establishment of large ranch-style cattle grazing properties is the principal reason for the elimination of 20000 square kilometers of rainforest each year in Central or South America. The cleared land is mainly devoted to the export of beef for the fast-food industries in North America, Europe and Japan- the aptly named „hamburger connection‟. 1. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. What is the text about? 3. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? 4. Do you have any difficulty in finding the Vietnamese meaning of the English words : subsistence agriculture, cash crops, commercial logging operations, shifting cultivators, landless peasants, affluent society, external debt payment, military and governing elites, ranch-style cattle grazing property, hamburger connection ? 5. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent Vietnamese structures of the following English sentences? a. However, it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. b. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil, where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. 6. Translate the text into Vietnamese. B. Read the Vietnamese text and answer the questions.

NON N¦íC Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n-íc s«ng Hång, S«ng §µ, S«ng Cöu Long vµ tõng sèng chÕt víi s«ng n-íc nµy. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh- tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. ë ViÖt Nam th× ‘‘n-íc’’( trong s«ng, hå, biÓn.) l¹i ®ång nghÜa, ®ång ©m víi ‘‘n-íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h-¬ng. S«ng n-íc vµ con ng-êi ë ®©y kÕt hîp víi thiªn nhiªn vµ lÞch sö nh- mét khèi bÊt tö bÊt diÖt bëi mét thø xi m¨ng tr-êng tån. §ã lµ lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi cña d©n téc ViÖt Nam. Trªn thÕ giíi, cã nhiÒu quèc gia tõ tØnh nä sang tØnh kia nãi lµ kh«ng hiÓu nhau råi. Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam, dï bÊt kú ë ®©u, ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c, hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay.

1. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. What is the text about? 3. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely?


54 4. Do you have any difficulty in finding the English meaning of the Vietnamese words : cha «ng, sèng chÕt, sù thèng nhÊt, kÕt hîp chÆt chÏ, xi m¨ng tr-êng tån, lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi, hiÓu nhau? 5. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent English structures of the following Vietnamese sentences? a. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh- tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. b.Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam, dï bÊt kú ë ®©u, ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c, hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. 6. Translate the text into English.

ASSIGNMENT 5: I. THEORY: 1. What are the goals of the translator as he prepares the initial draft? 2. What is the purpose of the evaluation? 3. What kinds of evaluation checks can be made?

II. EXERSISES: A. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese. 1. In the human history, science has been seen as having a mission to liberate people from ignorance and superstition, to lessen human misery, and to increase human understanding of the world. 2. The News Atlantic hailed the scientists of the time as merchants of light who would penetrate the darkness and open the way to man‟s control over nature. At that time, utopian invetions such as aircrafts, submarines, and telephones were foreseen. 3. People involved in the computer industry believe we are experiencing a computer revolution. Why is this revolution occuring? What will be its social consequences? To answer these questions , it is necessary to consider briefly the history of computers. 4. The forerunner of modern computer goes back some 5000 years to the first calculating machine invented by the Chinese- the abacus. Until the 17th century, Europe had nothing to rival the abacus for speed and accuracy of calculation. 5. Computers were developed simultaneously in Germany, England and the USA to aid the speedy and accurate calculations necessary to decode the enemy‟s messages during the Second World War. 6. Many of the jobs now being performed by people in the manufacturing and service sectors of our economy can be done faster and more cheaply by modern computers or electronic devices controlled by computers. 7. Robot machines are replacing assembly line workers in manufacturing. They have already done so in the Fiat car factory in Italy and the Nissan car plant in Japan. By 1980, 50 robots were in use in Australia by companies such as General Motors, Ford, Nissan and Simpson Pope.


55 8. Firms that do not adopt the new computer technology are enable to compete with their cheaper electronic rivals. Such has been the fate of the $200 million a year Swiss watch industry, which was wiped out by electronic watches in a couple of years. 9. With the mechanization of some work processes, the new factories initially resulted in large-scale structural unemployment. Previously, much sought-after, skilled, “cottage industry” artisans suddenly found themselves redundant and de-skilled by the new technology. 10. The heroic image of science grew through the 18th and 19th centuries. The Industrial Revolution, which started in England in the late 18th century, strongly reinforced faith in a technological society, although the social costs and benefits were far from equal share. B. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. VÞnh Dung QuÊt n»m ë phÝa ®«ng b¾c huyÖn B×nh S¬n, tØnh Qu¶ng Ng·i. VÞnh cã chiÒu dµi 18 km vµ ®-îc che chë kÝn ®¸o bëi c¸c d·y nói tù nhiªn. 2. Bê phÝa nam vÞnh lµ mét vïng ®¸t b»ng ph¼ng, cã kÕt cÊu ®Þa lý æn ®Þnh víi diÖn tÝch hµng chôc c©y sè vu«ng. 3. N¬i ®©y sÏ h×nh thµnh c¸c khu c«ng nghiÖp nÆng vµ ho¸ chÊt, nhµ m¸y läc dÇu, khu chÕ biÕn h¶i s¶n, khu chÕ biÕn n«ng s¶n, khu c«ng nghiÖp nhÑ vµ mét khu d©n c- ®« thÞ hiÖn ®¹i víi kho¶ng 60 v¹n d©n. 4. Mét diÒu kiÖn thuËn lîi n÷a lµ Dung QuÊt n»m c¸ch ®-êng ®-êng s¾t, ®-êng t¶i ®iÖn vµ c¸p quang xuyªn ViÖt kho¶ng 12 ViÖc cung cÊp n-íc ngät cho khu nµy lµ hÕt søc thuËn lîi tr÷ l-îng lµ 3 tØ mÐt khèi /n¨m, víi nguån n-íc tõ s«ng Bång.

bé, km. víi Trµ

5. Ngµy nay chóng ta ®ang tr·i qua mét cuéc biÕn ®æi x· héi rÊt s©u s¾c nh- sù thay ®æi trong cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp lÇn thø nhÊt. Do vËy, viÖc ®Þnh nghÜa l¹i kh¸i niªm viÖc lµm cã lÏ lµ cÇn thiÕt.

ASSIGNMENT 6: I.THEORY: 1. Name some kinds of errors that a translator could make when he/she translates a text. 2. Why does a translator often make structural and lexical errors when he/she translates a text? 3. Give some examples of errors in word collocation that a translator could make when he/she translate a text.

II. EXERCISES: A. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Do phï sa båi ®¾p cña dßng s«ng Cöu Long ®· lam phong phó vùa lóa ®Çy ¾p nµy, t-îng tr-ng cho nguån l-¬ng thùc cña c¶


56 n-íc còng nh- phong c¸ch sinh ho¹t kÒ cËn s«ng n-íc cña c- d©n trong vïng. 2. Tõ nh÷ng dßng s«ng réng lín ®Õn nh÷ng m-¬ng r¹ch m¶nh mai chØ tiÖn cho nh÷ng chiÕc thuyÒn nhá bÐ ra v«, S«ng Cöu Long cho ta mét c¶nh quan hoµnh tr¸ng khi nã ch¶y vµo ViÖt Nam, tr¹m cuèi cïng cña hµnh tr×nh 4500km n¬i cöa ngâ biÓn §«ng. 3. §iÒu ®¸ng quÝ lµ kiÒu bµo lu«n h-íng vÒ tæ quèc, g¾n bã víi gia ®×nh quª h-¬ng, ®Êt n-íc, yªu quÝ vµ gi÷ g×n b¶n s¾c v¨n ho¸ vµ hun ®óc nªn tÝnh c¸ch con ng-êi ViÖt Nam. 4. Ngoµi viÖc gióp ®ì ng-êi th©n ë n-íc nhµ, nhiÒu kiÒu bµo cßn ®ãng gãp x©y dùng quª h-¬ng, h-ëng øng viÖc cøu trî nh÷ng n¬i trong n-íc bÞ thiªn tai vµ tham gia c¸c viÖc nghÜa víi truyÒn thèng ‘‘ nhiÔu ®iÒu phñ lÊy gi¸ g-¬ng.’’ 5. Tr-íc n¨m 1988, ¶nh h-ëng cña hÖ thèng ng©n hµng ®èi víi sù ph¸t triÓn vµ qu¶n lý kinh tÕ vÜ m« lµ kh«ng ®¸ng kÓ. §Ó khuyÕn khÝch hÖ thèng ng©n hµng ho¹t ®éng cã môc ®Ých h¬n, chÝnh phñ ®· ®Ì ra c¸c biÖn ph¸p míi bao gåm tæ chøc l¹i hÖ thèng ng©n hµng, ®-a vµo c¸c chÝnh s¸ch tÝn dông h¹n ®Þnh, chÝnh s¸ch míi vÒ l·i suÊt vµ cho phÐp tù do bu«n b¸n vµng trªn thÞ tr-êng. 6. ChÝnh phñ ®¨ xóc tiÕn mét cuéc t¸i thiÕt toµn diÖn vÒ l-¬ng bæng cña c«ng nh©n viªn nhµ n-íc b»ng c¸ch chØnh ®èn l¹i nh÷ng kho¶n bao cÊp cho ng-êi tiªu dïng trªn danh nghÜa ho¹ch ®Þnh l¹i chÕ ®é l-¬ng. MÆc dï møc l-¬ng tèi thiÓu hµng th¸ng t¨ng, nh-ngl-¬ng thùc tÕ vÉn gi¶m xuèng ®¸ng kÓ do l¹m ph¸t. 7. Cuéc ®iÒu tra do héi phô n÷ ViÖt Nam tiÕn hµnh cho thÊy r»ng nh÷ng ph-¬ng ph¸p tr¸nh thai truyÒn thèng ®ang ®-îc ¸p dông réng r·i. Cuéc ®iÒu tra cho thÊy r»ng 39% phô n÷ cã gia ®×nh dïng ph-¬ng ph¸p hiÖn ®¹i, ph-¬ng ph¸p th-êng dïng nhÊt lµ ®Æt vßng tr¸nh thai B. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese 1.The nuclear energy proponents also pressed the theme that it was inevitable that the world would increasingly go nuclear. It is suggested that the opponents were standing against the tide of history and were akin to the Luddites at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, who broke machines. 2. Doctors have shown for the first time they can rebuild the immune systems of people infected with the AIDS virus, dramatically increasing the blood cells that HIV destroys. 3. In the field of medicine training, what was done in the past years has been remarked by distinguished fact that many specialists and medical colleges in different countries set forth the necessity for reconsidering training subjects for health workers. 4. Today, the physicians should be considered as men of health. Hence, the responsibility of the physicians is to know how to discover, cure, and rehabilitate the health of the individuals and the community.


57 5. It is obvious that a healthy body helps a sound mind because it is the sound minds that direct the orientation of the values systems. A healthy man should be healthy not only physically but also mentally. 6. Nowadays people are inclined to worry too much about their physical health. However, I would like to lay stress on the importance of psychological health. Being mentally healthy is very important, and a truly healthy man is one who can enjoy the proper equilibrium between his body and mind.

ASSIGNMENT 7: Translate the following texts into English 1.Nh÷ng thµnh tùu cña qu¸ tr×nh ®æi míi trong thËp niªn võa qua ®· t¹o ra nh÷ng c¬ héi cho phô n÷ ®¹t ®-îc môc ®Ých cña m×nh. Cuéc sèng cña phô n÷ ®· ®-îc c¶i thiÖn vµ phô n÷ bít nhäc nh»n h¬n. C¸c dÞch vô x· héi ®· gióp phô n÷ bít nhäc nh»n trong c«ng viÖc nhµ vµ t¹o ®IÒu kiÖn cho phô n÷ tham gia vµo c¸c ho¹t ®éng x· héi . 2. Héi phô n÷ ViÖt nam ®¹I diÖn cho phô n÷ ViÖt Nam trong c¶ n-íc ®· ®æi míi tæ chøc vµ c¸ch lµm viÖc v× vËy ®· thu hót ngµy cµng nhiÒu phô n÷ tham gia vµo c«ng t¸c x· héi. H«Þ phô n÷ gióp cho phô n÷ gi¶i quyÕt nh÷ng khã kh¨n trong cuéc sèng h»ng ngµy. Héi còng ®Ö tr×nh lªn nhµ n-íc nh÷ng ®iÒu luËt vµ chÝnh s¸ch nh»m ph¸t huy mäi tiÒm n¨ng cña phô n÷ trong tiÕn tr×nh ®æi míi. 3.NhËn ra nh÷ng nh©n tè t¹o nªn viÖc häc ngo¹i ng÷ nhanh vµ hiÖu qu¶ ngµy cµng trë nªn quan träng v× ®a sè ng-êi häc lµ ng-êi lín rÊt lo l¾ng khi häc mét ngo¹i ng÷ chuyªn ngµnh sö dông trong th-¬ng m¹i,nghiªn cøu vµ ngo¹I giao. Nhu cÇu ®Ó häc mét ngäai ng÷ cã hiÖu qu¶ cÇn ®-îc xem xÐt theo khÝa c¹nh ng-êi häc, ng-êi d¹y vµ ch-¬ng tr×nh gi¶ng d¹y. 4.Søc hÊp dÉn lín nhÊt ®èi víi du kh¸ch lµ b¶n s¾c v¨n hãa cña d©n téc ViÖt Nam. Hµng ngh×n di tÝch lÞch sö, di tÝch c¸ch m¹ng ®· ®-îc nhµ n-íc xÕp h¹ng, trong ®ã hµng tr¨m di tÝch cã gi¸ trÞ lÞch sö vµ nghÖ thuËt cao. ViÖt Nam lµ mét céng ®ång cña 54 d©n téc víi nhiÒu phong tôc, tËp qu¸n, v¨n hãa nghÖ thuËt d©n gian ®Æc s¾c. Sù hiÖn diÖn cña hµng tr¨m lµng nghÒ truyÒn thèng ®· s¶n xuÊt ra hµng ngh×n lo¹i s¶n phÈm thñ c«ng mü nghÖ næi tiÕng. 5. NÕu du kh¸ch ®Õn víi c¸c vïng d©n téc thiÓu sè th× cßn cã thÓ tham dù vµo nh÷ng sinh ho¹t v¨n hãa kú thó cña vïng nói rõng nhiÖt ®íi. Mét lÔ héi ®©m tr©u ch¼ng h¹n. SÏ ph¶i cã mÆt tr-íc lÔ héi hµng tuÇn cïng ng-êi d©n ®i t×m tre ®Ó söa nhµ r«ng, ®Ó lµm c©y nªu xua ®uæi ma quû. Trong nh÷ng ngµy ®ã du kh¸ch cßn ®-îc quan s¸t c¸ch chän c¸c vß r-îu cÇn vµ nhÊt lµ viÖc chän tr©u ®Ó ®©m.


58 6. Phóc lîi x· héi lµ chÝnh s¸ch x· héi lín cña ViÖt Nam dùa trªn truyÒn thèng t-¬ng th©n t-¬ng ¸i gióp ®ì lÉn nhau cã tõ ngµn x-a. Nguyªn t¾c c¬ b¶n cña chÝnh s¸ch nµy lµ kÕt hîp tr¸ch nhiÖm cña nhµ n-íc, cña céng ®ång vµ mçi c¸ nh©n tù v-¬n lªn hßa nhËp v¬I x· h«Þ. ChÝnh s¸ch nµy ®ang tõng b-íc më ra cho mäi ®èi t-îng víi nhiÒu h×nh thøc kh¸c nhau. 7. Sù l¹c hËu vµ nguy c¬ tôt hËu h¬n vÒ kinh tÕ ®ang lµ nçi tr¨n trë canh c¸nh trong lßng mçi ng-êi ViÖt Nam ë trong n-íc còng nh- ®ang sinh sèng ë n-íc ngoµi. NÕu tôt hËu xa h¬n cã nghÜa lµ r¬I vµo sè phËn cña mét n-íc cung cÊp nguyªn liÖu vµ nh©n c«ng trong sù ph©n c«ng lao ®éng quèc tÕ, chÞu lÐp vÕ , thua thiÖt trong hîp t¸c c¹nh tranh. §ã thùc lµ mét th¸ch thøc lín ®èi víi d©n téc ViÖt Nam trong bèi c¶nh quèc tÕ ngµy nay. 8. B¶n chÊt nh©n v¨n cña tr-êng ph¸i ngo¹i giao ViÖt Nam lµ mét nÐt ®Æc thï. MÆc dï lµ n¹n nh©n cña biÕt bao nhiªu cuéc x©m l-îc, nh-ng ng-êi ViÖt Nam kh«ng bao giê mÊt ®I lßng nh©n ¸i. H¬n thÕ n÷a , chÝnh lßng nh©n ¸I lµ nh©n tè t¹o nªn søc m¹nhcña d©n téc vµ nÒn ngo¹I giao ViÖt Nam. NguyÔn Tr·I , ng-êi anh hïng d©n téc cña thÕ kû 15 ®· ®Ó l¹I ph-¬ng ch©m l-u truyÒn cho m·I ®Õn h«m nay : ‘‘ LÊy ®¹I nghÜa th¾ng hung tµn, LÊy chÝ nh©n thay c-êng b¹o.’’

ASSIGNMENT 8: Translate the following text into English Cã lÏ B¾c Kinh lµ n¬i tËp trung quyÒn lùc chÝnh trÞ nh-ng Th-îng H¶i còng cã quyÒn tù hµo lµ mét thñ ®« th-¬ng m¹i. B¾c Kinh cã lÏ lµ n¬i tËp trung quyÒn lùc chÝnh trÞ nh-ng danh hiÖu mét thñ ®« th-¬ng m¹i l¹i thuéc vÒ Th-îng H¶i. Nh÷ng ®Þa ®iÓm lÞch sö chØ míi cã tõ gÇn 80 n¨m tr-íc ë Th-îng H¶i, tuy thÕ hÇu hÕt du kh¸ch ®Òu bÞ chinh phôc tr-íc vÎ quyÕn rò cña thµnh phè ®Æc biÖt nµy, n¬i mµ m«i tr-êng lµ tÊt c¶. ChØ riªng c¸i tªn Th-îng H¶i còng ®· dËy nªn mét lµn sãng nhá niÒm thÝch thó v« tËn. Th-îng H¶i vÉn lµ mét thµnh phè nhá chuyªn nghÒ ®¸nh c¸ vµ dÖt m·i cho ®Õn nöa thÕ kû 19 khi nã b¾t ®Çu ph¸t triÓn nh- mét trung t©m c«ng nghiÖp vµ th-¬ng m¹i. Nh÷ng ng-êi chñ h·ng bu«n vµ c¸c øng cö viªn chÝnh trÞ tõ kh¾p n¬i trªn thÕ giíi ®æ vÒ ®©y vµ ph¸t triÓn nã thµnh mét trong nh÷ng thµnh phè quèc tÕ sµnh ®iÖu nhÊt thÕ giíi. Tõ nh÷ng n¨m 1920 trë ®i, nã trë nªn ngµy cµng tai tiÕng nh- lµ mét n¬i mµ bÊt cø viÖc g× còng cã thÓ x¶y ra. C¸c ng©n hµng vµ c¸c c«ng ty th-¬ng m¹i ®ñ lo¹i tù x©y dùng cho hä nh÷ng trô së chÝnh sang träng tr«ng ra n¬i mµ sau ®ã lµ nh÷ng c¸nh ®ång lóa mªnh m«ng tr¶i dµi hai bê s«ng Hoµng Phè.


59 Toµn bé d¶i ®Êt nµy vÉn cßn tån t¹i sau nh÷ng thêi kú san b»ng å ¹t vµ ngµy nay nã lµm nªn mét b¶o tµng më ®éc ®¸o vÒ kiÕn tróc cña nh÷ng n¨m 1930. Mét cuéc t¶n bé däc bê ®ª lµ kh«ng thÓ thiÕu ®èi víi nh÷ng ai ®Õn th¨m n¬i ®©y, / Du kh¸ch kh«ng thÓ bá qua mét cuéc t¶n bé däc bê ®ª khi ®Õn th¨m n¬i ®©y, n¬i mµ vÉn ®-îc nhiÒu ng-êi c«ng nhËn lµ thµnh phè träng ®iÓm cña Trung Quèc. Nh÷ng toµ nhµ chäc trêi, bao gåm mét vµi toµ nhµ cao nhÊt thÕ giíi ®· mäc lªn ë chÝnh n¬i mµ x-a kia lóa ®· tõng mäc. §iÓm næi bËt nhÊt lµ th¸p truyÒn h×nh Hßn Ngäc ViÔn §«ng - nÕu thêi gian cho phÐp, mét c¸i nh×n toµn c¶nh tõ nh÷ng tÇng cao cña th¸p sÏ lµ mét kû niÖm khã quªn. D-íi sù nh-îng bé cña ng-êi Ph¸p tr-íc ®©y, tõng ®o¹n qu¸ khø nh- vÉn cßn hiÖn h÷u ®©u ®ã trong nh÷ng biÖt thù tao nh· vµ nh÷ng con ®-êng rîp bãng c©y. Vßng qua gãc ®ª, kh¸ch s¹n Hoµ B×nh vµ ban nh¹c Jazz ®¸ng kÝnh cña nã lµ nh÷ng chøng tÝch næi tiÕng cña mét thêi kú hµo hiÖp. Nh-ng Th-îng H¶i còng cßn cã nhiÒu kh¸ch s¹n tuyÖt vêi kh¸c tõ nh÷ng n¨m 1930, phÇn lín ®ang ®-îc phôc håi nh÷ng nÐt ®¸ng yªu tõ thêi hoµng kim tr-íc ®©y cña chóng. Th-îng H¶i së h÷u mét trong nh÷ng b¶o tµng thËt sù lín cña thÕ giíi, ®-îc më cña vµo n¨m 1996. Trong mét thêi gian ng¾n kh«ng thÓ tham quan hÕt toµ nhµ gi¸ trÞ nµy ®-îc, nh-ng thËm chÝ chØ cÇn mét giê trong nh÷ng phßng tr-ng bµy ®å ®ång, ®iªu kh¾c ®¸ vµ ®å gèm còng ®· ®ñ ®em l¹i nh÷ng kû niÖm khã phai.

ASSIGNMENT 9: Translate the following text into Vietnamese In a keynote speech at Hà Nội National University (HNU) yesterday, leader Jiang urged the youth of Vietnam and China to work for strengthening the friendship between the two countries and contribute to peace and development in Asia and the world. “A bright future will be created by you, the young people, and the future belongs to you,” the Chinese General Secretary and State President told the students. Jiang stressed that a better future awaited China-Vietnam relations in the 21st century, and joint efforts by the youth of both countries cannot be separated from this. The younger generation in both our countries must stick to their ideals and work tirelessly for socialism, he said.


60 “The youth of China and Vietnam need to inherit and bring into full play the revolutionary spirit of their elders, to be persistent in ideology, study hard, to strive for the cause of developing socialism, and for the wealth and prosperity of their respective motherlands,” he said. He expressed his hope that the Chinese and Vietnamese young people will cherish, maintain and promote China-Vietnam relations, have more exchanges and learn from each other to enhance mutual understanding. He pledged that the Chinese party and Government would fully back such exchanges. “In history, both Vietnam and China have suffered invasion by the imperialists but we both successfully fought off the imperialists, liberated our peoples and unified our countries,” said Jiang. He said that the friendship between Vietnam and China derives not only from history but also the fact, as noted by Hồ Chí Minh, that the two peoples are “comrades and brothers”. The foundation of China-Vietnam ties was mutual trust, long-term stability, the pre-condition, and friendly neighborliness, the guarantee, he said. “Comprehensive co-operation is the bridge and the target a prosperous future”, he added. Jiang left Hanoi yesterday Central Vietnam where he toured the ancient imperial capital of Huế, recognized by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, and met with leaders of the port city of Đà Nẵng. He is scheduled to visit the ancient port town of Hội An and the Hoà Thọ Textile Company before concluding his three-day visit to Việt Nam.

ASSIGNMENT 10: Translate the following text into English Đối với một đất nước còn nhiều khó khăn như chúng ta, thì vấn đề “tiết kiệm chống lãng phí” phải luôn được coi là quốc sách. Nhưng trong thực tế, những năm qua khắp nơi, vẫn còn tràn lan những hiện tượng lãng phí. Nào là lãng phí trong quản lý, sử dụng ngân sách, lãng phí trong đầu tư xây dựng cơ bản, lãng phí trong quản lý đất đai, trụ sở làm việc, lãng phí trong lĩnh vực doanh nghiệp Nhà nước và rồi lãng phí còn len lỏi trong dân chúng với những thủ tục cưới xin đầy tốn kém… “Lãng phí” thực sự đã và đang là vấn đề bức xúc của xã hội, là một trong những nguyên nhân gây ảnh hưởng lớn tới nền kinh tế của đất nước. Bởi vì trong năm đầu (1998) sau khi có pháp


61 lệnh thực hành tiết kiệm, chống lãng phí được Uỷ Ban thường vụ Quốc Hội khóa X thông qua ngày 26-02-1998 và có hiệu lực thi hành từ ngày 1-5-1998, qua số liệu báo cáo của 12 Bộ, cơ quan ngang Bộ, số chi thực năm 1998 giảm so với quyết toán năm 1997, cụ thể như: Hội nghị phí: 12,8 tỉ đồng; công tác phí: 12,43 tỉ đồng, chi phí điện thoại, fax: 9,57 tỉ đồng; chi phí sửa chữa lớn TSCĐ: 80,94 tỉ đồng; chi mua sắm tài sản cố định phục vụ chuyên môn nghiệp vụ: 153,7 tỉ đồng. Dự toán NSNN năm 1999 tiếp tục thực hiện tiết kiệm 10% dự toán chi thường xuyên. Một số khoản chi thường xuyên đã giảm mạnh từ 30% đến 70% như chi mua sắm thiết bị làm việc, chi hội nghị lễ tân… Những số liệu “giảm chi” trong khi thực hiện Pháp lệnh thực hành tiết kiệm chống lãng phí thời gian qua, thực sự là những con số biết nói, cho thấy tín hiệu đáng mừng về sự chuyển biến trong công tác này, song điều đó cũng chứng tỏ bấy lâu nay việc chi tiêu còn quá buông lỏng, nên thắt chặt lại các khoản chi tiêu là việc cần làm. Qua thanh tra tài chính, báo cáo quyết toán hàng năm đã phát hiện nhiều cơ quan đơn vị hành chính sự nghiệp, doanh nghiệp vi phạm các nguyên tắc quản lý hành chính. Một trong những vấn đề chi tiêu được coi là bức xúc và có thể nói là hết sức tốn kém hiện nay là: Chi tiêu đối với các lễ đón nhận huân huy chương, ngày thành lập ngành, hội thảo… Mỗi cuộc “đình đám” như vậy tốn không biết bao là tiền của, nào tiền thuê hội trường, tiền ăn uống, quà biếu… Vào dịp cuối năm này, người ta còn thấy các nhà hàng chật kín bởi các “thượng đế” hầu hết là các “cán bộ” chứ người dân thường thì lấy đâu ra “ngân quỹ” mà vui vẻ như vậy! Trong khi cuộc sống của những người dân “tự do” còn đang vất vả bươn chải từng ngày với những chi tiêu hạn hẹp thì việc tiết kiệm chống lãng phí trong “cơ chế chi bao cấp” là việc nhất thiết cần phải làm.

ASSIGNMENT 11: Translate the following texts into Vietnamese GAZA CITY -Israel and palestinians negotiated through the night in what US envoy Dennis Ross termed "a good evening of work" aimed at breaking an impasse over Israel's delayed pullout from the West Bank town of Hebron.

Ross left Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat's office early yesterday - three hours after he arrived - but negotiators stayed behind to corntinue talks.

"The meeting was positive (and) constructive," Arafat said. He added that he and Ross "solved some of the obstacles which were between me and him," apparently referring to his own suggestion last week that Ross was biased toward Israel.

Ross, who was to leave later yesterday, agreed that "We had a good set of discussions." Referring to the negotiations, he said : "This has been a good evening of work, but there are still issues to be overcome."


62 Inside Arafat's headquarters, the Palestinian team led by chief negotiator Saeb Erekat continued deliberations with Israel's delegation, led by Maj. Gen. Shaul Muhfaz and Yitzhak Molcho, a top advisor to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The talks began on Sunday afternoon in Jerusalem and moved to Gaza.

Israeli media speculated that if the meeting was successful, Ross might delay his departure and Netanyahu and Arafat might hold a summit either yesterday or today.

Israel was to have pulled out of Hebron - the last West Bank city under occupation in March, but delayed it after a series of terrorist attacks in Israel. Netanyahu, a hardliner elected in May, has delayed the pullout further, trying to tighten security for the 500 settlers who live in the town of 130,000 Arabs.

The Palestiians have refused to reopen the existing agreement, and also seek to link the Israeli redeployment to a further pullout elsewhere in the West Bank that was also promised in the signed autonomy accords.

In Hebron on Sunday, the army rounded up about 100 Palestinians after two fire bombs were thrown at a Jewish enclave without causing injuries. They were questioned and held at gunpoint for about an hour, but most were released. The army spokesman said several Palestinians were arrested.

A Palestinian walking past the Beit Hadassah enclave was hit and injured by a metal ladder that fell or was thrown from the roof, and he was taken to the city hospital. HCM CITY - The number of foreign tourists arriving in Viet Nam has been increasing year after year. On average, it grows by 30 per cent a year, according to recent statisties released from Viet Nam Tourism Administration. Though the number of tourists is on the rise, occupancy rates of hotels have dropped significantly as compared to previous years. Over the past six years, joint - venture hotels and guest houses operated at an average capacity rate of 85 to 90 per cent. They are now operating at a capacity rate of only 60 per cent. A rate which is much worse than that of state - owned hotels and private guest - houses. One of the main reasons for the decline in hotel capacity rates is the muchrooming of joint venture hotels which has caused severe competition among hotels for room - rates and hotel services. Several hotels have become burdens to their owners, with low gross earnings and high taxes, many are about to be forced to close down. Most foreign visitors have come here eager to experience something new and to travel to places of wild and natural beauty during their stay. For this reason, Viet Nam's tourist industry needs to reorganise its management and set goals in order to satisfy the current demands of tourists.


63 Though there has been growth in the number of tourists over the past several years, the number of visitors that come for a second visit is low. It is evident that the attraction of Viet Nam's tourist industry is still inadequate and tourist sites, transport and accommodation facilities have not yet reached international standards.The country now has some 22 provinces and cities which have completed detailed master plans for tourist resorts.

However, these projects are yet to be developed and are still under discussion. Even though each year the government has spent tens of billion of dongs on upgrading national historical relics and tourist resorts, due to a lack of management expertise and investment knowledge, these sites have failed to help boost the development of the tourist industry. To improve quality of tourist resorts and to boost hotel operations, Viet Nam's tourism industry now requires more investment from the government. Translate the following text into English Cµng ngµy cµng cã nhiÒu ng-êi ViÖt nam t×m c¸ch ®i häc n-íc ngoµi b»ng chi phÝ riªng cña m×nh. Tõ gi÷a n¨m 1992 dÕn th¸ng 5 n¨m nay, sè ng-êi tù bá tiÒn ra häc cßn Ýt, nh-ng hy väng sè l-îng sÏ t¨ng trong vßng 5 n¨m tíi v× nÒn kinh tÕ ViÖt Nam tèt h¬n vµ chÝnh phñ hîp lý hãa c¸c thñ tôc lµm cho viÖc häc tù tóc dÔ dµng h¬n. Nh-ng cuéc qu¶ng c¸o lín nhÊt nh»m thóc ®Èy nh÷ng ng-êi ViÖt Nam m¹nh d¹n ®Çu t- tiÒn b¹c cho b¶n th©n hoÆc con c¸i cña m×nh ®Ó ®-îc häc trong mét nÒn gi¸o duc ®¹t chuÈn quèc tÕ lµ nhê vµo viÖc më mét cuéc triÓn l·m ®Æc biÖt vÒ gi¸o dôc ë n-íc ngoµi tæ chøc t¹i thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh vµ Hµ Néi trong hai th¸ng võa qua. §-îc gäi lµ ‘‘ Educasia’’, cuéc triÓn l·m ®· ®Ò cao c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc, c¸c tr-êng h-íng nghiÖp vµ c¸c nhµ cung cÊp thiÕt bÞ tr-êng häc cña c¸c n-íc Anh, Ph¸p, óc, Hoa Kú vµ Thôy SÜ. Cuéc triÓn l·m ®Ò cËp ®Õn ch-¬ng tr×nh ®µo t¹o vµ nÒn gi¸o dôc mµ c¸c sinh viªn tù tóc ViÖt Nam ®ang t×m kiÕm vµ lêi gi¶i ®¸p cña nh÷ng c¬ së ®µo t¹o nµy ë n-íc ngoµi ®èi víi nh÷ng th¾c m¾c cña sinh viªn. C¸c khãa häc vÒ viÔn th«ng,x©y dùng b»ng c¬ giíi, ngµnh kh¸ch s¹n du lÞch vµ nÊu ¨n ®· ®-îc ®Æc biÖt ®Ò cao. Cho ®Õn b©y giê hÇu hÕt nh÷ng sinh viªn ViÖt nam ®· ®i ra n-íc ngoµi häc thªm theo häc bæng quèc tÕ hay cña mét chÝnh phñ n-íc ngoµi cÊp. H»ng n¨m ViÖt Nam göi ®i kho¶ng 77 sinh viªn vµ 100 chuyªn viªn bËc cao ra n-íc ngoµi th«ng qua nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh häc bæng ®-îc chÝnh thøc b¶o trî. PhÇn lín nh÷ng sinh viªn ®i häc tù tóc ®· ®i häc ë Nga, mét sè ®i c¸c n-íc §«ng ¢u vµ mét sè rÊt Ýt ®i häc ë Hµ Lan, BØ, Hoa Kú, §an M¹ch vµ Th¸i Lan. Nh-ng vµo th¸ng t- n¨m nay, c¸c suÊt häc bæng riªng dµnh cho c¸c sinh viªn n-íc ngoµi ë Nga vµ §«ng ¢u ®· t¹m ngõng. Hiªn


64 nay ®· cã nh÷ng ®iÒu kiÖn dµnh cho sinh viªn ViÖt Nam muèn häc ë n-íc ngoµi lµ ph¶i tèt nghiÖp phæ th«ng vµ ph¶i theo häc c¸c khãa häc ngo¹i ng÷ phï hîp vµ ph¶i cã kiÕn thøc vÒ vi tÝnh. Tuy nhiªn vÉn cßn thiÕu nh÷ng th«ng tin vÒ c¸c r¾c rèi mµ sinh viªn tù tóc ë n-íc ngoµi th-êng gÆp ph¶i, ®Æc biÖt lµ vÊn ®Ò vÒ thêi gian vµ tr×nh ®é mµ c¸c khãa häc ®ßi hái. §· cã nh÷ng l·ng phÝ vÒ thêi gian còng nh- tiÒn b¹c kh«ng thÓ tr¸nh khái.

ASSIGNMENT 12: Translate the following text into Vietnamese The United States is a country of immigrants. These immigrants come from all over the world. They speak many different languages. In the past, new immigrants had a hard time in American schools. They could not understand their school work in English, so they often became discouraged and dropped out of school. They were not able to get good jobs without a good education. Now, many schools in the United States have bilingual programs. ("Bi" means "two" and "lingual" means "language".) For example, a school with many Spanish-speaking students might have a bilingual program. The Spanish-speaking students study their subjects in both English and Spanish. A school with a large Chinese population might have an English Chinese bilingual program. Students in bilingual programs continue their general education and learn English at the same time. After a period of time, they can take all of their classes in English with English speaking students. Bilingual education is "controversial." This means some people like it, and other people do not like it. The people in favor of bilingual education say, "It helps students to understand their school work in history, mathematics, science, etc., at the same time, they are learning English." These people say bilingual education helps students succeed in school. They can get better jobs and be better citizens after graduation. The people against bilingual education say, "It's a waste of time and government money. English is the national language of the United States." Everyone living in the United States, they say, should learn to speak English as quickly as possible. They say, "Bilingual education is too expensive." In other words, the government spends too much money on bilingual education. They want to put the money for bilingual programs into English programs. In such programs, everyone will learn English a lot faster. At least, those against bilingual education think so. Translate the following text into English Ng-êi nghÌo th-êng cã nhiÒu con h¬n nh÷ng ng-êi thuéc giíi trung l-u vµ th-îng l-u. Vµ d©n ë c¸c n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn th× cã nhiÒu con h¬n d©n cña c¸c n-íc ph¸t triÓn. Ngµy cµng cã nhiÒu chuyªn gia vÒ d©n sè thÊy ®-îc mèi quan hÖ kh¨ng khÝt gi÷a sè con trong gia ®×nh vµ sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ.


65 T¹i mét vµi vïng, dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh cña chÝnh phñ cã lÏ kh«ng cã ®èi víi d©n nghÌo do ®iÒu kiÖn ®Þa lý. Ch¼ng h¹n nh- ng-êi d©n ë n«ng th«n sèng qu¸ xa trung t©m kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh. Do vËy hä kh«ng nhËn ®-îc th«ng tin vÒ c¸ch thøc h¹n chÕ sinh ®Î. Nh×n chung th× d©n thµnh thÞ cã nhiÒu th«ng tin h¬n d©n n«ng th«n. D©n ë thµnh thÞ ®-îc hæ trî dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh, vµ hä cã gia ®×nh Ýt con h¬n. V× thÕ chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng vÞ trÝ ®Þa lý n¬i mµ ng-êi d©n sèng ®ãng mét vai trß qan träng trong viÖc quyÕt dÞnh mät gia ®×nh nªn sinh bao nhiªu con: Gia ®×nh sèng ë thµnh thÞ th× cã Ýt con h¬n gia ®×nh sèng ë n«ng th«n. Nh÷ng lý do kh¸c lµ g×? Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ gia ®×nh, hay ë mét ph¹m vi lín h¬n lµ cña mét n-íc, lµ mét nh©n tè quan träng trong viÖc quyÕt ®Þnh sè con trong gia ®×nh. Ng-êi cã nhiÒu tiÒn th× cã Ýt con. Ng-îc l¹i, ng-êi nghÌo ë n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn muèn cã nhiÒu con. T¹i sao? Do hä ph¶i lÖ thuéc vµo sù ch¨m sãc cña con c¸i khi vÒ giµ. Hä kh«ng cã b¶o hiÓm, tiÒn h-u, hay sù gióp ®ì cña chÝnh phñ. Khi hä giµ c¶ th× ai sÏ gióp hä. C©u tr¶ lêi rÊt ®¬n gi¶n. Hä cã thÓ vµ sÏ quay sang nhê con c¸i gióp ®ì. Con c¸i cña hä b©y giê ®· trë thµnh ng-êi lín vµ ®ang ®i lµm viÖc. TÊt c¶ con c¸i cña hä ®Òu ph¶i chia sÏ vµ g¸nh v¸c tr¸ch nhiÖm ch¨m sãc cha mÑ. §èi vãi nhiÒu ng-êi nghÌo, mét gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ mét c¸ch thøc ®Ó ho¹ch ®Þnh cho t-¬ng lai. Chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ nguån b¶o hiÓm cho tuæi giµ.

ASSIGNMENT 13: Translate the following text into English C¸c nhµ xuÊt khÈu cã uy thÕ cña Trung Quèc ®ang chÜa tÇm ng¾m cña m×nh vµo ViÖt Nam, nhËn ra n-íc l¸ng giÒng ë ph-¬ng nam nh®· chÝn muåi cho mét kÕ ho¹ch qu¶ng c¸o trong viÖc mua s¾m hµng hãa tiªu dïng vµ m¸y mãc, c¸c nhµ qu¶n lý ®iÒu hµnh Trung Quèc ®· ph¸t biÕn nh- thÕ vµo h«m thø n¨m. C¸c nhµ qu¶n lý Trung Quèc ®· nãi trong buæi lÔ khai m¹c héi chî tæ chøc t¹i Hµ Néi : ‘‘ Nh-ng ViÖt Nam ®· cã mét kinh nghiÖm l©u dµi tr-íc khi nhËn ra hµng xuÊt khÈu cña m×nh vµo Trung Quèc t¨ng lªn khi mét vµi s¶n phÈm lµ cã thÓ x©m nhËp vµo thÞ tr-êng Trung quèc ®· më réng h¬n.’’ Kho¶ng 60 c«ng ty ë B¾c Kinh ®· tr-ng bµy nh÷ng mÆt hµng cña hä tõ ®å ch¬i b»ng nhùa rÎ tiÒn vµ c¸c ®å trang trÝ cho ®Õn


66 c¸c lo¹i xe cé t¹i héi chî ë Hµ Néi, mét héi chî ®Çu tiªn triÓn l·m c¸c mÆt hµng Trung Quèc kÓ tõ khi hai n-íc cã quan hÖ trë l¹i víi nhau. Jeep- B¾c Kinh, mét liªn doanh s¶n xuÊt « t« Trung-Mü, hi väng sÏ chen ch©n vµo thÞ tr-êng xe h¬i ®ang lín m¹nh t¹i ViÖt Nam, nh-ng ®ang ®èi mÆt víi mät sù c¹nh tranh kh¾c nghiÖt víi thÞ tr-êng xe h¬i NhËt B¶n ®· ‘‘ x©y phßng tuyÕn xung quanh’’ ë ®©y, «ng Guo Fengli, phã chñ tÞch c«ng ty XuÊt NhËp KhÈu ¤ t« B¾c Kinh ®· ph¸t biÓu nh- vËy. Theo lêi cña «ng Guo th× ‘‘ thÞ tr-êng ë ®©y ®ang më ra kh¸ nhanh cho c¸c s¶n phÈm cña chóng t«i, ®Æc biÖt lµ khi gi¸ c¶ cña chóng t«i thùc sù c¹nh tranh ®-îc víi c¸c ®èi thñ cña chóng t«i.’’ BAIEC ®ang mong muèn thiÕt lËp quan hÖ mËu dÞch víi ViÖt Nam nh-ng còng ®ang ph¶i ®èi ®Çu víi viÖc t×m kiÕm c¸c mÆt hµng thÝch hîp ®Ó buon b¸n, mÆc dï lµ «ng Guo nghÜ lµ cã thÓ t×m ra lêi gi¶i ®¸p cho mét vÊn ®Ò b×nh th-êng. C«ng ty Trung Quãc dù kiÕn trao ®æi xe h¬i lÊy l-¬ng thùc, vµ sè l-¬ng thùc nµy sÏ ®em b¸n ë Nam Trung Quèc. Tuy nhiªn hä vÉn thÝch trao ®æi nh÷ng mÆt hµng cã gi¸ trÞ cao h¬n. ‘‘ Chóng t«i kh«ng biÕt nhiÒu vÒ nh÷ng g× mµ ViÖt Nam mêi chµo.’’ «ng Guo ®· nãi ®Õn ®iÒu nµy, mét quan ®iÓm ®-îc c¸c nhµ doanh th-¬ng kh¸c nh¾c l¹i nhiÒu lÇn. Nh÷ng ng-êi n«n nãng b¸n hµng h¬n lµ mua hµng. ViÖc bu«n b¸n qua biªn giíi ®· t¨ng vät kÓ tõ ngµy hai n-íc më l¹i biªn giíi vµo n¨m 1991. Nãi mét c¸ch chÝnh thøc th×, viÖc bu«n b¸n hai chiÒu cã gi¸ trÞ kho¶ng 500 triÖu ®« la dï cho viÖc bu«n b¸n bÊt hîp ph¸p cã thÓ cao h¬n nhiÒu. Trung quèc ®-îc h-ëng mät gi¸ trÞ thÆng d- to lín. Trong chuyÕn viÕng th¨m Trung Quèc tuÇn tr-íc, Phã thñ t-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i kªu gäi hai bªn thay thÕ viÖc bu«n b¸n qua biªn giíi b»ng nh÷ng tháa hiÖp chÝnh thøc gi÷a c¸c c«ng ty th-¬ng m¹i vµ c¸c nhµ chÕ t¹o mµ c¸ch lµm nµy sÏ lµm t¨ng gi¸ cña c¸c s¶n phÈm ViÖt Nam. ViÖt Nam muèn ®Èy m¹nh h¬n n÷a viÖc xuÊt khÈu than vµ dÇu khÝ cho c¸c trung t©m s¶n xuÊt ®ang bïng ph¸t ë Nam Trung Quèc, n¬i xa nguån n¨ng l-îng cña Trung Quèc c¶ hµng ngµn c©y sè.


67 ¤ng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cßn nhÊn m¹nh thªm vÒ gi¸ g¹o vµ c¸c mÆt hµng thùc phÈm kh¸c vµ phÝa ViÖt Nam nhËp nhiÒu h¬n n÷a c¸c m¸y mãc chÕ t¹o vµ c¸c c«ng nghÖ kh¸c cña Trung Quèc.


68

ASSIGNMENT 14: Translate the following text into English D©n sè cña A RËp Xa U §i lµ 8853000 ng-êi. §a sè lµ nh÷ng ng-êi A RËp Håi gi¸o. Hay nãi c¸ch kh¸c, hä lµ nh÷ng tÝn ®å Håi gi¸o. A RËp lµ mät quèc ®¹o. VÞ vua cña n-íc nµy võa lµ mét ng-êi l·nh ®¹o chÝnh trÞ võa lµ mét nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o cña ®Êt n-íc. D¹o luËt cña chÝnh phñ ®-a ra lµ luËt cña Håi gi¸o, vµ ng«n ng÷ cña n-íc nµy lµ tiÕng A RËp. §¹o Håi rÊt quan träng ®èi víi nÒn gi¸o dôc cña A RËp. Tr-íc n¨m 1950, hÇu nh- toµn bé nÒn gi¸o dôc cña A RËp lµ nÒn gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o. Häc sinh häc Kinh Koran, s¸ch kinh th¸nh cña d¹o Håi. Chóng ph¶i cè g¾ng nhí nh÷ng ®iÒu trong cuèn s¸ch nµy cµng nhiÒu cµng tèt. Tr-íc n¨m 1949, kh«ng cã bÊt kú mét tr-êng cao ®¼ng hay ®¹i häc nµo mµ chØ cã mét vµi tr-êng tiÓu häc vµ trung häc ë n-íc nµy. Vµo n¨m 1953, chÝnh phñ A RËp thµnh lËp Bé Gi¸o Dôc. §©y thùc sù lµ b-íc më ®Çu cho mét nÒn gi¸o dôc hiÖn ®¹i cho n-íc nµy. Khi nh÷ng kü s- ph¸t hiÖn ra dÇu ë A RËp th× ®Êt n-íc nµy trë nªn giµu cã. C¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña n-íc nµy b¾t ®Çu nhËn thÊy r»ng c«ng nghÖ Ph-¬ng T©y lµ cÇn thiÕt ®Ó gióp ®Êt n-íc ph¸t triÓn. C¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o vÉn tin r»ng nÒn gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o lµ rÊt quan träng, nh-ng mét n-íc hiÖn ®¹i kh«ng thÓ ph¸t triÓn c«ng nghÖ mµ chØ dùa vµo mét hÖ thèng gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o truyÒn thèng. Hä quyÕt ®Þnh bæ sung c¸c m«n häc kh¸c vµo hÖ thèng gi¸o dôc. Hä muèn kÕt hîp nÒn gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o truyÒn thèng víi nÒn gi¸o dôc c«ng nghÖ hiÖn ®¹i cña Ph-¬ng T©y. T«n gi¸o vÉn lµ mét yÕu tè quan träng trong nÒn gi¸o dôc cña A RËp. Tuy nhiªn hiÖn nay häc sinh, sinh viªn A RËp còng hocj tÊt c¶ c¸c m«n häc kh¸c nh- : ng«n ng÷ ( ®Æc biÖt lµ tiÕng Anh), lÞch sö, khoa häc, to¸n häc, vi tÝnh v.v.. Tr-íc n¨m 1950 chØ cã 20000 häc sinh, sinh viªn ë A RËp. N¨m 1982 con sè nµy lªn tíi 1780000. HÖ thèng gi¸o dôc cña A RËp ph¸t triÓn nhanh h¬n bÊt kú mét n-íc nµo trªn thÕ giíi. TÊt c¶ c¸c tr-êng häc ë a RËp lµ miÔn phÝ. ChÝnh phñ còng cho sinh viªn cao ®¼ng vµ ®¹i häc thªm tiÒn ®Ó nh»m ®éng viªn hä. Tuy nhiªn c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o kh«ng thÝch cho phô n÷ ®i häc. Hä cho r»ng phô n÷ cã häc cã thÓ g©y nh÷ng ¶nh h-ëng xÊu cho gia ®×nh vµ x· héi. Do vËy, ®Ó lµm cho c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o chÊp nhËn cho phñ n÷ ®i häc th× chÝnh phñ ph¶i dÆt viÖc gi¸o dôc phô n÷ theo c¸c t«n chØ cña c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o.


69 Phô n÷ theo häc c¸c tr-êng cao ®¼ng vµ ®Æc biÖt lµ theo häc ë c¸c khoa vÒ phô n÷ ë c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc dµnh riªng cho phô n÷. Gi¸o viªn ë ®©y lµ n÷. V× kh«ng cã ®ñ gi¸o viªn n÷ nªn chÝnh phñ cho phÐp gi¸o viªn nam gi¶ng d¹y phô n÷ A RËp th«ng qua ph-¬ng tiÖn truyÒn h×nh. Tr-íc hÕt, phô n÷ theo dâi c¸c bµi gi¶ng trªn v« tuyÕn vµ sau ®ã hä cã thÓ nãi chuyÖn víi thÇy gi¸o qua ®iÖn tho¹i ®Ó hái vÒ nh÷ng th¾c m¾c. ThÇy gi¸o vµ sinh viªn n÷ kh«ng ®-îc phÐp gÆp nhau. Sau khi tèt nghiÖp, phô n÷ A RËp cã nhiÒu c¬ héi xin viÖc gièng nh- nam giíi. Hä trë thµnh c¸c gi¸o viªn, b¸c sÜ, c¸c nhµ ho¹t ®éng x· héi, c¸c nhµ khoa häc vµ nhiÒu viÖc kh¸c n÷a. N¬i lµm viÖc hÇu nh- còng t¸ch rêi phô n÷ víi nam giíi. §iÒu ®ã cã nghÜa lµ phô n÷ vµ nam giíi kh«ng ®-îc phÐp lµm viÖc cïng mét chç chØ trõ ë bÖnh viÖn. Phñ n÷ A RËp muons cã nhiÒu c¬ héi t×m viÖc lµm h¬n. Nh-ng mét vµi phô n÷ kh«ng muèn cïng lµm viÖc víi nam giíi. Trong mét bµi b¸o gÇn ®©y d¨ng trong mét t¹p chÝ cã tªn gäi T¹p ChÝ Trung §«ng, mét vµi sinh viªn n÷ nãi r»ng hä thùc sù kh«ng muèn lµm viÖc cïng nam giíi.

ASSIGNMENT 15: Translate the following text into Vietnamese After getting high on the hopes of striking black gold off the shores of Vietnam, the world's oil giants have now glumly awoken to the hazards- - the immense coot of investment and, so far, the meagre rewards. The mood was subdued among foreign companies exhibiting their technological wares this week at the second International Oil and Gas Fair in Hanoi. "The results aren't bad, but they, are not as great as some had hoped, "said Melchior de Matharel, head of Southeast Asia operations with the French firm Total. If caution is now the watchword, disappointed foreign petroleum companies may draw comfort from the recent. "encouraging" discoveries of oil made by Mitsubishi Oil and the Malaysian firm Petronas Carigali, and of gas made by British Petroleum (BP), off the coast of southern Vietnam. "Oil exploration is plainly hazardous. But the good news is that the Vietnamese basin is oilbearing", Matharel said. Prospectors enthusiasm was abruptly dampened last May, when BHP Petroleum of Australia announced the reserves at the Dai Hung ("Great Bear") site, 375 kilometers (235 miles) southeast of Ho Chi Minh City, were far smaller than projected. BHP initially estimated the site to contain 700 million to 800 million barrels of oil, but has now downgraded it to 100 million to 200 million. Production is scheduled to begin neat month, at a modest level of 25,000 barrels per day. That was a tough -blow for BHP. It has already invested 240 million dollars in Vietnam- - and half of it went into the first phase of the Dai Hung project.


70 BHP headed an international consortium, selected in April 1993, to develop the field at a total cost estimated at 1.5 billion dollars. BHP holds 43.75 percent of the consortium, with Petronas holding 20 percent, and state - owned PetroVietnam 15 percent. The remaining 21.25-percent share is equally split between Total and the Japanese firm Sumitomo. For the moment, it is the Japanese- the main buyers of Vietnam's crude oil- who appear to have had the best luck. The Japan Vietnam Petroleum Co. (JVPC), a branch of the Mitsubishi Oil group, announced in June a "very promising" discovery at the Rang Dong (:Dawn) site. According to the results of an exploratory well, the field may be "of the same caliber" as neighbouring Bach Ho ("White Tiger") the only site now being commercially exploited in Vietnam. Bach Ho's reserves are estimated at a maximum of :300 million barrels.But et will take at least another year and other drillings to precisely determine the scope of the Japanese discovery, industry experts in Honoi cautioned. Pessimists say it will take four to five years in all to gauge Vietnam's oil potentially. Gas exploration and exploitation have also proven to be a risk business, although fortune has so far smiled on British Petroleum, which announced in September the discovery of two gas pockets, estimated to be 57 billion cubic metres (1,995 billion cubic feet), in Nam Con Son, south of Ho Chi Minh City. BHP and the Norwegian national company, Statoil, bought shares in the offshore concession, held by the Indian state firm Oil and Natural Gas Co. (ONGC), in 1992. The consortium, with ONGC holding 55 percent, BP 30 percent. and Statoil five percent, has conducted exploration and tests under a shared - production contract with PetroVietnam, which in turn has taken a five percent stake on the interests of each of the European partners. Translate the following text into English ViÖc háng hãc cña mét bé phËn tµu vò trô con thoi ®iÒu khiÓn b»ng ph¶n lùc vµo h«m thø t- buéc c¬ quan NA SA ph¶i ho·n mét cuéc kh¶o s¸t tr¸i ®Êt b»ng radar khi chuyÕn bay nghiªn cøu m«i sinh 10 ngµy cña tµu Endeavour bay qua mèc nöa phi tr×nh. C¬ quan Qu¶n TrÞ Hµng Kh«ng vµ Khong Gian Quèc Gia cho biÕt vÊn ®Ò nµy lµ mét tr¬ lùc ®èi víi phßng thÝ nghiÖm Radar trÞ gi¸ 384 triÖu ®«la, nh-ng kh«ng g©y ra mét nguy hiÓm nµo ®èi víi c¸c nhµ du hµnh vò trô. C¸c viªn chøc nãi r»ng bé phËn chïm ®iÖn tö kiÓm tra nhiªn liÖu bÞ hang, kh«ng ph¸t hiÖn ®-îc mét hÖ thèng rß ritrong bé phËn ddaayr bÞ nghi lµ nguyªn nh©n lµm ng-ng ho¹t ®éng n¨m bé phËn kh¸c gäi lµ vÐcnª (verniers) cÇn thiÕt ®Ó chØnh l¹i cho ®óng ®-êng ®i cña tµu con thoi trong quyx ®¹o vµ chØ dÉn chÝnh x¸c khÝ cô trong khoang hµng ®Õn môc tiªu trªn hµnh tinh. Kelly Humphries, ng-êi thuyÕt minh chuyÕn bay, vµo chiÒu h«m thø t- ®· gäi sù gi¸n ®o¹n mang tÝnh khoa häc nµy lµ ‘‘sù nghØ


71 t¹m thêi’’ trong lóc c¸c kÜ s- trªn mÆt ®Êt véi nghÜ ra mét c¸ch ®Ó c¸c m¸y tÝnh cña con thoi kh«ng ®Ó ý ®Õn bé phËn kiÓm tra nhiªn liÖu bÞ háng. Theo «ng Rich Jackson, Gi¸m ®èc ®iÒu khiÓn chuyÕn bay th× con tµu Endeavour víi 38 bé phËn ®Èy lín h¬n sÏ tiªu thô qu¸ nhiÒu nhiªn liÖu vµ lo¹i trõ ®iÒu mong ®îi con tµu sÏ lµm lan ra tai häa thiªn nhiªn quanh ®Þa cÇu. Vµo chiÒu h«m thø t-, tµu con thoi bay theo ph-¬ng thøc tù l¸i (hoa tiªu tù ®éng) vµ phi hµnh ®oµn ®· lµm viÖc theo hai ca suèt 24 giê liÒn kÓ tõ lóc cÊt c¸nh khái Florida vµo h«m thø s¸u, ®· h-ëng mät giê nghØ gi¶i lao bÊt ngê. ¤ng Jackson dù ®o¸n r»ng kho¶ng phÇn mÒm sÏ s½n sµng lµm viÖc vµo chiÒu thø ba, kho¶ng 24 giê sau khi trôc trÆc kü thuËt x¶y ra. Nãi víi c¸c phãng viªn t¹i tr¹m kiÓm so¸t chuyÕn bay t¹i Houston, «ng Jackson cho biÕt: ‘‘ Bé phËn chÊt hµng vµ nhãm kiÓm so¸t chuyÕn bay ®ang lµ viÖc rÊt tÝch cùc ®Ó phôc håi viÖc kiÓm so¸t c¸c vecnª vµ gi¶m thiÓu ¶nh h-ëng trong thêi gian cã sù cè.’’ C¸c nhµ khoa häc nãi r»ng sù trôc trÆc nµy kh«ng lµm h- háng c¸c h×nh ¶nh, nh-ng sÏ ph¶i mÊt mét thêi gian l©u ®Õn gÊp 5 lÇn ®Ó xö lý c¸c d÷ liÖu ra ®a vµ m¸y tÝnh cña chóng.


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ASSIGNMENT 16: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Britain is divided into 651 constituencies and people in each constituency select one person to represent them in the House of Commons. The simple majority system of voting is used in parliamentary elections in Britain and voting is by secret ballot. There are moves to have this changed to a preferential system. Voting is voluntary. All British people who are 18 years of age or over and not legally barred from voting can vote. Members of the Royal Family peers and peeresses who are members of the House of Lords and foreign nationals are not allowed to vote. People who are disqualified include those who are kept in hospital for mental health reasons people serving prison sentences and people convicted within the previous five years of corruption. Candidates Anyone aged 21 or over holding British citizenship, or a citizen of another commonwealth country or the Irish Republic, who is qualified. May stand for election to Parliament. People who are not qualified are members of the House of Lords, elegy of the Church of England, Church of Ireland, Church of Scotland and the Roman Catholic Church. Neither are bankrupts, public servants and officials and those who have been sentenced to more than one year‟s imprisonment. Candidates in a constituency have to pay a sum of money, about £1,000, as a deposit and if they get at least 5% of the votes they will get the money back. General Elections In theory, the election for or seats in the House of Commons takes place every five years. But, elections are usually held before the end of the five-year term. The Prime Minister has the right to decide when to hold a general election. Then the queen formally dissolves parliament and calls for the election of the new one. Britain is divided into areas called constituencies of roughly equal population. General elections often happen on a Thursday and people still go to word as usual. Therefore, the hours of voting are flexible, from 07:00 to 22:00; to give voters are given a ballot paper with the names of the candidates for that constituency, usually in alphabetical order, and sometimes with a brief description of the candidates‟ backgrounds or their parties. After that, spoiled ballots are eliminated. The legal ballot papers are counted and the candidate with the most support is the winner and becomes the Member of Parliament for the constituency. The Campaign Three weeks before a general election is the time for the campaign. The campaign takes place in every constituency all over Britain. Candidates resort to different means to attract their supporters. Canvassing Canvassing means local party workers go from door to door and ask people how they intend to vote. In this way, candidates can know people‟s voting intentions and attitudes so that they can adapt their campaign tactics. Party workers also revisit those who have promised to support their party and urge them to do so on polling day.


73 Public meetings Candidates have the right to hold public meetings whenever and wherever available during an election campaign. They invite guests including influential members of their parties, and wellknow people such as writers, actors and actresses, who support them, to the meetings and try to influence voters. Such meetings are often covered in detail by the media. The mass media Because newspapers and magazines in Britain are privately owned and financially independent of the political parties, the owners and the editors can decide to support any party they like, but radio and television are required to be impartial. News programmes cover all aspects of the major parties‟ campaigns. On these occasions, candidates appear on television and radio day and night. They are televised in factories, school, youth centers, and the farms, giving speeches about their party policies. Talkback radio allows people to pose questions to political leaders, and reports and commentaries from journalists holding interviews with leading figures from all the parties are broadcast. Manifestos The main parties publish manifestos during the election campaign. Manifesto are often launched by each party at a press conference and inform people of their policies and what they will do if they win the election. Manifestos might include the past achievements of the party and can attack the policies of the their opponents.

ASSIGNMENT 17: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Ha Noi- Ha Noi is trying to nearly double its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to US$1,100 per capita over the next five years. The ambitious projection has been based on the current annual GDP growth rate of 11.9 per cent. Participants at yesterday‟s Ha Noi Communist Party Conference were told if the current growth rate continues as expected, it should reach 15 per cent by the turn of the century. This should translate into a doubling of the GDP. The conference was also told the traditional rural and small industry base of the capital city‟s economy had rapidly been replaced by industrial endeavor and the trading and services industries, and that about 19 per cent of Hanoi families could now be classified as well-off. Last year‟s average GDP was estimated at $650 per capita compared with $470 in 1991. The sharp rise was due to massive investments from both foreign and domestic sources estimated as VND32, 570 (about $3.257 billion), according to a senior Ha Noi party official. Deputy Secretary of the Ha Noi Party Committee Le Xuan Tung told participants at the conference yesterday that part of the investment was spent on transfer of new technology and renovating equipment in existing industrial plants. The major part of the investment, however, was for setting up new joint ventures with foreign partners. By the end of 1995, up to 210 foreign investment projects had been licensed to operate in Ha Noi involving $3.3billion of prescribed capital. Of this amount $1.3billion has been consumed, Tung said.


74 This has helped Ha Noi along its chosen path to restructure its economic base towards industries and services rather than rely on its traditional agricultural and small industry underpinning. The proportion of industries and that of trade and services in Ha Noi GDP in the 1991-1995 period rose sharply to 33.1 per cent and 61.6 per cent respectively. Meanwhile the agricultural share fell to just 5.3 per cent of the total GDP share, Tung said. Tung said the change in the economic face of Hanoi was because of the sharp increase in the annual growth rate for the past five years. He said that a growth rate of 11.9 per cent was ensured year after year, which is almost double the figure set for the same period by the Ha Noi Party Committee back in 1991. Tung told participants that by the year 2000 the growth rate would reach 15 per cent per year and GDP per capita would be estimated at $1,100. By that stage the industrial share in Ha Noi GDP should reach 40 per cent, up seven per cent on the current rate. Five industries have been targeted as the key industries for the city, Tung said. They include mechanical engineering and electrical equipment production; textiles, garments and leather goods; the food processing industry electronics; and construction materials. In the next five years Ha Noi would need up to $9 billion in investment to develop new industrial zones, renovate existing industrial zones and build more high rise buildings in the inner city for office space, trade centers and entertainment centers. Hanoi has about 10 established and five new industrial zones. Many of the existing industrial areas need intensive-investment to replace old technology, and expand their premises for more plants. However the deputy party secretary for Hanoi reminded participants to the conference that more effort was needed to keep development in line with what he termed as a socialistoriented market economy. Ha Noi authorities had “failed to pay due attention to the consolidation of socialist production relationships” while the administration at all levels remained weak and “the role of the Party in different economic and social organizations remained limited,” he said. Tung‟s comments were supported by Party General Secretary Do Muoi, who also addressed the conference. The party leader told the Ha Noi conference that despite its initial success, Ha Noi should be more aware of economic development and human resource development. About six per cent of Hanoi‟s population remained unemployed which, Do Muoi said, was a challenge Ha Noi had to tackle. Part of the solution was to set up production groups, which could be engaged in small industries and the services industry. Deputy Secretary Tung said that in the 1991-1995 period the number of well-to-do families increased to nearly 19 per cent while those families classified as financially needy dropped to about two per cent.


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ASSIGNMENT 18: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Gardening is a traditional occupation in Vietnam and appeared at the same time or earlier than water rice cultivation. But VAC (abbreviation for “vuon” (garden), “ao” (pond for keeping fish) and “chuong” (husbandary) is an economic model that was introduced only 10 years ago. Foreigners who have come to Vietnam to learn about VAC in Vietnam say it is not very efficient in production scale and performance, but is a uniform cultivation model bringing both economic benefit and environmental advantages. From its first days of operation VAC has continually cemented its role in the national economic development. VAC now operates in 53 provinces, with over 10 million farmer households using the model. In recent years, VAC has been expanded in most localities throughout the country. Tens of thousands of hectares (on average) farms were set up in 13 midland and mountainous provinces) and -orchards were expanded to 350000-400,000 ha. This application of VAC became the main fruit suppliers for the country, simultaneously meeting export demand. According to the FAO, Vietnam's fruit output is at nearly four million tones per year, world's fruit output per capital at 65 kg, Asia Pacific 31 kg and Vietnam 61 kg. VAC has now become significant for the country's poverty alleviation and hunger eradication campaign providing on - the - spot jobs, prevention of malnutrition, permanent agriculture and settlement and for plantations for bare hills and barren land. Living standards of VAC households have improved greatly with revenue from VAC operations usually providing 60% of household's total income. VAC output value accounts for one of third of agricultural output value and will probably in-crease further. VAC has made rapid growth in the last 10 years, but has not penetrated all rural areas. If intensive cultivation and crop specialization was carried out through out the country, Vietnam's fruit output could reach 8 million tones per year in the 21st century. VAC should be considered as a national agricultural programme. If VAC is encouraged to reach its full potential, it will certainty obtain further effective growth contributing to the national economy and the environmental protection.


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ASSIGNMENT 19: Translate the following text into English H«m thø Hai võa råi, c¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu cho r»ng hä ®· cã b»ng chøng ®Ó kÕt luËn r»ng ph-¬ng ph¸p ®iÒu trÞ thùc nghiÖm b»ng c¸ch truyÒn huyÕt t-¬ng lµm cho bÖnh ph¸t triÓn chËm lai cho bÖnh nh©n nhiÔm HIV d-¬ng tÝnh vµ kÐo dµi thªm thêi gian sèng cho c¸c bÖnh nh©n AIDS. Tuy nhiªn, «ng Abraham ë khoa huyÕt häc cña §H Cambridge, nãi r»ng mÆc dï c¸ch ch÷a bÖnh miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng lµ sù ®ét ph¸ trong viÖc ®iÒu trÞ bÖnh AID S vµ kh«ng g©y ph¶n øng phô nµo, th× còng kh«ng nªn m« t¶ nã nh- mét ph-¬ng ph¸p ch÷a trÞ. Trong phÇn tr×nh bµy cña m×nh t¹i mét héi nghÞ ë Lu©n §«n «ng nãi:’’Døt kho¸t ®ã kh«ng ph¶i lµ mét ph-¬ng ph¸p ch÷a trÞ. Ch¼ng thÊy g× lµ ch÷a trÞ c¶, nh-ng h×nh nh- nã lµ h×nh thøc ch÷a trÞ tèt nhÊt.’’ ¤ng Karpasnãi viÖc nghiªn cøu cña Ph¸p vµ Mü vÒ c¸ch ch÷a bÖnh miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng ®-îc th«ng b¸o t¹i héi nghÞ ®· lµm cho nghiªn cøu ban ®Çu cña «ng v÷ng ch¾c h¬n. ¤ng tuyªn bè trong mét cuéc pháng vÊn qua ®iÖn tho¹i r»ng:’’ ViÖc nghiªn cwuws cã tÝnh chÊt mß mÉm vµ h¹n chÕ b»ng thuèc trÊn an chøng tá r»ng viÖc ch÷a trÞ nµy cã lîi cho bÖnh nh©n m¾c bÖnh AID S vµ kÐo dµi thªm thêi gian sèng cña hä.’’ ¤ng nãi r»ng nh÷ng nghiªn cøu do c«ng ty Hemacare ë Califonia vµ hai bÑnh viÖn ë Pa ri tiÕn hµnh còng cho they r»ng c¸ch ch÷a trÞ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng gióp lµm chem. L¹i sù tÊn c«ng d÷ déi cuarv bÖnh AIDS ë c¸c bÖnh nh©n khi xÐt nghiÖm they cã HIV d-¬ng tÝnh, lo¹i vi rót g©y ra bÖnh chÕt ng-êi nµy.’’ Qua c¸ch ch÷a trÞ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng, hµng th¸ng c¸c bÖnh nh©n ®-îc truyÒn nöa lÝt huyÕt t-¬ng lÊy tõ ng-êi kháe m¹nh cã nhiÔm HIV d-¬ng tÝnh. M¸u ®-îc lÊy hÕt c¸c hång cÇu vµ b¹ch hang cÇu vµ kh«ng cã vi rót HIV, nh-ng cã scws ®Ò kh¸ng trung hßa cao diÖt ®-îc vi rót. ¤ng Karpras nãi lµ lÇn ®Çu tiªn vµo n¨m 1985 «ng ®· ph¸t hiÖn nh÷ng ng-êi kháe m¹nh nh-ng bÞ nhiÔm HIV cã søc ®Ò kh¸ng nµy ë møc cao trong m¸u trong khi c¸c bÖnh nh©n AID S mÊt c¸c kh¸ng thÓ trung hßa nµy cã kh¶ n¨ng chèng l¹i bÖnh truyÒn nhiÔm. Bèn bÖnh nh©n ë Cambridge lµ nh÷ng ng-êi ®Çu tiªn ®-îc ch÷a trÞ theo c¸ch nµy vµ sau ®ã c¸c thö nghiÖm trªn qui m« nhá ®-îc


77 tiÕn hµnh ë Lu©n §«n vµo n¨m 1988 vµ 1989. Tuy nhiªn «ng Karpras nãi r»ng «ng kh«ng nhËn ®-îc quyx dµnh cho c¸c nghiªn cøu nµy ë n-íc Anh do ®ã viÖc nghiªn cøu ph¶i ®-îc tiÕn hµnh ë Mü vµ Ph¸p. Thö nghiÖm cña Hemancare nghiªn cøu tÝnh hiÖu qu¶ cña c¸ch ch÷a trÞ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng ®-îc tiÕn hµnh trªn 220 bÖnh nh©n AIDS h¬n 3 n¨m. Trong 12 th¸ng ®Çu cuéc thùc nghiÖm cho they møc tö vong gi¶m rÊt nhiÒu trong khi bÖnh nh©n ®-îc truyÒn huyÕt t-¬ng, trong khi bÖnh nh©n trong nhãm kiÒm chÕ b»ng thuèc trÊn an kh«ng ®-îc ch÷a trÞ th× tû lÖ tö vong cao gÊp 5 lÇn. Nhãm ®-îc ®iÒu trÞ cã 1 ng-êi bÞ chÕt trong sè 21 ng-êi, trong nhãm ng-êi ®-îc ®iÒu trÞ b»ng thuèc trÊn an th× cã 6 trong tæng sè 30 bÞ tö vong. H¬n n÷a, sè bÖnh l©y nhiÔm do bÖnh AID S g©y ra thÊp h¬n nhiÒu trong nhãm ®-îc ®iÒu trÞ vµ chÝnh b¶n th©n nh÷ng ng-êi hiÕn m¸u h×nh nh- hä còng they cã lîi. C¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu cho r»ng viÖc hiÕn m¸u cã vÎ nh- kÝch thÝch viÖc s¶n sinh c¸c kh¸ng thÓ trung hßa trong m¸u cña c¸c bÖnh nh©n nhiÔm HIV d-¬ng tÝnh. ¤ng Karpras nãi r»ng c¸c nghiªn cøu cña Ph¸p nh÷ng kÕt qu¶ t-¬ng tù. ¤ng nãi lµ c¸c nghiªn cøu Mü vµ Ph¸p cho b»ng chøng kÕt luËn ®Çu tiªn lµ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng lµ mét ph-¬ng ph¸p ®iÌu trÞ hiÖu.’’

còng tiªu c¸ch bÖnh

®em biÓu ch÷a AIDS

l¹i cña trÞ h÷u

ASSIGNMENT 20: Translate the following text into English H«m kh¸c, bµ l¹i kÓ vÒ mét gi¸o sÜ bµ biÕt. Vµo mét ®ªm, «ng ta ®· thøc giÊc vµ thÊy mét ng-êi l¹ mÆt ®ang dùa vµo cuèi gi-êng «ng. Mét chót lo sî, vÞ gi¸o sÜ ®· b×nh tÜnh hái xem ng-êi ®ã muèn g×. ‘‘Th-a, con muèn x-ng téi‘‘, víi mét giäng khµn khµn, ng-êi ®µn «ng ®¸p. VÞ gi¸o sÜ b¶o ng-êi ®ã r»ng h·y ®îi ®Õn s¸ng mai v× lóc nµy kh«ng tiÖn ®Ó x-ng téi. Ng-êi ®µn «ng l¹i th-a: ‘‘LÇn tr-íc con ®· ®Õn x-ng téi, nh-ng v× xÊu hæ, con ®· kh«ng nh¾c ®Õn mét téi lçi con ®· g©y ra, vµ ®iÒu nµy ®· lu«n ¸m ¶nh trong t©m trÝ con cho ®Õn giê. ‘‘ VÞ gi¸o sÜ biÕt ®©y lµ mét tr-êng hîp rÊt tåi tÖ. Ng-êi ®µn «ng ®ã ®· thiÕu thµnh thËt khi x-ng téi vµ cã lÏ «ng ta sÏ ph¶i nhËn l·nh téi chÕt.VÞ gi¸o sÜ choµng dËy vµ chuÈn bÞ ¸o quÇn. §Õn lóc tiÕng gµ b¾t ®Çu g¸y ngoµi s©n, «ng nh×n quanh nh-ng kh«ng thÊy ng-êi


78 ®©u c¶, chØ ngöi thÊy mïi gç ch¸y. ¤ng nh×n l¹i gi-êng nh-ng còng kh«ng thÊy dÊu ®«i bµn tay ®ang bÞ ch¸y. LÝ do lµ v× ng-êi ®µn «ng ®ã ®· thiÕu ch©n thµnh lóc x-ng téi. C©u chuyªn ®· ®Ó l¹i trong t«i mét nçi kinh hoµng. §iÒu tåi tÖ nhÊt lµ lóc bµ Ryan bµy cho chóng t«i c¸ch ®Ó ph¸n xÐt l-¬ng t©m. Chóng ta kªu tªn §øc Chóa Trêi cã v« cí kh«ng? Chóng ta cã ph¶i th¶o kÝnh víi cha mÑ kh«ng? (T«i ®· hái bµ ta lµ cã ph¶i kÝnh träng «ng bµ kh«ng vµ bµ b¶o lµ cã!) Cã yªu th-¬ng hµng xãm nh- chÝnh cho b¶n th©n m×nh kh«ng? (T«i l¹i nghÜ ®Õn sè tiÒn mµ Nora cã ®-îc vµo thø s¸u hµng tuÇn.) TÝnh l¹i th× t«i còng ®· vi ph¹m 10 ®iÒu r¨n, tÊt c¶ chØ v× bµ néi t«i. Vµ ®Õn b©y giê t«i cã thÓ nhËn ra r»ng chõng nµo néi t«i cßn ë trong nhµ t«i, chõng ®ã t«i vÉn cßn tiÕp tôc ph¹m téi. T«i sî x-ng téi ®Õn mÊt hån vÝa. Ngµy c¶ líp ®i, t«i gi¶ vê ®au r¨ng, hy väng sù v¾ng mÆt cña t«i sÏ kh«ng g©y sù chó ý. Nh-ng vµo lóc 3 giê, khi t«i ®ang c¶m thÊy yªn æn th× mét anh chµng ch¹y dÕn, cïng víi lêi nh¾n cña bµ Ryan b¶o r»ng t«i ph¶i x-ng téi vµo ngµy thø b¶y t¹ nhµ nguyÖn cïng ví nh÷ng ng-êi cßn l¹i. Tåi tÖ h¬n n÷a, mÑ t«i kh«ng ®i cïng t«i mµ l¹i lµ Nora. Giê ®©y, Nora n¾m buån b·. ®Õn bÖnh

Nora ®· cã c¸ch lµm t«i ®au ®ín mÇ mÑ kh«ng hÒ biÕt. lÊy tay t«i khi chóng t«i xuèng ch©n ®åi, mØm c-êi ChÞ Êy tá vÎ th-¬ng h¹i t«i nh- thÓ chÞ ®ang ®-a t«i viÖn cho mét ca mæ.

‘‘¤i Chóa ¬i! Xin h·y gióp chóng con! ‘‘ Nora rªn rØ. ‘‘Mµ còng ch¼ng cã g× ®¸ng tiÕc v× em ®©u ph¶i lµ mét ®øa bÐ ngoan ph¶i kh«ng Jackie? ¤i, Jackie, tim chÞ ®ang nhãi ®au v× em ®©y! Em sÏ nghØ nh- thÕ nµo vÒ téi lçi cña m×nh nhØ? Nµy, ®õng quªn x-ng c¸i téi em ®· ph¹m víi bµ ®Êy nhÐ! ‘‘ ‘‘§Ó em ®i! ‘‘, võa nãi t«i cè giËt tay m×nh ra khái tay Nora. ‘‘Em kh«ng muèn ®i x-ng téi ®©u‘‘ ‘‘Sao l¹i kh«ng, em ph¶i ®i Jackie ¹!‘‘ Nora còng ®¸p l¹i víi giäng ®iÖu ®µy vÎ th-¬ng h¹i ®ã. ‘‘Em ph¶i ®i, nÕu kh«ng cha xø sÏ ®Õn nhµ t×m em ®Êy. Cã Chóa míi biÕt, chÞ kh«ng c¶m thÊy téi cho em chót nµo c¶. Em cã nhí c¸i lÇn em ®· cè giÕt chÞ b»ng con dao c¾t b¸nh m× kh«ng? Vµ c¶ nh÷ng lêi lÏ em ®· nãi n÷a? ChÞ kh«ng biÕt råi Cha sÏ lµm g× víi em. Cã thÓ Cha sÏ göi em cho ®øc Gi¸m Môc. ‘‘


79 M·i tËn b©y giê t«i vÉn cßn nhí lµ t«i ®· suy nghÜ mét c¸ch cay ®¾ng ®Õn thÕ nµo. T«i nghÜ nÕu t«i cã ®i x-ng téi th× chÞ Êy sÏ kh«ng biÕt ®Õn mét nöa nh÷ng g× t«i sÏ ph¶i nãi vµ lóc Êy t«i bçng hiÓu t¹i sao c¸i anh chµng trong c©u chuyÖn cña bµ Ryan ®· x-ng téi mét c¸ch kh«ng thµnh thËt. D-êng nhuwtooi còng c¶m th¸y rÊt xÊu hæ v× mäi ng-êi ®· kh«ng ngõng chª tr¸ch anh chµng ¸y. T«i vÉn cßn nhí nh- in c¸i ®åi cã con dèc dÉn xuèng nhµ thê. T«i cßn nhí c¶ nh÷ng ¸nh tµ d-¬ng tr¶i dµi hai bªn ngän ®åi n»m xa xa c¸i thung lòng bªn bê s«ng. Trong c¶nh t-îng Êy, khi quay nh×n l¹i nh÷ng kho¶ng kh«ng cña nh÷ng ng«i nhµ n»m c¸ch nhau, t«i bæng liªn t-ëng ®Õn c¸i nh×n cuèi cïng cña Adam vÒ v-ên ®Þa ®µng. Khi Nora ®· kÐo t«i xuèng hÕt nh÷ng bËc tam cÊp ®Õn s©n nhµ thê, chÞ Êy bçng ®æi giäng. Nora trë nªn hung d÷ vµ ®éc ¸c nhchÝnh con ng-êi thËt cña chÞ Êy. ‘‘§Õn råi ®ã’’ Nora cÊt cao giäng rÊt tù m·n råi quay manh ng-êi ®i nhanh vµo cöa nhµ thê. Khi s¾p b-íc ®i, chÞ kh«ng quªn nÐm mét c©u n÷a: ‘‘Vµ tau hi väng Cha sÏ cho mµy ®äc thËt nhiÒu kinh hèi lçi. §óng lµ ®å h®èn. ‘‘ Råi th× t«i biÕt m×nh ®· bÞ l¹c lâng thËt sù. T«i ®ang ®øng tr-íc ‘‘Tßa ph¸n xÐt‘‘. Khi t«i b-íc vµo, c¸ch cöa víi nh÷ng « kÝnh ®Çy mµu s¾c bçng ®ãng sÇm sau l-ng t«i. ¸nh mÆt trêi vôt t¾t ®Ó nh-êng chç cho bãng tèi th¼m s©u. Giã cø xµo x¹c bªn ngoµi lµm cho sù im lÆng bªn trong d-êng nh- vì ra l¹nh gi¸ d-íi ch©n t«i. Nora ngåi ®ã, ®èi diÖn víi cËu bÐ Jackie, bªn c¹ch tßa x-ng téi. Tr-íc Nora cã thªm hai cô giµ n÷a. Råi bçng nhiªn, mét bãng ®en tr«ng rÊt th¶m h¹i ®ang di ®Õn ®øng sau l-ng t«i cø nh- thÓ kÑp t«i vµo gi÷a ®Ó t«i kh«ng thÓ nµo tho¸t ®-îc dÉu t«i cã can ®¶m ®Õn ®©u. C¸i bãng ®en míi ®Õn - mét ng-êi ®µn «ng- ®øng ®ã, vßng tay l¹i, m¾t dâi lªn cao cÇu nguyÖn víi mét giäng rÊt ®çi thèng hèi. Lóc Êy t«i tù hái m×nh liÖu «ng Êy cã ph¶i lµ ng-êi còng gièng néi t«i kh«ng. Bëi v× chØ cã bµ míi khiÕn cho mét chµng trai ph¶i c- xö mét c¸ch th¶m th-¬ng nh- vËy. Nh-ng dï sao, anh Êy vÉn tèt h¬n t«i. Ýt ra anh ta ®· ®Õn ®©y ®Ó x-ng téi. Cßn t«i, cã thÓ t«i sÏ kh«ng x-ng téi mét c¸ch thµnh thËt, råi t«i sÏ bÞ chÕt ®i trong bãng ®ªm vµ liªn tôc trë vÒ ®Ó ph¸ ph¸ch ®å ®¹c.


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ASSIGNMENT 21: Translate the following texts into Vietnamese 1. Generally, after a time of stagnation, HCMC' s private textile embroidery industry has recovered and develop somewhat since 1991. Yet development is not stable because most private units work according to foreign orders. Consequently, they can't control their production plan, and labour price for making garments is limited by foreign partners (the labour cost of 1995 is equal to 65 - 70% of that in 1991 - 1992). Due to the very nature of the industry, the average wage of those working in this branch is only about VND 400,000 per month. Under the current fierce competition, the amount of 15% of total wages for social insurance and 2% for medical insurance that enterprises must contribute, if the proposed social insurance scheme comes into effect, will push up production costs to very high levels, making it difficult for Vietnamese ventures to compete effectively and occupy the market. To help private textile embroidery businesses survive, Mr. Nam has suggested, the State should amend the contribution rate of non - State ventures to Social Insurance schemes, as follows: - Social Insurance: 10% by enterprise, 3% by employee. - Medical Insurance: 1 % by enterprises, 1 % by employee The State should also issue a regulation concerning employees who are trained and recruited by an enterprise, and are obligated to work for at least two years. It is necessary that employees working at non-- State ventures should be given a work card. Employer agreement may be required if an employee want to leave his or her job. All members of HCMC's Textile - Embroidery Association agree on the implementation of contributing a part of total wages to Social and Medical Insurance, in compliance with the Labour Code. 2. Business leaders of big companies in HCMC have voiced difficulties they are facing with in the fierce competition against foreign companies, especially world giants. At a meeting on "How to encourage foreign investment and protect domestic production" held in HCMC last week, producers of Tico and Lux Detergent, P/S Cosmetics, Tribeco Soft Drink, Viet Thang Textiles, Saigon Beer and HCMC Poultry Company, had the same opinion that local enterprises are not in an equal footing in competing with foreign counterparts as they do not enjoy tax incentives as foreign-invested enterprises. Only a year after the US embargo was lifted, soft drink giants such as Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola, which have enjoyed superior advantages in capital, marketing policies and preferences under the Foreign Investment Law, have gradually eaten into the market shares of local producers. Other products are also in the same situation. Saigon Beer has to compete fiercely with breweries of foreign Joint-ventures. Local detergent producers, although capable of meeting domestic demand to the year 2000, have driven into the corner by giants such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever. To protect domestic production, local producers have proposed several measures to the Government. First, the State should devise specific development plans for foreign investment in terms of business field and geographical area and should not encourage foreign investment in products, which local enterprises can produce such as soft drink, detergent, paper and


81 cigarettes. Second, licenses should be granted only to JVs or 100% foreign-owned enterprises, which involve in projects requiring large capital, advanced technology or producing goods for export. Third, a law should be enacted against unfair competition that can lead to monopoly, dumping or price inflation that does not benefit consumers. Fourth, there should be a policy to encourage domestic investment and to grant domestic enterprises the same tax incentives as foreign investors enjoy. Fifth, a campaign to motivate local consumers to use domestic goods should be launched, creating conditions for domestic enterprises to develop.

ASSIGNMENT 22: Translate the following text into English Ng-êi nghÌo th-êng cã nhiÒu con h¬n nh÷ng ng-êi thuéc giíi trung l-u vµ th-îng l-u. Vµ d©n ë c¸c n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn th× cã nhiÒu con h¬n d©n cña c¸c n-íc ph¸t triÓn. Ngµy cµng cã nhiÒu chuyªn gia vÒ d©n sè thÊy ®-îc mèi quan hÖ kh¨ng khÝt gi÷a sè con trong gia ®×nh vµ sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ. T¹i mét vµi vïng, dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh cña chÝnh phñ cã lÏ kh«ng cã ®èi víi d©n nghÌo do ®iÒu kiÖn ®Þa lý. Ch¼ng h¹n nh- ng-êi d©n ë n«ng th«n sèng qu¸ xa trung t©m kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh. Do vËy hä kh«ng nhËn ®-îc th«ng tin vÒ c¸ch thøc h¹n chÕ sinh ®Î. Nh×n chung th× d©n thµnh thÞ cã nhiÒu th«ng tin h¬n d©n n«ng th«n. D©n ë thµnh thÞ ®-îc hæ trî dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh, vµ hä cã gia ®×nh Ýt con h¬n. V× thÕ chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng vÞ trÝ ®Þa lý n¬i mµ ng-êi d©n sèng ®ãng mét vai trß qan träng trong viÖc quyÕt dÞnh mät gia ®×nh nªn sinh bao nhiªu con: Gia ®×nh sèng ë thµnh thÞ th× cã Ýt con h¬n gia ®×nh sèng ë n«ng th«n. Nh÷ng lý do kh¸c lµ g×? Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ gia ®×nh, hay ë mét ph¹m vi lín h¬n lµ cña mét n-íc, lµ mét nh©n tè quan träng trong viÖc quyÕt ®Þnh sè con trong gia ®×nh. Ng-êi cã nhiÒu tiÒn th× cã Ýt con. Ng-îc l¹i, ng-êi nghÌo ë n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn muèn cã nhiÒu con. T¹i sao? Do hä ph¶i lÖ thuéc vµo sù ch¨m sãc cña con c¸i khi vÒ giµ. Hä kh«ng cã b¶o hiÓm, tiÒn h-u, hay sù gióp ®ì cña chÝnh phñ. Khi hä giµ c¶ th× ai sÏ gióp hä. C©u tr¶ lêi rÊt ®¬n gi¶n. Hä cã thÓ vµ sÏ quay sang nhê con c¸i gióp ®ì. Con c¸i cña hä b©y giê ®· trë thµnh ng-êi lín vµ ®ang ®i lµm viÖc. TÊt c¶ con c¸i cña hä ®Òu ph¶i chia sÏ vµ g¸nh v¸c tr¸ch nhiÖm ch¨m sãc cha mÑ. §èi vãi nhiÒu ng-êi nghÌo, mét gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ mét c¸ch thøc ®Ó ho¹ch ®Þnh cho t-¬ng lai. Chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ nguån b¶o hiÓm cho tuæi giµ.


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ASSIGNMENT 23: Translate the following text into Vietnamese “Indonesia will face a record food deficit this year as a result of lower harvests and a financial crisis that has raised the cost of imports”, two UN food agencies said yesterday. In a joint report, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the world Food programme (WFP) said large - scale international assistance would be needed to meet a short fall in rice, the country's main staple food. " FA0 - WFP urge donor countries to assist Indonesia in managing its drought- and financial crisis- related food problems " the report by the two Rome - based organizations said. Steep food price increases and rapidly growing unemployment were adding large numbers of people to those already living below the poverty line, the report added. " Approximately 7,5 million poor Indonesians in 15 provinces may experience acute food short ages during the upcoming dry season ". said the report on the world's fourth - most populous country whose economy has been shattered. The report was based on findings of an 11-- member mission from the two agencies, which visited the country from March 9 to April 1 in 1998. This year‟s yield would be about 47.5 million tones, 3.6 percent below last year's production. The shortfall was due to one of Indonesia's worst droughts this century. The report said the Indonesian government planned to import about 1.5 million tones of rice between April and September but this would still leave a deficit of two million tones. The shortfall would have to be made up by the international community in order to help the country to revive its battered economy. The major challenge facing the country was to ensure the food supply for some 7.5 million poor people since rice and overall food prices have increased by about 60 percent in the last 12 months, the report said.

ASSIGNMENT 24: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Vietnam on Wednesday said it would join the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) next year, dispelling speculation that Hanoi might put off membership until it. was better prepared. "Vietnam is now actively preparing all necessary conditions to become a full member of ASEAN next year," Deputy Prime Minister Phan Van Khai told business people over lunch organised by the Switzerland - based World Economic Forum (WEF), which is hosting a three day meeting here. Khai said that Hanoi would also participate in other regional organisations and would join the 17 - member Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum "When it is possible".


83 In Jakarta, Vietnamese Deputy Foreign Minister Vu Khoan was quoted as saying that his country would file an application for ASEAN membership by the end of this month or early in November. Khoan, who was speaking after meeting Jakarta - based ASEAN Secretary - general Ajil, Singh, said he did not expect any difficulties in joining, as quoted by the Antara news agency. APEC 's members include the ASEAN countries- - Brunei; Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand- - as well as the United States, Canada, Japan and China. An informal APEC leaders meeting will be held in Indonesia next month. Vietnam, which gained observer status in ASEAN in 1992, has said it is keen to become a full member of the group, which has ambitious programmes for cooperation, including the launch of an ASEAN Free Trade Area within 10 years. ASEAN officials had hoped that Vietnam might join ASEAN before leaders of the group 's six current members hold their next summit in Thailand in December 1995. "There are already regulations for cooperation in ASEAN. Once we are a member we will follow all regulations," Khai told reporters later, adding that Hanoi would work with others in Southeast Asia to ensure regional peace. Khai said his government would push ahead with reforms to improve conditions for foreign investment by putting a new legal framework and better administrative procedures in place. "We deeply understand that Vietnam is facing great challenges of global economic competition and so must try hard to do away with the danger of being left far behind by neighbouring countries, "he said

ASSIGNMENT 25: Translate the following texts into Vietnamese 1. Ngành sản xuất đã phát triển đáng kể trong thời kỳ tái thiết nền kinh tế của Philippines sau Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ II. Việc kiểm soát hàng hoá nhập khẩu của chính phủ đã thúc đẩy sự phát triển ngành công nghiệp nhẹ sản xuất các mặt hàng tiêu dùng cho thị trường trong nước. Vào những năm 70, chính phủ đã xây dựng bốn đặc khu kinh tế nhằm tăng cường sản xuất hàng hoá xuất khẩu. Các ngành công nghiệp trong các khu chế xuất này được khuyến khích sản xuất các mặt hàng xuất khẩu truyền thống. Những đặc khu kinh tế này đã thu hút vốn đầu tư của nước ngoài vào Philippines một phần nhờ vào chính sách miễn thuế cho các doanh nghiệp có vốn đầu tư nước ngoài. Xây dựng thành công những đặc khu kinh tế này đã tạo tiền đề cho sự ra đời các khu công nghiệp có qui mô lớn hơn. Chẳng hạn như, căn cứ hải quân Subic Bay của Mỹ trước đây nay đã trở thành một khu thương mại-công nghiệp khổng lồ ở Manila. Một khu công nghiệp-thương mại lớn với cơ sở hạ tầng hiện đại và được miễn thuế đã thu hút các ngành công nghiệp sản xuất hàng xuất khẩu và đầu tư nước ngoài. 2. Việt Nam đã nổ lực duy trì sự ổn định chính trị xã hội, phát triển kinh tế và quan hệ ngoại giao trong những năm gần đây. Những thay đổi tích cực của luật pháp đã ảnh hưởng không nhỏ đến tình hình sản xuất, tài chính và thương mại. Nhờ nông nghiệp thích ứng với thị trường tự do nên Việt Nam được xếp là nước xuất khẩu gạo lớn thứ hai trên thế giới sau Thái Lan. Tại Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh và vùng phụ cận những hoạt động dịch vụ và sản xuất đã phát triển và thay đổi nhanh chóng. Kinh tế phát triển mạnh một phần nhờ vào nguồn đầu tư vốn và công nghệ của gần 2 triệu Việt Kiều ở các nước trên thế giới. Đa số họ đã quay trở về Việt Nam để đầu tư và liên lạc với bà con.


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3. ChØ 1 n¨m sau khi lÖnh cÊm vËn cña Mü ®-îc b·i bá, c¸c c«ng ty n-íc gi¶i kh¸t khæng lå nh- Coca-cola, Pep si- Cola ®-îc h-ëng -u ®·i vÒ vèn, chÝnh s¸ch tiÕp thÞ vµ c¸c -u ®·i kh¸c theo luËt §Çu T- N-íc Ngoµi, nªn c¸c c«ng ty nµy ®· dÇn dÇn th©m nhËp thÞ phÇn cña c¸c nhà s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc. C¸c s¶n phÈm kh¸c còng r¬i vµo hoµn c¶nh t-¬ng tù. Bia Sµi Gßn ph¶i c¹nh tranh quyÕt liÖt víi c¸c c«ng ty bia liªn doanh víi n-íc ngoµi. C¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt bét giÆt trong n-íc, mÆc dï cã thÓ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu trong n-íc ®Õn n¨m 2005, nh-ng l¹i bÞ c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå nh- Procter & Gamble vµ Unilever dån vµo thÕ bÝ. 4. §Ó b¶o vÖ viÖc s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc, c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc ®· ®Ò nghÞ víi chÝnh phñ mét sè biÖn ph¸p. Thø nhÊt, nhµ n-íc nªn cã kÕ ho¹ch ph¸t triÓn dµnh riªng cho viÖc ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi vÒ l·nh vùc kinh doanh vµ ph©n bè theo vïng ®Þa lý vµ kh«ng nªn khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi vµo viÖc s¶n xuÊt ra c¸c s¶n phÈm mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc cã kh¶ n¨ng s¶n xuÊt ®-îc nh- n-íc gi¶i kh¸t, bét giÆt, giÊy vµ thuèc l¸. Thø hai, viÖc cÊp giÊy phÐp nªn ®-îc ¸p dông cho c¸c c«ng ty liªn doanh hay c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã vèn ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi tham gia vµo c¸c dù ¸n ®ßi hái cã nhiÒu vèn, c«ng nghÖ cao hay s¶n xuÊt c¸c mÆt hµng xuÊt khÈu. Thø ba, lµ nªn cã mét ®¹o luËt chèng ®èi viÖc c¹nh tranh kh«ng lµnh m¹nh cã thÓ dÉn ®éc quyÒn kinh doanh, ph¸ gi¸ lµm h¹i ng-êi tiªu dïng. 5. Trong tiếng Việt, từ “nước” vừa có ý nghĩa là quốc gia, vừa có ý nghĩa là nước, một liên kết về ngôn ngữ mà mối ràng buộc càng thấy rõ ràng sau một chuyến đi thăm vùng đất phì nhiêu nhất Việt Nam: Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long. Do phù sa bồi đắp của dòng sông Cửu Long làm phong phú vựa lúa đầy ắp này, tượng trưng cho nguồn lương thực của cả nước cũng như phong cách sinh hoạt kề cận sông nước của cư dân trong vùng. Đối với du khách, Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long là một trong những địa chỉ tham quan đẹp nhất Đông Nam Á, kết hợp cái kỳ ảo của vùng sông nước lung linh với cảnh quan đầy phấn khởi của một nền văn hoá vui tươi thể hiện qua cách sinh hoạt của dân địa phương cùng hoạt động thương mại. Trong khi những thành phố lớn như Cần Thơ, Mỹ Tho, Long Xuyên lập thành thế vững cho các tỉnh của Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long thì mạng lưới kênh rạch mênh mông lại là cái duyên có một không hai của vùng này. Sinh hoạt vui nhộn của vùng này không giống mấy với cách sinh hoạt của Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Tuy nhiên điều đó không có nghĩa là phải khó khăn lắm mới tới được Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long để thoát khỏi cái ồn ào náo nhiệt của thành phố lớn nhất Miền Nam này. Chỉ mất chừng ba giờ đồng hồ bằng xe đò trên Quốc lộ 1 là bạn là bạn đến Mỹ Tho, thủ phủ của tỉnh Tiền Giang và là điểm xuất phát tốt cho cuộc thăm dò vùng đồng bằng này.


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CHAPTER 3:

ASSIGNMENT KEYS

ASSIGNMENT 1: II. EXERCISES: A. 1. change of form 2. change of meaning 3. change of form 4. change of meaning 5. change of form B 6.the jug contains water/ the jug of water/ 7. a car was bought by John/ John owned a car/ A car belonged to John. 8. the day is hot/ the day, which is hot 9. a blue long dress of mother/ mother has a blue long dress 10. the house of Peter/ Peter is the owner of the house/ Peter owns the house C. 1. the place where doctor works/ the docter owns the office 2 someone is treated by the doctor 3. thec doctor owns the book 4. the relative of the doctor/ the kinship 5. the hand is part of the doctor 6. the doctor owns the house D. 1. the same in meaning 2. different in meaning 3. the same in meaning 4 . the same in meaning 5. the same in meaning 6. the same in meaning 7. the same in meaning 8. different in meaning 9. the same in meaning 10. different in meaning E.


80 1. Where did you have/ get your shirt made? 2. Da Lat, which is surrounded by the great/imposing hills and mountains, takes up/covers/is situated in a large area on the Lam Vien Plateau. 3. Despite the great improvement in the woman status, other things must be done to improve women’s health, nutrition and education. 4. Nowadays, the world has been facing a number of serious problems in spite of the fact that there have been dramatic progress in science, technologyand knowledge. One of the problems is the population explosion/boom in the developing countries. The population is growing in geometric progression while thee production of goods is growing in arithmetic prgression . 5. Charles Dickens, who belongs to the school of critical realism, is one of the greatest novelists in the world. What we value in his works is the criticism about evils and the contrast between the wealth and poverty in the English bougeois society of his time. The world he describes is that of the middle and lower classes in London.

ASSIGNMENT 2: II. A. 1. b.

2.a

3. a

4.a

B. 1. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for this hotel has been recommended by their friends. 2. Since the USA lifted the embargo against Vietnam, many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam. 3. Hue is famous for its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. 4. The participants discussed the causes of pollution environment. 5 . A motorcycle rider was robbed at Kampung early yesterday morning. C. 1. change word order 2. change structure/ change word collocation 3. change set expression 4. change the meaning of the verb and adjective 5. omitting relative clause D. 1. Thac Mo is a hydroelectric works with a designed of 150000 KW, annually produce 600 million KWH/ has an average annual output of 150000 KWH. 2. To construct this, nearly 15 million cubic meters of earth and stone must be dug up and banked up; over 350000 cubic meters of filtering layers were embanked; about 220000 cubic


81 meters of concrete were used and nearly 7000 tons of equipment and metal structures were installed. 3. Despite such enormous volume, the government has decided to have the construction finished in two years since the demand in power supply of southern localities has become very pressing. 4. So far, the construction units have carried out about 90% of the dug-up earth volume, concreted some 40% of the concrete volume. 5. According Mr. Nguyen Ba Man, head of the work managing committee, nearly all the basic items have met the demand in construction speed. 6. In mid November 93, the Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet came to inspect the building of Thac Mo Hydroelectric works. 7. The field leaders assured the Prime Minister that they already have grounds to ensure the operation of Turbine 1 in June 1994. 8. The task of blocking the current of Song Be River will start in December. 9. Thus, there will be a significant coincidence when Turbine 1 of Thac Mo Hydro-electric Plant starts operating. The North-South 500 KV transmission line will also be completed simultaneously. 10. With these sources of power in 1994, the South will basically free itself from the hunger for electricity.

D. 1. MÆc dï kÓ tõ n¨m 1990, ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc dµnh cho c¸c tr-êng häc ®· ®-îc t¨ng lªn nh-ng vÉn cßn rÊt thÊp so víi nhu cÇu trang bÞ ®Çy ®ñ cho tr-êng häc vµ c¶i tiÕn chÊt l-îng ®µo t¹o. 2. Tæng thèng Putin kh¼ng ®Þnh r»ng n-íc Nga lu«n coi träng mèi quan hÖ víi ViÖt Nam , ng-êi b¹n truyÒn thèng vµ lµ ®èi t¸c chiÕn l-îc ë §«ng Nam ¸. 3. Ng-êi ta lËp dù ¸n ®Ó t¨ng thªm c¬ héi héi nhËp cho 3000 trÎ em khuyÕt tËt ë ba tØnh , mét ë vïng nói, mét ë vïng duyªn h¶i MiÒn Trung vµ mét ë vïng s©u vïng xa 4. Hä ®· th¶o luËn mét lo¹t c¸c biÖn ph¸p nh»m môc ®Ých b¶o ®¶m sù hîp t¸c toµn diÖn vÒ kinh tÕ, th-¬ng m¹i, khoa häc vµ kü thuËt. 5. Ng-êi ta ®ang thùc hiÖn mäi næ lùc ®Ó n©ng cao nhËn thøc cña phô n÷ vÒ viÖc hä cã quyÒn ®-îc h-ëng sù an toµn lao ®éng , hay ®iÒu kiÖn vÖ sinh lao ®éng th«ng qua m¹ng l-íi truyÒn th«ng më réng. 6. Râ rµng r»ng c¸c tr-êng häc ë c¸c tØnh phÝa nam cã nhiÒu phßng m¸y vµ phßng thùc hµnh ®-îc dïng vµo viÖc ngo¹i ng÷ h¬n c¸c tr-êng ë c¸c tØnh phÝa B¾c. 7. §· cã bèn dù ¸n ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi cho gi¸o dôc. Vèn ®Çu tchñ yÕu tõ Ng©n Hµng ThÕ Giíi vµ Ng©n hµng Ph¸t triÓn Ch©u ¸.


82 8. 38 trong sè 50 sinh viªn ngo¹i ng÷ ®-îc b¸o Vietnam Courier nãi r»ng hä kh«ng thÝch lµm viÖc cho c¸c c«ng ty ®-îc n-íc ngoµi ®Çu t-. 9. ViÖt Nam vµ Trung Quèc ®ång ý më c¸c cuéc ®µm ph¸n ®Ó ký kÕt mét hiÖp ®Þnh vÒ l·nh thæ vµ biªn giíi vµ mét hiÖp ®Þnh vÒ l·nh h¶i tr-íc n¨m 2000. 10. Míi ®©y chÝnh phñ ®· d-a ra biÖn ph¸p khÝch lÖ nh- gi¶m thuÕ hoÆc cho vay -u ®·i cho nh÷ng chñ nh©n sö dông nhiÒu c«ng nh©n n÷.

ASSIGNMENT 3: Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese 1. Since early in the last lunar month, Tet has already roamed around the vicinities of Hanoi. 2. The peasants in the suburbs are probably the ones to feel the presence of Tet before anyone else because all their tasks from taking care of vegetables, fruits, grass, flowers to fattening pigs and poultry are for Tet’s sake. 3. Moving down from Kinh Bac, we will see immense fields of flowers especially gladioli of all colors. 4. Adjacent to the inner city are flower districts: Nhat Tan, Nghi Tam, Quang Ba with a number of varieties: dark pink peach blossoms, juicy golden kamquat, purplish violet and bright red gerbera . 5. A few year ago, here was a vast land of flowers sufficiently meeting the need of ornamental plants for Hanoi people. 6. The local inhabitants have long been artisans devoting their lives to growing flowers. 7. It is a regret to see the narrowing flower acreage due to a change in business of a number of artisans. 8. Some have sold their land and left their occupations forever. Others have turned to building luxury villas rented out as mini hotels to foreign tourists with their own capital or in cooperation with those who have capital. 9. Stores and shops have musroomed, selling all kinds of goods from the most popular to the top-graded ones. 10 No wonder why Hanoi has changed and been developed in the open-door time. Hopefully, Hanoi and its people will always deserve the land of age-old culture. B 1. Mµn tr×nh diÔn chÝnh cña lÔ héi lµ mét mµn diÔn mang tªn ‘‘ §Êt Lµnh Chim §Ëu’’ d-îc tr×nh diÔn ®ång thêi ë ba s©n khÊu lín ë khu trung t©m. 2. Toµn bé khu vùc quanh ®Òn tËp trung ®Æc kÝn ng-êi, chØ chõa méy kho¶ng nhá cho nh÷ng nghi lÔ ®-îc tiÕn hµnh.


83 3. §Ó gi¶m bít chi phÝ trong viÖc t¨ng kh¶ n¨ng tiÕp cËn c¶u trÎ em tµn tËt víi gi¸o dôc, chÝnh phñ ®· ph¸t ®éng ch-¬ng tr×nh gi¸o dôc vµ héi nhËp céng ®ång. 4. Trong nh÷ng n¨m gÇn ®©y ®Ó lËp l¹i trËt tù c«ng céng, Hµ Néi ®· dêi mét sè khu chî t¹m ®Õn nh÷ng vïng ®· ®-îc qui ®Þnh. Nh-ng trong sè 4 khu chî ®¨ ®-îc qui ®Þnh , th× chØ cã chî §ång T©m ®-îc dêi tõ khu d©n c- §èng §a sang khu vùc §¹i La. 5. Ngoµi viÖc ®Çu t- tõ ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc, tÊt c¶ c¸c tr-êng häc ph¶i t×m c¸c nguån tµi chÝnh kh¸c ®Ó mua ®å dïng d¹y häc. Tuy nhiªn, c¸c nguån nµy chØ b»ng 13% ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc dµnh cho c¸c tr-êng phæ th«ng vµ 21% cho c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc. 6. Tæng thu nhËp ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc ®¹t xÊp xØ møc ®Ò ra ban ®Çu. Nh÷ng nguån chi tiªu b×nh th-êng vÉn ®-îc ®¶m b¶o, trong khi ®ã c¸c kho¶n chi bÊt th-êng cho c¸c vïng bÞ b·o, lôt, h¹n h¸n vÉn ®-îc thùc hiÖn. ViÖc th©m hôt ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc ®-îc gi÷ ë møc cho phÐp lµ 3,6% tæng thu nhËp quèc néi vµo n¨m 1998, thÊp h¬n n¨m 1997 lµ 4,2%. 7.. Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ cña ViÖt Nam ph¶i ®-îc xÐt trong hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi. Hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh Êy ®· g©y ra nhiÒu thiÖt h¹i vÒ sinh m¹ng vµ tµi s¶n còng nh- c¸c c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng vµ tµi nguyªn. 8. M¹ng l-íi truyÒn h×nh ®ang x©y dùng réng kh¾p c¶ n-íc. Ngoµi nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh t-¬ng ®èi hiÖn ®¹i, cã tõ l©u ®êi nh- ®µi truyÒn h×nh Hµ Néi vµ Thµnh Phè Hå ChÝ Minh, cßn cã 25 ®µi thuéc c¸c tØnh ®-îc thµnh lËp vµo n¨m 1988. Nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh nµy sÏ truyÒn nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh quan träng cña ®µi truyÒn h×nh trung -¬ng vµ ph¸t ch-¬ng tr×nh cña ®µi m×nh. 9. Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô N÷ ViÖt Nam ®-îc cö ®¹i diÖn ë Quèc Héi vµ chñ tÞch héi ®-îc quyÒn tham dù c¸c cuéc häp th-êng kú cña Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng ®Ó bµy tá quan ®iÓm cña Héi vµ ®Ò nghÞ nh÷ng ®iÒu lÖ liªn quan ®Õn phô n÷. 10. Gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam chÞu ¶nh h-áng râ rÖt cña nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp. Do chÝnh s¸ch më cöa, nÒn v¨n minh c«ng nghiÖp ®ang t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy, tõng giê vµo cuéc sèng gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam.

ASSIGNMENT 4:


84 A. 1. to give information 2. about invironmental protection / to be more exact, it is about deforestation. 3. It depends on the leaners’ ability. 4. yes/ a bilingual dictionary and the context could help to discover the meanings of these words. 5.yes 6.

`

N¹N PH¸ RõNG

Sù gia t¨ng d©n sè lµ mét nh©n tè g©y ra n¹n ph¸ rõng nhiÖt ®íi. Tuy nhiªn, nÕu cho r»ng viÖc më réng mét nÒn n«ng nghiÖp tù cung tù cÊp ®Ó nu«i sèng nhiÒu miÖng ¨n h¬n lµ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh, th× ®©y lµ mét gi¶i thÝch v« c¨n cø. §¹i bé phËn rõng ë Ch©u Mü La Tinh, §N¸ vµ Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng bÞ tµn ph¸ lµ do viÖc khai hoang ®Ó trång c¸c lo¹i n«ng s¶n xuÊt khÈu vµ do c¸c ho¹t ®éng bu«n b¸n gç , chø kh«ng ph¶i do n¹n du canh, du c- vµ t¸ ®iÒn g©y nªn. Hµng n¨m ho¹t ®éng bu«n b¸n gç ®· ph¸ huû 4500 km2 rõng, phÇn lín gç ®-îc xuÊt khÈu sang Mü vµ NhËt. Mèi liªn hÖ gi÷a n¹n ph¸ rõng vµ nhu cÇu thµnh lËp x· héi phån vinh ®-îc thÊy râ nÐt nhÊt ë Trung Mü vµ Brazin n¬i nh÷ng c¸nh rõng nhiÖt ®íi ®· bÞ biÕn thµnh ®ång cá ch¨n th¶ v× viÖc nu«i gia sóc mang l¹i c¸c kho¶n lîi nhuËn xuÊt khÈu gióp tr¶ nî n-íc ngoµi. Kho¶n nî n-íc ngoµi khæng lå ®ang ®Ì nÆng lªn vai d©n nghÌo chñ yÕu ®-îc dïng ®Ó trang tr¶i cho c¸c kho¶n mua s¾m xa xØ cña chÝnh phñ vµ qu©n ®éi. ViÖc x©y dùng c¸c ®iÒn trang ch¨n th¶ réng lín lµ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh dÉn ®Õn viÖc ph¸ huû 2000 km2 rõng nhiÖt ®íi hµng n¨m ë Trung vµ Nam Mü. §Êt khai hoang chñ yÕu dïng cho viÖc nu«i bß xuÊt khÈu phôc vô cho ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp thøc ¨n nhanh ë B¾c Mü, Ch©u ¢u vµ NhËt- vïng xøng víi tªn gäi lµ ‘‘vïng giao l-u hamburger’’ A. 1. to give information 2. about Vietnam,its language and people 3. It depends on the leaners’ ability. 4. yes/ a bilingual dictionary and the context could help to discover the meanings of these words. 5.yes COUNTRY Our ancestors drank the water from the Red River, Da River, Me Kong River and tried hard/ spare no pain to protect them. Just think about the fact that very few languages in the world enjoy the uniformity as in the case of our mother tongue. In Vietnam, the word “nuoc” (in the river, lake and sea) have a synonym and homonym of the word “nuoc” signifying homeland.


85 Here like an immortal bloc the rivers and people are closely linked to the nature and people by a kind of everlasting cement. That is the patriotism of the Vietnamese people. In the world, there are many countries where people cannot communicate with one another when they travel from one province to another. In Vietnam, on the contrary, no matter where they are from, the north or the south, people are able to understand one another right at the first meeting.

ASSIGNMENT 5: A. 1. Trong lÞch sö loµi ng-êi khoa häc ®-îc xem nh- cã sø mÖnh gi¶i phãng con ng-êi khái sù ngu dèt, sù mª tÝn, gi¶m ®ãi nghÌo vµ t¨ng tÇm hiÓu biÕt cña con ng-êi vÒ thÕ giíi. 2. Tê N. A ®· ca ngîi c¸c nhµ khoa häc cña thêi ®¹i ®ã lµ c¸c nhµ truyÒn b¸ ¸nh s¸ng, nh÷ng ng-êi sÏ xua tan bãng ®ªm vµ më ra con ®-êng cho con ng-êi chinh phôc thiªn nhiªn. Trong thêi kú ®ã, nh÷ng ph¸t minh kh«ng t-ëng nh- m¸y bay, tµu ngÇm vµ ®iÖn tho¹i ®· ®-îc dù b¸o tr-íc. 3. Nh÷ng ai quan t©m ®Õn ngµnh c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh tin rµng chóng ta ®ang tr·i qua mét cuéc c¸ch m¹ng vÒ m¸y tÝnh. T¹i sao cuéc c¸ch m¹ng nµy x¶y ra ? §iÒu nµy cã mang l¹i hËu qu¶ g× cho x· héi? §Ó tr¶ lêi nh÷ng c©u hái nµy, cÇn phØa s¬ l-îc vÒ lÞch sö m¸y tÝnh. 4. M¸y tÝnh ®Çu tiªn -bµn tÝnh , do ng-êi Trung Quèc ph¸t minh c¸ch ®©y 5000 n¨m lµ tiÒn th©n cña m¸y tÝnh hiÖn ®¹i sau nµy. Cho ®Õn thÕ kû thø 17, ë Ch©u ¢u ch-a cã g× cã thÓ s¸nh b»ng bµn tÝnh vÒ tèc ®é còng nh- ®é chÝnh x¸c trong tÝnh to¸n. 5. M¸y tÝnh ®-îc ph¸t triÓn ®ång thêi ë §øc, Anh vµ Mü ®Ó t¨ng thªm tèc ®é còng nh- ®é chÝnh x¸c trong tÝnh to¸n cÇn cho viÖc gi¶i m· th«ng ®iÖp cña kÎ thï. 6. Ngµy nay , nhiÒu c«ng viÖc trong c¸c kh©u s¶n xuÊt vµ dÞch vô do con ng-êi ®¶m tr¸ch cã thÓ ®-îc thùc hiÖn nhanh h¬n vµ Ýt tèn kÐm h¬n nhê sù trî gióp cña c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh vµ c¸c thiÕt bÞ ®-îc m¸y tÝnh kiÓm so¸t. 7. Ng-êi m¸y ®ang dÇn thay thÕ c«ng nh©n trong d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt nh- nhµ m¸y chÕ t¹o « t« Fiat cña ý vµ Nissan cña NhËt. Vµo n¨m 1980, 50 robot ®· ®-îc c¸c c«ng ty cña óc sö dông ch¼ng h¹n nh- h·ng General Motors Ford, Nissan vµ Simpson Pope 8. C«ng ty nµo kh«ng sö dông c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh ®Òu kh«ng thÓ c¹nh tranh ®-îc víi c¸c ®èi thñ ¸p dông c«ng nghÖ nµy. B»ng chøng lµ sù thÊt b¹i cña c«ng nghiÖp s¶n xuÊt ®ång hå Thuþ SÜ trong 2 n¨m võa qua do bÞ ®ång hå ®iÖn tö c¹nh tranh nªn ®· thÊt thu 200 triÖu ®« la mçi n¨m.


86 9. Cïng víi viÖc c¬ giíi ho¸ ë mét sè qui tr×nh s¶n xuÊt, b-íc ®Çu ®· g©y ra n¹n thÊt nghiÖp víi sè l-îng lín. Nh÷ng nghÖ nh©n lµnh nghÒ trong ngµnh tiÓu thñ c«ng nghiÖp vèn khan hiÕm tr-íc ®©y, nay bçng d-ng tù hä c¶m thÊy thõa d- vµ thiÕu kü n¨ng trong nÒn c«ng nghÖ hiÖn ®¹i. 10. Nh÷ng ý t-ëng khoa häc vÜ ®¹i nµy ®· ph¸t triÓn vµo thÕ kû 18 vµ 19. Cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp Anh vµo cuèi thÕ kû 18 cµng cñng cè niÒm tin vµo mét x· héi khoa häc kü thuËt mÆc dï lîi nhuËn x· héi thu vµo kh«ng bï ®-îc chi phÝ x· héi bá ra . B 1. Dung Quat Bay is to the northeast of Binh Son District, QN Province. It is 18 km long and is protected by mountain ranges. 2. To the south of the bay is an area of flat land having geographical structure with an area of tens of square kilometers. 3. Here will be formed / established heavy industry and chemical zones, oil refineries, sea products processing zone, light industry zone, and a modern urban residential area with about 600000 inhabitants./ with a population of about 600000. 4. Another advantage is that Dung Quat lies about 12 km from roadway, railway lines, power transmission line and the trans-Vietnam optic cable. Thev supply of fresh water for this area is very convenient with a reserve of about 3 billion cubic meters per year taken from the Tra Bong River. 5. Today, we are going through a period of profound social changes like that of the first industrial revolution. It may be necessary for us to re-define the very notion of work itself.

ASSIGNMENT 6: A. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. The silt from the Mekong River helps to bring an ample granary representing the whole country’s source of food as well as the local inhabitants’ riverside lifestyle 2. The Mekong river itself with its huge tributaries and small canals navigable for tiny boats creates a majesty landscape as it flows through VN, the last part of its 4500 km-long journey, pouring into the East Sea. 3. It is significant that these overseas Vietnamese always direct their attention to their homeland, cherish a close link with their families and preserve the national identity which typifies the Vietnamese. 4. In addition to their support for their relatives, a number of overseas Vietnamese have contributed to the welfare of their country and taken part in relief movements to help those who suffer from natural calamities. They have also participated in the charity work following the tradition “ the luckier should help the sufferer.” 5. Before 1988, the effect of the banking system on the development and macro-economic management was minimal. In order to encourage the banking system to play a more constructive role, the government has taken new measures including the reorganization of the


87 banking system, the introduction of restrictive credit policies, and new policies on interest and free trade of gold in market. 6. The government implemented a comprehensive reconstructuring of wages and salaries of the governmental employees with a consolidation of consumer subsidies into the nominal wage structure. Though the monthly minimum wage increased, real salaries have declined substantially as a result of inflation. 7.The survey conducted by the VWU shows that traditional contraceptive methods have been widely used. The survey also indicates that 39% of married women used modern methods, the most frequent method being intra uterine device (IUD). B. 1. Nh÷ng ng-êi khëi x-íng ra viÖc dïng n¨ng l-îng nguyªn tö nhÊn m¹nh r»ng thÕ giíi nµy råi ®©y ch¾c c¾n sÏ trë thµnh mét thÕ giíi cña nguyªn tö. Ng-êi ta còng cho r»ng nh÷ng ng-êi chèng ®èi l¹i viÖc sö dông nguyªn tö ®ang chèng l¹i trµo l-u cña lÞch sö vµ cã mèi quan hÖ gÇn gòi víi dßng hä Luddites vèn lµ nh÷ng ng-êi chñ tr-¬ng ®Ëp ph¸ m¸y mãc ngay tõ khi cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp b¾t ®Çu. 2. C¸c b¸c sÜ cho thÊy lÇn ®Çu tiªn hä cã thÓ t¸i t¹o c¸c hÖ miÔn nhiÔm cña nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ nhiÔm vi rót bÖnh AIDS b¨ng c¸ch ®ét ngét t¨ng sè l-îng tÕ bµo m¸u mµ vi rót HIV huû diÖt. 3. Trong lÜnh vùc ®µo t¹o y khoa, nh÷ng viÖc ®· lµm ®-îc trong nh÷ng n¨m qua ®-îc ®¸nh dÊu b»ng sù kiÖn næi bËt lµ viÖc nhiÒu chuyªn gia vÒ ®µo t¹o y khoa , nhiÒu tr-êng ®¹i häc trªn thÕ giíi ®· dÆt vÊn ®Ò ph¶i xem xÐt l¹i néi dung ®µo t¹o ®éi ngò c¸n bé y tÕ . 4. Ng-êi thÇy thuèc ngµy nay nªn lµ ng-êi cña søc khoÎ . V× vËy ng-êi thÇy thuèc ®ã cÇn ph¶i biÕt ph¸t hiÖn , gi¶i quyÕt , phôc håi nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò søc khoÎ cña c¸ nh©n vµ céng ®ång. 5. Râ rµng r»ng mét th©n thÓ khoÎ m¹nh gióp cho mét t©m hån lµnh m¹nh, v× chÝnh nh÷ng t©m hån lµnh m¹nh ®iÒu khiÓn h-íng ®i cña hÖ thèng gi¸ trÞ. Mét ng-êi khoÎ m¹nh lµ mét ng-êi khoÎ m¹nh vÒ mÆt thÓ chÊt lÉn tinh thÇn. 6. Ngµy nay con ng-êi cã khuynh h-íng lo ©u vÒ søc khoÎ thÓ chÊt. Tuy nhiªn t«i muèn nhÊn m¹nh tíi tÇm quan träng cña søc khoÎ t©m lý. M¹nh khoÎ vÒ mÆt tinh thÇn lµ rÊt quan träng vµ lµ mét ng-êi thùc sù khoÎ m¹nh lµ ng-êi ®¹t ®-îc sù th¨ng b»ng hîp lý gi÷a thÓ chÊt vµ tinh thÇn.


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ASSIGNMENT 7: 1. The achievements of the renovation process in the past ten years have provided opportunities for women to obtain their goals. Their lives have been improved and women have become less burdened. Social services have helped to ease their housework and create favourable conditions for them to participate in social activities. 2. The Vietnam Women’s Union which represents Vietnamese women nationwide , has renovated their organization and work style , thus attracting more and more women to social activities. It has also helped women deal with difficult matters of every life. It has proposed to the state laws and policies that make full use of women’s potentials in the process of renovation. 3. Identification of the factors that leads to fast effective foreign language learning has become increasingly important because of a majority of learners who are very anxious , as adults, to learn a foreign language for a specific purpose : business, study, and diplomacy. The requirements for effective language learning may be taken into account in terms of the learners, the teachers and the curriculum. 4. The greatest attraction to the tourists is the age-old traditions typical of the Vietnamese culture. Thousands of historical and revolutionary relics have been graded by the government , hundreds of which have high artistic and historical value . Vietnam is a large community consisting of 54 ethnic groups with different traditions , customs and unique folk culture. hundreds of traditional handicraft villages have produced thousands of famous handicraft and fine art products. 5. If tourists go to an ethnic minority region, they will have an opportunity to engage in other fascinating cultural activities typical of the rainforest region. Take the buffalo stabbing ceremony as an example. Tourists should have to be present about a week before the ceremony to join the local inhabitants in looking for a suitable kind of bamboo to repair the Rong House (The community House) and to make a Neu tree ( The New Year Tree) to chase evil spirits. The ceremony provides tourists with a chance to observe the decoration of jars and the way they are chosen to store wine. They also have an opportunity to observe the way people choose the buffalo for the ceremony. 6. Social welfare is a major policy of Vietnam which has its origin in the age-old national traditions of solidarity and mutual assistance. The basic principle of the policy is to combine the responsibility of the state, the community, and the efforts of each individual within the society. This policy is being gradually extended to all the inhabitants in various forms. 7. Economic backwardness and the danger of lagging behind in the economic development are the great concerns of all the Vietnamese at home and abroad . If Vietnam lags far behind other countries, it will be a supplier of raw materials and cheap labour in the international division of labour. It will have to accept an inferior position and losses in the international cooperation and competition. This is the great challenge facing Vietnam in the current international context. 8. The humanism of the Vietnamese diplomatic line constitutes a typical characteristic. Though the Vietnamese have been victims of countless aggressions, they never lose their compassion . Also, their compassion is a factor which creates the strength and the diplomacy of the nation. Nguyen Trai, a national hero of the 15th century, left a legendary guiding principle which remains today: “ Using great justice to vanquish cruelty Humanism to subdue brutality”


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ASSIGNMENT 8: Translate the following text into English

Beijing may be the seat of political power, but Shanghai can lay claim to the title of commercial capital. Historic sites date back less than 80 years in Shanghai, and yet most visitors fall under the spell of this unique city where ambience is everything. The very name Shanghai still sends a ripple of excitement down most spines. It was a minor weaving and fishing town until the mid 19th century, when it began to develop as a trading and industrial center. Entrepreneurs and carpetbaggers from all over the world descended and developed it into one of the world's most cosmopolitan and sophisticated cities. From the 1920s on it became increasingly notorious as the place where anything could - and usually did - happen. Banks and commercial companies of all kinds built opulent head offices for themselves overlooking what were then open rice fields beyond the banks of the Huangpu river. This whole stretch has survived the busy bulldozers and today it forms a unique open - air museum of 1930s architecture. A stroll along the Bund is a must for everyone who visits what is still regarded by many as China's leading city. Skyscrapers, including some of the world's tallest buildings, have sprouted where the rice used to grow. The most prominent is the Oriental Pearl TV Tower - if time allows, the panoramic views from the upper levels make an unforgettable experience. The past is still tangible in sections of the former French concession, with its elegant villas and tree - lined streets. Around the corner from the Bund, the Peace Hotel and its venerable Jazz Band Are the best-known survivors from a more gracious age, but Shanghai has many other exquisite hotels from the 1930s, most of which are being lovingly restored to their former glory. Shanghai boasts one of the world's truly great museums, opened in 1996. It would be impossible to tour the entire treasure huose in a short visit, but even an hour in the galleries devoted to the bronzes, stones sculptures and ceramics will provide lasting memories.

ASSIGNMENT 9: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Ngày hôm qua, trong bài diễn văn chính phát biểu tại trường Đại Học Quốc Gia Hà Nội, Tổng Bí Thư Giang Trạch Dân kêu gọi giới trẻ Việt Nam và Trung Quốc nỗ lực nhằm thắt chặt tình hữu nghị giữa hai nước, góp phần vào sự nghiệp hoà bình và phát triển ở châu Á cũng như trên toàn thế giới. Tổng Bí Thư-Chủ Tịch nước Trung Quốc nói với sinh viên: “Các bạn trẻ thân mến, chính các bạn là những người tạo ra tương lai tươi sáng và tương lai thuộc về các bạn”. Tổng Bí Thư Giang Trạch Dân nhấn mạnh rằng mối quan hệ Việt -Trung sẽ phát triển tốt đẹp trong thế kỷ 21, trong đó nỗ lực chung của thanh niên hai nước là không thể thiếu.


90 Ông nói: thế hệ trẻ cả hai nước phải theo đuổi lý tưởng của mình và lao động không mệt mỏi để xây dựng Chủ Nghĩa Xã Hội. Ông phát biểu rằng: “Giới trẻ Trung Quốc và Việt Nam cần kế thừa và phát huy mạnh mẽ tinh thần cách mạng của cha ông, có tư tưởng vững vàng, chăm chỉ học tập, nỗ lực vì sự nghiệp phát triển Chủ Nghĩa Xã Hội, vì sự giàu có và thịnh vượng của mỗi nước”. Ông hy vọng giới trẻ Trung Quốc và Việt Nam sẽ gìn giữ, duy trì và phát triển mối quan hệ Việt-Trung, trao đổi và học hỏi lẫn nhau để tăng cường hiểu biết. Ông bảo đảm Đảng và Chính phủ Trung Quốc sẽ hoàn toàn ủng hộ sự trao đổi đó. Chủ tịch nước Giang Trạch Dân nói: “Trong lịch sử, cả Việt Nam và Trung Quốc đều bị đế quốc xâm lược nhưng chúng ta đều đã đánh bại chúng, giải phóng dân tộc và thống nhất đất nước”. Theo ông tình hữu nghị giữa Việt Nam và Trung Quốc không chỉ xuất phát từ lịch sử mà còn từ thực tiễn, như Chủ Tịch Hồ Chí Minh đã từng nhấn mạnh hai dân tộc “là đồng chí, là anh em”. Ông nói quan hệ Việt-Trung dựa trên cơ sở tin tưởng lẫn nhau, sự ổn định lâu dài, tiền đề, tình láng giềng thân thiện và sự bảo đảm . Ông nói thêm: “Hợp tác trên cơ sở hiểu biết lẫn nhau là cầu nối và cũng là mục tiêu cho tương lai thịnh vượng”. Chủ Tịch nước Giang Trạch Dân rời Hà Nội ngày hôm qua để đến miền Trung Việt Nam. Ở đó, ông đi thăm cố đô Huế, đã được UNESCO công nhận là di sản thế giới, và gặp gỡ các đồng chí lãnh đạo của thành phố cảng Đà Nẵng. Theo lịch trình, ông sẽ đến thăm phố cổ Hội An và công ty dệt may Hoà Thọ trước khi kết thúc chuyến đi thăm ba ngày đến Việt Nam.

ASSIGNMENT 10: Translate the following text into English Concerning a poor country like ours, “practising thrift and fighting against waste” must be always the national policy. In reality, however, waste has still been spreading everywhere. Waste appears in management, using budget, in basic construction investment, in land and office management, in State-owned enterprises, and waste also exists in the masses with costly weddings. Waste has really been a pressing problem of the society and one of the causes which considerably affects the economy of our country. As in the first year (1998), after the decree of


91 practising thrift and fighting against waste passed by the National Assembly’s Standing Committee 10th session in Feb 26th 1998 and taking effective since May 1st 1998, the real expenses in 1998, according to reports of 12 Ministries and bodies functionally equivalent to Ministries, reduced in comparison with the balance in 1997, for instance, conference expenses: VND12.8 billion, business expenses: VND12.43 billion, telephone, fax expenses: VND9.57 billion, expenses for great reparation of fixed assets: VND80.94 billion, expenses for purchasing professionally fixed assets: VND153.7 billion. The State’s budget in 1999 is estimated to continue economizing 10% of estimated regular expenses. Some regular expenses have sharply fell from 30% to 70%, e.g. expenses for purchasing office equipment, for conferences and receptions… “Reducing expenses” statistics while the Decree of practising thrift and fighting against waste is being carried out are really speaking numbers, which show that this campaign is taking a turn for better. These numbers, however, indicate that spending has so far been loose and that it is necessary to limit expenses. Financial inspections and annual balance reports helped to find out a breach of rules of administrative management of many enterprises and administrative bodies. One of the most pressing and costly expenses nowadays is: expenses for medal reception, branch forming celebration, conferences… Such festivities have cost so much money for hiring halls, parties, gifts… At the end of the year, restaurants are crowded with “Gods”, most of whom are public servants, because inhabitants have no such budget for those parties. While “free” inhabitants are leading a poor life and spending thriftily, practising thrift and fighting against waste in “subsidy spending mechanism” is a must.

ASSIGNMENT 11: Translate the following text into Vietnamese 1. Thµnh phè Gaza- Nh÷ng ng-êi l·nh ®¹o cña Israel vµ Palestin ®· tiÕn hµnh ®µm ph¸n suèt ®ªm mµ theo c¸ch nãi cña «ng Dennis Ross - Ph¸i viªn cña Hoa Kú lµ ‘‘ mét ®ªm tèt lµnh cho c«ng viÖc’’ nh»m ph¸ vì sù bÕ t¾t trong viÖc Israel tr× ho·n ruts qu©n khái thÞ trÊn West Bank cña Heebron. ¤ng Ross rêi khái v¨n phßng cña nhµ l·nh ®¹o Palestin- Yasser Arafat, sím h«m qua sau 3 gê ®ång hå cã mÆt ë ®ã trong khi nh÷ng ng-êi tham dù ®µm ph¸n vÉn tiÕp tôc c¸c cuéc héi ®µm. ¤ng A ra fat nãi :’’ Cuéc gÆp gì ®· diÔn ra theo chiÒu h-íng tÝch cùc vµ cã tÝnh x©y dùng.’’ ¤ng cßn nãi thªm r»ng «ng vµ «ng Ross ‘‘ ®· gi¶i quyÕt mét sè khóc m¾c gi÷a t«i vµ «ng Êy’’, ®Ò cËp mét c¸ch râ rµng ®Õn gîi ý cña chÝnh «ng tuÇn tr-íc lµ «ng Ross ®· cã ý bªnh vùc Israel. ¤ng Ross- dù ®Þnh sÏ trë vÒ n-íc vµo ngµy h«m qua - ®ång ý r»ng:’’ Chóng t«i ®· cã mét lo¹t c¸c cuéc th¶o luËn tèt ®Ñp’’. Khi ®Ò cËp ®Õn c¸c cuéc ®µm ph¸n, «ng nãi:’’ §ã lµ mét buæi tèi


92 lµm viÖc tèt ®Ñp, nh-ng cßn mét sè vÊn ®Ò cÇn ®-îc gi¶i quyÕt.’’ Bªn trong tßa trô së chÝnh cña «ng Arafat, nhãm ®¹i diÖn Palestin do «ng tr-ëng ®oµn ®µm ph¸n Saeb Erekat dÉn ®Çu tiÕp tôc c¸c cuéc bµn th¶o víi Israel do hai «ng MaJ Gen Shaul Muha faz vµ Yitzhak cè vÊn cao cÊp cña Thñ t-íng Benjamin Netanyahu dÉn ®Çu. C¸c cuéc héi ®µm b¾t ®Çu vµo chiÒu Chñ NhËt ë Ze ru sa lem vµ sau ®ã chuyÓn ®Õn Gaza. C¸c c¬ quan truyÒn th«ng Israel pháng ®o¸n r»ng nÕu cuéc th-¬ng l-îng thµnh c«ng th× «ng Ro ss cã thÓ ho·n l¹i chuyÕn bay cña «ng vµ hai «ng Netanyahu vµ Arafat cã thÓ tæ chøc mét cuéc häp th-îng ®Ønh néi trong ngµy h«m qua hoÆc h«m nay. Israel s¾p söa rót qu©n ra khái Hebron - thµnh phè Westbank, vïng cuèi cïng bÞ chiÕm ®ãng- vµo th¸ng 3 th× ph¶i ho·n l¹i sau mét lo¹t tÊn c«ng cña bän khñng bè ë Israel. ¤ng Netanyahu, mét nh©n vËt cøng r¾n ®-îc bÇu lµm thñ t-íng vµo th¸ng 5 võa qua, ®· tr× ho·n viÖc tiÕp tôc rót qu©n, vµ næ lùc b¶o ®¶m an ninh cho 500 c- d©n ®ang sèng trong thÞ trÊn cña 130.000 ng-êi ¶ rËp. Ng-êi Palestin tõ chèi viÖc nèi l¹i c¸c cuéc ®µm ph¸n vµ yªu cÇu Israel tiÕp tôc rót qu©n nh- ®· cam kÕt trong b¶n HiÖp -íc vÒ quyÒn tù trÞ ®· ®-îc ký kÕt. Vµo ngµy Chñ NhËt t¹i Hebron, qu©n ®éi ®· v©y b¾t kho¶ng 100 ng-êi Palestin sau khi ®· cã kÎ nÐm 2 qu¶ bom vµo l·nh thæ cña ng-êi Do Th¸i nh-ng kh«ng cã ng-êi nµo bÞ th-¬ng. Hä bÞ qu©n ®éi chÜa sóng thÈm tra vµ b¾t gi÷ trong vßng nöa giê nh-ng sau ®ã phÇn lín ®· ®-îc th¶ ra. Ph¸t ng«n viªn cña qu©n ®éi nãi r»ng nhiÒu ng-êi Pale stin vÉn ®ang cßn bÞ b¾t gi÷. Mét ng-êi Pale stin ®ang ®i ngang qua vïng l·nh thæ Beit Hada ssah th× bÞ mét c¸i thang lµm b»ng kim lo¹i r¬i hoÆc ai ®ã nÐm tõ m¸i nhµ xuèng lµm bÞ th-¬ng; ng-êi nµy ®· ®-îc ®-a ®Õn bÖnh viªn thµnh phè ®Ó ch÷a trÞ 2. TP Hå ChÝ Minh - Sè l-îng du kh¸ch n-íc ngoµi ®Õn Viet Nam ngµy cµng t¨ng. Theo sè liÖu thèng kª gÇn ®©y cña Tæng Côc Du LÞch ViÖt Nam th× l-îng du kh¸ch t¨ng b×nh qu©n h»ng n¨m lµ 30%. MÆc dï l-îng du kahchs t¨ng, nh-ng t×nh tr¹ng kh¸ch ë l¹i kh¸ch s¹n gi¶m ®¸ng kÓ so víi nh÷ng n¨m võa råi. H¬n 6 n¨m qua,, c¸c kh¸ch s¹n liªn doanh vµ c¸c nhµ kh¸ch chØ khai th¸c


93 ®-îc tõ 85-90% sè phßng hiÖn cã. HiÖn giê chØ cßn ®¹t ë møc 60%, thÊp h¬n nhiÒu so víi c¸c kh¸ch s¹n cña nhµ n-íc vµ nhµ kh¸ch t- nh©n. Mét trong nh÷ng nguyªn nh©n chÝnh cña sù tôt gi¶m l-îng kh¸ch lµ do kh¸ch s¹n liªn doanh mäc lªn nh- nÊm, ®iÒu nµy dÉn ®Õn viÖc c¹nh tranh khèc liÖt vÒ gi¸ phßng vµ gi¸ dÞch vô. NhiÒu kh¸ch s¹n cã tæng doanh thu thÊp trong khi l¹i chÞu møc thuÕ cao, ®ang trë thµnh g¸nh nÆng cho c¸c «ng chñ vµ cã nhiÒu kh¸ch s¹n s¾p söa buéc ph¶i ®ãng cöa. §a sè du kh¸ch n-íc ngoµi h¨m hë ®Õn ViÖt Nam ®Ó t×m mét c¸i g× ®ã míi mÎ vµ muèn ®i ®Õn nh÷ng vïng cã vÎ ®Ñp tù nhiªn vµ hoang d· trong thêi gian l-u l¹i cña hä. V× lý do nµy, du lÞch ViÖt Nam cÇn tæ chøc l¹i viÖc qu¶n lý vµ ®Æt ra nh÷ng môc tiªu nh»m tháa m·n nhu cÇu hiÖn nay cña du kh¸ch. MÆc dï l-îng du kh¸ch vÉn t¨ng trong nh÷ng n¨m qua nh-ng sè du kh¸ch trë l¹i ViÖt nam lÇn thø hai rÊt Ýt. Râ rµng r»ng ngµnh du lÞch ViÖt Nam vÉn ch-a ®ñ søc hÊp dÉn du kh¸ch. Thªm vµo ®ã, c¸c ®iÓm du lÞch vµ c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn ¨n ë ®i l¹i ch-a ®¹t ®Õn tiªu chuÈn quèc tÕ. ViÖt nam hiÖn cã kho¶ng 22 tØnh vµ thµnh phè ®ang hoµn tÊt nh÷ng kÕ ho¹ch tæng thÓ chi tiÕt ®Ó x©y dùng c¸c khu nghØ m¸t cho du kh¸ch. Tuy nhiªn nh÷ng ®Ò ¸n nµy vÉn ch-a ®-îc triÓn khai, vÉn ®ang cßn ®ang ®-îc th¶o luËn. MÆc dï h»ng n¨m chÝnh phñ ®· chi h»ng chôc tØ ®ång ®Ó n©ng cÊp c¸c di tÝch lÞch sö quèc gia vµ c¸c khu nghØ m¸t, nh-ng do sù yÕu kÐm vÒ chuyªn m«n qu¶n lý nªn nh÷ng n¬i nµy vÉn ch-a cã thÓ thóc ®Èy sù ph¸t triÓn cña ngµnh du lÞch n-íc nhµ. §Ó c¶i thiÖn chÊt l-îng cña c¸c nhµ nghØ vµ t¨ng c-êng ho¹t ®éng cña kh¸ch s¹n, ngµnh du lÞch ViÖt nam cÇn chÝnh phñ ®Çu t- nhiÒu h¬n n÷a. Translate the following text into English More and more Vietnamese people are seeking study abroad at. their own expense. While the number of people who have already done so is relatively small - 2970 from mid 1992 to May this year - the numbers are expected to increase within the next. few years a: the Vietnamese economy strengthens and the government streamlines the procedures to make it. easier. But t he biggest boost to Vietnamese people courageously investing their money for themselves or their children to gain an international standard education has come through the staging of a special overseas education exhibition held in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi over the past two months. Called "Edukasia", the. exhibition featured universities, vocational schools and school equipment suppliers from Great Britain, France, Australia, The United States and Switzerland. The exhibition sought to establish what training or education private Vietnamese


94 students were seeking and the overseas institutions companies explained what they could offer. Courses in telecommunications, machine building. the hotel industry, tourism and cooking wt-re particularly featured. Up until now, most Vietnamese students have been going abroad for further study as recipients of international scholarship or funding from foreign government. Vietnam has been annually sending about 77 students and 160 senior level experts abroad through such officially sponsored scheme. Most of the private students have been going to Russia. Some to eastern European countries and a trickle to the Netherlands. Belgium, the USA, Denmark and Thailand. But. in April this year, a temporary halt has been put. on private places being offered to foreign students in Russia and Eastern Europe. While these existing avenues for Vietnamese students have required secondary school graduation and intensive courses in the relevant foreign language and computers, often these schemes were deficient in anticipating the problems foreign private students may encounter, particularly regarding duration and the level of the courses being offered. There has been an avoidable waste of time and money, and an attrition rate.

At "Edukasia", the courses on offer are delivered abroad it Vietnam by correspondence or distant training. Those student who want to go abroad for study must first of all be able to speak English which is an indispensable condition for initial contact: and assimilation of knowledge:

Educational standards are also set, such as marks obtained it each subject and health condition. A number of schools give priority to students with high marks in intelligence tests and offer them scholarship. But 90% of tested students have to pay education fees.

According to Mr. Charles Wilmot, the director of Edukasia, the fees are high, depending on the institution and the courses. But they are reasonably calculated. The lowest level is 2500 USD/year; while the most reputed USA schools and purses generally demand 3000 USD/year to 6000 USD/year. Fees for remote training are less, about 300 USD/year, and graduation diplomat are also recognized as equivalent to the regular training diplomas These institutions are ready to receive Vietnamese students and to facilitate entry visas. The remaining question depends upon a decision by the Vietnamese government. Mr. Wilmot stressed that in general, the accommodation and studying conditions of students in countries where there were Vietnamese students were very good. In Great Britain especially, there are organizations specialized in helping foreign students. Most Vietnamese studying abroad begin their training at the age of 18 to 19, the lowest allowed aged is 13. There is no limit for a maximum age studying abroad depends now only on these students willing to receive an advanced knowledge of the world.

ASSIGNMENT 12: Translate the following text into English Poor people often have larger families than middle class and upper class people. And people in underdeveloped countries have more children than people in developed countries. More and


95 more experts in population growth see the strong relationship between family size and economic development. In some areas, government family planning services may not be available to poor people due to geographic location. For example, people in rural areas may live too far away from family planning services. Therefore, they don't receive information about ways to control family size. In general, people in urban areas have much more information available to them than people living in rural areas. Urban people have help with family planning, and they have smaller families. So we can say that geography where people live - plays a part in determining family size: Urban families are smaller than rural families. What are the other reasons? Economic development of families and, on a larger scale, of nations, is an important factor in determining family size. People with a lot of money have fewer children. On the other hand, poor people in underdeveloped countries choose to have many children. Why? Because they have to depend upon their children to take care of them in their old age. They have no insurance, pensions, or government help. When they grow old, where can they get help? The answer is simple. They can and will turn to their children. Their children will be adults then, and they will be working. The children can all share the costs and other responsibilities of taking care of their parents. For many poor people, a large family is a way of planning and preparing for the future. We could say that a large family is insurance for old age in some societies.

ASSIGNMENT 13: Translate the following text into English China's powerful exporters are training their sights on, Vietnam, seeing their southern neighbour as ripe for a boost in purchases of consumer goods and machinery, Chinese executives said here Thursday. But Vietnam has a long way to go before it sees its exports to China grow as few products are likely to break into the more developed Chinese market, the executives said at the opening of a trade fair here. Some 60 firms from Beijing are showing off their wares ranging from cheap plastic toys and ornaments to off - road vehicles at the fair in Hanoi in what is the first exhibition of Chinese goods here since the two countries began patching up their relations. Beijing Jeep, a Sino - American auto manufacturer, is hoping to squeeze into Vietnam's growing car market but is facing stiff competition from Japanese firms already entrenched here, said Beijing Automotive Import Export Corp. (BAIEC) vice president Guo Fengli. "The market here is opening up quite quickly for our products, particularly as we are very competitive in pricing with our rivals," Guo said. BAIEC is looking to set up barter deals with Vietnam but is facing problems finding suitable moods to trade although Guo thinks he may have found the answer in the humble sweet potato. The Chinese firm is planning to trade cars for foodstuffs that will be sold in southern China but would prefer to exchange higher value goods.


96 "We don't know much about what Vietnam has to offer, "said Guo, a point repeated by other traders who were more eager to sell than buy. Cross border trade has boomed since the frontier was reopened in 1991. Officially, two - way trade stands at around 500 million US dollars although the illegal frontier trade is believed to b! much higher, with China enjoying a massive surplus. During a visit to China last week, Deputy Prime Minister Phan Van Khai called for both sides to replace the cross border trade with official agreements between trading companies and manufacturers that would boost sales of Vietnamese products., Vietnam wants to step up exports of coal and oil to southern China's booming manufacturing centres, which are thousands of kilometres (miles) from China's own sources of energy. Khai also called for more sales of rice and other food products and for Vietnam to import more manufacturing machinery and other technology from China.

ASSIGNMENT 14: Translate the following text into English Saudi Arabia has about 8.,853,000 people. Almost all of these people are Arab Muslims. In other words, they are followers of the Islamic religion. Saudi Arabia is a religious nation. The king of Saudi Arabia is both the political leader and one of the religious leaders of the country. The government laws are Islamic law (Muslim religious law), and the national language is Arabic. The Islamic religion is very important in the Saudi educational system. Before 1950 almost all education in Saudi Arabia was religious education. Students studied the Koran, the Islamic holy book. They tried to memorize as much as possible from this book. There were no colleges or universities before 1949 and only a few elementary and secondary schools. In 1953, the Saudi government established the Ministry of Education. This was really the beginning of the modern educational system in Saudi Arabia. When engineers discovered oil in Saudi Arabia, the country started to become very wealthy. Saudi leaders realized that Western technology was necessary for the country to develop. The leaders still believed that religious education was very important, but a modern country could not develop technologically with only a traditional, religious educational system. They decided to add other subjects to the educational system. They wanted to combine traditional religious education with modern technological education from the West. Religion is still an important part of Saudi education. Now, however, Saudi students study all kinds of other subjects too: languages (especially English), history, science, mathematics, computer technology, etc. Before 1950, there were about 20,000 students in Saudi Arabia. In 1982, there were 1,780,000 students. The educational system has grown faster in Saudi Arabia than in almost any other country in the world. All schools in Saudi Arabia are free.

ASSIGNMENT 15: Translate the following text into Vietnamese


97 Sau khi ®Æt nhiÒu hi väng vµo viÖc khoan tróng c¸c má dÇu khÝ ë ngoµi kh¬i ViÖt Nam, c¸c c«ng ty dÇu má khæng lå trªn thÕ giíi ®· nhËn ra nh÷ng rñi ro. C¸i gi¸ ®Çu t- khæng lå nh-ng l¹i nhËn ®-îc mät kho¶n lîi nhuËn cßm câi. T©m tr¹ng ®ã ®· gi¶m ®i trong sè nh÷ng c«ng ty n-íc ngoµi tham gia triÓn l·m tr-ng bµy c¸c mÆt hµng cña ngµnh c«ng nghÖ t¹i cuéc TriÓn l·m Dçu vµ khÝ ®èt Quèc tÕ lÇn thø hai ë Hµ Néi. ¤ng Melchior de Matharel, Vô Tr-ëng §«ng Nam ¸ cña h·ng Total Ph¸p ®· ph¸t biÓu : ‘‘ KÕt qu¶ kh«ng ph¶i lµ tÖ, nh-ng kh«ng lín nh- mét sè ng-êi ®· hy väng.’’ NÕu sù chó ý b©y giê lµ ‘‘khÈu hiÖu’’ ®· lµm thÊt väng c¸c c«ng ty dÇu löa n-íc ngoµi cã thÓ t¹o nguån an ñi tõ nh÷ng kh¸m ph¸ ®Çy khÝch lÖ võa qua vÒ dÇu do c«ng ty Mitsubishi vµ c«ng ty dÇu Petrornas Cairigali cña Malaisia, vµ vÒ khÝ ®èt cña BP, ë ngoµi bê biÓn nam ViÖt Nam. ViÖc th¨m dß dÇu khÝ ë thÒm lôc ®Þa ViÖt nam lµ hÕt søc khã kh¨n. Tuy nhiªn, «ng Matherel nãi r»ng thÒm lôc ®Þa ViÖt Nam lµ mét n¬i chøa dÇu. Sù nhiÖt t×nh cña nh÷ng ng-êi th¨m dß ®ét nhiªn suy gi¶m vµo th¸ng 5 tr-íc khi c«ng ty dÇu BHP cña óc th«ng b¸o tr÷ l-îng dÇu ë vÞ trÝ má §¹i Hïng, 375 c©y sè ë §«ng nam thµnh phè HCM lµ Ýt ái h¬n so víi dù trï. T¹i vÞ trÝ nµy, BHP -íc tÝnh s¬ khëi lµ tr÷ l-îng ë ®©y kho¶ng tõ 700 ®Õn 800 triÖu thïng dÇu, nh-ng hiÖn nay con sè Êy ®· xuèng ë 100 ®Õn 200 triÖu thïng. ViÖc s¶n xuÊt ®-îc dù kiÕn b¾t ®Çu vµo th¸ng tíi, ë møc khiªm nh-êng lµ 25000 thïng mét ngµy. §iÒu ®ã lµ ‘‘mét ®ßn gi¸ng m¹nh’’ cho BHP, mét c«ng ty ®· ®Çu t- ®Õn 240 triÖu ®« la ë ViÖt Nam vµ mét nöa cña kinh phÝ nµy ®· ®-îc sö dông cho dù ¸n §¹i Hïng. BHP ®øn ®µu mét hiÖp héi quèc tÕ bÇu chän vµo th¸ng 4/1993 cã tr¸ch nhiÖm triÓn khai tæng kinh phÝ 1,5 tû ®« trong lÜnh vùc nµy. BHP chiÕm 43,75% tæng sã vèn cña HiÖp häi, Petronas chiÕm 20%, c«ng ty quèc doanh Petro-Vietnam chiÕm 15%. PhÇn 21,25% cßn l¹i chia ®Òu cho c«ng ty Total (Ph¸p) vµ c«ng ty Sumitomo cña NhËt. Vµo thêi ®iÓm ®ã, chÝnh NhËt B¶n lµ kh¸ch mua hµng chÝnh cña dÇu th« ViÖt Nam, ®· lé diÖn ®Ó cã ®-îc mät c¬ may tèt nhÊt.


98 C«ng ty DÇu KhÝ ViÖt nam- NhËt b¶n (JVPC), mét chi nh¸nh cña tËp ®oµn dÇu khÝ Mitsubishi ®· th«ng b¸o trong th¸ng 6 lµ ®· cã mét sù kh¸m ph¸ rÊt høa hÑn t¹i vÞ trÝ R¹ng §«ng. Theo kÕt qu¶ ghi nhËn ®-îc tõ mét tõ mét giÕng dÇu th¨m dß, khu vùc khai th¸c cã thÓ cã cïng chÊt l-îng nh- vÞ trÝ má B¹ch Hæ ë gÇn mét ®Þa ®iÓm duy nhÊt hiÖn giê ®ang ®-îc kinh doanh khai th¸c ë ViÖt Nam. Tr÷ l-îng cña B¹ch Hæ -íc tÝnh ë møc cao nhÊt lµ 3000 triÖu thïng. Nh-ng Ýt nhÊt cÇn ph¶i mét n¨m n÷a vµ cÇn ®Õn viÖc khoan dß n÷a th× míi cã thÓ x¸c ®Þnh chÝnh x¸c ®-îc môc tiªu viÖc th¨m dß cña c«ng ty NhËt. Nh÷ng ng-êi bi quan th× cho r»ng cÇn ®Õn kho¶ng 5 n¨m míi ®¸nh gi¸ ®óng vµ ®Çy ®ñ tr÷ l-îng dÇu cña ViÖt Nam. ViÖc th¨m dß vµ khai th¸c khÝ ®èt còng chøng tá ®ã lµ mät dÞch vô ®ang gÆp khã kh¨n, dï c¬ may ®· mØm c-êi víi víi c«ng ty BP Anh, mét ®¬n vÞ mµ trong th¸ng 9 ®· th«ng b¸o lµ ®· ph¸t hiÖn ra hai tói dÇu khÝ, -íc tÝnh ®¹t ®-îc 57 tû mÐt khèi ë Nam C«n S¬n, phÝa nam thµnh phè HCM. C«ng ty BHP vµ c«ng ty Quèc gia Na Uy Statoil ®· mua l¹i c¸c phÇn ®Æc nh-îng cña c«ng ty khÝ ®èt vµ dÇu khÝ quèc gia Ên §é (ONGC) vµo n¨m 1992. Liªn hiÖp, víi ONGC n¾m 55% cæ phÇn, BP 30% vµ Statoil 5% ®· tiÕn hµnh th¨m dß vµ thö nghiÖm theo mét hîp ®ång ph©n chia s¶n phÈm víi ViÖt Nam, mét ®¬n vÞ lÇn l-ît nhËn 5% tiÒn gãp vµo, c¨n cø trªn quyÒn lîi cña mçi ®èi t¸c Ch©u ¢u. Translate the following text into English The failure of a space shuttle steering jet Wednesday forced NASA to suspend a radar survey of Earth as Endeavour's 10 day environmental research flight passed the halfway mark. The problem was a hindrance to the $384 million space Radar Laboratory but not a danger to the astronauts, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration said. Officials said a fuel temperature sensor failed, disabling a leak detection system in the suspect thruster and triggering a shutdown of five others, called verniers, which are needed to fine-tune the shuttle's orbital path and precisely point cargo bay instruments at targets on the planet. Mission commentator Kelly Humphries late Wednesday called the scientific hiatus "temporary pause" while ground engineers hastily devised a way for shuttle computers to ignore the broken sensor.


99 Maneuvering Endeavour with its 38 larger thrusters would consume too much full and eliminate hope of extending the natural disasters around the globe, according to flight director Rich Jackson. Late Wednesday the shuttle was flying on autopilot and the crew, which has been working in two shifts around the clock since Friday's liftoff from Florida, was enjoying an unexpected time-out., Jackson predicted the software patch would be ready by Thursday afternoon, about 24 hours after the malfunction occurred. "The payloads community and the flight control team are working very hard to regain venire control and minimise the impact. in the intervening time period". Jackson told reporters at Mission Control in Houston. Scientists said the problem would not harm the images but that it would take up to five times longer to process the radar data in their computers.

ASSIGNMENT 16: Translate the following text into Vietnamese N-íc Anh ®-îc chia lµm 651 khu vùc bÇu cö ng-êi d©n ë mçi khu vùc chän ra mét ng-êi ®¹i diÖn cho m×nh ë h¹ viÖn. ë Anh hÖ thèng bÇu cö ®¬n gi¶n ®-îc sö dông trong c¸c cuéc bÇu cö quèc héi theo ph-¬ng thøc bá phiÕu kÝn. HiÖn nay, hÖ thèng nµy cã nh÷ng ®iÒu chØnh ®Ó ngµy cµng trë nªn tèi -u h¬n. ViÖc bÇu cö lµ hoµn toµn tù nguþªn. mäi ng-êi d©n Anh tõ 18 tuæi trë nªn kh«ng bÞ t-íc quyÒn bÇu cö do ph¹m ph¸p, ®Òu cã thÓ bá phiÕu bÇu cö. Nh÷ng ng-êi kh«ng cã quyÒn bÇu cö bao gåm: thµnh viªn cña hoµng gia, c¸c nhµ quý téc lµ thµnh viªn cña th-îng nghÞ viÖn hoÆc lµ c- d©n n-íc ngoµi. Ngoµi ra cßn cã bÖnh nh©n n»m viÖn do cã vÊn ®Ò vÒ t©m thÇn ph¹m nh©n ®ang thi hµnh ¸n vµ nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ kÕt ¸n, trong vßng n¨m n¨m tr-íc ®ã vÒ téi tham nhòng.

øng cö viªn: BÊt cø ai trªn 21 tuæi lµ c«ng d©n n-íc Anh c¸c n-íc trong khèi thÞnh v-îng chung hoÆc lµ n-íc céng hoµ Ai Len, cã ®ñ tc¸ch th× ®Òu cã thÓ øng cö vµo quèc héi, nh÷ng ng-êi kh«ng cã quyÒn øng cö lµ thµnh viªn cña th-îng nghÞ viÖn, t¨ng l÷, gi¸o sÜ thuéc gi¸o héi Anh, gi¸o héi Ai Len, gi¸o héi ScètLan vµ gi¸o héi Thiªn chóa gi¸o La M·, nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ ph¸ s¶n, ng-êi lµm dÞch vô c«ng céng vµ nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ kÕt ¸n tï tõ 1 n¨m trë lªn còng kh«ng ®-îc tham gia tranh cö. C¸c øng cö viªn trong mét khu vùc bÇu cö ph¶i tr¶ mét kho¶ng tiÒn 1000 b¶ng nh- lµ mét kho¶ng tiÒn ®Æt cäc. NÕu dµnh ®-îc Ýt nhÊt 5% phiÕu bÇu cö th× hä sÏ ®-îc nhËn l¹i sè tiÒn ®ã. Tæng bÇu cö:


100 Theo nguyªn t¾c, bÇu cö h¹ nghÞ viÖn ®-îc tæ chøc 5 n¨m mét lÇn. Nh-ng c¸c cuéc bÇu cö th-êng ®-îc tæ chøc tr-íc khi kÕt thóc mét nhiÖm k× 5 n¨m. Thñ t-íng lµ ng-êi cã quyÒn quyÕt ®Þnh thêi gian tæ chøc tæng bÇu cö. N÷ Hoµng cã thÓ gi¶i t¸n Quèc héi vµ kªu gäi mét cuéc bÇu cö ®Ó lËp nªn quèc héi míi. N-íc Anh ®-îc chia thµnh c¸c vïng gäi lµ khu vùc bÇu cö dùa trªn sè l-îng d©n c- xÊp xØ nhau. Tæng bÇu cö th-êng ®-îc tæ chøc vµo thø 5 vµ mäi ng-êi vÉn ®i lµm nh- th-êng lÖ. Do ®ã, thêi gian bÇu cö rÊt linh ®éng kÐo dµi tõ 7h ®Õn 22h ®Ó cho tÊt c¶ mäi ng-êi ®Òu cã thÓ ®Õn bá phiÕu. T¹i c¸c ®Þa ®iÓm bá phiÕu, cö tri ®-îc ph¸t phiÕu bÇu cã in tªn c¸c øng cö viªn ë khu vùc bÇu cö ®ã, danh s¸ch th-êng s¾p xÕp theo thø tù anphabe ®«i khi cßn cã mét b¶n tãm t¾t vÒ tiÓu sö øng cö viªn vµ ®¶ng cña hä ®-îc ®i kÌm víi l¸ phiÕu. Sau ®ã, c¸c phiÕu kh«ng hîp lÖ sÏ bÞ lo¹i vµ ng-êi ta sÏ tiÕn hµnh kiÓm phiÕu ®èi víi sè phiÕu hîp lÖ vµ øng cö viªn nµo nhËn ®-îc nhiÒu phiÕu ñng hé nhÊt sÏ lµ ng-êi th¾ng cuéc vµ trë thµnh thµnh viªn Quèc héi ®¹i diÖn cho khu vùc cña m×nh. ChiÕn dÞch tranh cö: ChiÕn dÞch tranh cö diÔn ra trong vßng 3 tuÇn tr-íc ngµy tæng bÇu cö. ChiÕn dÞch tranh cö diÔn ra ë mäi khu vùc bÇu cö trªn toµn quèc. C¸c øng cö viªn sö dông mäi lo¹i ph-¬ng tiÖn, s¸ch l-îc ®Ó thu hót sù ñng hé cña ng-êi d©n. VËn ®éng tranh cö: VËn ®éng tranh cö cã nghÜa lµ nh©n viªn cña §¶ng ë ®Þa ph-¬ng ®i ®Õn tõng gia ®×nh vµ hái ng-êi d©n vÒ ý ®Þnh cña hä, xem thö lµ hä ®Þnh bÇu ai. B»ng c¸ch nµy, c¸c øng cö viªn cã thÓ biÕt ®-îc ý ®Þnh còng nh- th¸i ®é cña ng-êi d©n, tõ ®ã hä cã thÓ ®iÒu chØnh c¸c chiÕn l-îc cña m×nh. Ngoµi ra nh©n viªn ®ã sÏ quay trë l¹i nh÷ng gia ®×nh cã ng-êi ®· høa lµ sÏ ñng hé §¶ng cña hä ®Ó thóc giôc hä bá phiÕu cho ng-êi cña §¶ng m×nh trong ngµy bÇu cö. MÝt tin: øng ®©u gåm næi víi lªn

cö viªn cã thÓ tæ chøc mÝt tin bÊt cø n¬i nµo bÊt cø n¬i cã thÓ trong suèt chiÕn dÞch bÇu cö. Kh¸ch mêi cña hä bao nh÷ng ng-êi cã tÇm ¶nh h-ëng lín ttrong ®¶ng, nh÷ng ng-êi tiÕng ñng hé hä nh- nµh v¨n, diÔn viªn ®Ó g©y ¶nh h-ëng ®èi cö tri. Nh÷ng cuéc mÝt tin nh- thÕ th-êng ®-îc ®-a trän vÑn c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn th«ng tin ®¹i chóng.

Th«ng tin ®¹i chóng: Do b¸o vµ t¹p chÝ ë Anh th-êng lµ thuéc së h÷u t- nh©n vµ ®éc lËp vÒ mÆt tµi chÝnh ®èi víi c¸c ®¶ng ph¸i chÝnh trÞ nªn ng-êi chñ bót hoÆc ng-êi biªn tËp cã thÓ ñng hé bÊt cø ai hä muèn.


101 Tuy nhiªn, ®µi ph¸t thanh vµ ®µi truyÒn h×nh th× kh¸c lu«n lu«n c«ng b»ng, kh«ng thiªn vÞ. Ch-¬ng tr×nh tin tøc ®-a tin vÒ mäi mÆt cña chiÕn dÞch tranh cö cña c¸c §¶ng. Trong thêi gian nµy, c¸c øng cö viªn xuÊt hiÖn trªn ®µi vµ tivi suèt ngµy ®ªm, ta cã thÓ thÊy hä ë nhµ m¸y, xÝ nghiÖp, tr-êng häc, trung t©m thanh niªn vµ ë c¶ c¸c n«ng tr¹i. Hä ph¸t biÓu c¸c chÝnh s¸ch cña ®¶ng m×nh. Ch-¬ng tr×nh ®èi tho¹i trùc tiÕp trªn ®· cho phÐp mäi ng-êi ®Æt c©u hái cho c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o chÝnh trÞ. Bªn c¹nh ®ã, c¸c bµi t-êng thuËt, bµi b×nh luËn do c¸c phãng viªn ghi l¹i trong c¸c cuéc pháng vÊn víi c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña c¸c ®¶ng còng ®-îc ph¸t sãng. B¶n tuyªn ng«n: C¸c ®¶ng lín cho xuÊt b¶n b¶n tuyªn ng«n cña ®¶ng m×nh trong suèt chiÕn dÞch bÇu cö. Mçi ®¶ng ®Òu ®-a ra b¶n tuyªn ng«n cña ®¶ng m×nh nh- lµ mét Ên phÈm tham kh¶o. Nã cung cÊp cho ng-êi d©n nh÷ng th«ng tin vÒ chÝnh s¸ch cña ®¶ng, vÒ nh÷ng g× hä sÏ lµm nÕu hä ®¾c cö. C¸c b¶n tuyªn ng«n cßn bao gåm nh÷ng thµnh c«ng tr-íc ®©y cña ®¶ng. Ngoµi ra ®«i khi nã cßn chøa ®ùng sù c«ng kÝch cña ®¶ng nµy ®èi víi ®¶ng ®èi lËp.

ASSIGNMENT 17: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Hµ Néi ®ang cè g¾ng t¨ng gÊp ®«i GDP lªn 1100 ®«la MÜ trong vßng 5 n¨m tíi. KÕ ho¹ch ®Çy tham väng nµy ®-îc ®-a ra trªn c¬ së 11,9% tØ lÖ t¨ng GDP h»ng n¨m cña thµnh phè. T¹i §¹i héi §¹i biÓu §¶ng Bé thµnh phè Hµ Néi ®-îc tæ chøc võa qua, c¸c ®¹i biÓu ®· ®-îc th«ng b¸o: nÕu tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng vÉn tiÕp tôc nh- dù tÝnh th× GDP sÏ ®¹t kho¶ng 15% vµo ®Çu thÕ kØ. §iÒu ®ã cã nghÜa lµ GDP ®· t¨ng gÊp ®«i. §¹i héi còng ®Ò cËp ®Õn vÊn ®Ò c¬ së CN nhá truyÒn thèng cña nÒn kinh tÕ thñ ®« t¨ng nhanh bÞ thay thÕ bëi c¸c ho¹t ®éng CN vµ nghµnh c«ng nghiÖp dÞch vô-th-¬ng m¹i. Ngoµi ra ®¹i héi cßn ®-îc b¸o c¸o lµ kho¶ng 19% sè hé gia ®×nh ë Hµ Néi cã thÓ xÕp vµo diÖn hé giµu. Møc GDP b×nh qu©n n¨m ngo¸i cña thµnh phè ®-îc -íc tÝnh lµ kho¶ng 650 ®«la. Cao h¬n so víi 470 ®«la n¨m 1991 (tèc ®é t¨ng tr-ëng m¹nh mÏ). Sù t¨ng tr-ëng nµy lµ kÕt qu¶ cña hµng lo¹t c¸c dù ¸n ®Çu ttrong n-íc vµ n-íc ngoµi -íc tÝnh vµo kho¶ng 32,570VND (kho¶ng 3.275 triÖu USD).


102 Phã chñ tÞch héi ®ång Nh©n D©n thµnh phè Hµ Néi, «ng Lª Xu©n Hïng b¸o c¸o víi ®¹i héi r»ng: Mét phÇn cña sè vèn ®Çu t- ®· ®-îc sö dông cho qu¸ tr×nh chuyÓn giao c«ng nghÖ, ®æi míi thiÕt bÞ trong nghµnh CN. PhÇn lín sè vèn ®Çu t- cßn l¹i ®-îc dïng vµo viÖc thiÕt lËp c«ng ty liªn doanh víi ®èi t¸c n-íc ngoµi. Vµo cuèi n¨m 1995 cã ®Õn h¬n 210 dù ¸n ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi ®· ®-îc cÊp giÊy phÐp kinh doanh trªn ®Þa bµn thµnh phè Hµ Néi víi tæng sè tiÒn lªn tíi 3,3 tØ ®«la. ¤ng Tïng nãi trong sè ®ã lµ 1 phÇn 3 tØ ®«la ®· ®-îc sö dông. §iÒu nµy ®· gióp Hµ Néi trong viÖc lùa chän h-íng c¬ cÊu l¹i c¬ së kinh tÕ theo h-íng CN-DV thay cho c¬ cÊu cñ víi vai trß trô cét cña CN nhá vµ n«ng nghiÖp truyÒn thèng. Theo lêi «ng Tïng, tØ lÖ s¶n phÈm CN, th-¬ng m¹i, dÞch vô trong ®ã tæng s¶n phÈm quèc néi cña thµnh phè Hµ Néi giai ®o¹n 1991-1995 t¨ng lªn ®Õn 33,1% ®èi víi c«ng nghiÖp vµ 61,6% ®èi víi th-¬ng m¹i vµ dÞch vô. Trong khi ®ã tØ lÖ n«ng nghiÖp l¹i gi¶m xuèng tæng GDP.

cßn 5,3% trong

¤ng Tïng cßn nãi sö thay ®æi cña bé mÆt kinh tÕ Hµ Néi cßn nhê vµo sù t¨ng vät cña tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng h»ng n¨m cña 5 n¨m tr-íc. ¤ng nãi tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng 11,9% hµng n¨m cµng ®-îc ®¶m b¶o ch¾c ch¾n, con sè nµy cao h¬n gÊp ®«i so víi tØ lÖ ®Ò ra n¨m 1991. ¤ng Tïng b¸o c¸o víi c¸c ®¹i biÓu r»ng vµo n¨m 2000 tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng cña thµnh phè sÏ ®¹t 15% 1 n¨m. GDP -íc tÝnh ®¹t kho¶ng 1000 ®« la. Vµo thêi ®iÓm ®ã tØ lÖ s¶n phÈm c«ng nghiÖp tæng sè GDP cña thµnh phè Hµ Néi sÏ ®¹t 40% t¨ng 7% so víi hiÖn t¹i. N¨m ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp ®· ®¹t ®-îc môc ®Ých trë thµnh ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp then chèt cña thµnh phè bao gåm: ngµnh s¶n xuÊt thiÕt bÞ ®iÖn, m¸y mãc, c¬ khÝ; ngµnh dÖt; chÕ biÕn thùc phÈm; ®iÖn tö; vËt liÖu x©y dùng. Trong 5 n¨m tíi Hµ Néi cÇn kho¶ng 9 tØ USD ®Ó ®Çu t- x©y dùng ph¸t triÓn nh÷ng khu c«ng nghiÖp míi, ®æi míi c¸c khu c«ng nghiÖp cñ, x©y dùng c¸c toµ nhµ lín ë trung t©m thµnh phè ®Ó lµm c¸c v¨n phßng ®¹i diÖn, khu th-¬ng m¹i, khu vui ch¬i gi¶i trÝ, Hµ Néi ®· cã kho¶ng 10 khu c«ng nghiÖp vµ 5 c¸i kh¸c ®ang ®-îc x©y dùng. NhiÒu khu c«ng nghiÖp hiÖn nay cÇn nh÷ng kho¶ng ®Çu t- theo chiÒu s©u ®Ó thay thÕ c¸c kÜ thuËt cñ, më réng x©y dùng nhiÒu nhµ m¸y h¬n n÷a.


103 Tuy nhiªn phã bÝ th- §¶ng uû thµnh phè Hµ Néi cÇn nh¾c nhë c¸c ®¹i biÓu r»ng cÇn ph¶i næ lùc h¬n n÷a ®Ó gi÷ v÷ng sù ph¸t triÓn theo h-íng ‘‘nÒn kinh tÕ thÞ tr-êng’’ theo ®Þnh h-íng x· héi chñ nghÜa. ¤ng cßn nãi ‘‘chÝnh quyÒn thµnh phè Hµ Néi ®· thÊt b¹i trong viÖc x©y dùng sù ®oµn kÕt c¸c quan hÖ s¶n xuÊt kinh doanh x· héi chñ nghÜa’’. Trong khi bé m¸y hµnh chÝnh c¸c cÊp cßn yÕu vµ ‘‘vai trß cña §¶ng trong c¸c tæ chøc kinh tÕ x· héi kh¸c nhau vÉn cßn h¹n chÕ’’. Nh÷ng tham vÊn cña «ng Tïng cßn ®-îc Tæng bÝ th- §æ M-êi còng cè thªm, «ng Tïng chØ ph¸t biÓu víi ®¹i héi r»ng: Bªn c¹nh nh÷ng thµnh c«ng ban ®Çu Hµ Néi cßn chó ý ®Õn viÖc ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ vµ x©y dùng nguån nh©n lùc. §ång chÝ nãi 6% nh©n d©n thµnh phè Hµ Néi thÊt nghiÖp lµ mét th¸ch thøc mµ thµnh phè cÇn ph¶i gi¶i quyÕt. Cã thÓ lµ b»ng c¸ch lËp nªn c¸c nhãm s¶n xuÊt ®Ó tõ ®ã h×nh thµnh c¸c c¬ së c«ng nghiÖp nhá vµ ph¸t triÓn c«ng nghiÖp dÞch vô. §ång chÝ phã bÝ th- Lª Xu©n Tïng nãi r»ng: trong giai ®o¹n 1991-1995 sè l-îng c¸c gia ®×nh giµu t¨ng lªn gÇn 19%. Sè hé nghÌo gi¶m xuèng chØ cßn kho¶ng 2%.

ASSIGNMENT 18: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Lµm v-ên lµ mét nghÒ truyÒn thèng ë ViÖt Nam, nã xuÊt hiÖn ®ång thêi hay sím h¬n nghÒ trång lóa n-íc. Nh-ng VAC ( viÕt t¾t cña v-ên, ao, chuång) lµ mét m« h×nh kinh tÕ hiÖn ®¹i míi ®-îc ®-a vµo hoat ®éng c¸ch ®©y 10 n¨m. Ng-êi n-íc ngoµi ®Õn ViÖt Nam ®Ó nghiªn cøu m« h×nh VAC ë ®©y nãi r»ng: Tuy nã kh«ng cã hiÖu qu¶ cao trong viÖc thùc hiÖn qui m« s¶n xuÊt nh-ng lµ mét m« h×nh s¶n xuÊt ®ång bé mang l¹i lîi Ých kinh tÕ lÉn lîi Ých vÒ m«i tr-êng.Tõ nh÷ng ngµy ®Çu tiªn cña qu¸ tr×nh ho¹t ®éng, m« h×nh VAC lu«n g¾n chÆt vai trß cña m×nh trong sù ph¸t triÓn cña nÒn kinh tÕ quèc d©n. HiÖn n«ng ®ang hµng nói,

nay VAC cã mÆt trªn kh¾p 53 tØnh víi h¬n 10 triÖu chñ hé sö dông m« h×nh nµy. Trong nh÷ng n¨m gÇn ®©y VAC ®· vµ ®-îc ph¸t triÓn trªn hÇu hÕt c¸c vïng kh¾p c¶ n-íc. Víi chôc ngµn hecta ®Êt canh t¸c ë c¸c tØnh Trung du vµ miÒn v-ên c©y ¨n qu¶ ®· më réng tõ 350,000 ®Õn 400,000 hecta


104 M« h×nh VAC ®-îc ¸p dông ®· trá thµnh nguån cung cÊp rau qu¶ chÝnh cho c¶ n-íc, ®ång thêi còng ®¸p øng cho nhu cÇu xuÊt khÈu..Theo FAO ( Tæ chøc L-¬ng N«ng ThÕ Giíi) th× s¶n l-îng rau qu¶ ViÖt Nam ®¹t xÊp xØ 4 triÖu tÊn mçi n¨m. S¶n l-îng rau qu¶ b×nh qu©n ®Çu ng-êi trªn thÕ giíi lµ 65 Ki l«, ch©u ¸-Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng lµ 31 kg vµ ViÖt nam lµ 61 kg. HiÖn nay VAC cã mét ý nghÜa quan träng trong viÖc xãa ®ãi gi¶m nghÌo ®èi víi c¸c n-íc chËm ph¸t triÓn, tæ chøc ho¹t ®éng t¹i chç ®Ó ng¨n ch¨n suy dinh d-ìng, t¹o dùng c¸c v-ên c©y hay ®ån ®iÒn trªn khu ®Êt trèng ®åi nói träc, t¹o ra sù ph¸t triÓn mét nÒn n«ng nghiÖp l©u dµi vµ æn ®Þnh.møc sèng cña c¸c hé n«ng d©n thùc hiÖn m« h×nh VAC ®· ®-îc c¶i thiÖn ®¸ng kÓ víi møc thu nhËp h»ng n¨m tõ ho¹t ®éng VAC ®¹t 60% tæng thu nhËp. Gi¸ trÞ s¶n phÈm VAC chiÕm 1/3 gi¸ trÞ tæng s¶n phÈm vµ sÏ t¨ng h¬n n÷a. MÆc dï m« h×nh VAC ®· ph¸t triÓn nhanh nh-ng nã ch-a ®-îc thùc hiÖn ®ång lo¹t th«n. NÕu tËp trung më réng th©m canh lo¹i c©y trång tren kh¾p c¶ n-íc, th× nam cã thÓ ®¹t ®-îc 8 triÖu tÊn mçi n¨m

trong vßng 10 n¨m qua, ë tÊt c¶ c¸c vïng n«ng vµ chuyªn m«n hãa c¸c s¶n l-îng rau qu¶ ViÖt ë thÕ kû 21.

VAC nªn ®-îc xem nh- lµ mét ch-¬ng tr×nh n«ng nghiÖp quèc gia. NÕu VAC ®-îc khuyÕn khÝch ®Ó ph¸t huy hÕt mäi tiÒm n¨ng cña nã th× ch¾c ch¾n sÏ ®¹t ®-îc hiÖu qu¶ cao, gãp phÇn vµo viÖc ph¸t triÓn n-íc nhµ vµ gãp phÇn vµo viÖc b¶o vÖ m«i tr-êng.


105

ASSIGNMENT 19: Translate the following text into English Researchers said on Monday they had conclusive evidence an experimental AIDS treatment using plasma transfusions delays the onset of the disease in HIV positive patients and prolongs the lives of AIDS sufferers. DR. Abraham Karpas of the University of Cambridge's department of haematology said, however, that although Passive Immune Therapy (PIT) was "breakthrough" in treating AIDS and had no known side effects it should not be described as a cure. "It is definitely not a cure. There is no cure in sight, but it looks as if it is the best form of treatment," he said in his presentation to a London conference. Karpas said U.S. and French studies on PIT released at the conference confirmed his original research. "Their double - blind, placebo - controlled studies showed that this treatment benefits AIDS patients and prolonged their sure, survival,'' he stated in a telephone interview. He said the studies, conducted by the Hemacare Corporation of California and two Paris hospitals, also showed that PIT helped to delay the onset of full - blown AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) in people tested positive for HIV, the virus that causes the deadly disease. Under PIT, patients receive a monthly transfusion of half a litre of plasma taken from healthy HIV - positive individuals. The blood has the red and white cells removes and is free of HIV but has high levels of neutralising antibodies that kill the virus. Karpas said he first discovered in 1985 that people with HIV who were otherwise healthy had high levels of these antibodies in their blood while AIDS patients lost these neutralising antibodies and their ability to fight infections. Four patients in Cambridge were the first to receive the treatment and subsequently small scale trials were carried out in London in 1988 and 1989. But Karpras said he has failed to receive funding for his research in Britain and studies had therefore been set up in the US and France. The Hemancare trial studied the effect of PIT on 220 AIDS patients over 3 years. It found that in the first 12 months the mortality rate was greatly reduced in the group who received the plasma transfusion while those in the control group, where no treatment was given, had a death rate of five time higher. The treated group had one death in 21 people while the placebo group had six deaths in 30. Moreover, the number of AIDS - linked infections was far lower in the treated group and the blood donors themselves also appeared to benefit. The researchers said donating blood appeared to stimulate the production of neutralising antibodies in the blood of HIV - positive patients. The French studies produced similar results, Karpas said he said the U.S. and French studies represented the "first conclusive evidence that PIT is an effective AIDS treatment".


106

ASSIGNMENT 20: Translate the following text into English Another day she said she knew a priest who woke one night to find a fellow he didn't recognize leaning over the end of his bed. The priest was a bit frightened -naturally enough but he asked the fellow what he wanted, and the fellow said in a deep, husky voice that he wanted to go to confession. The priest said it was an awkward time and wouldn't it do in the morning, but the fellow said that last time he went to confession, there was one sin he kept back, being ashamed to mention it, and now it was always on his mind. Then the priest knew it was a bad case, because the fellow was after making a bad confession and committing a mortal sin. He got up to dress, and just then the cock crew in the yard outside, and to and behold! When the priest looked round there was no sign of the fellow, only a smell of burning timber, and when the priest looked at his bed didn't he see the print of two hands burned in it! That was because the fellow had made a bad confession. This story made a shocking impression on me. But the worst of all was when she showed us how to examine our conscience. Did we take the name of the Lord, our God, in vain? Did we honour our father and our mother? (I asked her did this include grandmothers and she said it did.) Did we love our neighbours as ourselves? Did we cover our neighbour's goods? (I thought of the way I felt about the penny that Nora got every Friday.) I decided that, between one thing and another, I must have broken the whole ten commandments, all on account of that old woman, and so far as I could see-,, 9-n long ac, he remained in the house, I had no hope of ever doing anything else. I was scared to death of confession. The day the whole class went I let on to have a toothache, hoping my absence wouldn't be noticed; but at three o'clock, just as I was feeling safe, along comes a chap with a message from Mrs. Ryan that I was to go to confession myself on Saturday and be at the chapel for communion with the rest. To make it worse, Mother couldn't come with me and sent Nora instead. Now, that girl had ways of tormenting me that Mother never knew of. She held my hands as we went down the hill, smiling sadly and saying how sorry she was for me, as if she were bringing me to the hospital for an operation. "Oh, God, help us!" she moaned. "Isn't it a terrible pity you weren't a good boy? Oh Jackie, my heart bleeds for you! How will you ever think of all your sins? Don't forget you have to tell him about the time you kicked Gran on the shin." "Let me go!" I said, trying to drag myself free of her, "I don't want to go to confession at all." "But sure, you'll have to go to confession, Jackie," she replied in the same regretful tone. "Sure, if you didn't, the parish priest would be up to the house, looking for you. Isn’t God knows, that I'm not sorry for you. Do you remember the time you tried to kill me with the bread knife under the table? And the language you used to me? I don't know what he'll do with you at all, Jackie. He might have to send you up to the bishop." I remember thinking bitterly that she didn't know the half of what I had to tell - if I told it. I knew I couldn't tell it, and understood perfectly why the fellow in Mrs. Ryan's story made a bad confession, it seemed to me a great shame that people wouldn't stop criticizing him. I remember that steep hill down to the church, and the sunlit hillsides beyond the valley of the river, which I saw in the gaps between the houses like Adam's last glimpse of Paradise.


107 Then, when she had maneuvered me down the long flight of steps to the chapel yard, Nora suddenly changed her tone. She became the raging malicious devil she really was. "There you are!" she said with a yelp of triumph, hunting me through the church door." And I hope he'll give you the penitential psalins, you dirty little baffler.' I knew then I was lost, given up to eternal justice. The door with the coloured-glass panels swung shut behind me, the sunlight went out and gave place to deep shadow, and the wind whistled outside so that the silence within seemed to crackle like ice under my feet. Nora sat in front of me by

ASSIGNMENT 21: Translate the following text into Vietnamese 1. Nh×n chung sau mét thêi gian ho¹t ®éng tr× trÖ, nÒn c«ng nghiÖp dÖt thªu t- nh©n cña Thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh ®· ®-îc kh«i phôc vµ ph¸t triÓn ë møc ®é nhÊt ®Þnh kÓ tõ n¨m 1991.Tuy nhiªn sù ph¸t triÓn kh«ng æn ®Þnh bëi v× hÇu hÕt c«ng viÖc cña c¸c xÝ nghiÖp t- nh©n ®Òu phô thuéc vµo ®¬n ®Æt hµng cña n-íc ngoµi.Do vËy, hä kh«ng thÓ kiÓm so¸t ®-îc kÕ ho¹ch s¶n xuÊt, vµ gi¸ lao ®éng cho s¶n phÈm may mÆt bÞ c¸c ®èi t¸c n-íc ngoµi qui ®Þnh rÊt thÊp ( tiÒn c«ng lao ®éng n¨m 1995 chØ b»ng 65%-70% so víi c¸c n¨m 1991 vµ 1992.).Do tÝnh ®Æc thï cña ngµnh nµy, nªn l-¬ng trung b×nh cña c«ng nh©n trong ngµnh may-thªu chØ kho¶ng 400.000 ®ång/th¸ng. Víi sù c¹nh tranh gay g¾t hiÖn nay, b¶o hiÓm x· héi chiÕm ®Õn 15% vµ b¶o hiÓm y tÕ lµ 2% trong tæng sè l-¬ng mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp ph¶i ®ãng, vµ nÕu nh- kÕ ho¹ch dù kiÕn cña b¶o hiÓm x· héi ®-îc phª duyÖt, th× gi¸ thµnh s¶n xuÊt sÏ rÊt cao g©y khã kh¨n cho c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt ViÖt Nam trong vieec c¹nh tranh cã hiÖu qu¶ vµ chiÕm lÜnh thÞ tr-êng. §Ó gióp c¸c doanh nghiÖp thªu-may t- nh©n sèng cßn, «ng Nam ®· ®Ò nghÞ nhµ n-íc nªn söa ®æi tû lÖ ®ãng gãp cña c¸c doanh nghiÖp ngoµi quèc doanh ®èi víi chÝnh s¸ch b¶o hiÓm x· héi nhsau: - B¶o hiÓm x· héi: 10% ®èi víi doanh nghiÖp vµ 3% ®èi víi c«ng nh©n - B¶o hiÓm y tÕ c«ng nh©n

:

1% ®èi víi doanh nghiÖp

vµ 1% ®èi víi

Nhµ n-íc còng nªn ban hµnh mét qui ®Þnh cã liªn quan ®Õn ng-êi lao ®éng ®· ®-îc c¸c doanh nghiÖp tuyÓn dông vµ ®µo t¹o buéc ph¶i lµm viÖc tèi thiÓu lµ 2 n¨m. C¸c c«ng nh©n lµm viÖc trong


108 c¸c doanh nghiÖp ngoµi quèc doanh cÇn ph¶i ®-îc cÊp thÎ lµm viÖc. NÕu mét c«ng nh©n nµo ®ã muèn th«i viÖc th× ph¶i ®-îc doanh nghiÖp cñ qu¶n ®ång ý. TÊt c¶ mäi thµnh viªn cña c¸c c«ng ty may-thªu ë Thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh ®Òu ®ång ý thùc hiÖn ®Çy ®ñ viÖc ®ãng gãp mét phÇn l-¬ng vµo b¶o hiÓm x· héi vµ y tÕ, thÓ theo ®óng qui ®Þnh cña luËt lao ®éng. 2. C¸c chñ doanh nghiÖp cña c¸c c«ng ty lín ë TP Hå ChÝ Minh ®· nªu ra nh÷ng khã kh¨n mµ hä ph¶i ®-¬ng ®Çu trong viÖc c¹nh tranh gay g¾t víi c¸c c«ng ty n-íc ngoµi, ®Æc biÖt lµ víi c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå thÕ giíi. T¹i mét cuéc häp bµn vÒ : Lµm thÕ nµo ®Ó khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu tn-íc ngoµi vµ ®¶m b¶o s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc ®-îc tæ chøc t¹i TP Hå ChÝ minh tuÇn qua, c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt cña c¸c c«ng ty bét giÆt Tico vµ Lux, Mü phÈm P/S, n-íc gi¶i kh¸t Tribeco, dÖt ViÖt Th¾ng, bia Sµi gßn vµ c«ng ty gia cÇm vËt nu«i TP Hå ChÝ Minh ®Òu thèng nhÊt mét ý kiÕn lµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc kh«ng c©n søc trong viÖc c¹nh tranh víi c¸c ®èi t¸c n-íc ngoµi v× hä kh«ng ®-îc h-ëng chÝnh s¸ch -u ®·i thuÕ nh- c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã vèn ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi. ChØ 1 n¨m sau khi lÖnh cÊm vËn cña Mü ®-îc b·i bá, c¸c c«ng ty n-íc gi¶i kh¸t khæng lå nh- Coca-cola, Pep si- Cola ®-îc h-ëng -u ®·i vÒ vèn, chÝnh s¸ch tiÕp thÞ vµ c¸c -u ®·i kh¸c theo luËt §Çu T- N-íc Ngoµi, nªn c¸c c«ng ty nµy ®· dÇn dÇn th©m nhËp thÞ phÇn cña c¸c nahf s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc. C¸c s¶n phÈm kh¸c còng r¬i vµo hoµn c¶nh t-¬ng tù. Bia Sµi Gßn ph¶i c¹nh tranh quyÕt liÖt víi c¸c c«ng ty bia liªn doanh víi n-íc ngoµi. C¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt bét giÆt trong n-íc, mÆc dï cã thÓ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu trong n-íc ®Õn n¨m 2000, nh-ng l¹i bÞ c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå nhProcter & Gamble vµ Unilever dån vµo thÕ bÝ. §Ó b¶o vÖ viÖc s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc, c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc ®· ®Ò nghÞ víi chÝnh phñ mét sè biÖn ph¸p. Thø nhÊt, nhµ n-íc nªn cã kÕ ho¹ch ph¸t triÓn dµnh riªng cho viÖc ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi vÒ l·nh vùc kinh doanh vµ ph©n bè theo vïng ®Þa lý vµ kh«ng nªn khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi vµo viÖc s¶n xuÊt ra c¸c s¶n phÈm mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc cã kh¶ n¨ng s¶n xuÊt ®-îc nh- n-íc gi¶i kh¸t, bét giÆt, giÊy vµ thuèc l¸. Thø hai, viÖc cÊp giÊy phÐp nªn ®-îc ¸p dông cho c¸c c«ng ty liªn


109 doanh hay c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã 100% vèn ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi tham gia vµo c¸c dù ¸n ®ßi hái cã nhiÒu vèn, c«ng nghÖ cao hay s¶n xuÊt c¸c mÆt hµng xuÊt khÈu. Thø ba, lµ nªn cã mét ®¹o luËt chèng ®èi viÖc c¹nh tranh kh«ng lµnh m¹nh cã thÓ dÉn ®éc quyÒn kinh doanh, ph¸ gi¸ lµm h¹i ng-êi tiªu dïng. Thø t- nªn cã chÝnh s¸ch khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t- trong n-íc vµ cho c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc ®-îc h-ëng chÝnh s¸ch -u ®·i thuÕ nh- c¸c nhµ ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi. Thø n¨m, nªn ph¸t ®éng mét chiÕn dÞch ®éng viªn ng-êi ViÖt Nam dïng hµng néi ®Þa, t¹o ®iÒu kiÖn cho c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc ph¸t triÓn.

ASSIGNMENT 22: Translate the following text into English Poor people often have larger families than middle class and upper class people. And people in underdeveloped countries have more children than people in developed countries. More and more experts in population growth see the strong relationship between family size and economic development. In some areas, government family planning services may not be available to poor people due to geographic location. For example, people in rural areas may live too far away from family planning services. Therefore, they don't receive information about ways to control family size. In general, people in urban areas have much more information available to them than people living in rural areas. Urban people have help with family planning, and they have smaller families. So we can say that geography where people live - plays a part in determining family size: Urban families are smaller than rural families. What are the other reasons? Economic development of families and, on a larger scale, of nations, is an important factor in determining family size. People with a lot of money have fewer children. On the other hand, poor people in underdeveloped countries choose to have many children. Why? Because they have to depend upon their children to take care of them in their old age. They have no insurance, pensions, or government help. When they grow old, where can they get help? The answer is simple. They can and will turn to their children. Their children will be adults then, and they will be working. The children can all share the costs and other responsibilities of taking care of their parents. For many poor people, a large family is a way of planning and preparing for the future. We could say that a large family is insurance for old age in some societies.

ASSIGNMENT 23: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Hai c¬ quan l-¬ng thùc cña Liªn Hîp quèc ngµy h«m qua ®· cho r»ng Indonesia sÏ ®èi mÆt víi sù thiÕu hôt l-¬ng thùc trÇm


110 träng trong n¨m nay. §ã lµ hËu qu¶ cña nh÷ng vô mïa thÊt thu vµ cña cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh ®· lµm t¨ng gi¸ nhËp khÈu. Trong mét b¶n b¸o c¸o chung, tæ chøc L-¬ng N«ng thÕ giíi (FAO) vµ Ch-¬ng Tr×nh L-¬ng Thùc ThÕ Giíi (WFP) cho r»ng viÖc gióp ®ì cña thÕ giíi lµ cÇn thiÕt ®Ó gi¶i quyÕt viÖc thiÕu hôt g¹o t¹m thêi, nguån l-¬ng thùc chÝnh cña ®Êt n-íc. B¶n b¸o c¸o chung cña hai tæ chøc cã v¨n phßng ®Æt t¹i Rome th× hai tæ chøc FAO vµ WFP thóc giôc c¸c n-íc tµi trî gióp Indonesia gi¶i quyÕt c¸c vÊn ®Ò liªn quan ®Õn h¹n h¸n vµ khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh. B¶n b¸o c¸o nãi thªm r»ng gi¸ l-¬ng thùc ngµy cµng t¨ng cao, sè ng-êi thÊt nghiÖp ngµy cµng ®«ng lµm t¨ng thªm sè ng-êi sèng d-íi møc nghÌo ®ãi. Mét b¶n b¸o c¸o vÒ mét n-íc ®«ng d©n thø t- trªn thÕ giíi mµ nÒn kinh tÕ ®· bÞ tµn ph¸ cho r»ng :’’ Vµo kho¶ng 7,5 triÖu ng-êi Indonesia nghÌo khæ ë 15 tØnh cã thÓ ph¶i sèng thiÕu ¨n trong mïa kh«’’. B¶n b¸o c¸o dùa trªn nh÷ng cø liÖu do mét nhãm c«ng t¸c gåm 11 thµnh viªn cña hai tæ chøc nµy. Nhãm nµy ®· ®Õn Indonesia tõ ngµy 9 th¸ng 3 ®Õn 1 th¸ng 4 n¨m 1998. S¶n l-îng n¨m nay chØ -íc ®¹t 47,5 triÖu tÊn, thÊp h¬n 3,6% so víi n¨m ngo¸i. Sù tôt gi¶m nµy do mét trong nh÷ng ®ît h¹n h¸n nghiªm träng nhÊt ë Indonesia trong thÕ kû nµy g©y nªn. B¶n b¸o c¸o cßn cho biÕt mÆc dï chÝnh phñ Indonesia dù ®Þnh nhËp khÈu 1,5 triÖu tÊn g¹o tõ th¸ng 4 ®Õn th¸ng 9, nh-ng n-íc nµy vÉn cßn thiÕu 2 triÖu tÊn n÷a. Kho¶n thiÕu hôt nµy sÏ ®-îc céng ®ång quèc tÕ gióp ®ì ®Ó nh»m cøu v·n nÒn kinh tÕ ®ang l©m vµo c¶nh khèn cïng. B¶n b¸o c¸o cho biÕt th¸ch thøc chÝnh mµ ®Êt n-íc nµy ®ang ®èi mÆt lµ b¶o ®¶m cung cÊp ®ñ l-¬ng thùc cho 7,5 triÖu ng-êi nghÌo ®ãi v× gi¸ g¹o vµ c¸c lo¹i l-¬ng thùc kh¸c t¨ng 50% trong vßng 12 th¸ng qua.

ASSIGNMENT 24: Translate the following text into Vietnamese H«m thø t-, ViÖt Nam tuyªn bè lµ sÏ gia nhËp HiÖp Héi c¸c n-íc §«ng Nam ¸, nh»m xua ®i pháng ®o¸n lµ Hµ Néi muèn lÇn l÷a viÖc trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cho ®Õn khi chuÈn bÞ tèt mäi ®iÒu kiÖn. ‘‘ ViÖt Nam hiÖn giê ®ang tÝch cùc chuÈn bÞ mäi ®iÒu kiÖn cÇn thiÕt ®Ó trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cña ASEAN vµo n¨m tíi.’’ Phã Thñ T-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i ®· tuyªn bè nh- vËy víi c¸c doanh nh©n t¹i mét b÷a ¨n tr-a do DiÔn ®µn Kinh tÕ thÕ giíi (WEF) -


111 trô së ®Æt t¹i Thôy SÜ- tæ chøc. WEF lµ c¬ quan ®øng ra duy tr× cuéc häp kÐo dµi 3 ngµy ë ®©y. Phã Thñ T-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cho biÕt ViÖt Nam còng muèn tham gia vµo DiÔn §µn Hîp T¸c Kinh TÕ Ch©u ¸- Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng ( APEC) víi 17 thµnh viªn. khi cã ®ñ ®iÒu kiÖn. T¹i Jakarta, Thø tr-ëng ngo¹i giao ViÖt Nam Vò Khoan nãi r»ng n-íc «ng sÏ ®Ö ®¬n xin trë thµnh héi viªn A SEAN vßa cuèi th¸ng nµy hay ®Çu th¸ng 11. Thø tr-ëng Vò Khoan, sau khi gÆp «ng A Jit Singh Tæng th- ký A SEAN- v¨n phßng ®Æt t¹i JaKarta, ®· ph¸t biÓu r»ng «ng kh«ng muèn cã mét trë ng¹i nµo trong qu¸ tr×nh gia nhËp A SEAN. Th«ng tÊn x· Antara ®· trÝch dÉn lêi tuyªn bè cña «ng. C¸c thµnh viªn APEC bao gåm c¸c quèc gia thuéc Indonesia, Malaisia, Phillipine, Xingapore vµ c¸c n-íc Mü, Canada, NhËt vµ Trung Quèc. Mét chÝnh thøc cña c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o c¸c n-íc tham tæ chøc t¹i Indonesia vµo th¸ng tíi.

A SEAN- Brun©y, Th¸i Lan- cïng cuéc häp kh«ng giaAPEC sÏ ®-îc

ViÖt nam ®· ®¹t ®-îc kÕt qu¶ lµ trë thµnh quan s¸t viªn ASEAN trong cuéc héi nghÞ cña khèi nµy vµo n¨m 1992, ®· tuyªn bè lµ thiÕt tha mong muèn trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cña tæ chøc nµy, ®· cã nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh víi nhiÒu hoµi b¶o vÒ sù hîp t¸c, bao gåm c¶ viÖc ph¸t ®éng khu vùc tù do mËu dÞch A SEAN trong vßng 10 n¨m. C¸c viªn chøc ASEAN còng ®· hy väng lµ ViÖt Nam cã lÏ sÏ gia nhËp A SEAN tr-íc khi c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña 6 quèc gia thµnh viªn tham dù cuéc häp th-îng ®Ønh tæ chøc t¹i Th¸i Lan vµo th¸ng 12 n¨m 1995. ‘‘ §· s½n cã nh÷ng qui ®Þnh vÒ viÖc hîp t¸c trong khèi A SEAN. Mét khi chóng t«i lµ héi viªn th× chóng t«i sÏ tu©n theo mäi qui ®Þnh. Phã Thñ T-íng nãi thªm r»ng Hµ Néi sÏ lµm viÖc víi c¸c n-íc kh¸c t¹i §ong Nam ¸ ®Ó b¶o ®¶m nÒn an ninh khu vùc. ’’ Phã Thñ t-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cho biÕt chÝnh phñ cña «ng sÏ ®Èy m¹nh c¸c næ lùc b»ng nh÷ng viÖc c¶i c¸ch ®Ó hoµn thiÖn c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn cho sù ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi qua sù h×nh thµnh mét c¬ cÊu luËt ph¸p míi vµ c¸c thñ tôc hµnh ch¸nh thÝch hîp h¬n. Phã Thñ t-íng nãi: ‘‘ Chóng t«i hiÓu ®-îc lµ ViÖt Nam ®ang ®èi phã víi nh÷ng thö th¸ch lín lao cña sù c¹nh tranh kinh tÕ toµn cÇu vµ nh- thÕ chóng t«i ph¶i cè g¾ng thËt tÝch cùc ®Ó g¹t bá ®i mèi nguy c¬ tôt hËu ®»ng sau c¸c n-íc l¸ng giÒng.’’

ASSIGNMENT 25: Translate the following texts into English


112 1. The manufacturing sector expanded significantly during the post-World War II reconstruction of the Philippine economy. Government controls on imports promoted the development of light industries that produced consumer goods for the domestic market. In the 1970s the government created four special economic zones designed to stimulate manufacturing for the export market. Industries in these export-processing zones receive incentives to produce traditional exports. The zones have helped to stimulate foreign investment in the Philippine economy, in part because they are exempt from certain taxes and restrictions on foreign ownership of businesses. The success of these zones has led to the creation of other types of special economic zones, such as large industrial estates. Businesses receive tax exemptions and other incentives in these zones. The former U.S. naval base at Subic Bay, for example, is now a huge industrial-commercial zone in Manila. Its modern facilities and duty-free economic zone have attracted new export-focused industries and foreign investment 2. Vietnam has sought to maintain socio-politic stability, develop economic and diplomatic establishment in recent years. The positive legal changes have had a tremendous influence on the production, financial and commercial situations. Vietnam ranked as the world’s secondlargest rice exporter to Thailand because its agriculture responded dramatically to free market. In manufacturing and service activities the rapid growth and change occurred in and around HCM City. Much economic expansion was partially driven by an influx of investment and technology from some 2 million overseas Vietnamese in many different countries worldwide, most of whom had returned to Vietnam for their investment and contacts with their relatives. Only a year after the US embargo was lifted, soft drink giants such as Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola, which have enjoyed superior advantages in capital, marketing policies and preferences under the Foreign Investment Law, have gradually eaten into the market shares of local producers. Other products are also in the same situation. Saigon Beer has to compete fiercely with breweries of foreign Joint-ventures. Local detergent producers, although capable of meeting domestic demand to the year 2005, have driven into the corner by giants such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever. 3. To protect domestic production, local producers have proposed several measures to the Government. First, the State should devise specific development plans for foreign investment in terms of business field and geographical area and should not encourage foreign investment in products which local enterprises can produce such as soft drink, detergent, paper and cigarettes. Second, licenses should be granted only to JVs or foreign-owned enterprises which involve in projects requiring large capital, advanced technology or producing goods for export. Third, a law should be enacted against unfair competition that can lead to monopoly, dumping or price inflation that does not benefit consumers. 4. In Vietnamese the word “nuoc” carry a double meaning of “country” and “water”, a linguistic association recognizable after a journey to the most fertile land in Vietnam- the Mekong Delta. The silt from the Mekong River helps to bring an ample granary representing the whole country source of food as well as the local inhabitants’ riverside lifestyle. For tourists, the Mekong Delta is one of the most fascinating tourist destinations in South-east Asia. It offers the marvel of the glittering waters coupled with the gaiety of a culture demonstrated by the local lifestyle and commercial activities. The big cities such as Can Tho,


113 My Tho and Long Xuyen provide a vantage for the nine provinces of the Mekong Delta while the immense network of rivers and canals is regarded as the great boon second to none in this region. The exciting life in this region is not very similar to that in HCM City. However, it does not suggest any difficulty in reaching the Mekong Delta to escape the excitement of the greatest city in Southern Vietnam. It takes only a three-hour drive( by bus, though) on the National Highway Number 1 to get to My Tho, the capital of Tien giang & an ideal departure point for exploring this delta region.


114

REFERENCES Bolinger, Dwight. 1977. Meaning and Form. Longman, London, UK. Catford, J.C. 1985. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Oxford University Press, London, UK. Halliday, M.K.A. 1976. Cohesion in English. Longmans, London, UK. Larson, Mildred L. 1998. Meaning-based Translation.University Press of America. Maryland, USA. Newmark, Peter. 1989. A Textbook of Translation. Prentice Hall International, Hertfordside, USA Palmer, F.R. 1981. Semantics. Cambridge University Press, London, UK. Reyburn, D. 1979. Cultural Equivalences in Translation. Oxford University Press, London, UK. Rose, Marilyn. 1982. Translation Spectrum. State University of NY Press, New York, USA Steiner, G. 1985. Aspects of Language and Translation. Oxford University Press, London, UK. Tosh, Wayne. 1975. Syntactic Translation. The Hague, Mouton, USA


1

INTRODUCTION An increasing number of universities in Vietnam have added courses in translation to their curricula; however, the textbooks available for such courses are few. This unit has been written with these courses in mind. The unit is designed to provide the learners with some basic principles of translation which will be generally useful to translation courses in universities and colleges, to help the learners avoid some errors they may encounter when they translate a text, to provide the learners with essential English sentence patterns that could be very useful for the learners in learning and practicing translating and to provide the learners 20 assignments related to the theory they have learned. The desire of the author is to make available the principles of translation which have learned through personal experience in translation and teaching translation, and through interaction with colleagues involved in translation projects in many universities in Central Vietnam. Since it is assumed that the students will be speakers of Vietnamese language, many of these exercises involve translating from or into their mother tongue. The material is presented in a way that it can be used in a self-teaching situation or in a classroom. An attempt has been made to keep technical terms to a minimum. When technical vocabulary is used, every effort is made to clarify the meaning of such vocabulary or to provide its meaning in Vietnamese. This has been done so that the unit can be used by any student translator, even though his exposure to linguistic and translation theory has been minimal. This is an introductory unit. The lessons give an overview presenting the fundamental principles of translation and the rest of the unit illustrates these principles. The overriding principle is that translation is meaning-based rather than form-based. Once the learner has identified the meaning of the source text, his goal is to express that same meaning in the receptor/target language. Many examples of cross-language equivalence are used to illustrate this principle. Since the coursebook has been written for the students to learn either by themselves in their distant learning course or in class with a teacher, there will be a coursebook and 20 assignments. By the end of the course, the students will be able to: 1. obtain general knowledge of the principles of translation . 2. get familiar with and effectively use the English sentence patterns in their translations. On the completion of this coursebook, I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Ton Nu Nhu Huong for her encouragement. I would also like to be grateful to Dr. Tran Van Phuoc and other colleagues of the College of Foreign Languages and the English Department for their kind help. Errors are unavoidable in this coursebook. Therefore, I appreciate and welcome any criticism on the course book. Hue, June 24th, 2001


2 Nguyen Van Tuan


3

CHAPTER 1:

THEORY OF TRANSLATION

LESSON 1:

FORM AND MEANING

1.What is translation? 1.1. Translation is the expression in another language (target language) of what has been expressed in one language (source language), preserving semantic and stylistic equivalencies. (By Roger T. Bell). 1.2. Translation is the replacement of a representation of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent text in a second language. (By Roger T. Bell). The author continues and makes the problems of equivalence very plain: Texts in different languages can be equivalent in different degrees (fully or partially different), in respect of different levels of presentation (in respect of context, of semantics, of grammar, of lexis, etc.) and at different ranks (word-for-word, phrase-for-phrase, sentencefor-sentence). However, languages are different from each other; they are different in form having different codes and rules regulating the construction of grammatical stretches of language and these forms have different meanings. To shift from one language to another is, by definition, to change the forms. Also, the contrasting forms convey meanings which cannot but fail to coincide totally; there is no absolute synonym between words in the same language, why should anyone be surprised to discover a lack synonym between languages. Something is always „lost‟ (or might one suggest „gain‟?) in the process and translators can find themselves being accused of reproducing only part of the original and so „betraying‟ the author‟s intentions. Hence the traitorous nature ascribed to the translator by the notorious Italian proverb: “ Traduttore traditore”. Faced by a text in a language, we are able to work out not only the meaning of each word and sentence but also its communicative value, its place in time and space and information about the participants involved in its production and reception. We might take, as a light-hearted model of the questions we can ask of the text, the first verse of a short poem by Kipling. I keep six honest serving men; (They taught me all I knew); Their names were What? And Why? And When? And How? And Where? And Who? What? is the message contained in the text; the content of the signal. Why? orients us towards the intention of the sender, the purpose for which the text was is used. (Informing, persuading, flattering, etc.) When? is concerned with the time of communication realized in the text and setting in its historical context; contemporary or set in the recent or remote past or future.


4 Where? is concerned with the place of communication, the physical location of the speech event realized in the text. How? refers to whether the text is written in a formal or informal way. Who? refers to the participants involved in the communication; the sender and receiver. 1.3. Translation is rendering a written text into another language in a way that the author intended the text. (By Bui Tien Bao- Hanoi National University) “ Translators are concerned with written texts. They render written texts from one language into another language. Translators are required to translate texts which arrange from simple items including birth certificates or driving licences to more complex written materials such as articles in journals of various kinds, business contracts and legal documents.” (Bui Tien BaoHanoi National University). 1.4. Translation, by dictionary definition, consists of changing from one state or form to another, to turn into one‟s own or another‟s language. (The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 1974). Translation is basically a change of form. When we speak of the form of a language, we are referring to the actual words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc. The forms are referred to as the surface structure of a language. It is the structural part of language which is actually seen in print or heard in speech. In translation the form of the source language is replaced by the form of the receptor/target language. But how is this change accomplished? What determines the choices of form in the translation? The purpose of this lesson is to show that translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. This is done by going from the form of the first language to the form of the second language by a way of semantic structure. It is meaning that is being transferred and must be held constant. Only the form changes. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation, then, consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon, grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. Let us look at an example. Assume that we are translating the Vietnamese sentence ‘‘ C¸m ¬n b¹n ®· gióp ®ì t«i tËn t×nh.’’ into English. This Vietnamese sentence has the verb ‘gióp ®ì tËn t×nh’, but to convey the same meaning in English one would use a noun phrase: „ your kind help‟. To do effective translation one must discover the meaning of the source language and use the receptor language forms which express the meaning in a natural way. It is the purpose of this unit to familiarize the learners with the basic linguistic and sociolinguistic factors involved in translating a text from a source language into a receptor language, and to give them enough practice in the translation process for the development of skills in cross-language transfer.


5

2. Characteristics of language which affect translation There are certain characteristics of languages which have a very direct bearing on principles of translation. First, let us look at the characteristics of meaning components. Meaning components are packaged into lexical items, but they are packaged differently in one language than in another. In most languages there is a meaning of plurality, for example the English -s. This often occurs in the grammar as a suffix on the nouns or verbs or both. In Vietnamese, however, plurality is expressed in an isolated word ‘ nh‚ng/c¸c’. Many times a single word in the source language will need to be translated by several words. For example, a projector was called the thing that shows pictures on the wall by the Chipara Bolivia.

Second, it is characteristic of languages that the same meaning component will occur in several surface structure lexical items. In English, the word „sheep‟ occurs. However, the words „lamb‟,‟ ram‟ and „ewe‟ also include the meaning „sheep‟. They include the addition meaning components of young (in „lamb‟, adult and male in „ ram‟ and adult and female in „ewe‟. In Peru, „lamb‟ would need to be translated by „sheep its child‟, „ram‟ by „ sheep big‟ and „ewe‟ by „sheep its woman‟. Third, it is further characteristic of language that one form will be used to represent several alternative meanings. This again is obvious from looking in any good dictionary. For example, the Reader‟s Digest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary gives 54 meanings for the English word „run‟. Most words have more than one meaning. There will be a primary meaning-the one which usually comes to mind when the word is said in isolation-and the secondary meaningthe additional meanings, which a word has in context with other words. In English, we can say „ the boy runs‟, using „run‟ in its primary meaning. We can also say „ the motor runs, the river runs, and his nose runs‟, using runs in its secondary meanings. This principle is not limited to lexical items for it is also true that the same grammatical pattern may express several quite different meanings. For instance, the English possessive phrase „my house‟ may mean „the house I built‟, „ the house I rent‟, „the house I live in‟, or the house for which I drew up in my plans.‟ Only the larger context determines the meaning. Notice the following possessive phrases and the variety of meanings: my car

ownership

my brother

kinship

my foot

part-whole

my singing

action

my book

ownership or authorship ( the book I own, or, the book I wrote)

my village

residence ( the village where I live)

my train

use


6 (the train I ride on) Whole sentences may also have several functions. A question form may be used for a nonquestion. For example, the question: “ Mary, why don‟t you wash the dishes?” has a form of a question, and may in some context be asking for information, but it is often used with the meaning of command rather than a real question. A simple English sentence like “ He made the bed.” May mean either “He made (as a carpenter would make) the bed”, or “ He put the sheets, blanket, and pillows in neat order on the bed.” Just as words have primary and secondary meanings, so grammatical markers have their primary function and often have other secondary functions. The preposition „on‟ is used in English to signal a variety of meanings. Compare the following uses of „on‟ with the corresponding form used in Vietnamese. John found the book on the floor. nhµ.

John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch trªn sµn

John found the book on mathematics. m«n to¸n.

John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch viÕt vÒ

John found the book on Tuesday. thø Ba.

John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch vµo

John found the book on sale. ®ang bµy b¸n.

John

t×m

thÊy

cuèn

s¸ch

Compare also the following uses of ‘ by’ John was stopped by the policeman. John was stopped by the bookstand. In the first, by is used to signal the meaning that the policeman is the agent of the action. In the second, by is used to signal that the bookstand is the location. We have seen that one form may express many meanings. On the other hand, another characteristic of languages is that a single meaning may be expressed in a variety of forms. For example, the meaning “ the cat is black” may be expressed by the following: the cat is black, the black cat, and, the cat, which is black, depending on how that meaning relates to other meanings. In addition, the meanings of “ Is this place taken?” “Is there anyone sitting here?” and “ May I sit here?” are essentially the same. Also, the meaning is essentially the same in the following English sentences: Others blamed John because of the difficulty. Others blamed John for the difficulty. Others blamed the difficulty on John. Others said John was responsible for the difficulty.


7 Others accused John of being responsible for the difficulty. We have seen that even within a single language there are a great variety of ways in which form expresses meaning. Only when a form being used in its primary meaning or function is there a one-to-one correlation between form and meaning. The other meanings are secondary meanings or figurative meanings. Words have these extended meanings and in the same way grammatical forms have extended usages (secondary and figurative function). This characteristic of “skewing”; that is, the diversity or the lack of one-to-one correlation between form and meaning is the basic reason that translation is a complicated task. If there were no skewing, then all lexical items and all grammatical forms would have only one meaning and a literal word-for-word and grammatical structure-for- grammatical structure translation would be possible. But the fact is that a language is a complex set of skewed relationship between meaning (semantics) and form (lexicon and grammar). Each language has its own distinctive forms for representing the meaning. Therefore, in translation the same meaning may have to be expressed in another language by a very different form. To translate the form of one language literally according to the corresponding form in another language would often change the meaning or at least result in a form which is unnatural in the second language. Meaning must, therefore, have priority over form in translation. It is meaning that is to be carried over from the source language to the receptor language, not the linguistic forms. For example, to translate the English sentence “ he is cold hearted” i.e. His heart is cold (meaning „he is unfeeling, has no emotional sympathy.‟) literally into Mambila in Nigeria would be understood to mean, “ he is peaceful, not quick-tempered.” And if translated literally into Cinyanja in Zambia, it would mean, “ he is frightened.” The nature of language is that each language uses different forms and these forms have secondary and figurative meanings which add further complications. A word-for-word translation which follows closely the form of the source language is called a literal translation. A literal translation does not communicate the meaning of the source text. It is generally no more than a string of words intended to help someone read a text in its original language. It is unnatural and hard to understand, and may even be quite meaningless, or give a wrong meaning in the receptor language. It can hardly be called a translation. The goal of a translator should be to produce a receptor language text (a translation) which is idiomatic; that is one which has the same meaning as the source language but is expressed in the natural form of the receptor language. The meaning, not form is retained. The following is a literal translation of a story first told in the Quiche language of Guatemala: “It is said that being one man not from here, not known where the his or the he comes where. One day the things he walks in a plantation or in them the coastlands, he saw his appearance one little necklace, or he thought that a little necklace the very pretty thrown on the ground in the road. He took the necklace this he threw in his mouth for its cause that coming the one person another to his behind ness, for his that not he encounters the one the following this way in his behindness not he knows and that the necklace the he threw in his mouth this one


8 snake and the man this one died right now because not he knows his appearance the snake or that the he ate this not this a necklace only probably this snake.” Now compare the above with the following less literal translation of the same story: “ It is said that there once was a man not from here, and I do not know his town or where he came from, who one day was walking in a plantation (or in the coastlands). He saw a little necklace, or rather, what he thought was a very pretty little necklace, lying on the road. He grabbed this necklace and threw this into his mouth because there was someone coming along behind him, and he did not want the other person to see it. He did not know that the necklace he threw into his mouth was really a snake. The man died in short order because he did not recognize from its appearance that it was a snake. He did not know that what he had put in his mouth was not a necklace, but rather a snake.” In the first, each quiche word was replaced by the nearest English equivalent. The result was nonsense. In the second translation, the natural forms of English lexicon and grammar were used to express the meaning of the Quiche story. Below the story is again rewritten in a more idiomatic English style. “I am told that there once was a stranger from some other town who was walking in a plantation along the coast. As he walked along he suddenly saw a very pretty little necklace lying on the road. He snatched up this necklace and threw this into his mouth because there was another person walking behind him and he did not want him to see the necklace. The stranger did not know that the necklace was really a snake. The man died immediately. He died because he did not realize that it was a snake. He did not know he put a snake into his mouth rather than a necklace.” Anything which can be said in one language can be said in another. It is possible to translate. The goal of the translator is to keep the meaning constant. Wherever necessary, the receptor language form should be changed in order that the source language meaning should not be distorted. Since a meaning expressed by a particular form in one language may be expressed by quite a different form in another language, it is often necessary to change the form when translating.

3. Notes Form-based translation:

dÞch dùa vµo h×nh thøc hay cÊu tróc

Meaning-based translation: chuyÓn t¶i

dÞch dùa vµo nghÜa, dùa vµo néi dung cÇn

Source language:

ng«n ng÷ gèc

Receptor language:

ng«n ng÷ dÞch

Context:

v¨n c¶nh/ ng÷ c¶nh

Principle of translation: Meaning component:

nguyªn t¾c dÞch/kü thuËt dÞch thµnh tè nghÜa


9 Lexical:

(thuéc vÒ) tõ vùng

Surface structure:

cÊu tróc bÒ mÆt

Deep structure:

cÊu tróc s©u/cÊu tróc ng÷ nghÜa

Meaning/ sense:

nghÜa

Primary meaning:

nghÜa chÝnh/nghÜa gèc

Secondary meaning:

nghÜa ph¸i sinh

Literal translation:

dÞch tõng tõ mét

One-to-one correlation:

quan hÖ mét ®èi mét

Figurative meaning:

nghÜa bãng

Function:

chøc n¨ng dÞch ®óng, dÞch s¸t nghi·

Idiomatic translation:

4. Self-study 4.1 Questions for discussion 1. What is translation? What definition do you think is the most appropriate? Can you give your own definition of translation? 2. What is a literal translation? Can you give some examples of literal translations? 3. What is an idiomatic translation? Give some examples of idiomatic translations. 4. What characteristics of language affect translation? 5. What are the secondary meanings? Give ten sentences, each of which contains a word used in a secondary sense. 6. What is the primary meaning? Give ten sentences, each of which contains a word used in a primary sense. 4.2 Exercises A. Identify change of meaning versus change of form. Some of the following pairs of sentences differ in their form. Some differ in meaning. Indicate if the primary change is in the form or in the meaning. Example:

They robbed the old man. The old man was dropped by them. Answer: Change of form

1. The students like to study translation. The students like studying translation. 2. I bought a pair of horseshoes. I bought a pair of leather shoes. 3. He saw the bird. He heard the cat.


10 4. Phillip went walking. Phillip took a walk. 5. Go to bed. I want you to go to bed. 6. I came; I saw; I conquered. I came, saw, and conquered. 7. Two weeks later he came. After two weeks he came. 8. There is a table in the book. There is a book on the table. 9. The young man had an English grammar book stolen. An English grammar book was stolen from the young man. 10. He was awaken by a thunderclap. A thunderclap awakened him. B. List as many grammatical forms as you can which realize the same meaning as the one given below. Then put the same meaning into a language other than English in as many forms as you can. Example:

the cat is black the black cat the cat, which is black

1. the jug water 2. John bought a car 3. a hot day 4. mother‟s long blue dress 5. Peter‟s house C. All of the following have the same grammatical form. With the change of lexical items, there is a change of meaning which is signaled by that lexical item, apart from the referential meaning of the word itself. What meaning is signaled in each of the following possessive phrases? Answer by restating. How can that meaning best be expressed in another language which you speak? Example:

The man‟s car - the man owns the car The man‟s eye - the eye is part of the man

1. the doctor‟s office 2. the doctor‟s patient 3. the doctor‟s book 4. the doctor‟s brother


11 5. the doctor‟s hand 6. the doctor‟s house D. For each pair of sentences, state whether the two sentences are 1. the same in meaning or 2. different in meaning. Example: (a) It rained all night. (b) Rain fell all night. (a) There is a book on the table. (b) There is a table on the book. 1. (a) John was very surprised when he heard the news. (b) The news very much amazed John when he heard it. 2. (a) It was a hot day. (b) The day was hot. 3. (a) Peter‟s house (b) The house that belongs to Peter 4. (a) He remained silent. (b) He did not say anything. 5. (a) I bought cloth to make Mary a new dress. (b) I bought a new dress for Mary. 6. (a) I bought vegetables in the market. (b) I bought tomatoes and onions in the market. 7. (a) My parents are well. (b) My mother and father are well. 8. (a) John is ill: he has a bad case of malaria. (b) John is very ill indeed. 9. (a) There are four rooms in the house. (b) The house has four rooms and a kitchen at the back. 10. (a) In my opinion, the government is doing well and making many improvements in the country. But there are many people who do not agree that this is so. (b) Opinions are divided concerning the government. Some say they are doing well and making many improvements in the country. Others do not agree.

LESSON 2:

KINDS OF TRANSLATION

1. Literal versus idiomatic


12 Because a given text has both form and meaning, as discussed in the previous lesson, there are two main kinds of translation. One is form-based and the other is meaning-based. Form-based translations attempt to follow the form of the source language and are known as literal translation. Meaning-based translations make every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Such translations are called idiomatic translations. An interlinear translation is a completely literal translation. For some purposes, it is desirable to reproduce the linguistic features of the source text, as for example, in a linguistic study of that language. Although these literal translations may be very useful for purposes related to the study of the source language, they are of little help to speakers of the receptor language who are interested in the meaning of the source language text. A literal translation sounds like nonsense and has little communication value. For example: Vietnamese:

Mêi b¹n vÒ nhµ t«i ch¬i

Literal translation:

Invite friend about house me play.

This literal translation makes little sense in English. The appropriate translation would be: Would you like to come to my home? If the two languages are related, the literal translation can often be understood, since the general grammatical form may be similar. However, the literal choice of lexical items may the translation sounds foreign. The following bilingual announcement was overheard at an airport ( Barnwell 1980:18) Literal English: Madame Odette passenger with destination Domda is demanded on the telephone. This English version is a literal translation of the French. French: Madame Odette, passager µ destination de Domda, est demandeÐ au telefon. An idiomatic translation into English would be: Miss Odette, passenger for Domda. You are wanted on the phone. Except for interlinear translation, a truly literal translation is uncommon. Most translators who tend to translate literally actually make a partially modified literal translation. They modify the order and grammar enough to use acceptable sentence structure in the receptor language. However, the lexical items are translated literally. Occasionally, these are also changed to avoid complete nonsense or to improve the communication. However, the result still does not sound natural. Notice the following example from a language in Papua New Guinea: Ro abombo ngusifu pamariboyandi. I my

heart

fastened-her. (literal)

I fastened her in my heart.

(modified literal)


13

The modified literal translation changes the order into English structure. However, the sentence still does not communicate in clear English. An idiomatic translation would have used the form: “ I never forgot her.” Or “ I‟ve kept her memory in my heart.” A person who translates in a modified literal manner will change the grammatical forms when the constructions are obligatory. However, if he has a choice, he will follow the form of the source text even though a different form might be more natural in the receptor language. Literal and modified literal translations consistently err in that they choose literal equivalents for the words, i.e. lexical items being translated. Literal translations of words, idioms result in unclear, unnatural, and sometimes nonsensical translations. In a modified literal translation, the translator usually adjusts the translation enough to avoid the nonsense and wrong meanings, but the unnaturalness still remains. Idiomatic translations use the natural forms of the receptor language, both in the grammatical constructions and in the choice of lexical items. A truly idiomatic translation does not sound like a translation. It sounds like it was written originally in the receptor language. Therefore, a good translator will try to translate idiomatically. This is his goal. However, translations are often a mixture of a literal transfer of the grammatical units along with some idiomatic translation of the meaning of the text. It is not easy to consistently translate. A translator may express some parts of his translation in very natural forms and then in other parts fall back into a literal form. In one translation, the source text said, ‘‘ NhiÒu du kh¸ch n-íc ngoµi ®· giíi thiÖu cho chóng t«i vÒ kh¸ch s¹n H-¬ng Giang.’’ It was translated, “ Many foreign tourists have introduced us about Huong Giang Hotel.” It would have been translated idiomatically, “ Huong Giang Hotel has been recommended to us by a number of foreign tourists.” The translator‟s goal should be to reproduce in a receptor language a text which communicates the same message as the source language but using the natural grammatical and lexical choices of the receptor language. The basic overriding principle is that an idiomatic translation reproduces the meaning of the source language in the natural form of the receptor language.

2. Translating grammatical features Parts of speech are language specific. Each language has its own division of the lexicon into classes such as nouns, verbs, adjectives and so on. Different languages will have different classes and subclasses. It will not always be possible to translate a source language noun with a noun in the receptor language. For example, English has many nouns which really refer to actions while Vietnamese prefers to express actions as verbs rather than nouns. In one translation, the source text said, “ There is a general agreement that the government has given top priority to education.” It was translated, ‘‘ Cã mét sù ®ång ý chung r»ng chÝnh phñ ®· dµnh nhiÒu sù -u tiªn cho gi¸o dôc’’. This would


14 have been translated idiomatically, ‘‘Ai còng ®ång ý r»ng chÝnh phñ ®· dµnh nhiÒu -u tiªn cho gi¸o dôc.’’ Similarly, a translator in Papua New Guinea was asked to translate the Eight Point Improvement Plan for Papua New Guinea. One point reads, “Decentralization of economic activity, planning and government spending, with emphasis on agricultural development, village industry, better internal trade, and more spending channeled through local and area bodies.” Such sentences are very difficult for translators who want to translate into the native language of the country. Words such as Decentralization, activity, planning, government spending, emphasis development, trade would have to be rendered by verbs in most languages. When verbs are used, then, the appropriate subject and object of the verb may need to be made explicit also. The form in the receptor language is very different from the source language form and yet this kind of adjustment, using verbs rather than using nouns, must be made in order to communicate the message. An idiomatic translation was made which used verbs as in the following. “The government wants to decrease the work it does for businesses and what it plans and the money it spends in the capital, and wants to increase what people and groups in local area do to help farmers and small businesses whose owners live in the villages, and help people in this country buy and sell things made in this country and to help local groups spend the government‟s money.” Most languages have a class of words which may be called pronouns. Pronominal systems vary greatly from language to language and the translator is obliged to use the form of the receptor language even though they may have very different meanings than the pronouns of the source language. For example, if one is translating into Kiowa (USA), the pronouns will have to indicate a different between singular, dual and plural person even though the source language does not make this three-way distinction. Or if a translator is translating into Balinese, he must distinguish degrees of honor even though nothing in the source language indicates these distinctions. He will need to understand the culture of the Balinese and the cultural context of the text he is translating in order to choose correctly. In English, the first plural pronoun we is often used when the real meaning is second person you. The reason for the use of we is to show empathy and understanding. The nurse say to the sick child, “ It‟s time for us to take our medicine now.” Or the teacher says, “We‟re not going to shout, quietly to our we‟ll walk places.” Clearly , the pronouns do not refer to the nurse or the teacher but to the children whom she is addressing you. In translating these pronouns into another language, a literal translation with first person plural would probably distort the meaning. The translator would need to look for the natural way to communicate second person and the feeling of empathy carried by the source language. Grammatical constructions also vary between the source language and the receptor language. The order , for example, may be completely reserved. The following simple sentences from Vietnamese is given with a literal English translations: ChÞ sèng ë ®©u? You live where ?


15 C« Êy th-êng

mÆc

¸o s¬ mi

v¶i silk

mµu xanh

cì nhá.

She often wears a shirt silk blue small. It will readily be seen that understandable translations into English requires a complete reversal of the order: She often wears a small blue silk shirt. It is not uncommon that passive constructions will need to be translated with an active construction or vice versa, depending on the natural form of the receptor language. For example, Vietnamese people tend to use active constructions to express their ideas whereas English people prefer to use passive constructions. English: Vietnamese: (active)

Nguyen Du is considered to be a great poet. ( passive) Ng-êi

ta

xem

NguyÔn

Du

mét

nhµ

th¬

®¹i.

English: A: What has happened to all your money after the will was settled and the business was sold? (passive) B: The usual thing, false friends, fast-living style and bad investment. Vietnamese: A: ChuyÖn g× ®· x¶y ra víi toµn bé sè tiÒn mµ b¹n cã ®-îc sau khi gi¶i quyÕt xong chuyÖn chóc th- vµ b¸n ®i c¶ s¶n nghiÖp. (active) B: Còng lÏ th-êng t×nh th«i, b¹n bÌ gi¶ dèi, ¨n ch¬i hoang ®µn vµ ®Çu t- sai chç. The above translated sentences are only examples to show some types of grammatical adjustments which will result if a translator translates idiomatically in the source language. Certainly, there will be times by coincidence they match, but a translator should translate the meaning not concern himself with whether the forms turn out the same or not.

3. Translating lexical features Each language has its own idiomatic way of expressing meaning lexical items. Languages abound in idioms, secondary meanings, metaphors, and other figurative meanings. For example, notice the following ways in which a fever is referred to ( literal translations are given to show the source language form): Greek:

The fever left him.

Aguaruna:

He cooled.

Vietnamese:

He cooled. Or: The fever was no more in him.


16

Ilocano:

The fever was no more in him.

The English translations of all six would be : His fever went down, or His temperature returned to normal. All languages have idioms, i.e. a string of words whose meaning is different than the meaning conveyed by the individual words. In English to say that someone is bullheaded means that the person is „stubborn‟. The meaning has little to do with bull or head . Similarly, in Vietnamese to say that someone is cøng ®Çu cøng cæ means that the person is „stubborn‟. The meaning has little to do with ®Çu or cæ. Languages abound in such idioms. The following are a few English idioms using in and into: run into debt, rush into print, step into a practice, jump into a fight, dive into a book, stumble into acquaintance, fall in love, break into society. In spite of all these combinations, one cannot say the following break into debt, fall into print, rush into a fight, dive into debt, etc. The combinations are fixed as to form and their meaning comes from their combination. A literal word-for-word translation of these idioms into another language will not make sense. The form cannot be kept, but the receptor language word or phrase which has the equivalent meaning will be the correct one to use in the translation. The following idioms occur in Vietnamese. In the first column is a literal translation from Vietnamese. In the second is an idiomatic translation. The literal English is misleading. LITERAL I don‟t have my eye on you.

IDIOMATIC I don‟t remember you.

He is as strong as a buffalo.

He is as strong as a horse.

I have buried my head into my business.

I have been busy with my work.

Translators who wants to make a good idiomatic translation often find figures of speech especially challenging. A literal translation of strong as a horse might sound really strange in a language where the comparison between a strong person and a horse has never been use as a figure of speech. In Vietnamese it would be more natural to say strong as a buffalo. Similarly, a literal translation of blind as a bat might sound really strange in a language where the comparison between a blind person and a bat has never been use as a figure of speech. In Aguaruma it would be more natural to say blind as a fox. There is a legend in which the sun borrowed the fox‟s eyes and then returned to heaven taking the fox‟s good eyes with him and leaving the fox with the sun‟s inferior eyes. That is why they say, when the fox is trying to see, he stretches back his head and looks with his throat. Figures of speech are often based on stories or historical incidents. Names of animals are used metaphorically in most languages. But the comparison is often different and so the figure will be misunderstood unless some adjustment is made. For example, when someone is called a pig in English, it usually means he is dirty or a greedy eater. In Vietnamese, it has different meanings. It could means that the person is stupid or that the person is a greedy. Care would need to be taken if pig were used metaphorically or a wrong meaning might result in the receptor language.


17 Some lexical combinations of the source language may be ambiguous. The meaning is not clear. For example, “ It is too hot to eat,” could mean any of the following: The food is too hot to eat; the weather is too hot for us to feel like eating; the horse is too hot after running a race and does not want to eat. In the process of making an idiomatic translation, such ambiguities must often be resolved and only the intended meaning communicated.

4. Conclusion It is obvious that translation is a complicated process. However, a translator who is concerned with transferring the meaning will find that the receptor language has a way in which the desired meaning can be expressed even though it may be very different from the source language form. Considering the complexity of language structures, how can a translator ever hope to produce an adequate translation? Literal translation can only be avoided by careful analysis of the source language: by, first of all, understanding clearly the message to be communicated. A translator who takes the time to study carefully the source language text, to write analysis of it, and then to look for the equivalent way in which the same message is expressed naturally in the receptor language, will be able to provide an adequate, and some times brilliant translation. His goal must be to avoid literalisms and to strive for a truly idiomatic receptor language text. He will know he is successful if the receptor language readers do not recognize his work as a translation at all, but simply as a text written in the receptor language for their information and enjoyment.

5. Notes Form-based translation : Meaning-based translation:

dÞch dùa vµo h×nh thøc dÞch dùa vµo nghÜa

Literal translation:

dÞch tõng tõ mét

Idiomatic translation:

dÞch ®óng nghÜa

Interference :

sù can thiÖp

Mother-tongue interference:

sù can thiÖp cña tiÕng mÑ ®Î

To make adjustments:

hiÖu ®Ýnh/ ®iÒu chØnh

Translating grammatical features:

®Æc tr-ng ng÷ ph¸p dÞch

Parts of speech: Subclass: Indo-European language: Pronominal system:

tõ lo¹i nhãm nhá ng«n ng÷ Ên-¢u hÖ thèng ®¹i tõ

6. Self-study 6.1 Questions for discussion 1. What are the differences between a literal translation and an idiomatic translation? 2. What should you do to translate a text idiomatically?


18 3. What grammatical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. 4. What lexical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. 5. Why do you have to take the time to read the source language text carefully before translating it? 6.2 Exercises A. In each of the following pairs of sentences, which is more idiomatic English, a or b? How would the meaning be expressed idiomatically in the language you speak? 1.(a) The storekeeper said that we will refund your money. (b) The storekeeper promised to refund our money. 2.(a) A certain boy told me this little story at a party. (b) He is one boy. He told the one little story. This is a game he said. 3.(a) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform as well. How many children have shed hot tears about spelling? (b) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform ,too. And how many hot childrenâ€&#x;s tears have not been shed on spelling? 4.(a) He then reported his misfortune to the police, who are searching diligently for the thief. (b) He then his mishap reported to the police, who are the thief searching intensively B. Look for literalisms in the following translations into English and underline the words or phrases that do not sound natural in English. Suggest a more idiomatic way of saying it. All of these examples are from published translated material. 1. The third-year students often visit the schools in the city for the attendance of the class. 2. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for their friends have introduced to them very much about this hotel. 3. Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam, many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam. 4. After saying lies many times, he lost our belief in him. 5. Hue is famous about its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. 6. The participants discussed about the causes of pollution environment. 7. Every time my mother goes to work , I feel my house absent anybody. 8. One thing makes me proud of my village is a large green field that provides one part of life for people. 9. A robbery took place of a motorcycle rider at Kampung early yesterday morning. 10. I left my village for three years, a time not long but like a century. C. Each of the following are sentences written by some Vietnamese who are not yet fluent English speakers. The forms used shows examples of how their mother-tongue language


19 structures have been carried over into English. The same information is then given in parenthesis in idiomatic English. What changes were made in correcting the English? These changes point out some of the differences between Vietnamese and English. 1. Sir, the problems of before don‟t forget. ( Sir, please don‟t forget the problems we discussed before.) 2. If there is any means, send me a letter to Saigon. (If there is any way to do so, send a letter to me in Saigon.) 3. I will think you time to time day and day. ( I will be thinking about you often every day.) 4. I am very grateful to inform you with this letter. ( I am very happy to be able to send/write you this letter.) 5. I am a man who has been to Hanoi for 12 years. ( I have now lived in Hanoi for 12 years.) D. Translate the following Vietnamese sentences as idiomatically as possible. 1. ChÞ may ¸o s¬ mi nµy ë ®©u vËy? 2. Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n-íc s«ng Hång, s«ng §µ, s«ng Cöu Long vµ ®· sèng chÕt víi s«ng n-íc nµy. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh- tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. Trong tiÕng ViÖt, th× ‘‘n-íc’’ (trong s«ng, trong hå, trong biÓn....) l¹i ®ång nghÜa, ®ång ©m víi ‘‘n-íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h-¬ng. - cha «ng:

ancestors

- thèng nhÊt : uniformity - ®ång nghÜa : synonym/ synonymous - ®ång ©m : homonym - trong ý nghÜa : to mean/ to signify - tæ quèc quª h-¬ng: homeland/ fatherland/ motherland - sèng chÕt: to try hard to protect them/ to spare no pain to protect them 3. §µ L¹t chiÕm cø mét vïng ®Êt réng trªn cao nguyªn L©m Viªn, xung quanh toµn lµ nói ®åi hïng vÜ. - chiÕm cø : take up/ to be situated/ to occupy - cao nguyªn : plateau - xung quanh: to be surrounded by/ with 4. Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ cña ViÖt Nam ph¶i ®-îc xÐt trong hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi. Hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh Êy ®· g©y ra


20 nhiÒu thiÖt h¹i vÒ sinh m¹ng vµ tµi s¶n còng nh- c¸c c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng vµ tµi nguyªn. - sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ : the economic development - ®-îc xÐt : to be viewed/ to be considered/ to be taken into account - hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi : in the context of the long period of war - g©y ra thiÖt h¹i : to cause damage to - tµi s¶n : property - c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng : public facilities - tµi nguyªn : resources 5. MÆc dï ®Þa vÞ cña phô n÷ ®· cã nh÷ng b-íc tiÕn kú diÖu, nh-ng ng-êi ta ph¶i thùc hiÖn nhiÒu chuyÖn kh¸c ®Ó c¶i thiÖn t×nh tr¹ng søc khoÎ, dinh d-ìng vµ gi¸o dôc cho phô n÷. - ®Þa vÞ : status - cã nh÷ng b-íc tiÕn kú diÖu: to be dramatically improved - dinh d-ìng : nutrition 6. M¹ng l-íi truyÒn h×nh ®ang x©y dùng réng kh¾p c¶ n-íc. Ngoµi nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh t-¬ng ®èi hiÖn ®¹i, cã tõ l©u ®êi nh- ®µi truyÒn h×nh Hµ Néi vµ Thµnh Phè Hå ChÝ Minh, cßn cã 25 ®µi thuéc c¸c tØnh ®-îc thµnh lËp vµo n¨m 1988. Nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh nµy sÏ truyÒn nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh quan träng cña ®µi truyÒn h×nh trung -¬ng vµ ph¸t ch-¬ng tr×nh cña ®µi m×nh. - m¹ng l-íi : network - ®µi truyÒn h×nh : television station - l©u ®êi: long-standing - thµnh lËp : to establish/ set up - truyÒn nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh : to relay the transmissions - ph¸t: to broadcast 7. Ngµy nay thÕ giíi ®ang ®-ong ®Çu víi nhiÒu vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng cho dï ®· cã nhiÒu b-íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ trong lÜnh vùc khoa häc, c«ng nghÖ vµ tri thøc. Mét trong nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò ®ã lµ sù bïng næ d©n sè, ®Æc biÖt ë c¸c n-íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn. D©n sè ®ang t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n trong lóc s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ l¹i t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng. - ®-¬ng ®Çu : to face - vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng : serious problem - cã nhiÒu b-íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ : to take great strikes


21 - sù bïng næ d©n sè : population explosion/ population boom - t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n : to grow in geometric progression - t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng : to grow in arithmetic progression - s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ : the production of goods 8. Charles Dickens lµ mét trong nh÷ng nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt lín nhÊt thÕ giíi, thuéc tr-êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n thÕ kû 19. §iÒu mµ chóng ta ®¸nh gi¸ cao vÒ nh÷ng t¸c phÈm cña Dickens lµ sù phª ph¸n vÒ téi ¸c vµ sù t-¬ng ph¶n gi÷a giµu vµ nghÌo cña x· héi t- s¶n Anh lóc bÊy giê. ThÕ giíi mµ «ng ta miªu t¶ lµ thÕ giíi cña giai cÊp trung l-u vµ h¹ l-u ë Lu©n §«n. - nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt : novelist - tr-êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n : the school of critical realism - ®¸nh gi¸ cao : to value/ highly appreciate - sù phª ph¸n : criticism - téi ¸c : evil - sù t-¬ng ph¶n : contrast - giµu vµ nghÌo : wealth and poverty - x· héi t- s¶n Anh : the English boutgeois society - giai cÊp trung l-u vµ h¹ l-u : the middle and lower classes 9. Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô vµ chñ tÞch héi ®-îc Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng ®Ó ®iÒu lÖ liªn quan ®Õn

N÷ ViÖt Nam ®-îc cö ®¹i diÖn ë Quèc Héi quyÒn tham dù c¸c cuéc häp th-êng kú cña bµy tá quan ®iÓm cña Héi vµ ®Ò nghÞ nh÷ng phô n÷.

- Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô N÷ ViÖt Nam : The Vietnam‟s Women Union - cö ®¹i diÖn : to be represented - Quèc Héi : the National Assembly - ®-îc quyÒn lµm g× : to have the right to do something - cuéc häp th-êng kú : regular meeting - Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng : the Council of Ministers - bµy tá quan ®iÓm : express one‟s points of view - ®iÒu lÖ : regulations 10. Gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam chÞu ¶nh h-áng râ rÖt cña nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp. Do chÝnh s¸ch më cöa, nÒn v¨n minh c«ng nghiÖp ®ang t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy, tõng giê vµo cuéc sèng gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam. - chÞu ¶nh h-áng : to be affected by


22 - nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp : agricultural civilization - chÝnh s¸ch më cöa : the open-door policy - t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy tõng giê : to have daily and hourly impact /influence on

LESSON 3:

STEPS IN A TRANSLATION PROJECT

Before beginning an actual translation, it is important to have in mind the total translation project and what is involved in producing a good translation. Each of these steps will be elaborated on in more detail in the last section of the book.

1.Establishing the project Before one considers beginning a translation project, there are a number of matters which need to be clearly understood by all who will be involved. These can be summarized under four T‟s- the text, the target, the team, and the tools. The text refers to the source language document which is to be translated. The desirability of translating a particular text must be determined. Texts are chosen to be translated for various reasons. Most often it is to communicate certain information to people speaking another language, or it may be to share the enjoyment of the source text. The translator should examine his reasons for choosing the text and the potential for its use by the receptor language audience. The target refers to the audience. For whom is the translation prepared? The form of translation will be affected by questions of dialect, educational level, age level, bilingualism, and people‟s attitudes towards their languages. Will it be used in school, in business, or read orally in a meeting or at home? The team refers to the people who will be involved in the project. If a person is a competent speaker of both the source language and the receptor language, it may be that the project can be done completely by one person. But even so there should be other available for evaluation and consultation. Most translation projects require a team, a number of people who are going to contribute to the translation at some stage in the project. The working relationship between these people needs to be established before the project gets underway. It may, however, also change as the project moves along and new factors come into focus. There are certain essentials to any translation project. Not all these need to be found in one person. There are various kinds of programs which may be set up depending on the abilities and backgrounds of those who will be involved. The team may consist of 1. co-translators, where one is a specialist in the source language and the other a specialist in the receptor language, or 2. a translator with capability to handle both source language and receptor language matters and an advisor or consultant, or 3. a committee working together with specific responsibilities delegated to each one. Which kind of program is developed will depend on who is available and qualified to determine the meaning of the source language, who is most skilled at drafting in the receptor language, and who has an understanding of translation principles. The team may include the translators, a consultant, testers, and reviewers.


23 Tools refer to the written source materials which will be used by the translators as helps. These include, in addition to the document to be translated, any dictionaries, lexicons, grammars, cultural descriptions. etc.. .. of both the source language and receptor language which are available. The team will want as much in formation available as possible while translating. All of these tools should be brought to the translation site in preparation for the project. For some projects, there will be a wealth of materials that can be used to help in interpreting the source language text and in finding equivalents in the receptor language. For other projects, there may be a scarcity of such material, but whatever is available should be there to make the work easier.

2. Exegesis Exegesis is used to refer to the process of discovering the meaning of the source language text which is to be translated. It is the step which includes the preparation and analysis which must be done before anything at all can be written in the receptor language. The text must be understood completely. This is the process which takes place in moving from the source language form to the meaning of the text. The translator should begin by reading the text several times, then by reading other materials that may help in understanding the culture or language of the source text. As he reads the text, he will be looking for the authorâ€&#x;s purpose and the theme of the text. He will look for the larger groupings or sections. He may want to outline the text. The purpose is to understand the text as a whole. Once he has done this, he is ready to work on the material a section at a time. The analysis of the source text will include resolving ambiguity, identifying implicit information, studying key words, interpreting figurative senses, recognizing when words are being used in a secondary sense, when grammatical structures are being used in a secondary function, etc. It will involve doing the kind of analysis which this book is all about. The goal of exegesis is to determine the meaning which is to be communicated in the receptor language text. The translator carefully studies the source language text and using all the available tools, determines the content of the source language message, the related communication situation matters, and all other factors which will need to be understood in order to produce an equivalent translation. 3. Transfer and initial draft After a careful analysis of the source language text, as indicated above, the translator begins drafting piece by piece, section by section. The transfer results in the initial draft. In preparing this draft, the translator is transferring from the source language into the receptor language. As he does so, he must always keep his target audience in mind. Before any extensive drafting can be done, the key terms must be determined. Every text has a set of words which re crucial to the content and correct communication of the theme. These need to be decided upon and may need to be checked with other speakers of the receptor language. There are two ways of approaching the transfer and initial draft. Some translators prefer to do a quick rough translation so that the material flows naturally. Then they go back and tighten up the details to be sure that there is no wrong information, and no omissions or additions. In this way, the receptor language text is more apt to be in the natural style of the receptor language. Others prefer to prepare a proposition-like semantic draft, being sure that all the information all the information is accounted for, and then reword it for naturalness; that is,


24 reword it in the idiomatic form of the receptor language. Either method will lead to an idiomatic translation if careful work is done. It may be necessary to rework the initial draft several times before the team is satisfied that all the adjustments needed have been made, that no information is wrong or omitted, that the text communicates clearly in the receptor language, and that the form chosen will communicate to the desired audience. While making and reworking this draft, the audience must always be kept in mind. Once the translation team has sufficiently reworked the initial draft, they arrange for copies to be made so that adequate evaluation. 4. Evaluation The purpose of evaluation is threefold: accuracy, clearness, and naturalness. The questions to be answer are: 1. Does the translation communicate the same meaning as the source language? 2. Does the audience for whom the translation is intended understand it clearly? 3. Is the form of the translation easy to read and natural receptor language grammar and style? Those helping with the evaluation should be mother-tongue speakers of the receptor language. There are a number of kinds of evaluations which need to be done. The translator will want to compare the translation with the source text at several points during the translation process to be sure no additions, deletions or change of in formation have crept in . Others may help with this work. It is especially advantageous to have a consultant check over the material. The translator will want to have receptor language speakers read the text and then tell back what the text communicated to them. As they read, there will be parts that are hard to read or hard to understand. Any time there is an indication of a problem in reading , this should be noted for further checking . Another way to check is by asking questions of those who read the text , or to whom it is read. Questions need to be carefully formed so that they bring out the theme, the authorâ€&#x;s purpose , and the relevant facts of the text. Any wrong understanding should be noted and then checked with others as well. It is best to have someone who has not worked on the translation, but know both the source language and receptor language, translate back from the receptor language into the source language without the reference to the original source language text. Does the back translation carry the same information as the original source language text? Any difference will need to be checked further. It is very important that sufficient time and effort be given to evaluation. If many of the people who will eventually be using the receptor language text can be involved in the evaluation process, this will also create interest in the translated material when it is finally published.

5. Revised After evaluation is done carefully, there will need to be a revised draft made on the basis of the feedback received. Those with whom the translator has checked may have suggested many rewordings, may have expressed misunderstanding, etc. The translation team now works through this material , honestly accepting the evaluation , and rewording the material accordingly. If any key words are changed, the text will need to be checked carefully for consistency in the change made. If some parts were hard for people to read, they may need to be made easier by more redundancy( or less redundancy in another language), by adding more information to clarify participants or theme or whatever. How much re-drafting will be needed will vary depending on the results of the evaluation.

6. Consultation


25 In many translation projects, there are advisors or consultants who are willing to help the translator. The translator(s) will expect that the consultant is interested in three matters:1.accuracy of content 2. naturalness of style, and 3. effect on the receptor language audience. It is important that translators check their materials with a trained consultant after completing a section or two of a long document. If they continue , and do large amounts of translation work without this kind of a check, they will miss out on the training which a consultant can give as they go over the material together. Asking a consultant to work through the material with him will give the translator insights which will not only help his final draft of the material being worked on, but will help him do better transfer drafts on the sections of the document remaining to be done.

7. Final draft The translator incorporates into the translated text the suggestions made by the consultant, checks them again with mother-tongue speakers to be sure they are warranted, and makes any other minor changes which have come to his attention. However, before he prepares the final draft, decisions about format need to be discussed with the whole translation team, the consultant, the potential publisher and those who will promote distribution. Some matters may need special testing before the final draft is prepared. If the publication is to include pictures, these will need evaluation. If a special size of print is being recommended, it will need to be tested. A final editing for spelling and punctuation will need to be made. When all matters are cared for, a number of copies should be prepared and distributed for proofreading by various people before the actual printing takes place. Every translator wants his final copy to be as accurate as possible. The time spent in careful checking and preparation of the final draft will improve quality and will make the translation more acceptable to the audience for whom it is being prepared.

8. Notes Target:

®äc gi¶

Target language audience:

ng-êi ®äc b¶n dÞch

Dialect:

ph-¬ng ng÷

Educational level:

tr×nh ®é häc vÊn

Bilingualism: To come into focus:

song ng÷ chó ý/ tËp trung

Co-translator:

ng-êi cïng dÞch

Specialist:

chuyªn gia

Tools:

tµi liÖu tham kh¶o khi dÞch

Lexicon:

tù ®iÓn tõ vùng

Exegesis:

hiÓu nghÜa v¨n b¶n tr-íc khi dÞch

Initial draft:

b¶n th¶o ®Çu tiªn

Revised draft:

b¶n th¶o ®· d-îc hiÖu ®Ýnh


26

9. Self-study 9.1 Questions for discussion 1. Name and discuss the four T‟s of a translation project. 2. Explain what is meant by exegesis. 3. What are the goals of the translator as he prepares the initial draft? 4. What is the purpose of the evaluation? 5. What kinds of evaluation checks can be made? 6. What is the consultant concerned about when he checks a translation? 7. How will the final draft be different from the revision draft done earlier? 8. How is the revision draft different from the initial draft? 9.2 Exercises A. Read the English text and answer the questions.

DEFORESTATION Population growth is one factor in rainforest destruction. However, it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. The majority of deforestation in Latin America, South-east Asia and the Pacific is caused by clearing land to grow cash crops for export and by commercial logging operations, and not by „shifting‟ cultivators or landless peasants. Each year commercial logging eliminates 45000 square kilometers of forest, much of the timber being exported to the United States and Japan. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil, where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. These heavy payments, which affect the poor the most, have arisen largely from external loans taken out to finance the purchase of luxury items and arms by military and governing elite. The establishment of large ranch-style cattle grazing properties is the principal reason for the elimination of 20000 square kilometers of rainforest each year in Central or South America. The cleared land is mainly devoted to the export of beef for the fast-food industries in North America, Europe and Japan- the aptly named „hamburger connection‟. 1. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. What is the text about? 3. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? 4. Do you have any difficulty in finding the Vietnamese meaning of the English words : subsistence agriculture, cash crops, commercial logging operations, shifting cultivators, landless peasants, affluent society, external debt payment, military and governing elites, ranch-style cattle grazing property, hamburger connection ? 5. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent Vietnamese structures of the following English sentences? a. However, it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor.


27 b. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil, where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. 6. Translate the text into Vietnamese. B. Read the Vietnamese text and answer the questions.

NON N¦íC Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n-íc s«ng Hång, S«ng §µ, S«ng Cöu Long vµ tõng sèng chÕt víi s«ng n-íc nµy. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh- tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. ë ViÖt Nam th× ‘‘n-íc’’( trong s«ng, hå, biÓn.) l¹i ®ång nghÜa, ®ång ©m víi ‘‘n-íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h-¬ng. S«ng n-íc vµ con ng-êi ë ®©y kÕt hîp víi thiªn nhiªn vµ lÞch sö nh- mét khèi bÊt tö bÊt diÖt bëi mét thø xi m¨ng tr-êng tån. §ã lµ lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi cña d©n téc ViÖt Nam. Trªn thÕ giíi, cã nhiÒu quèc gia tõ tØnh nä sang tØnh kia nãi lµ kh«ng hiÓu nhau råi. Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam, dï bÊt kú ë ®©u, ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c, hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. 1. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. What is the text about? 3. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? 4. Do you have any difficulty in finding the English meaning of the Vietnamese words : cha «ng, sèng chÕt, sù thèng nhÊt, kÕt hîp chÆt chÏ, xi m¨ng tr-êng tån, lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi, hiÓu nhau? 5. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent English structures of the following Vietnamese sentences? a. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh- tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. b.Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam, dï bÊt kú ë ®©u, ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c, hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. 6. Translate the text into English.


28

LESSON 4:

STRATEGIES FOR TRANSLATORS

The following strategies have been suggested by translators, commissioners of translations, and others involved in translating as ways to approach difficulties in translations from English into Vietnamese.

1. STRATEGY 1 : How to deal with non-equivalence at lexical level It is often the case that no direct equivalents can be found in Vietnamese for English words. It may be that the concept or idea is new to Vietnamese translators, as in the case of „gender‟, which is, in fact, a relatively new concept in general, and a very difficult concept to understand and explain in many languages. It may also be that the concept is known or understood but there is no specific word in Vietnamese used to express it. Another difficulty is that, in addition to their concrete meaning, some words have special connotations that are not conveyed by the Vietnamese word for the same thing. The strategies listed below can be used to handle cases of non-equivalence. 1.1 Translating by a more specific word In some cases, it may be appropriate or necessary to use a more specific word to translate an English word into Vietnamese. This usually involves choosing among several different words, as there may be many Vietnamese words that correspond to the general category or meaning expressed by English word. For instance, Vietnamese has many words that mean “ to carry” with distinction being made depending on the size and shape of the object; its animate ( e.g. a child as opposed to a box); and how it is carried (e.g. in the hand, or in the arms...). Similarly, the English word for “rice” can be translated by many different Vietnamese words, depending on whether one is planting it, harvesting it, cooking it, or eating it. In these cases, the English word alone is not enough to determine the appropriate Vietnamese translation, and it is necessary to examine the English context. 1.2 Translating by a more general word In other cases, it may be appropriate to use a more general word to translate an English word with no specific Vietnamese equivalent. For example, English makes distinctions among mopeds, scooters, and motorcycles, the latter having larger wheels and engines than both mopeds and scooters. Vietnamese, on the one hand, refers to all two-wheel, motorized vehicles as ‘‘ xe m¸y’’. Similarly, the English words “paw”, “foot”, or “leg” may all be translated by the Vietnamese word ‘‘ch©n’’, which does not suggest any problems of comprehension in Vietnamese, as it should be clear from the context which of these words is meant. Another example can be found in a manual on community development, which translates the word “matrix” by the Vietnamese word ‘‘ma trËn’’. However, in Vietnamese, ‘‘ma trËn’’ has a specific use in mathematics only, and does not have the additional sense of a model or a plan according to which something is developed. In this example, “matrix” is better translated ‘‘b¶n’’, which is a more general word used to classify a written plan or formula. 1.3 Translating by cultural substitution This strategy involves replacing a culture-specific item or expression with one of the different meanings but similar impact in the translated text. Because of their self-described “respect”


29 for the original text, most Vietnamese translators object to this strategy and tend to translate directly, even though it is in appropriate. For example, a farmer‟s manual that has been translated into Vietnamese suggests the planting of different types of fruit trees which are not even grown in Vietnam. The original manual, which was developed in other parts in Asia, was not modified at all for the Vietnamese context. Though some translators argue that it is not the responsibility of the translator to chance the text in this way, the translator is in fact playing an important role in this task. Translators should be encouraged to consider the appropriateness of the documents they are translating and suggest changes to make them more culturally appropriate. However, this is not only the burden of the translator, but also of the commissioners of the translation and the editor. 1.4 Translating by using a loan word plus explanation There is some objection to this strategy in Vietnam, as many translator prefer to coin new words in Vietnamese rather than borrow English words. However, this strategy is very useful when the translator deal with concepts or ideas that are new to Vietnamese audience, culturespecific items, and proper names of diseases or medicines that are widely known in English names. For instance, HIV and AIDS are two loan words that are frequently used in Vietnamese, as they are referred to by their English names in almost every part of the world. Because these words have been in common used in Vietnam for a long time, they are often used without any accompanying explanation. Whenever a loan word is used , it is better to give an explanation. Another example is the acronym for oral dehydration salts, or ORS, which is printed on every package and hence easily recognized; this is normally written in English with an explanation in Vietnamese : ORS (muèi bï mÊt n-íc) 1.5 Translating by using a paraphrase This strategy can be used when we translate an English word or concept that does not exist in Vietnamese, or when the Vietnamese term for it does not include all the meanings conveyed by the English term for the same concept. For example, in the sentence: “ Pregnant women should avoid alcohol.”, the English „alcohol‟ includes all alcoholic drinks in its meaning. The Vietnamese word ‘r­îu’ does not include beer in its definition, so the Vietnamese translation should add the word beer to reflect the full meaning of the source language sentence. Another example is that the English words „abuse‟ and „neglect‟ signify a whole range of behaviors, some of which are not conveyed by the Vietnamese words alone. As a result, the English sentence: “Children should be protected from abuse and neglect.” cannot be translated as simply as ‘‘trÎ em nªn ®-îc b¶o vÖ khái sù l¹m dông vµ l¬ lµ.’’. This translation does not account for their full meaning , which must be unpacked for better understanding. This can be done by paraphrasing as a translator has attempted in the following translation: ‘‘trÎ em cÇn b¶o vÖ chèng l¹i mäi h×nh thøc b¹o lùc, g©y tæn th-¬ng hay xóc ph¹m, bá mÆc hoÆc xao nh·ng trong viÖc ch¨m sãc’’. Back translated roughly into English, this sentence reads, : “Children must be protected from all forms of violence causing harm or offense, and from abandonment and negligence in their care.” 1.6 Translating by omission Though some translators may reject this strategy as too drastic, it is sometimes appropriate to omit words or phrases that are not essential to the meaning or impact of the text. This is especially true for words that would require lengthy explanations, awkward paraphrases, or literal and unnatural translations, which would interrupt the flow of the text and could distract


30 the reader from the overall meaning. For example, the sentence “ Much can be done even without being physically present in the meeting.” is best translated into Vietnamese by, ‘‘ nhiÒu viÖc cã thÓ lµm ngµy c¶ khi kh«ng cã mÆt t¹i cuéc häp’’ which omit the word “physically” in the translation. The difference in meaning between “ being physically present” and being present” is so minimal that it does not justify translation into Vietnamese, which cannot easily express the slight emphasis implied here by the author, and would not do so by emphasizing the physicality of a person‟s presence.

STRATEGY 2 : How to deal with idioms and set expressions Idioms and set expressions can be dealt with in the ways similar to those mentioned above. With idioms, however, there is another difficulty that the translator may not realize that s/he is dealing with an idiomatic expression, since more idioms may make sense when translated literally. 2.1 Using an idiom or a set expression of similar meaning and form It is sometimes possible to find a Vietnamese idiom or expression with a similar meaning to an English idiom or expression, and which is expressed in the same way. One example is the idiom “ to fight like cats and dogs”, which is expressed using the same words in Vietnamese: ‘‘ c·i nhau nh- chã víi mÌo.’’; another is “ Better than never.”, which is translated : ‘‘Thµ muén cßn h¬n kh«ng ®Õn’’. It is ideal if such a match can be found, but this kind of correspondence is not common, and it is usually necessary to use other strategies in dealing with idioms and set expressions. 2.2 Using an idiom or a set expression of similar meaning but different form It is possible and easy to find a Vietnamese idiom with a similar meaning for an English idiom or set expression. A good example can be found is the translation for to carry coals to Newcastle”: ‘‘Chë cñi vÒ rõng." ,which is translated as “ to carry firewood to the forest.” The meaning here is clearly the same for both idioms- to bring something to a place that has an abundance of that thing- but the way in which each language expresses is bound to be the culture of that language. It is far more cumbersome to translate this idiom literally into Vietnamese with an explanation that Newcastle is a well-known coal-producing city in England (as was suggested by some Vietnamese translators), which would unduly interrupt the flow of the text and greatly diminish the idiom‟s impact. By substituting a similar Vietnamese idiom, then, the flow and the impact of the source text are retained in the translation. 2.3 Translating by paraphrasing When Vietnamese equivalents cannot be found, paraphrasing may be the best way to deal with an idiom or set expression in English. A good example can be found in an article on maternal mortality, which includes the sentence, “ But before the new estimates replace the old as a way of packaging up the problem, it should be said that a mistake has been made in allowing statistics such as these to slip into easy language. The expression “packaging up the problem” caused the problems in translation, as it was misinterpreted to mean “assembling” or “gathering”. However, even if this phrase were clearly understood, it would be difficult to find a precise equivalent in Vietnamese. In fact, it would be difficult to restate concisely in English. This phrase is best dealt with by paraphrasing, which in English could be understood as something like “summing up the problem by referring to it simply as a number, which does


31 not reflect its true magnitude or impact.” The expression “to slip into easy usage” is problematic for the same reasons, and is also best dealt with by paraphrasing, as a literal translation into Vietnamese would be meaningless. 2.4 Translating by omission This strategy could be used when we translate words or phrases that would require lengthy explanations, awkward paraphrases, or literal and unnatural translation. This strategy has also be used when we translate phases which has two meanings one of the meanings may be sacrificed for the other. For instance, a book entitled “ Being Positive-Living with HIV/AIDS” causes problems in translate because of the double meaning of “ being positive”. The meaning of the phrase could be that a person is suffering from positive HIV and that s/he should have an optimistic outlook on life. This may be clear to the translator , who may interpret the phrase to mean that this book is for and about people who are HIV positive. However, the double meaning should be made clear through collaboration with the commissioner, after which a choice must be made between the two meanings, for it would not be possible to translate both meanings by one Vietnamese phrase. As the emphasis is on positive outlook on life but not on the fact of being HIV positive, one translator has suggested the translation: ‘‘H·y Sèng Yªu §êi Dï NhiÔm HIV’’. This translation expresses the notion of being positive about life without mentioning anything about being HIV positive status.

STRATEGY 3 : How to deal with voice, number and person 2.1 Voice The passive voice is used very often in English and poses some problems in Vietnamese translation. Passive voice can be translated from English into Vietnamese in the following ways: a. English : Vietnamese:

A is/was/has been done by B (i)

A ®-îc+ ®éng tõ+(bëi B) A ®-îc/do+(B)+®éng tõ (ii)

A bÞ +®éng tõ + bëi B

A bÞ +(B) + ®éng tõ Example: This house was built by Frank in 1930 Ng«I nhµ nµy do Frank x©y n¨m 1930

Tom is given a present by Mary Tom ®-îc Mary tÆng mét mãn quµ


32

Tom was attacked by a stranger last night Tom bÞ mét kÎ l¹ mÆt tÊn c«ng tèi h«m qua

b.English :

A is/was/has been done.

Vietnamese:

(i) (ii)

A ®-îc+ ®éng tõ A bÞ+ ®éng tõ

(iii)

Ng-êi ta/ai ®ã + ®éng tõ + A

Example: Tom has been promoted recently. Tom míi ®-îc ®Ì b¹t gÇn ®©y. The CD has been broken. ChiÕc ®Üa CD ®· bÞ vì/ Ai ®ã ®· lµm vì chiÕc ®Üa CD. The positive and negative connotation is not often conveyed in English, so it is difficult to know what way used to translate into Vietnamese. Example:

The children were given injections.

Vietnamese translation : ‘‘C¸c ch¸u ®-îc tiªm.’’, or ‘‘C¸c ch¸u bÞ tiªm.’’ depending on whether the receiving injection is considered a positive or negative experience. On the other hand, when the positive or negative connotation of the sentence is clear it is more appropriate to retain the passive voice in Vietnamese. Example:

The H‟Mong people do not like to be called Meo. They prefer to be called H‟Mong.

Vietnamese: MÌo. Hä

Ng-êi d©n téc H¬ M«ng kh«ng thÝch bÞ gäi lµ d©n

téc

thÝch ®-îc gäi lµ d©n téc H¬ M«ng.

In Vietnamese, there are some cases where one can see the words ®-îc/bÞ but they are not translated into English passive sentences at all. Example: - Anh Êy bÞ ng·. : - ChÞ Lan bÞ ho.

:

He fell. Lan has a cough.

- H«m nay chóng ta ®-îc ®¸nh chÐn no nª.


33 We had and enormous meal today. 2.2 Number Though both languages have similar notions of number and countability, each language has its own way to express these notions. In English, number is expressed as a grammar category; that is, there are different grammatical forms for singular and plural nouns. In Vietnamese, however, no such distinction is grammatically made. Example : Phô n÷: can mean either woman or women

In Vietnamese, some plural markers such as ‘‘c¸c’’, ‘‘nh÷ng’’, tÊt c¶’’, ‘‘mäi" ,’’mçi’’ can be used in addition to the noun. ‘‘c¸c’’ generally means all of the given category of things, whereas ‘‘nh÷ng’’ refers only to some of the total number of things being discussed. ‘‘Mçi’’ emphasizes the identity of the individual member of the category without indicating anything of their totality; ‘‘mäi’’ expresses both the individuality of the items and the totality of the category. If it is clear from the English context which of these plural markers should be used in the Vietnamese, then the translator should choose accordingly. 2.3 Person Participants‟ roles and forms of address are expressed in Vietnamese through a very complicated system of personal pronouns based largely on kinship terms. Unlike English pronouns, Vietnamese pronouns bear a number of semantic components depending on the relationship within a family, age, sex, familiarity, social status, and even one‟s particular mood or attitude in a given situation. These distinctions are not always explicitly expressed in English and can usually be determined by the context in which the language operates. If it is not possible to determine the distinctions of the English pronouns, the attention should be focused on the tone and the overall purpose of the text to be translated. Example: A book on health-care contains many sections written especially for children and adults. In the sections for children the pronoun “you” is translated as “em” or ‘‘c¸c em’’. In the sections for adults, “you” should be translated as ‘‘chóng ta’’ .

4. STRATEGY 4 : How to deal with non-subject sentences ( Vietnamese- English translation) The following techniques could be used to translate the non-subject sentences in Vietnamese texts: 4.1. Passive voice 4.2. It + to be + Adj + to infinitive 4.3. There + to be... 4.4. Use the subject that is found in the previous sentence(s) Example: CÇn ®¶y m¹nh c«ng nghiÖp hãa, hiÖn ®¹i hãa.


34 Industrialization

and

modernization

should

be

industrialization

and

promoted. Or: It is modernization

necessary

to

promote

VÉn ch-a cã c¸ch ch÷a khái bÖnh AIDS. There has been no cure for AIDS.

5. STRATEGY 5 : How to deal with newspaper headlines Some main follows.

characteristics

of

newspaper

headlines

are

as

5.1. Present tense = past events 5.2. Present participle = event

in progress

5.3. To infinitive = future events 5.4. Past participle = passive voice 5.5. Nouns 5.6. Verb + noun Example: 1. Chinese Professors Turn To Business C¸c gi¸o s- Trung Quèc chuyÓn sang kinh doanh 2. US President Visiting Vietnam Tæng thèng Hoa Kú ®ang th¨m ViÖt Nam 3. Oil Price To Rise? Gi¸ dÇu sÏ t¨ng 4.

Three More Investment Projects Licensed This Year

Thªm ba dù ¸n ®Çu t- n÷a ®-îc cÊp giÊy phÐp trong n¨m nay 5.

Investment Boom

Bïng næ ®Çu t6.

See You In Court HÑn gÆp t¹i tßa

LESSON 5:

PATTERNS AND SOURCES OF ERRORS MADE BY VIETNAMESE TRANSLATORS

What is mother tongue interference in translation? In the narrow definition, interference in translation takes place when apparently, any feature of the source language – notably a syntactic structure, a lexical item, and idiom, a metaphor,


35 word order or culture is carried over or literally translated as the case may be into the target language(TL) text. In a wider definition, interference includes cases when sentence length, punctuation, proper names, culture words are evidently transferred in the translation in fact all cases where the language of the translation is manifestly affected whether appropriately or not by the language of the original. When the mother tongue interference is an error, a “false friend”, a sign of the translator‟s ignorance, a mark of the effect of the source language (SL) or the SL culture, it can be categorized as follows.

1. LINGUISTIC ERRORS The linguistic errors can be divided into the following groups:


36

1.1 Lexical Errors Lexical interference traps are common enough but more invidious are innocent looking collocations which appear to make sense until one asks oneself what they mean in particular context. E.g. in English “ to cook an account” translated as ‘‘nÊu sæ s¸ch’’ is meanigless and it must be translated as ‘‘gi¶ m¹o sæ s¸ch’’. Lexical interference is very dangerous because it can distort the meaning of a sentence. 1.1.1 Context The context itself determines the meaning of words. Therefore, their meaning should be solved in the context. It is commonly known that a word may have equivalents and accordingly the analysis of its meaning has to be made carefully in order to pick out the most appropriate word. There are many ways of translating of some nouns related to professions, classes, fields in society. For example, in a text written about Buddhism in which there are two words “clergy” and “death”. Some translated transferred “clergy” as ‘‘gi¸o sÜ’’ and “death” as ‘‘c¸i chÕt’’ for Buddha. It sounds strange and funny. In fact, “clergy” translated as ‘‘gi¸o sÜ’’ for Catholicism but ‘‘giíi t¨ng ®å’’ for Buddhism. The word “death” is normally translated as ‘‘c¸i chÕt’’ but ‘‘vua b¨ng hµ’’ in “King‟s death” and as for Buddhism this word should be translated as ‘‘viªn tÞch’’. When translators are asked to translate these sentences into English a. Kha Lu©n Bè ®· t×m ra T©n thÕ giíi vµo n¨m 1842. b. T«i ®ang t×m cuèn s¸ch. c. Michael Faraday ®· t×m ra m¸y ph¸t ®iÖn. Obviously, there are many equivalents in English for the word ‘‘t×m’’ such as “seek”, “look for”, “search for”, “find”, “find out”. In addition, there are two more words related to this meaning: “to invent” and “ to discover”. However, in sentence (1) the word ‘‘t×m’’ has an equivalent in English as “discover”. In sentence (2) the word ‘‘t×m’’ is understood as “look for”, search for” or “seek”. In sentence (3) the word ‘‘t×m’’ has an equivalent as “invent”. The three above-mentioned sentences can be translated as follows. 1. The New World was discovered by Christopher. 2. I am looking for my book. 3. Michael Faraday invented the generator. It is characteristic of word that a single lexical item may have several meanings. For example, the word “ head” in isolation means something like” the upper part of the body”. But the same word used in the context of talking about a company or an organization has nothing to do with the human body though the idea of the upper position of something still remains. Example: 1. He is the former head of the Chemistry Section of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. ( leader) 2. Although he is the head of the company, he has no head. ( leader-intelligence)


37 The following examples show that the translators do not treat words in context but rely on the meaning in dictionary: 1. “In 1999, some major commodities were stockpiled because of poor quality.” It is not accurate at all when “stockpiled” was translated ‘‘l-u tr÷’’. In fact, due to poor quality, major commodities were not sold out leading to stockpile. Therefore, the sentence should be translated as ‘‘ N¨m 1999 mét sè mÆt hµng chñ yÕu bÞ tån kho do chÊt l-îng kÐm.’’ 2. “The Prime Minister has also assigned relevant agencies to formulate a law on industrial zones to provide a complete legal background/frame for the operation of Izs and EPZs in Vietnam.” was translated ‘‘Thñ t-íng ®· bæ nhiÖm nh÷ng chÝnh s¸ch thÝch hîp ®Ó ®-a ra luËt vÒ khu c«ng nghiÖp ®Ó cung cÊp mét bèi c¶nh hoµn toµn hîp ph¸p cho c¸c ho¹t ®éng cña khu c«ng nghiÖp, khu chÕ xuÊt ViÖt Nam. ’’. This translation is quite vague in Vietnamese. In fact, a word in source language has many equivalents in target language. The word “ assign” is equivalent with ‘‘ph©n c«ng/ bæ nhiÖm’’; “ relevant with ‘‘thÝch ®¸ng, thÝch hîp, cã liªn quan’’; ‘‘ agency’’ with ‘‘ ®¹i lý, c¬ quan, chi nh¸nh’’; “foundation’’ ‘‘nÒn mãng, nÒn t¶ng, c¬ së’’. For this reason, in this context it should be chosen the most appropriate equivalents to create an idiomatic translation: ‘‘ Thñ t-íng ®· giao cho c¸c c¬ quan cã liªn quan ban hµnh bé luËt vÒ khu c«ng nghiÖp nh»m cung cÊp mét sè c¬ së ph¸p lý hoµn chØnh cho viÖc ho¹t ®éng cña khu c«ng nghiÖp vµ khu chÕ xuÊt ë ViÖt Nam.’’ In brief, the translators have a habit of translating literally and depending largely on the meaning in dictionary due to the mother-tongue interference. In order to avoid committing errors of context, words should be solved in context and the analysis of their meaning has to be made carefully to pick out the most appropriate equivalent. 1.1.2 Word collocation Word collocation consists of the associations a word acquires on account of the meanings of words which tend to occur in its environment. Each of language has its own principle in word collocation. For example, the word “ pretty” often goes with girls and women, while the word “handsome” often goes with boys or men. Some translators do not realize this, which leads to wrong and funny collocation. For instance, in Vietnamese the word ‘‘uèng’’ (drink) can go with many different kinds of liquid including water, beer, alcohol, medicine and even poison. However, in English these are clear distinction as follows: Drink beer/ water/ wine/ coffee. Take medicine/ poison. Another example indicates that in Vietnamese the word ‘‘nãi’’ (say) can be collocated with ‘‘lêi t¹m biÖt’’ “goodbye”, ‘‘lêi chµo hái’’ “hello”, ‘‘dèi’’ “a lie”, ‘‘sù thËt’’ “ the truth”, ‘‘tiÕng Ph¸p’’ “French”. However, in English it is quite different. Say hello/ goodbye/ yes/ no. Tell a lie/ the truth/ a story.


38 Speak English/ French/ Chinese. In Vietnamese, the word ‘‘®µn’’ can be collocated with many different nouns such as ‘‘c¸’’(fish) “chim” ( bird), ‘‘s- tö’’ (lion), ‘‘gia sóc’’ (cattle). On the contrary, in English there are many words meaning ‘‘®µn’’ as follows. A flock of birds/ sheep: §µn chim/ cõu A herd of cattle/ buffaloes: §µn gia sóc/ tr©u A pack of dogs/ calves: §µn chã/ bª A school of fish/ chickens: §µn c¸/ gµ A pride of lions/ deer : §µn s- tö/ nai Similarly, the word “decision” can be collocated with many word such as “to make/ to reach/ to arrive at/ to come to... a decision”. The following examples show the wrong collocations of some translators: 1. ChÝnh phñ ®· tiÕn thùc hiÖn nhiÒu biÖn ph¸p nh»m ng¨n chÆn viÖc bu«n lËu ma tóy. (The government has made many measures to stop the drug smuggling.) 2. Chóng t«i ph¶i hoµn thµnh nhiÖm vô tr-íc khi tæ kiÓm tra chÊt l-îng s¶n phÈm. ( We have to complete our duty before the investigators control the product quality.) 3. Sau khi nghiªn cøu thÞ tr-êng, chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®-a ra thÞ tr-êng mét s¶n phÈm g©y Ên t-îng cã søc c¹nh tranh víi hµng ngo¹i nhËp. (After making a market research, we decided to launch an impressive product which can compete against the imported ones.) 4. Tõ khi Mü bá lÖnh cÊm vËn ViÑt Nam, nhiÒu n-íc trªn thÕ giíi ®x ®Çu t- vµo c¸c lÜnh vùc kh¸c nhau. (Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam many foreign countries have been investing in many different fields.) It is the mother tongue interference that leads to the mechanic collocation which is unacceptable in target language. In fact, each language has its own principles of word collocation. Neither English nor Vietnamese is an exception. As a result, the above-mentioned examples should be translated more accurately and idiomatically as follows. 1. “The government has made many measures to stop the drug smuggling.” should be corrected as “The government has taken many measures to stop the drug smuggling.” 2. “We have to complete our duty before the investigators control the product quality.” should be corrected “We have to fulfill our duty before the investigators control the product quality.”


39 3. “After making a market research, we decided to launch an impressive product which can compete against the imported ones.” should be corrected “After doing a market research, we decided to launch an impressive product which can compete against the imported ones.” 4. “Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam many foreign countries have been investing in many different fields.” should be corrected “Since the USA lifted the embargo against Vietnam many foreign countries have been investing in many different fields.” In a word, it is inevitable for the translators to obey the principles of English and Vietnamese word collocations. In order to avoid this type of errors, the translator should read as many English books and magazines to take notes of collocated words under the English standard. 1.1.3 Misuse of personal pronouns and prepositions In Vietnamese, there are many ways to express the thoughts and feelings or attitude which differ from those in English. The social status, age, sex, and the family order are distinguished clearly and systematically. This is reflected in a distinguished clearly and systematically. This is reflected in a number of words for addressing such as ‘‘cô, «ng, bµ, b¸c, c«, chó, thÝm, d×, d-îng, cËu, anh, chÞ, ngµi, quÝ vÞ, mµy, em, ..’’ such words are generally expressed by English people in one word “you”. The following examples show clearly that the translator sometimes do not master the relationship between the speaker and the hearer leading to a funny translation. A mother was taking care of her child in hospital. She said: “ I love you very much, dear.” Which was translated as ‘‘ Em yªu anh l¾m , c-ng µ.’’ instead of ‘‘ MÑ yªu con l¾m, c-ng µ.’’ In Vietnamese, each preposition has a fixed meaning which does not change regardless of the noun, adjective or verb proceeding it. On the contrary, the meaning of a preposition in English depends on its preceding word. This difference leads to errors in using prepositions of TL. For example, the Vietnamese preposition ‘‘vÒ’’ can be expressed by different prepositions in English: a talk on history :

mét cuéc nãi chuyÖn vÒ lÞch sö

be disappointed in :

thÊt väng vÒ

be interested in :

quan t©m vÒ

lay emphasis/ stress on :

nhÊn m¹nh vÒ

be worried about :

lo l¾ng vÒ

be proud of/ take pride in :

tù hµo vÒ

be famous for :

næi tiÕng vÒ

instead of “disappointed about”, “ proud about”, “famous about” as the translator may use. These are the typical errors made by the translators: 1. “According to Mr Thien, his plant currently produces lubricants under the API (American Petroleum Institute) standards” (Theo «ng ThiÖn th× hiÖn nay nhµ m¸y cña «ng ®ang s¶n xuÊt dÇu nhên d-íi tiªu chuÈn cña


40 ViÖn x¨ng dÇu Mü.) 2. “It is so easy to be misunderstood when talking on the phone.” ( Nãi chuyÖn trªn diÖn tho¹i th× dÔ bÞ hiÓu nhÇm.) 3. ‘‘Tßa ¸n Nh©n D©n quyÕt ®Þnh kÕt ¸n chóng 15 n¨m vÒ téi bu«n lËu ma tóy.’’ (The People‟s Court decided to condemn them to 15 years imprisonment about the drug smuggling.) 4. ‘‘Lµ gi¸o viªn -u tó trong nhiÒu n¨m, «ng Nam cã nhiÒu kinh nghiÖm vÒ viÖc gi¶ng d¹y häc sinh.’’ (As a qualified teacher for many years, Mr.Nam is experienced about educating and teaching the pupils.” 5. ‘‘Chóng t«i thµnh thËt chia buån vÒ viÖc ra ®i cña bè b¹n.’’ (We really condole with you about the loss of your father.” As can be seen from the above-mentioned examples, the translators tended to choose the English prepositions basing on Vietnamese meanings without paying attention to their variations. These errors could be corrected as follows. 1. “According to Mr Thien, his plant currently produces lubricants under the API ( American Petroleum Institute) standards” should be translated (Theo «ng ThiÖn th× hiÖn nay nhµ m¸y cña «ng ®ang s¶n xuÊt dÇu nhên theo tiªu chuÈn cña ViÖn x¨ng dÇu Mü.) 2. “It is so easy to be misunderstood when talking on the phone.” is equivalent with (Nãi chuyÖn qua ®iÖn tho¹i th× dÔ bÞ hiÓu nhÇm.) 3. ‘‘Tßa ¸n Nh©n D©n quyÕt ®Þnh kÕt ¸n chóng 15 n¨m vÒ téi bu«n lËu ma tóy.’’ should be translated (The People‟s Court decided to condemn them to 15 years imprisonment for the drug smuggling.) 4. ‘‘Lµ gi¸o viªn -u tó trong nhiÒu n¨m, «ng Nam cã nhiÒu kinh nghiÖm vÒ viÖc gi¶ng d¹y häc sinh.’’ should be translated (As a qualified teacher for many years, Mr Nam is experienced in educating and teaching the pupils.” 5. ‘‘Chóng t«i thµnh thËt chia buån vÒ viÖc ra ®i cña bè b¹n.’’ should be translated (We really condole with you for the loss of your father.” Due to the mother tongue interference, the translators found themselves in a confusing situation when they use prepositions n English. In order to avoid this type of errors the translators should learn the prepositions going with nouns, adjectives or verbs by heart. If they do not know how to use prepositions exactly, they tend to the Vietnamese ones into English or vice versa. As a result, the translators should be provided with as many structures with


41 prepositions systematically as possible to help them take notes and draw out the formation and rules. 1.1.4 Misuse of synonyms Some translators depend largely on the meaning in dictionary picking out the synonyms without paying much to the context. In fact, the pairs of synonyms share at least one sense in common but do not share all their senses. To some extent, they can hardly substitute for each other. The misuse of synonyms makes the meaning of one of the following sentences unacceptable. “ You have my deep/ profound sympathy.( acceptable) “ The river is deep.”( acceptable) “ The river is very profound.” (unacceptable) Another example shows that some translators do not realize the connotational meaning, which leads to the distorting of the meaning of the sentence. Take “famous’’(næi tiÕng) and “notorious” (khÐt tiÕng) as an example. While “famous” means “well-known/ celebrated”, and therefore contains some features of positive meaning, “notorious” means “well-known” especially for unfavorable reason & negative meaning. The following can be seen as the misuse of the synonyms by some of the inexperienced translators. 1. “CËu bÐ nµy rÊt b-íng bØnh.’’ (This boy is very stubborn/unyielding.) ( right) 2. “Ng-êi ViÖt Nam cã tinh thÇn bÊt khuÊt.’’ (The Vietnamese people are really stubborn.) (wrong) 3. ChÝnh phñ cã kÕ ho¹ch x©y hµng ngµn ng«i nhµ cho ng-êi v« gia c-.’’ (The government plans to build thousands of homes for homeless people.) ( wrong) In Example 1 “stubborn” synonymous to “unyielding” means ‘‘cøng ®Çu/b-íng bØnh’’ in Vietnamese. In Example 2 “stubborn” fails to evoke the features of positive meaning which praises the Vietnamese people on their heroism expressing the speaker‟s admiration. In contrast, it expresses the speaker‟s anger and discontent. In Example 3 “home” and “house” are places where one lives, meaning ‘‘nhµ’’ in Vietnamese. However, in terms of the connotational meaning they are quite different. “House” refers to the building or structure while “home” refers to the atmosphere or feeling found in the house. Example: - There is no place like home. (Ch¼ng cã n¬i ®©u nh- ë nhµ.) - Home is where the heart is. (Nhµ lµ n¬i con tim tró ngô.)


42 Most of the synonyms have the same meaning in certain context. If a translator use synonyms without referring to the context,(s)he can make wrong & funny for his readers. In order to avoid the misuse, the translator should carefully take the synonyms into consideration before using them. In addition, it would be better for the translator to consider the differences of the pairs of synonyms when translating. 1.1.5 Idioms & terminologies The meanings of idioms are not definitely related to grammatical rules or the lexical meaning of each word because they feature the metaphor and figures of speech. For example, “ wet blanket” should be translated ‘‘ng-êi rÇu rÜ’’ instead of “c¸i ch¨n -ít’’ or “to read one‟s palm” translated as ‘‘xem chØ tay’’ instead of ‘‘®äc c¸i g× ë lßng bµn tay’’. In fact, idioms can be translated satisfactorily by considering the context, if not, it is difficult to find the exact meaning. An English idiom must be translated into Vietnamese by an equivalent one. It is very important to be aware that we must not choose the equivalents of every word forming the idiom but we do find the equivalent ways of expression which exist in both languages. If we stick to each word, the meaning becomes strange, unnatural and funny. For instance, “to sell like a hot cake” is usually translated as ‘‘b¸n ®¾t nh- t«m t-¬i.” Instead of ‘‘b¸n nh- b¸nh nãng”. “ There is no time like present.” is usually translated as ‘‘viÖc h«m nay chí ®Ó ngµy mai’’ instead of ‘‘kh«ng cã thêi gian nh- b©y giê’’. “Live and learn” is usually translated as ‘‘cßn sèng cßn häc’’ instead of ‘‘sèng vµ häc’’. The following errors were found in some of the translated texts and should be corrected. 1. “Every time, we have our children‟s birth certificates signed at the local People‟s committee, we have to go though a lot of red tape.” was translated as ‘‘Mçi khi nhê hä ký giÊy khai sinh t¹i ñy ban nh©n d©n ph-êng, chóng t«i ph¶i ®i qua nhiÒu b¨ng ®á.’’ 2. “At first we intended to stay at home. On the second thought, we decided to go out.” was translated as ‘‘Tho¹t ®Çu chóng t«i cã ý ®Þnh ë nhµ. Trong lÇn suy nghÜ thø hai chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®i ra ngoµi.’’ 3. “ She rarely saves her time to do her homework. She often lets the grass grow under her feet.” was translated as ‘‘C« Êy hiÕm khi tiÕt kiÖm thêi gian ®Ó lµm bµi tËp ë nhµ. C« th-êng ®Ó cá mäc d-èi ch©n.’’ The above-mentioned translations could be improved as follows. 1. “Every time, we have our children‟s birth certificates signed at the local People‟s committee, we have to go though a lot of red tape.” should be translated as ‘‘Mçi khi nhê hä ký giÊy khai sinh t¹i ñy ban nh©n d©n ph-êng, chóng t«i ph¶i lµm nhiÒu thñ tôc giÊy tê r-êm rµ.’’ 2. “At first we intended to stay at home. On the second thought, we decided to go out.” should be translated as ‘‘Tho¹t ®Çu chóng t«i cã ý ®Þnh ë nhµ. Sau khi suy ®i tÝnh l¹i, chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®i ra ngoµi.’’


43 3. “She rarely saves her time to do her homework. She often lets the grass grow under her feet.” should be translated as ‘‘C« Êy hiÕm khi tiÕt kiÖm thêi gian ®Ó lµm bµi tËp ë nhµ. C« th-êng ®Ó n-íc ®Õn ch©n míi nh¶y.’’ In addition to this, due to the limited knowledge of social background and some special fields, some translators mistranslated the terminologies causing vagueness, inaccuracy to readers. It is not very easy for some translators to translate the following terminologies if they are not familiar with business texts. - cash flow:

l-u l-îng tiÒn mÆt

- insurance policy:

hîp ®ång b¶o hiÓm

- acknowledgement:

giÊy b¸o cho biÕt ®· nhËn ®-îc

- credit terms:

nh÷ng ®iÒu kho¶n tÝn dông

- hard currency:

®ång tiÒn m¹nh

- marginal: gi¸ b¸n)

biªn tÕ

- total working capital:

tæng sè vèn l-u ®éng

- sales promotion campaign:

chiÕn dÞch khuyÕn m¹i

chªnh lÖch gi÷a gi¸ mua vµ

In conclusion, some inexperienced translators committed the lexical errors mentioned above including those of context, word collocation, prepositions, synonyms and idioms & terminologies. They are committed by those who have little knowledge of both source language(SL) and target language (TG). At the same time, they thought that although English is different from Vietnamese, both languages have a one-to-one correlation of lexical items. In practice, in terms of translation, it can be chosen the only one appropriate equivalent from this into that language. Even more, that equivalent hardly keeps the meaning of the word itself but that of context. In some dictionaries, the authors present series of synonyms of SL in comparison with TL. However, the synonyms are those of the context in which the are operating . Another problem is that some translators did not realize the linking meaning of word units. It is obvious that these units link together to create a larger unit of meaning in a given text to be translated. The linking meaning itself does not exist in separate word units but in the link of the units constituting the whole text. 1.2. Structural Errors Each language has its own division of lexicon into classes such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc. It is not always possible to translate a SL noun with a noun in TL. In English, there is a tendency of using more nominal structures while verbal structures are used more in Vietnamese. Some translators keep the same structures when translating, leading to vagueness in TL texts. For example, “Thank you for your pretty present.” was translated as ‘‘C¸m ¬n anh v× mãn quµ ®¸ng yªu.’’ instead of ‘‘C¸m ¬n anh ®· tÆng em mãn quµ ®¸ng yªu.’’ In addition, there is also a tendency of using more passive constructions in English than in Vietnamese. For instance, “The USA is said to be a powerful country.” was translated as:


44 ‘‘Mü ®-îc nãi lµ mét c-êng quèc.’’ instead of ‘‘Ng-êi ta nãi r»ng Mü lµ mét c-êng quèc.’’ The following examples of structural errors were made by some of translators. 1. The Vietnamese Airlines has coped with difficulties due to the regional financial crisis. ( Hµng kh«ng ViÖt Nam gÆp ph¶i nh÷ng khã kh¨n do cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh vïng trÇm träng.) 2. Schools teach mathematics because of its very important roles. ( Tr-êng häc d¹y to¸n v× tÇm quan träng cña nã.) 3. Thank you for your letter. ( C¸m ¬n l¸ th- cña em.’’ 4. Hue was recognized as the world‟s cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1994. ( HuÕ ®-îc xem lµ di s¶n v¨n hãa thÕ giíi bëi UNESCO vµo n¨m 1994.) 5. I was rewarded with a trip to Nha Trang by my parents after a year of hard work. (T«i ®· ®-îc th-ëng mét chuyÕn ®i ®Õn Nha Trang bëi bè mÑ cña t«i sau mét n¨m lµm viÖc vÊt v¶.) The above-mentioned translations do not sound Vietnamese, lacking the coherence and smoothness, not conveying the desired meaning of the SL sentences. It would be more idiomatic to translate as follows. 1. Do ¶nh h-ëng cña cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh trÇm träng trong khu vùc, nªn H·ng Hµng Kh«ng VN ph¶i ®-¬ng ®Çu víi nh÷ng khã kh¨n. 2. Tr-êng häc d¹y to¸n v× to¸n häc ®ãng vai trß rÊt quan träng. 3. C¶m ¬n em ®· viÕt th- cho em. 4. UNESCO ®· c«ng nhËn HuÕ lµ di s¶n v¨n hãa thÕ giíi vµo n¨m 1994. 5. Sau mét n¨m häc hµnh ch¨m chØ, bè mÑ ®· th-ëng cho t«i mét chuyÕn du lÞch ®Õn thµnh phè Nha Trang.

As can be seen from the examples mentioned above, some translators focused on the structures of SL so much that they fail to convey all the implicit meaning of TL. In fact, it is not necessary to keep the form at all. The most important thing is that the translations must be done on the basis of the TL grammar that is familiar to the readers. This principle suggests that the translator should not depend largely on the structures of the SL but break them , conveying the meaning as much as possible in an appropriate structures in the TL. Another problem is that some translators was not aware of the relationship between form and function of language. It is commonly known that in some languages, on function is expressed by many forms and vice versa. For example, in English the way of giving an advice could be expressed by a number of structures : “Why don‟t you..?”, “You should/ ought to..”, “If I were


45 you, I‟d..”, “You‟d better” or “ I advise you to.”. In addition, some translators did not realize the conversational implicature understood implicitly as follows. 1. What‟s the time? ( Why are you so late?) 2. Are you my teacher? ( You want to teach me.) 3, Why don‟t we go to the cinema? ( a suggestion) 4. Why did you say so? ( You should not have said so) 5. Unless he has done the work to my satisfaction, I will not pay him for this.(If he has not done.) Those sentences should be translated as follows. 1. Cã biÕt mÊy giê råi kh«ng? 2. Mµy ®ßi lµm thÇy cña tao µ? 3. Chóng ta ®i xem phim hÌ? 4. LÏ ra anh kh«ng nªn nãi nh- vËy! 5. NÕu h¾n kh«ng lµm viÖc võa ý t«i , th× ®õng hßng t«i tr¶ l-¬ng cho h¾n.

As mentioned in the previous part, the structural difference between the SL and the TL is likely to make it difficult for the translators. The translators were not aware of dividing or combining the sentences within a text to be translated. If they try to keep the same punctuation of the SL text, the correspondent TL text will have clumsy, run-together, long and complex sentences. It is much better to divide long sentences into short ones aiming at creating coherence, attraction for readers in the translations. These are the translated sentences with their structural errors made by some of inexperienced translators. 1. “The dividing gap between the rich and the poor as well as corruption and social unrest caused by the relocation of people in industrialized areas, have made many people hesitate in further changes.” (Kho¶ng c¸ch lín gi÷a ng-êi giµu vµ ng-êi nghÌo còng nh- sù tham nhòng vµ t×nh tr¹ng bÊt an cña x· héi g©y ra do sù ph©n bè l¹i d©n c- ë c¸c khu c«ng nghiÖp ®· lµm cho nhiÒu ng-êi ph¶i do dù khi chÊp nhËn nh÷ng thay ®æi lín.)

2. “ It is also necessary to invest in increasing capability of battery production establishments to meet the demand for automobile and motorbike manufacturing and assembling in accordance with the localization program.”


46 ( Nã còng rÊt cÇn thiÕt ®Ó ®Çu t- vµo viÖc t¨ng n¨ng suÊt cña nh÷ng c¬ së s¶n xuÊt ¾c qui ®Ó ®¸p øng nhu cÇu d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt vµo viÖc chÕ t¹o « t« vµ xe m¸y phï hîp víi ch-¬ng tr×nh ë trong n-íc.)

3. “It takes much time to deliver goods to remote areas by backward means of transport.” (Nã lÊy nhiÒu thêi gian ®Ó ph©n phèi hµng hãa ®Õn c¸c vïng xa x«i b»ng c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn giao th«ng l¹c hËu.)

All above translated sentences should be corrected as follows. 1. “The dividing gap between the rich and the poor as well as corruption and social unrest caused by the relocation of people in industrialized areas, have made many people hesitate in further changes.” (Sù thay ®æi chç ë t¹i c¸c vïng c«ng nghiÖp hãa ®· lµm cho kho¶ng c¸ch gi÷a ng-ßi giµu vµ ng-êi nghÌo còng nh- sù tham nhòng vµ t×nh tr¹ng bÊt an cña x· héi ngµy cµng lín. ChÝnh ®iÒu nµy ®· lµm cho nhiÒu ng-êi ph¶i miÔn c-ìng nh÷ng thay ®æi lín h¬n n÷a.) 2. “ It is also necessary to invest in increasing capability of battery production establishments to meet the demand for automobile and motorbike manufacturing and assembling in accordance with the localization program.” ( §Çu t- vµo viÖc t¨ng n¨ng suÊt cña nh÷ng c¬ së s¶n xuÊt ¾c qui ®Ó ®¸p øng nhu cÇu d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt vµo viÖc chÕ t¹o « t« vµ xe m¸y phï hîp víi ch-¬ng tr×nh ë trong n-íc lµ rÊt cÇn thiÕt.) 3. “It takes much time to deliver goods to remote areas by backward means of transport.” ( Ph¶i mÊt nhiÒu thêi gian ®Ó ph©n phèi hµng hãa ®Õn c¸c vïng xa x«i b»ng c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn giao th«ng l¹c hËu.)

In order to overcome this type of structural errors, the most effective way for translators is to master the structures of bot languages. It is clear that a translator who is proficient in English cannot help being good at Vietnamese and vice versa.

2. STYLE ERRORS Styles play an important role informal translation and strongly affect the second language meaning. Due to the context, text-type and audience, the levels of language in translation can be different - the informal language used in informal situations ; colloquials used in spoken language; familiar language used among friends, relatives, members in a family; formal


47 language used in formal texts such as speeches in conference, legal documents, business letter & documents, research papers. The examples given below clearly indicate that the same massage could be expressed in different styles.


48

1. Drop me a line.

( informal language )

2. Remember to write me a letter.

( neutral)

3. I look forward to your letter.

( informal language )

4. They can escape from family suprvision.

( formal)

5. Their parents can‟t keep an eye on them. (colloquial) 6. They are completely armed.

( formal)

7. They are armed to teeth.

( colloquial)

Style error is an acute problem to the translators. There are translators did not master the difference when using various styles such as conversational, academic, scientific, literary styles. Many translators failed when coming across the unfamiliar styles due to being unaware of degrees of formality (informal or formal style), usage of vocabulary ( informal, colloquial, formal) These are some style errors taken out from some Vietnamese- English translations. 1. NÕu chóng t«i ®Æt hµng víi sè l-îng lín, liÖu doanh nghiÖp anh cã b¸n víi gi¸ rÎ kh«ng? (If we place substantial orders, can your enterprise get us with soft price?) It is impossible to use informal style in a business letter. Instead of using “soft price” , the translator should use “cheaper price”. 2. Thêi tiÕt ë HuÕ kh«ng thÝch hîp cho ng-êi giµ. Mïa hÌ trêi nãng nh- thiªu ®èt, trong khi mïa ®«ng l¹nh ®Õn x-¬ng tñy. (The weather in Hue is favorable for the old. It is burning hot in summer while it chills to the bones in winter.) It is impossible to use informal style to tanslate a formal text. Instead of using “burning hot” , the translator should use “exceedingly hot”.

3. CULTURAL ERRORS Culture could be understood as the total set of beliefs, attitude, customs, behaviour, social habits etc. of the member of a particular society. In the broad sense, it includes mode of production, production activities, community organization, spiritural life, knowledge of nature and society, emotions, and moral conceptions. Language is regarded as both a component of a culture and network through which other elements of culture operate. Language , therefore uses almost all other cultural elements so as to perfect its universal and self-sufficient nature. It could be said that we will not translate from this to that language perfectly unless we know its relation to its culture. It is common ly known that “ao dai” is a traditional costume of the Vietnamese women and we never find an equivalent word in English to translate “ao dai”. However, some translators translated mechanically “ ao dai” into “ a dress”. How funny it is! It would be preferredcto


49 writing down “ao dai” to express the cultural feature to making foreign people misunderstand “ao dai” as”a dress”. * ‘‘ Trang phôc truyÒn thèng cña ng-êi phô n÷ ViÖt Nam lµ chiÕc ¸o dµi t-îng tr-ng cho sù duyªn d¸ng.’’ should be translated as “ The traditional costume of the Vietnamese women is ‘‘ao dai’’ which symbolises the grace. Translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions." As this statement implies, translators are permanently faced with the problem of how to treat the cultural aspects implicit in a source text (ST) and of finding the most appropriate technique of successfully conveying these aspects in the target language (TL). These problems may vary in scope depending on the cultural and linguistic gap between the two (or more) languages concerned. The cultural implications for translation may take several forms ranging from lexical content and syntax to ideologies and ways of life in a given culture. The translator also has to decide on the importance given to certain cultural aspects and to what extent it is necessary or desirable to translate them into the TL. The aims of the ST will also have implications for translation as well as the intended readership for both the ST and the target text (TT). Considering the cultural implications for a translated text implies recognising all of these problems and taking into account several possibilities before deciding on the solution which appears the most appropriate in each specific case. Before applying these methods to the chosen text, this essay will examine the importance of culture in translation through a literature review. The different general procedures of treating the cultural implications for translation will be examined as well as analysing the ST and the aims of the author. The translation process will also be treated using specific examples found in the ST before discussing the success of aforementioned theoretical methods applied to the TT. Although corresponding to cultural categories examined, the title will be considered separately in order to determine the pertinence of conserving, highlighting, or excluding certain aspects. Due to these considerations, the title will be considered after the other aspects as all other cultural implications need to be examined before reaching relevant conclusions.


50

CHAPTER 2:

ASSIGNMENTS

ASSIGNMENT 1: I.THEORY: 1. What is translation? What definition do you think is the most appropriate? Can you give your own definition of translation? 2. What is an idiomatic translation? Give some examples of idiomatic translations. 3. What are the secondary meanings? Give ten sentences, each of which contains a word used in a secondary sense. 4. What is the primary meaning? Give ten sentences, each of which contains a word used in a primary sense.

II. EXERCISES: A. Identify change of meaning versus change of form. Some of the following pairs of sentences differ in their form. Some differ in meaning. Indicate if the primary change is in the form or in the meaning. Example: They robbed the old man. The old man was dropped by them. Answer: Change of form 1. The students like to study translation. The students like studying translation. 2. He saw the bird. He heard the cat. 3. Go to bed. I want you to go to bed. 4. I came; I saw; I conquered. I came, saw, and conquered. 5. The young man had an English grammar book stolen. An English grammar book was stolen from the young man. B. List as many grammatical forms as you can which realize the same meaning as the one given below. Then put the same meaning into a language other than English in as many forms as you can.


51 Example: The cat is black The black cat The cat, which is black 1. The water jug 2. John bought a car 3. A hot day 4. Mother‟s long blue dress 5. Peter‟s house C. All of the following have the same grammatical form. With the change of lexical items, there is a change of meaning which is signaled by that lexical item, apart from the referential meaning of the word itself. What meaning is signaled in each of the following possessive phrases? Answer by restating. How can that meaning best be expressed in another language which you speak? Example: The man‟s car - the man owns the car The man‟s eye - the eye is part of the man 1. The doctor‟s office 2. The doctor‟s patient 3. The doctor‟s book 4. The doctor‟s brother 5. The doctor‟s hand 6. The doctor‟s house D. For each pair of sentences, state whether the two sentences are 1. the same in meaning or 2. different in meaning. 1. (a) It rained all night. (b) Rain fell all night. 2. (a) There is a book on the table. (b) There is a table on the book. 3. (a) John was very surprised when he heard the news. (b) The news very much amazed John when he heard it. 4. (a) It was a hot day. (b) The day was hot. 5. (a) Peter‟s house (b) The house that belongs to Peter


52 6. (a) He remained silent. (b) He did not say anything. 7. (a) I bought cloth to make Mary a new dress. (b) I bought a new dress for Mary. 8. (a) My parents are well. (b) My mother and father are well. 9. (a) John is ill: he has a bad case of malaria. (b) John is very ill indeed. E. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. ChÞ may ¸o s¬ mi nµy ë ®©u vËy? 2. §µ L¹t chiÕm cø mét vïng ®Êt réng trªn cao nguyªn L©m Viªn, xung quanh toµn lµ nói ®åi hïng vÜ. 3. MÆc dï ®Þa vÞ cña phô n÷ ®· cã nh÷ng b-íc tiÕn kú diÖu, nh-ng ng-êi ta ph¶i thùc hiÖn nhiÒu chuyÖn kh¸c ®Ó c¶i thiÖn t×nh tr¹ng søc khoÎ, dinh d-ìng vµ gi¸o dôc cho phô n÷. 4. Ngµy nay thÕ giíi ®ang ®-ong ®Çu víi nhiÒu vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng cho dï ®· cã nhiÒu b-íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ trong lÜnh vùc khoa häc, c«ng nghÖ vµ tri thøc. Mét trong nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò ®ã lµ sù bïng næ d©n sè, ®Æc biÖt ë c¸c n-íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn. D©n sè ®ang t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n trong lóc s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ l¹i t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng. 5. Charles Dickens lµ mét trong nh÷ng nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt lín nhÊt thÕ giíi, thuéc tr-êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n thÕ kû 19. §iÒu mµ chóng ta ®¸nh gi¸ cao vÒ nh÷ng t¸c phÈm cña Dickens lµ sù phª ph¸n vÒ téi ¸c vµ sù t-¬ng ph¶n gi÷a giµu vµ nghÌo cña x· héi t- s¶n Anh lóc bÊy giê. ThÕ giíi mµ «ng ta miªu t¶ lµ thÕ giíi cña giai cÊp trung l-u vµ h¹ l-u ë Lu©n §«n.

ASSIGNMENT 2: I.THEORY: 1. What are the differences between a literal translation and an idiomatic translation? 2. What grammatical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas.

II. EXERCISES: A. In each of the following pairs of sentences, which is more idiomatic English, a or b? How would the meaning be expressed idiomatically in the language you speak? 1. (a) The storekeeper said that we will refund your money. (b)The storekeeper promised to refund our money. 2. (a) A certain boy told me this little story at a party. (b) He is one boy. He told the one little story. This is a game he said.


53 3. (a) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform as well. How many children have shed hot tears about spelling? (b) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform,too. And how many hot children‟s tears have not been shed on spelling? 4. (a) He then reported his misfortune to the police, who are searching diligently for the thief. (b) He then his mishap reported to the police, who are the thief searching intensively. B. Look for literalisms in the following translations into English and underline the words or phrases that do not sound natural in English. Suggest a more idiomatic way of saying it. All of these examples are from published translated material. 1. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for their friends have introduced to them very much about this hotel. 2. Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam, many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam. 3. Hue is famous about its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. 4. The participants discussed about the causes of pollution environment. 5 . A robbery took place of a motorcycle rider at Kampung early yesterday

morning.

C. Each of the following are sentences written by some Vietnamese who are not yet fluent English speakers. The forms used shows examples of how their mother-tongue language structures have been carried over into English. The same information is then given in parenthesis in idiomatic English. What changes were made in correcting the English? These changes point out some of the differences between Vietnamese and English. 1. Sir, the problems of before don‟t forget. ( Sir, please don‟t forget the problems we discussed before.) 2. If there is any means, send me a letter to Saigon. (If there is any way to do so, send a letter to me in Saigon.) 3. I will think you time to time day and day. ( I will be thinking about you often every day.) 4. I am very grateful to inform you with this letter. ( I am very happy to be able to send/write you this letter.) 5. I am a man who has been to Hanoi for 12 years. ( I have now lived in Hanoi for 12 years.) D. Translate the following sentences into Englisgh. 1. Th¸c M¬ lµ c«ng tr×nh thuû ®iÖn cã c«ng suÊt thiÕt kÕ 150.000 Kw, s¶n l-îng ®iÖn trung b×nh hµng n¨m 600 triÖu Kw giê.


54 2. §Ó x©y dùng c«ng tr×nh nµy cÇn ph¶i ®µo ®¾p gÇn 15 triÖu m3 ®Êt ®¸, ®¾p h¬n 350.000 mÐt khèi tÇng läc, ®æ kho¶ng 220.000 mÐt khèi bª t«ng cèt thÐp vµ l¾p ®Æt gÇn 7.000 tÊn thiÕt bÞ vµ kÕt cÊu kim lo¹i. 3. Víi khèi l-îng c«ng viÖc lín nh- vËy, nh-ng chÝnh phñ quyÕt ®Þnh ph¶i hoµn thµnh viÖc thi c«ng trong hai n¨m do nhu cÇu cung cÊp ®iÖn cho c¸c ®Þa ph-¬ng phÝa Nam ®· trë nªn hÕt søc cÊp b¸ch. 4. Tõ ngµy khëi c«ng ®Õn nay, c¸c ®¬n vÞ thi c«ng ®· thùc hiÖn ®-îc kho¶ng 90% khèi l-îng ®µo ®Êt, ®æ kho¶ng 40% khèi l-îng bª c«ng cèt thÐp. 5. Theo «ng NguyÔn B¸ MÉn, Tr-ëng ban Qu¶n lý c«ng tr×nh, th× hÇu hÕt c¸c h¹ng môc c¨n b¶n ®Òu ®¹t ®óng yªu cÇn vÒ tiÕn ®é thi c«ng. 6. Trung tuÇn th¸ng 11/1993, Thñ t-íng Vâ V¨n KiÖt ®· ®Õn kiÓm tra t×nh h×nh thi c«ng c«ng tr×nh thuû ®iÖn th¸c M¬. 7. Nh÷ng ng-êi l·nh ®¹o c«ng tr×nh kh¼ng ®Þnh víi Thñ t-íng r»ng ®· cã ®Çy ®ñ c¬ së ®Ó ®¶m b¶o khëi ®éng tæ m¸y sè 1 vµo th¸ng 6 n¨m 1994. 8. ViÖc chÆn dßng s«ng BÐ tiÕn hµnh vµo th¸ng 12 nµy. 9. Nh- vËy sÏ cã mét sù trïng hîp cã ý nghÜa lµ cïng mét thêi ®iÓm víi viÖc khëi ®éng tæ m¸y sè 1 thuû ®iÖn th¸c M¬, hÖ thèng t¶i ®iÖn 500 Kw B¾c Nam còng ®-îc hoµn thµnh. 10. Víi c¸c c«ng tr×nh nµy, n¨m 1994, miÒn Nam ®· tho¸t khái t×nh tr¹ng ®ãi ®iÖn. E. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese 1. Although the state budget for teaching aids at schools of all levels has been icreased since 1990, it is still far below the demand to fully equip schools and improve training quality. 2. President Putin affirmed that Russia has always attacted importance to its relations with Vietnam, its traditional friend and stragic partner in Southeast Asia. 3. It is projected to extend integration opportunities to 3000 disabled children in three provinces, one in mountainous areas, one in the central coast and one in remote areas. 4. They discussed a series of measures intended to ensure comprehensive cooperation in economy, trade, science and technology. 5. Efforts are being made to raise women‟s awareness of their rights to have labour safety or hygiene conditions at work through an expanded communication network. 6. It is more likely that schools in the southern provinces have more computer labs used in teaching foreign languages than schools in the northern provinces. 7. There have been four foreign invested projects in education, with investment capital from the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank.


55 8. Of 50 foreign language students surveyed recently by the Vietnam Courier, 38 said they are not interested in working for foreign invested companies. 9. Vietnam and China agreed to set up negotiations for the signing of a land border agreement delineating the sea boundary in the Bac Bo ( Tonkin ) Gulf no later than 2000. 10. Most recently the government has offered incentives like tax reduction or preferential loans to employers who have employed a large number of women.


56

ASSIGNMENT 3: I. THEORY: 1. What lexical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. 2. Why do you have to take the time to read the source language text carefully before translating it?

II. EXERCISES: A. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Ngay tõ nh÷ng ngµy ®Çu th¸ng Ch¹p ( ¢m lÞch) TÕt ®· l¶ng v¶ng ë vïng ngo¹i thµnh Hµ Néi. 2. Cã lÏ bµ con n«ng d©n ngo¹i thµnh lµ ng-êi c¶m nhËn thÊy TÕt h¬n ai hÕt bëi tõ viÖc vun xíi rau qu¶, cá hoa cho viÖc vç bÐo lîn, gµ ®Ìu nh»m phôc vô tÕt. 3. NÕu ®i tõ phÝa Kinh B¾c xuèng, ta sÏ nh×n thÊy b¹t ngµn hoa xu©n, nhÊt lµ lay¬n khoe s¾c ®ñ mµu. 4. S¸t víi vïng Néi Thµnh lµ vïng hoa NhËt T©n , Nghi Tµm, Qu¶ng B¸ víi nhiÒu lo¹i : ®µo hång th¾m, quÊt vµng méng, tim tÝm vi«lÐt vµ ®á rùc hoa ®ång tiÒn. 5. Vµi ba n¨m trë vÒ tr-íc, n¬i ®©y lµ rõng hoa, ®ñ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu cña ng-êi Hµ Néi vÒ hoa c¶nh. 6. Bµ con vïng nµy lµ nh÷ng nghÖ nh©n cã truyÒn thèng trång hoa l©u ®êi. 7. TiÕc thay, ®Êt trång hoa hiÖn nay bÞ thu hÑp dÇn do sù chuyÓn h-íng lµm ¨n cña kh«ng Ýt nghÖ nh©n. 8. Ng-êi th× b¸n ®¸t bá nghÒ, ng-êi th× tù bá vèn hoÆc lµ liªn kÕt víi ng-êi bá vèn hïn h¹p x©y dùng c¸c biÖt thù sang träng dïng lµm kh¸ch s¹n mi ni phôc vô kh¸ch n-íc. 9. Cöa hµng, cöa hiÖu mäc lªn nh- nÊm ®ñ lo¹i hµng ho¸ tõ b×nh d©n ®Õn cao cÊp. 10. Ch¼ng cßn nghi ngê g× n÷a, Hµ Néi thêi më cöa ®ang ®æi thay, ®ang ph¸t triÓn. Mong sao Hµ néi vµ ng-êi Hµ Néi m·i m·i xøng danh víi m¶nh ®Êt ngµn n¨m v¨n hiÕn. B. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese. 1. The centerpiece of the festivities was a show entitled “ A Flock of Birds to Good Land” staged simultaneously on the three different grand stages in the downtown area. 2. The whole area around the temple was virtually packed with people, leaving only a small opening for the rituals to proceed. 3. To reduce the costs while increasing accessibility of education for disabled children, the government has launched a program of community-based education and integration.


57 4. In recent years, to restore public order, Hanoi removed a number of unofficial marketplaces into designated areas. But out of the four marketplaces targeted, only Dong Tam market was moved from the Dong Da residential quarter to the Dai La area. 5. Besides the investment from the State budget, all the schools had to look for other financial sources to buy teaching equipment. However, these sources made up only 13% and 21% of the state budget for general education schools and universities respectively. 6. State budget revenues have approximately achieved the level originally set. Regular expenditure has been ensured, while irregular spending in support of area hit by storms, floods and droughts have been made. The budget deficit has been kept at a permissible level of 3.6% of GDP in 1998, down from 4.2% in 1997. 7. The economic development of Vietnam has to be viewed in the context of long periods of wars. It is the context of long periods of wars that has caused loss of people‟s lives and damage to property, public facilities and resources. 8. The television network is being established throughout the country. Apart from the relatively modern and long-standing television stations in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, 25 provincial stations were set up in 1988. These relay the important transmissions of the central TV stations and broadcast their own program. 9. The Vietnam‟s Women Union is represented in the National Assembly and its president is entitled to attend the regular meeting of The Council of Ministers where she can express the Women Union‟s view-points and propose the regulations related to the Union. 10. The Vietnamese families have been affected by the agricultural civilization. Due to the open-door policy, the industrial civilization has exerted a daily and hourly effect on the life of Vietnamese families.

ASSIGNMENT 4: I. THEORY: 1. Name and discuss the four T‟s of a translation project. 2. Explain what is meant by exegesis.

II. EXERCISES: A. Read the English text and answer the questions.

Deforestation Population growth is one factor in rainforest destruction. However, it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. The majority of deforestation in Latin America, South-east Asia and the Pacific is caused by clearing land to grow cash crops for export and by commercial logging operations, and not by „shifting‟ cultivators or landless peasants. Each year commercial logging eliminates 45000 square kilometers of forest, much of the timber being exported to the United States and Japan. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil, where tropical forest has been converted to grazing


58 land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. These heavy payments, which affect the poor the most, have arisen largely from external loans taken out to finance the purchase of luxury items and arms by military and governing elite. The establishment of large ranch-style cattle grazing properties is the principal reason for the elimination of 20000 square kilometers of rainforest each year in Central or South America. The cleared land is mainly devoted to the export of beef for the fast-food industries in North America, Europe and Japan- the aptly named „hamburger connection‟. 1. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. What is the text about? 3. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? 4. Do you have any difficulty in finding the Vietnamese meaning of the English words : subsistence agriculture, cash crops, commercial logging operations, shifting cultivators, landless peasants, affluent society, external debt payment, military and governing elites, ranch-style cattle grazing property, hamburger connection ? 5. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent Vietnamese structures of the following English sentences? a. However, it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. b. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil, where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. 6. Translate the text into Vietnamese. B. Read the Vietnamese text and answer the questions.

NON N¦íC Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n-íc s«ng Hång, S«ng §µ, S«ng Cöu Long vµ tõng sèng chÕt víi s«ng n-íc nµy. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh- tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. ë ViÖt Nam th× ‘‘n-íc’’( trong s«ng, hå, biÓn.) l¹i ®ång nghÜa, ®ång ©m víi ‘‘n-íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h-¬ng. S«ng n-íc vµ con ng-êi ë ®©y kÕt hîp víi thiªn nhiªn vµ lÞch sö nh- mét khèi bÊt tö bÊt diÖt bëi mét thø xi m¨ng tr-êng tån. §ã lµ lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi cña d©n téc ViÖt Nam. Trªn thÕ giíi, cã nhiÒu quèc gia tõ tØnh nä sang tØnh kia nãi lµ kh«ng hiÓu nhau råi. Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam, dï bÊt kú ë ®©u, ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c, hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay.

1. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. What is the text about? 3. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely?


59 4. Do you have any difficulty in finding the English meaning of the Vietnamese words : cha «ng, sèng chÕt, sù thèng nhÊt, kÕt hîp chÆt chÏ, xi m¨ng tr-êng tån, lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi, hiÓu nhau? 5. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent English structures of the following Vietnamese sentences? a. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh- tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. b.Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam, dï bÊt kú ë ®©u, ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c, hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. 6. Translate the text into English.

ASSIGNMENT 5: I. THEORY: 1. What are the goals of the translator as he prepares the initial draft? 2. What is the purpose of the evaluation? 3. What kinds of evaluation checks can be made?

II. EXERSISES: A. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese. 1. In the human history, science has been seen as having a mission to liberate people from ignorance and superstition, to lessen human misery, and to increase human understanding of the world. 2. The News Atlantic hailed the scientists of the time as merchants of light who would penetrate the darkness and open the way to man‟s control over nature. At that time, utopian invetions such as aircrafts, submarines, and telephones were foreseen. 3. People involved in the computer industry believe we are experiencing a computer revolution. Why is this revolution occuring? What will be its social consequences? To answer these questions , it is necessary to consider briefly the history of computers. 4. The forerunner of modern computer goes back some 5000 years to the first calculating machine invented by the Chinese- the abacus. Until the 17th century, Europe had nothing to rival the abacus for speed and accuracy of calculation. 5. Computers were developed simultaneously in Germany, England and the USA to aid the speedy and accurate calculations necessary to decode the enemy‟s messages during the Second World War. 6. Many of the jobs now being performed by people in the manufacturing and service sectors of our economy can be done faster and more cheaply by modern computers or electronic devices controlled by computers. 7. Robot machines are replacing assembly line workers in manufacturing. They have already done so in the Fiat car factory in Italy and the Nissan car plant in Japan. By 1980, 50 robots were in use in Australia by companies such as General Motors, Ford, Nissan and Simpson Pope.


60 8. Firms that do not adopt the new computer technology are enable to compete with their cheaper electronic rivals. Such has been the fate of the $200 million a year Swiss watch industry, which was wiped out by electronic watches in a couple of years. 9. With the mechanization of some work processes, the new factories initially resulted in large-scale structural unemployment. Previously, much sought-after, skilled, “cottage industry” artisans suddenly found themselves redundant and de-skilled by the new technology. 10. The heroic image of science grew through the 18th and 19th centuries. The Industrial Revolution, which started in England in the late 18th century, strongly reinforced faith in a technological society, although the social costs and benefits were far from equal share. B. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. VÞnh Dung QuÊt n»m ë phÝa ®«ng b¾c huyÖn B×nh S¬n, tØnh Qu¶ng Ng·i. VÞnh cã chiÒu dµi 18 km vµ ®-îc che chë kÝn ®¸o bëi c¸c d·y nói tù nhiªn. 2. Bê phÝa nam vÞnh lµ mét vïng ®¸t b»ng ph¼ng, cã kÕt cÊu ®Þa lý æn ®Þnh víi diÖn tÝch hµng chôc c©y sè vu«ng. 3. N¬i ®©y sÏ h×nh thµnh c¸c khu c«ng nghiÖp nÆng vµ ho¸ chÊt, nhµ m¸y läc dÇu, khu chÕ biÕn h¶i s¶n, khu chÕ biÕn n«ng s¶n, khu c«ng nghiÖp nhÑ vµ mét khu d©n c- ®« thÞ hiÖn ®¹i víi kho¶ng 60 v¹n d©n. 4. Mét diÒu kiÖn thuËn lîi n÷a lµ Dung QuÊt n»m c¸ch ®-êng ®-êng s¾t, ®-êng t¶i ®iÖn vµ c¸p quang xuyªn ViÖt kho¶ng 12 ViÖc cung cÊp n-íc ngät cho khu nµy lµ hÕt søc thuËn lîi tr÷ l-îng lµ 3 tØ mÐt khèi /n¨m, víi nguån n-íc tõ s«ng Bång.

bé, km. víi Trµ

5. Ngµy nay chóng ta ®ang tr·i qua mét cuéc biÕn ®æi x· héi rÊt s©u s¾c nh- sù thay ®æi trong cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp lÇn thø nhÊt. Do vËy, viÖc ®Þnh nghÜa l¹i kh¸i niªm viÖc lµm cã lÏ lµ cÇn thiÕt.

ASSIGNMENT 6: I.THEORY: 1. Name some kinds of errors that a translator could make when he/she translates a text. 2. Why does a translator often make structural and lexical errors when he/she translates a text? 3. Give some examples of errors in word collocation that a translator could make when he/she translate a text.

II. EXERCISES: A. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Do phï sa båi ®¾p cña dßng s«ng Cöu Long ®· lam phong phó vùa lóa ®Çy ¾p nµy, t-îng tr-ng cho nguån l-¬ng thùc cña c¶


61 n-íc còng nh- phong c¸ch sinh ho¹t kÒ cËn s«ng n-íc cña c- d©n trong vïng. 2. Tõ nh÷ng dßng s«ng réng lín ®Õn nh÷ng m-¬ng r¹ch m¶nh mai chØ tiÖn cho nh÷ng chiÕc thuyÒn nhá bÐ ra v«, S«ng Cöu Long cho ta mét c¶nh quan hoµnh tr¸ng khi nã ch¶y vµo ViÖt Nam, tr¹m cuèi cïng cña hµnh tr×nh 4500km n¬i cöa ngâ biÓn §«ng. 3. §iÒu ®¸ng quÝ lµ kiÒu bµo lu«n h-íng vÒ tæ quèc, g¾n bã víi gia ®×nh quª h-¬ng, ®Êt n-íc, yªu quÝ vµ gi÷ g×n b¶n s¾c v¨n ho¸ vµ hun ®óc nªn tÝnh c¸ch con ng-êi ViÖt Nam. 4. Ngoµi viÖc gióp ®ì ng-êi th©n ë n-íc nhµ, nhiÒu kiÒu bµo cßn ®ãng gãp x©y dùng quª h-¬ng, h-ëng øng viÖc cøu trî nh÷ng n¬i trong n-íc bÞ thiªn tai vµ tham gia c¸c viÖc nghÜa víi truyÒn thèng ‘‘ nhiÔu ®iÒu phñ lÊy gi¸ g-¬ng.’’ 5. Tr-íc n¨m 1988, ¶nh h-ëng cña hÖ thèng ng©n hµng ®èi víi sù ph¸t triÓn vµ qu¶n lý kinh tÕ vÜ m« lµ kh«ng ®¸ng kÓ. §Ó khuyÕn khÝch hÖ thèng ng©n hµng ho¹t ®éng cã môc ®Ých h¬n, chÝnh phñ ®· ®Ì ra c¸c biÖn ph¸p míi bao gåm tæ chøc l¹i hÖ thèng ng©n hµng, ®-a vµo c¸c chÝnh s¸ch tÝn dông h¹n ®Þnh, chÝnh s¸ch míi vÒ l·i suÊt vµ cho phÐp tù do bu«n b¸n vµng trªn thÞ tr-êng. 6. ChÝnh phñ ®¨ xóc tiÕn mét cuéc t¸i thiÕt toµn diÖn vÒ l-¬ng bæng cña c«ng nh©n viªn nhµ n-íc b»ng c¸ch chØnh ®èn l¹i nh÷ng kho¶n bao cÊp cho ng-êi tiªu dïng trªn danh nghÜa ho¹ch ®Þnh l¹i chÕ ®é l-¬ng. MÆc dï møc l-¬ng tèi thiÓu hµng th¸ng t¨ng, nh-ngl-¬ng thùc tÕ vÉn gi¶m xuèng ®¸ng kÓ do l¹m ph¸t. 7. Cuéc ®iÒu tra do héi phô n÷ ViÖt Nam tiÕn hµnh cho thÊy r»ng nh÷ng ph-¬ng ph¸p tr¸nh thai truyÒn thèng ®ang ®-îc ¸p dông réng r·i. Cuéc ®iÒu tra cho thÊy r»ng 39% phô n÷ cã gia ®×nh dïng ph-¬ng ph¸p hiÖn ®¹i, ph-¬ng ph¸p th-êng dïng nhÊt lµ ®Æt vßng tr¸nh thai B. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese 1.The nuclear energy proponents also pressed the theme that it was inevitable that the world would increasingly go nuclear. It is suggested that the opponents were standing against the tide of history and were akin to the Luddites at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, who broke machines. 2. Doctors have shown for the first time they can rebuild the immune systems of people infected with the AIDS virus, dramatically increasing the blood cells that HIV destroys. 3. In the field of medicine training, what was done in the past years has been remarked by distinguished fact that many specialists and medical colleges in different countries set forth the necessity for reconsidering training subjects for health workers. 4. Today, the physicians should be considered as men of health. Hence, the responsibility of the physicians is to know how to discover, cure, and rehabilitate the health of the individuals and the community.


62 5. It is obvious that a healthy body helps a sound mind because it is the sound minds that direct the orientation of the values systems. A healthy man should be healthy not only physically but also mentally. 6. Nowadays people are inclined to worry too much about their physical health. However, I would like to lay stress on the importance of psychological health. Being mentally healthy is very important, and a truly healthy man is one who can enjoy the proper equilibrium between his body and mind.

ASSIGNMENT 7: Translate the following texts into English 1.Nh÷ng thµnh tùu cña qu¸ tr×nh ®æi míi trong thËp niªn võa qua ®· t¹o ra nh÷ng c¬ héi cho phô n÷ ®¹t ®-îc môc ®Ých cña m×nh. Cuéc sèng cña phô n÷ ®· ®-îc c¶i thiÖn vµ phô n÷ bít nhäc nh»n h¬n. C¸c dÞch vô x· héi ®· gióp phô n÷ bít nhäc nh»n trong c«ng viÖc nhµ vµ t¹o ®IÒu kiÖn cho phô n÷ tham gia vµo c¸c ho¹t ®éng x· héi . 2. Héi phô n÷ ViÖt nam ®¹I diÖn cho phô n÷ ViÖt Nam trong c¶ n-íc ®· ®æi míi tæ chøc vµ c¸ch lµm viÖc v× vËy ®· thu hót ngµy cµng nhiÒu phô n÷ tham gia vµo c«ng t¸c x· héi. H«Þ phô n÷ gióp cho phô n÷ gi¶i quyÕt nh÷ng khã kh¨n trong cuéc sèng h»ng ngµy. Héi còng ®Ö tr×nh lªn nhµ n-íc nh÷ng ®iÒu luËt vµ chÝnh s¸ch nh»m ph¸t huy mäi tiÒm n¨ng cña phô n÷ trong tiÕn tr×nh ®æi míi. 3.NhËn ra nh÷ng nh©n tè t¹o nªn viÖc häc ngo¹i ng÷ nhanh vµ hiÖu qu¶ ngµy cµng trë nªn quan träng v× ®a sè ng-êi häc lµ ng-êi lín rÊt lo l¾ng khi häc mét ngo¹i ng÷ chuyªn ngµnh sö dông trong th-¬ng m¹i,nghiªn cøu vµ ngo¹I giao. Nhu cÇu ®Ó häc mét ngäai ng÷ cã hiÖu qu¶ cÇn ®-îc xem xÐt theo khÝa c¹nh ng-êi häc, ng-êi d¹y vµ ch-¬ng tr×nh gi¶ng d¹y. 4.Søc hÊp dÉn lín nhÊt ®èi víi du kh¸ch lµ b¶n s¾c v¨n hãa cña d©n téc ViÖt Nam. Hµng ngh×n di tÝch lÞch sö, di tÝch c¸ch m¹ng ®· ®-îc nhµ n-íc xÕp h¹ng, trong ®ã hµng tr¨m di tÝch cã gi¸ trÞ lÞch sö vµ nghÖ thuËt cao. ViÖt Nam lµ mét céng ®ång cña 54 d©n téc víi nhiÒu phong tôc, tËp qu¸n, v¨n hãa nghÖ thuËt d©n gian ®Æc s¾c. Sù hiÖn diÖn cña hµng tr¨m lµng nghÒ truyÒn thèng ®· s¶n xuÊt ra hµng ngh×n lo¹i s¶n phÈm thñ c«ng mü nghÖ næi tiÕng. 5. NÕu du kh¸ch ®Õn víi c¸c vïng d©n téc thiÓu sè th× cßn cã thÓ tham dù vµo nh÷ng sinh ho¹t v¨n hãa kú thó cña vïng nói rõng nhiÖt ®íi. Mét lÔ héi ®©m tr©u ch¼ng h¹n. SÏ ph¶i cã mÆt tr-íc lÔ héi hµng tuÇn cïng ng-êi d©n ®i t×m tre ®Ó söa nhµ r«ng, ®Ó lµm c©y nªu xua ®uæi ma quû. Trong nh÷ng ngµy ®ã du kh¸ch cßn ®-îc quan s¸t c¸ch chän c¸c vß r-îu cÇn vµ nhÊt lµ viÖc chän tr©u ®Ó ®©m.


63 6. Phóc lîi x· héi lµ chÝnh s¸ch x· héi lín cña ViÖt Nam dùa trªn truyÒn thèng t-¬ng th©n t-¬ng ¸i gióp ®ì lÉn nhau cã tõ ngµn x-a. Nguyªn t¾c c¬ b¶n cña chÝnh s¸ch nµy lµ kÕt hîp tr¸ch nhiÖm cña nhµ n-íc, cña céng ®ång vµ mçi c¸ nh©n tù v-¬n lªn hßa nhËp v¬I x· h«Þ. ChÝnh s¸ch nµy ®ang tõng b-íc më ra cho mäi ®èi t-îng víi nhiÒu h×nh thøc kh¸c nhau. 7. Sù l¹c hËu vµ nguy c¬ tôt hËu h¬n vÒ kinh tÕ ®ang lµ nçi tr¨n trë canh c¸nh trong lßng mçi ng-êi ViÖt Nam ë trong n-íc còng nh- ®ang sinh sèng ë n-íc ngoµi. NÕu tôt hËu xa h¬n cã nghÜa lµ r¬I vµo sè phËn cña mét n-íc cung cÊp nguyªn liÖu vµ nh©n c«ng trong sù ph©n c«ng lao ®éng quèc tÕ, chÞu lÐp vÕ , thua thiÖt trong hîp t¸c c¹nh tranh. §ã thùc lµ mét th¸ch thøc lín ®èi víi d©n téc ViÖt Nam trong bèi c¶nh quèc tÕ ngµy nay. 8. B¶n chÊt nh©n v¨n cña tr-êng ph¸i ngo¹i giao ViÖt Nam lµ mét nÐt ®Æc thï. MÆc dï lµ n¹n nh©n cña biÕt bao nhiªu cuéc x©m l-îc, nh-ng ng-êi ViÖt Nam kh«ng bao giê mÊt ®I lßng nh©n ¸i. H¬n thÕ n÷a , chÝnh lßng nh©n ¸I lµ nh©n tè t¹o nªn søc m¹nhcña d©n téc vµ nÒn ngo¹I giao ViÖt Nam. NguyÔn Tr·I , ng-êi anh hïng d©n téc cña thÕ kû 15 ®· ®Ó l¹I ph-¬ng ch©m l-u truyÒn cho m·I ®Õn h«m nay : ‘‘ LÊy ®¹I nghÜa th¾ng hung tµn, LÊy chÝ nh©n thay c-êng b¹o.’’

ASSIGNMENT 8: Translate the following text into English Cã lÏ B¾c Kinh lµ n¬i tËp trung quyÒn lùc chÝnh trÞ nh-ng Th-îng H¶i còng cã quyÒn tù hµo lµ mét thñ ®« th-¬ng m¹i. B¾c Kinh cã lÏ lµ n¬i tËp trung quyÒn lùc chÝnh trÞ nh-ng danh hiÖu mét thñ ®« th-¬ng m¹i l¹i thuéc vÒ Th-îng H¶i. Nh÷ng ®Þa ®iÓm lÞch sö chØ míi cã tõ gÇn 80 n¨m tr-íc ë Th-îng H¶i, tuy thÕ hÇu hÕt du kh¸ch ®Òu bÞ chinh phôc tr-íc vÎ quyÕn rò cña thµnh phè ®Æc biÖt nµy, n¬i mµ m«i tr-êng lµ tÊt c¶. ChØ riªng c¸i tªn Th-îng H¶i còng ®· dËy nªn mét lµn sãng nhá niÒm thÝch thó v« tËn. Th-îng H¶i vÉn lµ mét thµnh phè nhá chuyªn nghÒ ®¸nh c¸ vµ dÖt m·i cho ®Õn nöa thÕ kû 19 khi nã b¾t ®Çu ph¸t triÓn nh- mét trung t©m c«ng nghiÖp vµ th-¬ng m¹i. Nh÷ng ng-êi chñ h·ng bu«n vµ c¸c øng cö viªn chÝnh trÞ tõ kh¾p n¬i trªn thÕ giíi ®æ vÒ ®©y vµ ph¸t triÓn nã thµnh mét trong nh÷ng thµnh phè quèc tÕ sµnh ®iÖu nhÊt thÕ giíi. Tõ nh÷ng n¨m 1920 trë ®i, nã trë nªn ngµy cµng tai tiÕng nh- lµ mét n¬i mµ bÊt cø viÖc g× còng cã thÓ x¶y ra. C¸c ng©n hµng vµ c¸c c«ng ty th-¬ng m¹i ®ñ lo¹i tù x©y dùng cho hä nh÷ng trô së chÝnh sang träng tr«ng ra n¬i mµ sau ®ã lµ nh÷ng c¸nh ®ång lóa mªnh m«ng tr¶i dµi hai bê s«ng Hoµng Phè.


64 Toµn bé d¶i ®Êt nµy vÉn cßn tån t¹i sau nh÷ng thêi kú san b»ng å ¹t vµ ngµy nay nã lµm nªn mét b¶o tµng më ®éc ®¸o vÒ kiÕn tróc cña nh÷ng n¨m 1930. Mét cuéc t¶n bé däc bê ®ª lµ kh«ng thÓ thiÕu ®èi víi nh÷ng ai ®Õn th¨m n¬i ®©y, / Du kh¸ch kh«ng thÓ bá qua mét cuéc t¶n bé däc bê ®ª khi ®Õn th¨m n¬i ®©y, n¬i mµ vÉn ®-îc nhiÒu ng-êi c«ng nhËn lµ thµnh phè träng ®iÓm cña Trung Quèc. Nh÷ng toµ nhµ chäc trêi, bao gåm mét vµi toµ nhµ cao nhÊt thÕ giíi ®· mäc lªn ë chÝnh n¬i mµ x-a kia lóa ®· tõng mäc. §iÓm næi bËt nhÊt lµ th¸p truyÒn h×nh Hßn Ngäc ViÔn §«ng - nÕu thêi gian cho phÐp, mét c¸i nh×n toµn c¶nh tõ nh÷ng tÇng cao cña th¸p sÏ lµ mét kû niÖm khã quªn. D-íi sù nh-îng bé cña ng-êi Ph¸p tr-íc ®©y, tõng ®o¹n qu¸ khø nh- vÉn cßn hiÖn h÷u ®©u ®ã trong nh÷ng biÖt thù tao nh· vµ nh÷ng con ®-êng rîp bãng c©y. Vßng qua gãc ®ª, kh¸ch s¹n Hoµ B×nh vµ ban nh¹c Jazz ®¸ng kÝnh cña nã lµ nh÷ng chøng tÝch næi tiÕng cña mét thêi kú hµo hiÖp. Nh-ng Th-îng H¶i còng cßn cã nhiÒu kh¸ch s¹n tuyÖt vêi kh¸c tõ nh÷ng n¨m 1930, phÇn lín ®ang ®-îc phôc håi nh÷ng nÐt ®¸ng yªu tõ thêi hoµng kim tr-íc ®©y cña chóng. Th-îng H¶i së h÷u mét trong nh÷ng b¶o tµng thËt sù lín cña thÕ giíi, ®-îc më cña vµo n¨m 1996. Trong mét thêi gian ng¾n kh«ng thÓ tham quan hÕt toµ nhµ gi¸ trÞ nµy ®-îc, nh-ng thËm chÝ chØ cÇn mét giê trong nh÷ng phßng tr-ng bµy ®å ®ång, ®iªu kh¾c ®¸ vµ ®å gèm còng ®· ®ñ ®em l¹i nh÷ng kû niÖm khã phai.

ASSIGNMENT 9: Translate the following text into Vietnamese In a keynote speech at Hà Nội National University (HNU) yesterday, leader Jiang urged the youth of Vietnam and China to work for strengthening the friendship between the two countries and contribute to peace and development in Asia and the world. “A bright future will be created by you, the young people, and the future belongs to you,” the Chinese General Secretary and State President told the students. Jiang stressed that a better future awaited China-Vietnam relations in the 21st century, and joint efforts by the youth of both countries cannot be separated from this. The younger generation in both our countries must stick to their ideals and work tirelessly for socialism, he said.


65 “The youth of China and Vietnam need to inherit and bring into full play the revolutionary spirit of their elders, to be persistent in ideology, study hard, to strive for the cause of developing socialism, and for the wealth and prosperity of their respective motherlands,” he said. He expressed his hope that the Chinese and Vietnamese young people will cherish, maintain and promote China-Vietnam relations, have more exchanges and learn from each other to enhance mutual understanding. He pledged that the Chinese party and Government would fully back such exchanges. “In history, both Vietnam and China have suffered invasion by the imperialists but we both successfully fought off the imperialists, liberated our peoples and unified our countries,” said Jiang. He said that the friendship between Vietnam and China derives not only from history but also the fact, as noted by Hồ Chí Minh, that the two peoples are “comrades and brothers”. The foundation of China-Vietnam ties was mutual trust, long-term stability, the pre-condition, and friendly neighborliness, the guarantee, he said. “Comprehensive co-operation is the bridge and the target a prosperous future”, he added. Jiang left Hanoi yesterday Central Vietnam where he toured the ancient imperial capital of Huế, recognized by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, and met with leaders of the port city of Đà Nẵng. He is scheduled to visit the ancient port town of Hội An and the Hoà Thọ Textile Company before concluding his three-day visit to Việt Nam.

ASSIGNMENT 10: Translate the following text into English Đối với một đất nước còn nhiều khó khăn như chúng ta, thì vấn đề “tiết kiệm chống lãng phí” phải luôn được coi là quốc sách. Nhưng trong thực tế, những năm qua khắp nơi, vẫn còn tràn lan những hiện tượng lãng phí. Nào là lãng phí trong quản lý, sử dụng ngân sách, lãng phí trong đầu tư xây dựng cơ bản, lãng phí trong quản lý đất đai, trụ sở làm việc, lãng phí trong lĩnh vực doanh nghiệp Nhà nước và rồi lãng phí còn len lỏi trong dân chúng với những thủ tục cưới xin đầy tốn kém… “Lãng phí” thực sự đã và đang là vấn đề bức xúc của xã hội, là một trong những nguyên nhân gây ảnh hưởng lớn tới nền kinh tế của đất nước. Bởi vì trong năm đầu (1998) sau khi có pháp


66 lệnh thực hành tiết kiệm, chống lãng phí được Uỷ Ban thường vụ Quốc Hội khóa X thông qua ngày 26-02-1998 và có hiệu lực thi hành từ ngày 1-5-1998, qua số liệu báo cáo của 12 Bộ, cơ quan ngang Bộ, số chi thực năm 1998 giảm so với quyết toán năm 1997, cụ thể như: Hội nghị phí: 12,8 tỉ đồng; công tác phí: 12,43 tỉ đồng, chi phí điện thoại, fax: 9,57 tỉ đồng; chi phí sửa chữa lớn TSCĐ: 80,94 tỉ đồng; chi mua sắm tài sản cố định phục vụ chuyên môn nghiệp vụ: 153,7 tỉ đồng. Dự toán NSNN năm 1999 tiếp tục thực hiện tiết kiệm 10% dự toán chi thường xuyên. Một số khoản chi thường xuyên đã giảm mạnh từ 30% đến 70% như chi mua sắm thiết bị làm việc, chi hội nghị lễ tân… Những số liệu “giảm chi” trong khi thực hiện Pháp lệnh thực hành tiết kiệm chống lãng phí thời gian qua, thực sự là những con số biết nói, cho thấy tín hiệu đáng mừng về sự chuyển biến trong công tác này, song điều đó cũng chứng tỏ bấy lâu nay việc chi tiêu còn quá buông lỏng, nên thắt chặt lại các khoản chi tiêu là việc cần làm. Qua thanh tra tài chính, báo cáo quyết toán hàng năm đã phát hiện nhiều cơ quan đơn vị hành chính sự nghiệp, doanh nghiệp vi phạm các nguyên tắc quản lý hành chính. Một trong những vấn đề chi tiêu được coi là bức xúc và có thể nói là hết sức tốn kém hiện nay là: Chi tiêu đối với các lễ đón nhận huân huy chương, ngày thành lập ngành, hội thảo… Mỗi cuộc “đình đám” như vậy tốn không biết bao là tiền của, nào tiền thuê hội trường, tiền ăn uống, quà biếu… Vào dịp cuối năm này, người ta còn thấy các nhà hàng chật kín bởi các “thượng đế” hầu hết là các “cán bộ” chứ người dân thường thì lấy đâu ra “ngân quỹ” mà vui vẻ như vậy! Trong khi cuộc sống của những người dân “tự do” còn đang vất vả bươn chải từng ngày với những chi tiêu hạn hẹp thì việc tiết kiệm chống lãng phí trong “cơ chế chi bao cấp” là việc nhất thiết cần phải làm.

ASSIGNMENT 11: Translate the following texts into Vietnamese GAZA CITY -Israel and palestinians negotiated through the night in what US envoy Dennis Ross termed "a good evening of work" aimed at breaking an impasse over Israel's delayed pullout from the West Bank town of Hebron.

Ross left Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat's office early yesterday - three hours after he arrived - but negotiators stayed behind to corntinue talks.

"The meeting was positive (and) constructive," Arafat said. He added that he and Ross "solved some of the obstacles which were between me and him," apparently referring to his own suggestion last week that Ross was biased toward Israel.

Ross, who was to leave later yesterday, agreed that "We had a good set of discussions." Referring to the negotiations, he said : "This has been a good evening of work, but there are still issues to be overcome."


67 Inside Arafat's headquarters, the Palestinian team led by chief negotiator Saeb Erekat continued deliberations with Israel's delegation, led by Maj. Gen. Shaul Muhfaz and Yitzhak Molcho, a top advisor to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The talks began on Sunday afternoon in Jerusalem and moved to Gaza.

Israeli media speculated that if the meeting was successful, Ross might delay his departure and Netanyahu and Arafat might hold a summit either yesterday or today.

Israel was to have pulled out of Hebron - the last West Bank city under occupation in March, but delayed it after a series of terrorist attacks in Israel. Netanyahu, a hardliner elected in May, has delayed the pullout further, trying to tighten security for the 500 settlers who live in the town of 130,000 Arabs.

The Palestiians have refused to reopen the existing agreement, and also seek to link the Israeli redeployment to a further pullout elsewhere in the West Bank that was also promised in the signed autonomy accords.

In Hebron on Sunday, the army rounded up about 100 Palestinians after two fire bombs were thrown at a Jewish enclave without causing injuries. They were questioned and held at gunpoint for about an hour, but most were released. The army spokesman said several Palestinians were arrested.

A Palestinian walking past the Beit Hadassah enclave was hit and injured by a metal ladder that fell or was thrown from the roof, and he was taken to the city hospital. HCM CITY - The number of foreign tourists arriving in Viet Nam has been increasing year after year. On average, it grows by 30 per cent a year, according to recent statisties released from Viet Nam Tourism Administration. Though the number of tourists is on the rise, occupancy rates of hotels have dropped significantly as compared to previous years. Over the past six years, joint - venture hotels and guest houses operated at an average capacity rate of 85 to 90 per cent. They are now operating at a capacity rate of only 60 per cent. A rate which is much worse than that of state - owned hotels and private guest - houses. One of the main reasons for the decline in hotel capacity rates is the muchrooming of joint venture hotels which has caused severe competition among hotels for room - rates and hotel services. Several hotels have become burdens to their owners, with low gross earnings and high taxes, many are about to be forced to close down. Most foreign visitors have come here eager to experience something new and to travel to places of wild and natural beauty during their stay. For this reason, Viet Nam's tourist industry needs to reorganise its management and set goals in order to satisfy the current demands of tourists.


68 Though there has been growth in the number of tourists over the past several years, the number of visitors that come for a second visit is low. It is evident that the attraction of Viet Nam's tourist industry is still inadequate and tourist sites, transport and accommodation facilities have not yet reached international standards.The country now has some 22 provinces and cities which have completed detailed master plans for tourist resorts.

However, these projects are yet to be developed and are still under discussion. Even though each year the government has spent tens of billion of dongs on upgrading national historical relics and tourist resorts, due to a lack of management expertise and investment knowledge, these sites have failed to help boost the development of the tourist industry. To improve quality of tourist resorts and to boost hotel operations, Viet Nam's tourism industry now requires more investment from the government. Translate the following text into English Cµng ngµy cµng cã nhiÒu ng-êi ViÖt nam t×m c¸ch ®i häc n-íc ngoµi b»ng chi phÝ riªng cña m×nh. Tõ gi÷a n¨m 1992 dÕn th¸ng 5 n¨m nay, sè ng-êi tù bá tiÒn ra häc cßn Ýt, nh-ng hy väng sè l-îng sÏ t¨ng trong vßng 5 n¨m tíi v× nÒn kinh tÕ ViÖt Nam tèt h¬n vµ chÝnh phñ hîp lý hãa c¸c thñ tôc lµm cho viÖc häc tù tóc dÔ dµng h¬n. Nh-ng cuéc qu¶ng c¸o lín nhÊt nh»m thóc ®Èy nh÷ng ng-êi ViÖt Nam m¹nh d¹n ®Çu t- tiÒn b¹c cho b¶n th©n hoÆc con c¸i cña m×nh ®Ó ®-îc häc trong mét nÒn gi¸o duc ®¹t chuÈn quèc tÕ lµ nhê vµo viÖc më mét cuéc triÓn l·m ®Æc biÖt vÒ gi¸o dôc ë n-íc ngoµi tæ chøc t¹i thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh vµ Hµ Néi trong hai th¸ng võa qua. §-îc gäi lµ ‘‘ Educasia’’, cuéc triÓn l·m ®· ®Ò cao c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc, c¸c tr-êng h-íng nghiÖp vµ c¸c nhµ cung cÊp thiÕt bÞ tr-êng häc cña c¸c n-íc Anh, Ph¸p, óc, Hoa Kú vµ Thôy SÜ. Cuéc triÓn l·m ®Ò cËp ®Õn ch-¬ng tr×nh ®µo t¹o vµ nÒn gi¸o dôc mµ c¸c sinh viªn tù tóc ViÖt Nam ®ang t×m kiÕm vµ lêi gi¶i ®¸p cña nh÷ng c¬ së ®µo t¹o nµy ë n-íc ngoµi ®èi víi nh÷ng th¾c m¾c cña sinh viªn. C¸c khãa häc vÒ viÔn th«ng,x©y dùng b»ng c¬ giíi, ngµnh kh¸ch s¹n du lÞch vµ nÊu ¨n ®· ®-îc ®Æc biÖt ®Ò cao. Cho ®Õn b©y giê hÇu hÕt nh÷ng sinh viªn ViÖt nam ®· ®i ra n-íc ngoµi häc thªm theo häc bæng quèc tÕ hay cña mét chÝnh phñ n-íc ngoµi cÊp. H»ng n¨m ViÖt Nam göi ®i kho¶ng 77 sinh viªn vµ 100 chuyªn viªn bËc cao ra n-íc ngoµi th«ng qua nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh häc bæng ®-îc chÝnh thøc b¶o trî. PhÇn lín nh÷ng sinh viªn ®i häc tù tóc ®· ®i häc ë Nga, mét sè ®i c¸c n-íc §«ng ¢u vµ mét sè rÊt Ýt ®i häc ë Hµ Lan, BØ, Hoa Kú, §an M¹ch vµ Th¸i Lan. Nh-ng vµo th¸ng t- n¨m nay, c¸c suÊt häc bæng riªng dµnh cho c¸c sinh viªn n-íc ngoµi ë Nga vµ §«ng ¢u ®· t¹m ngõng. Hiªn


69 nay ®· cã nh÷ng ®iÒu kiÖn dµnh cho sinh viªn ViÖt Nam muèn häc ë n-íc ngoµi lµ ph¶i tèt nghiÖp phæ th«ng vµ ph¶i theo häc c¸c khãa häc ngo¹i ng÷ phï hîp vµ ph¶i cã kiÕn thøc vÒ vi tÝnh. Tuy nhiªn vÉn cßn thiÕu nh÷ng th«ng tin vÒ c¸c r¾c rèi mµ sinh viªn tù tóc ë n-íc ngoµi th-êng gÆp ph¶i, ®Æc biÖt lµ vÊn ®Ò vÒ thêi gian vµ tr×nh ®é mµ c¸c khãa häc ®ßi hái. §· cã nh÷ng l·ng phÝ vÒ thêi gian còng nh- tiÒn b¹c kh«ng thÓ tr¸nh khái.

ASSIGNMENT 12: Translate the following text into Vietnamese The United States is a country of immigrants. These immigrants come from all over the world. They speak many different languages. In the past, new immigrants had a hard time in American schools. They could not understand their school work in English, so they often became discouraged and dropped out of school. They were not able to get good jobs without a good education. Now, many schools in the United States have bilingual programs. ("Bi" means "two" and "lingual" means "language".) For example, a school with many Spanish-speaking students might have a bilingual program. The Spanish-speaking students study their subjects in both English and Spanish. A school with a large Chinese population might have an English Chinese bilingual program. Students in bilingual programs continue their general education and learn English at the same time. After a period of time, they can take all of their classes in English with English speaking students. Bilingual education is "controversial." This means some people like it, and other people do not like it. The people in favor of bilingual education say, "It helps students to understand their school work in history, mathematics, science, etc., at the same time, they are learning English." These people say bilingual education helps students succeed in school. They can get better jobs and be better citizens after graduation. The people against bilingual education say, "It's a waste of time and government money. English is the national language of the United States." Everyone living in the United States, they say, should learn to speak English as quickly as possible. They say, "Bilingual education is too expensive." In other words, the government spends too much money on bilingual education. They want to put the money for bilingual programs into English programs. In such programs, everyone will learn English a lot faster. At least, those against bilingual education think so. Translate the following text into English Ng-êi nghÌo th-êng cã nhiÒu con h¬n nh÷ng ng-êi thuéc giíi trung l-u vµ th-îng l-u. Vµ d©n ë c¸c n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn th× cã nhiÒu con h¬n d©n cña c¸c n-íc ph¸t triÓn. Ngµy cµng cã nhiÒu chuyªn gia vÒ d©n sè thÊy ®-îc mèi quan hÖ kh¨ng khÝt gi÷a sè con trong gia ®×nh vµ sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ.


70 T¹i mét vµi vïng, dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh cña chÝnh phñ cã lÏ kh«ng cã ®èi víi d©n nghÌo do ®iÒu kiÖn ®Þa lý. Ch¼ng h¹n nh- ng-êi d©n ë n«ng th«n sèng qu¸ xa trung t©m kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh. Do vËy hä kh«ng nhËn ®-îc th«ng tin vÒ c¸ch thøc h¹n chÕ sinh ®Î. Nh×n chung th× d©n thµnh thÞ cã nhiÒu th«ng tin h¬n d©n n«ng th«n. D©n ë thµnh thÞ ®-îc hæ trî dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh, vµ hä cã gia ®×nh Ýt con h¬n. V× thÕ chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng vÞ trÝ ®Þa lý n¬i mµ ng-êi d©n sèng ®ãng mét vai trß qan träng trong viÖc quyÕt dÞnh mät gia ®×nh nªn sinh bao nhiªu con: Gia ®×nh sèng ë thµnh thÞ th× cã Ýt con h¬n gia ®×nh sèng ë n«ng th«n. Nh÷ng lý do kh¸c lµ g×? Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ gia ®×nh, hay ë mét ph¹m vi lín h¬n lµ cña mét n-íc, lµ mét nh©n tè quan träng trong viÖc quyÕt ®Þnh sè con trong gia ®×nh. Ng-êi cã nhiÒu tiÒn th× cã Ýt con. Ng-îc l¹i, ng-êi nghÌo ë n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn muèn cã nhiÒu con. T¹i sao? Do hä ph¶i lÖ thuéc vµo sù ch¨m sãc cña con c¸i khi vÒ giµ. Hä kh«ng cã b¶o hiÓm, tiÒn h-u, hay sù gióp ®ì cña chÝnh phñ. Khi hä giµ c¶ th× ai sÏ gióp hä. C©u tr¶ lêi rÊt ®¬n gi¶n. Hä cã thÓ vµ sÏ quay sang nhê con c¸i gióp ®ì. Con c¸i cña hä b©y giê ®· trë thµnh ng-êi lín vµ ®ang ®i lµm viÖc. TÊt c¶ con c¸i cña hä ®Òu ph¶i chia sÏ vµ g¸nh v¸c tr¸ch nhiÖm ch¨m sãc cha mÑ. §èi vãi nhiÒu ng-êi nghÌo, mét gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ mét c¸ch thøc ®Ó ho¹ch ®Þnh cho t-¬ng lai. Chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ nguån b¶o hiÓm cho tuæi giµ.

ASSIGNMENT 13: Translate the following text into English C¸c nhµ xuÊt khÈu cã uy thÕ cña Trung Quèc ®ang chÜa tÇm ng¾m cña m×nh vµo ViÖt Nam, nhËn ra n-íc l¸ng giÒng ë ph-¬ng nam nh®· chÝn muåi cho mét kÕ ho¹ch qu¶ng c¸o trong viÖc mua s¾m hµng hãa tiªu dïng vµ m¸y mãc, c¸c nhµ qu¶n lý ®iÒu hµnh Trung Quèc ®· ph¸t biÕn nh- thÕ vµo h«m thø n¨m. C¸c nhµ qu¶n lý Trung Quèc ®· nãi trong buæi lÔ khai m¹c héi chî tæ chøc t¹i Hµ Néi : ‘‘ Nh-ng ViÖt Nam ®· cã mét kinh nghiÖm l©u dµi tr-íc khi nhËn ra hµng xuÊt khÈu cña m×nh vµo Trung Quèc t¨ng lªn khi mét vµi s¶n phÈm lµ cã thÓ x©m nhËp vµo thÞ tr-êng Trung quèc ®· më réng h¬n.’’ Kho¶ng 60 c«ng ty ë B¾c Kinh ®· tr-ng bµy nh÷ng mÆt hµng cña hä tõ ®å ch¬i b»ng nhùa rÎ tiÒn vµ c¸c ®å trang trÝ cho ®Õn


71 c¸c lo¹i xe cé t¹i héi chî ë Hµ Néi, mét héi chî ®Çu tiªn triÓn l·m c¸c mÆt hµng Trung Quèc kÓ tõ khi hai n-íc cã quan hÖ trë l¹i víi nhau. Jeep- B¾c Kinh, mét liªn doanh s¶n xuÊt « t« Trung-Mü, hi väng sÏ chen ch©n vµo thÞ tr-êng xe h¬i ®ang lín m¹nh t¹i ViÖt Nam, nh-ng ®ang ®èi mÆt víi mät sù c¹nh tranh kh¾c nghiÖt víi thÞ tr-êng xe h¬i NhËt B¶n ®· ‘‘ x©y phßng tuyÕn xung quanh’’ ë ®©y, «ng Guo Fengli, phã chñ tÞch c«ng ty XuÊt NhËp KhÈu ¤ t« B¾c Kinh ®· ph¸t biÓu nh- vËy. Theo lêi cña «ng Guo th× ‘‘ thÞ tr-êng ë ®©y ®ang më ra kh¸ nhanh cho c¸c s¶n phÈm cña chóng t«i, ®Æc biÖt lµ khi gi¸ c¶ cña chóng t«i thùc sù c¹nh tranh ®-îc víi c¸c ®èi thñ cña chóng t«i.’’ BAIEC ®ang mong muèn thiÕt lËp quan hÖ mËu dÞch víi ViÖt Nam nh-ng còng ®ang ph¶i ®èi ®Çu víi viÖc t×m kiÕm c¸c mÆt hµng thÝch hîp ®Ó buon b¸n, mÆc dï lµ «ng Guo nghÜ lµ cã thÓ t×m ra lêi gi¶i ®¸p cho mét vÊn ®Ò b×nh th-êng. C«ng ty Trung Quãc dù kiÕn trao ®æi xe h¬i lÊy l-¬ng thùc, vµ sè l-¬ng thùc nµy sÏ ®em b¸n ë Nam Trung Quèc. Tuy nhiªn hä vÉn thÝch trao ®æi nh÷ng mÆt hµng cã gi¸ trÞ cao h¬n. ‘‘ Chóng t«i kh«ng biÕt nhiÒu vÒ nh÷ng g× mµ ViÖt Nam mêi chµo.’’ «ng Guo ®· nãi ®Õn ®iÒu nµy, mét quan ®iÓm ®-îc c¸c nhµ doanh th-¬ng kh¸c nh¾c l¹i nhiÒu lÇn. Nh÷ng ng-êi n«n nãng b¸n hµng h¬n lµ mua hµng. ViÖc bu«n b¸n qua biªn giíi ®· t¨ng vät kÓ tõ ngµy hai n-íc më l¹i biªn giíi vµo n¨m 1991. Nãi mét c¸ch chÝnh thøc th×, viÖc bu«n b¸n hai chiÒu cã gi¸ trÞ kho¶ng 500 triÖu ®« la dï cho viÖc bu«n b¸n bÊt hîp ph¸p cã thÓ cao h¬n nhiÒu. Trung quèc ®-îc h-ëng mät gi¸ trÞ thÆng d- to lín. Trong chuyÕn viÕng th¨m Trung Quèc tuÇn tr-íc, Phã thñ t-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i kªu gäi hai bªn thay thÕ viÖc bu«n b¸n qua biªn giíi b»ng nh÷ng tháa hiÖp chÝnh thøc gi÷a c¸c c«ng ty th-¬ng m¹i vµ c¸c nhµ chÕ t¹o mµ c¸ch lµm nµy sÏ lµm t¨ng gi¸ cña c¸c s¶n phÈm ViÖt Nam. ViÖt Nam muèn ®Èy m¹nh h¬n n÷a viÖc xuÊt khÈu than vµ dÇu khÝ cho c¸c trung t©m s¶n xuÊt ®ang bïng ph¸t ë Nam Trung Quèc, n¬i xa nguån n¨ng l-îng cña Trung Quèc c¶ hµng ngµn c©y sè.


72 ¤ng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cßn nhÊn m¹nh thªm vÒ gi¸ g¹o vµ c¸c mÆt hµng thùc phÈm kh¸c vµ phÝa ViÖt Nam nhËp nhiÒu h¬n n÷a c¸c m¸y mãc chÕ t¹o vµ c¸c c«ng nghÖ kh¸c cña Trung Quèc.


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ASSIGNMENT 14: Translate the following text into English D©n sè cña A RËp Xa U §i lµ 8853000 ng-êi. §a sè lµ nh÷ng ng-êi A RËp Håi gi¸o. Hay nãi c¸ch kh¸c, hä lµ nh÷ng tÝn ®å Håi gi¸o. A RËp lµ mät quèc ®¹o. VÞ vua cña n-íc nµy võa lµ mét ng-êi l·nh ®¹o chÝnh trÞ võa lµ mét nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o cña ®Êt n-íc. D¹o luËt cña chÝnh phñ ®-a ra lµ luËt cña Håi gi¸o, vµ ng«n ng÷ cña n-íc nµy lµ tiÕng A RËp. §¹o Håi rÊt quan träng ®èi víi nÒn gi¸o dôc cña A RËp. Tr-íc n¨m 1950, hÇu nh- toµn bé nÒn gi¸o dôc cña A RËp lµ nÒn gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o. Häc sinh häc Kinh Koran, s¸ch kinh th¸nh cña d¹o Håi. Chóng ph¶i cè g¾ng nhí nh÷ng ®iÒu trong cuèn s¸ch nµy cµng nhiÒu cµng tèt. Tr-íc n¨m 1949, kh«ng cã bÊt kú mét tr-êng cao ®¼ng hay ®¹i häc nµo mµ chØ cã mét vµi tr-êng tiÓu häc vµ trung häc ë n-íc nµy. Vµo n¨m 1953, chÝnh phñ A RËp thµnh lËp Bé Gi¸o Dôc. §©y thùc sù lµ b-íc më ®Çu cho mét nÒn gi¸o dôc hiÖn ®¹i cho n-íc nµy. Khi nh÷ng kü s- ph¸t hiÖn ra dÇu ë A RËp th× ®Êt n-íc nµy trë nªn giµu cã. C¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña n-íc nµy b¾t ®Çu nhËn thÊy r»ng c«ng nghÖ Ph-¬ng T©y lµ cÇn thiÕt ®Ó gióp ®Êt n-íc ph¸t triÓn. C¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o vÉn tin r»ng nÒn gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o lµ rÊt quan träng, nh-ng mét n-íc hiÖn ®¹i kh«ng thÓ ph¸t triÓn c«ng nghÖ mµ chØ dùa vµo mét hÖ thèng gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o truyÒn thèng. Hä quyÕt ®Þnh bæ sung c¸c m«n häc kh¸c vµo hÖ thèng gi¸o dôc. Hä muèn kÕt hîp nÒn gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o truyÒn thèng víi nÒn gi¸o dôc c«ng nghÖ hiÖn ®¹i cña Ph-¬ng T©y. T«n gi¸o vÉn lµ mét yÕu tè quan träng trong nÒn gi¸o dôc cña A RËp. Tuy nhiªn hiÖn nay häc sinh, sinh viªn A RËp còng hocj tÊt c¶ c¸c m«n häc kh¸c nh- : ng«n ng÷ ( ®Æc biÖt lµ tiÕng Anh), lÞch sö, khoa häc, to¸n häc, vi tÝnh v.v.. Tr-íc n¨m 1950 chØ cã 20000 häc sinh, sinh viªn ë A RËp. N¨m 1982 con sè nµy lªn tíi 1780000. HÖ thèng gi¸o dôc cña A RËp ph¸t triÓn nhanh h¬n bÊt kú mét n-íc nµo trªn thÕ giíi. TÊt c¶ c¸c tr-êng häc ë a RËp lµ miÔn phÝ. ChÝnh phñ còng cho sinh viªn cao ®¼ng vµ ®¹i häc thªm tiÒn ®Ó nh»m ®éng viªn hä. Tuy nhiªn c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o kh«ng thÝch cho phô n÷ ®i häc. Hä cho r»ng phô n÷ cã häc cã thÓ g©y nh÷ng ¶nh h-ëng xÊu cho gia ®×nh vµ x· héi. Do vËy, ®Ó lµm cho c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o chÊp nhËn cho phñ n÷ ®i häc th× chÝnh phñ ph¶i dÆt viÖc gi¸o dôc phô n÷ theo c¸c t«n chØ cña c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o.


74 Phô n÷ theo häc c¸c tr-êng cao ®¼ng vµ ®Æc biÖt lµ theo häc ë c¸c khoa vÒ phô n÷ ë c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc dµnh riªng cho phô n÷. Gi¸o viªn ë ®©y lµ n÷. V× kh«ng cã ®ñ gi¸o viªn n÷ nªn chÝnh phñ cho phÐp gi¸o viªn nam gi¶ng d¹y phô n÷ A RËp th«ng qua ph-¬ng tiÖn truyÒn h×nh. Tr-íc hÕt, phô n÷ theo dâi c¸c bµi gi¶ng trªn v« tuyÕn vµ sau ®ã hä cã thÓ nãi chuyÖn víi thÇy gi¸o qua ®iÖn tho¹i ®Ó hái vÒ nh÷ng th¾c m¾c. ThÇy gi¸o vµ sinh viªn n÷ kh«ng ®-îc phÐp gÆp nhau. Sau khi tèt nghiÖp, phô n÷ A RËp cã nhiÒu c¬ héi xin viÖc gièng nh- nam giíi. Hä trë thµnh c¸c gi¸o viªn, b¸c sÜ, c¸c nhµ ho¹t ®éng x· héi, c¸c nhµ khoa häc vµ nhiÒu viÖc kh¸c n÷a. N¬i lµm viÖc hÇu nh- còng t¸ch rêi phô n÷ víi nam giíi. §iÒu ®ã cã nghÜa lµ phô n÷ vµ nam giíi kh«ng ®-îc phÐp lµm viÖc cïng mét chç chØ trõ ë bÖnh viÖn. Phñ n÷ A RËp muons cã nhiÒu c¬ héi t×m viÖc lµm h¬n. Nh-ng mét vµi phô n÷ kh«ng muèn cïng lµm viÖc víi nam giíi. Trong mét bµi b¸o gÇn ®©y d¨ng trong mét t¹p chÝ cã tªn gäi T¹p ChÝ Trung §«ng, mét vµi sinh viªn n÷ nãi r»ng hä thùc sù kh«ng muèn lµm viÖc cïng nam giíi.

ASSIGNMENT 15: Translate the following text into Vietnamese After getting high on the hopes of striking black gold off the shores of Vietnam, the world's oil giants have now glumly awoken to the hazards- - the immense coot of investment and, so far, the meagre rewards. The mood was subdued among foreign companies exhibiting their technological wares this week at the second International Oil and Gas Fair in Hanoi. "The results aren't bad, but they, are not as great as some had hoped, "said Melchior de Matharel, head of Southeast Asia operations with the French firm Total. If caution is now the watchword, disappointed foreign petroleum companies may draw comfort from the recent. "encouraging" discoveries of oil made by Mitsubishi Oil and the Malaysian firm Petronas Carigali, and of gas made by British Petroleum (BP), off the coast of southern Vietnam. "Oil exploration is plainly hazardous. But the good news is that the Vietnamese basin is oilbearing", Matharel said. Prospectors enthusiasm was abruptly dampened last May, when BHP Petroleum of Australia announced the reserves at the Dai Hung ("Great Bear") site, 375 kilometers (235 miles) southeast of Ho Chi Minh City, were far smaller than projected. BHP initially estimated the site to contain 700 million to 800 million barrels of oil, but has now downgraded it to 100 million to 200 million. Production is scheduled to begin neat month, at a modest level of 25,000 barrels per day. That was a tough -blow for BHP. It has already invested 240 million dollars in Vietnam- - and half of it went into the first phase of the Dai Hung project.


75 BHP headed an international consortium, selected in April 1993, to develop the field at a total cost estimated at 1.5 billion dollars. BHP holds 43.75 percent of the consortium, with Petronas holding 20 percent, and state - owned PetroVietnam 15 percent. The remaining 21.25-percent share is equally split between Total and the Japanese firm Sumitomo. For the moment, it is the Japanese- the main buyers of Vietnam's crude oil- who appear to have had the best luck. The Japan Vietnam Petroleum Co. (JVPC), a branch of the Mitsubishi Oil group, announced in June a "very promising" discovery at the Rang Dong (:Dawn) site. According to the results of an exploratory well, the field may be "of the same caliber" as neighbouring Bach Ho ("White Tiger") the only site now being commercially exploited in Vietnam. Bach Ho's reserves are estimated at a maximum of :300 million barrels.But et will take at least another year and other drillings to precisely determine the scope of the Japanese discovery, industry experts in Honoi cautioned. Pessimists say it will take four to five years in all to gauge Vietnam's oil potentially. Gas exploration and exploitation have also proven to be a risk business, although fortune has so far smiled on British Petroleum, which announced in September the discovery of two gas pockets, estimated to be 57 billion cubic metres (1,995 billion cubic feet), in Nam Con Son, south of Ho Chi Minh City. BHP and the Norwegian national company, Statoil, bought shares in the offshore concession, held by the Indian state firm Oil and Natural Gas Co. (ONGC), in 1992. The consortium, with ONGC holding 55 percent, BP 30 percent. and Statoil five percent, has conducted exploration and tests under a shared - production contract with PetroVietnam, which in turn has taken a five percent stake on the interests of each of the European partners. Translate the following text into English ViÖc háng hãc cña mét bé phËn tµu vò trô con thoi ®iÒu khiÓn b»ng ph¶n lùc vµo h«m thø t- buéc c¬ quan NA SA ph¶i ho·n mét cuéc kh¶o s¸t tr¸i ®Êt b»ng radar khi chuyÕn bay nghiªn cøu m«i sinh 10 ngµy cña tµu Endeavour bay qua mèc nöa phi tr×nh. C¬ quan Qu¶n TrÞ Hµng Kh«ng vµ Khong Gian Quèc Gia cho biÕt vÊn ®Ò nµy lµ mét tr¬ lùc ®èi víi phßng thÝ nghiÖm Radar trÞ gi¸ 384 triÖu ®«la, nh-ng kh«ng g©y ra mét nguy hiÓm nµo ®èi víi c¸c nhµ du hµnh vò trô. C¸c viªn chøc nãi r»ng bé phËn chïm ®iÖn tö kiÓm tra nhiªn liÖu bÞ hang, kh«ng ph¸t hiÖn ®-îc mét hÖ thèng rß ritrong bé phËn ddaayr bÞ nghi lµ nguyªn nh©n lµm ng-ng ho¹t ®éng n¨m bé phËn kh¸c gäi lµ vÐcnª (verniers) cÇn thiÕt ®Ó chØnh l¹i cho ®óng ®-êng ®i cña tµu con thoi trong quyx ®¹o vµ chØ dÉn chÝnh x¸c khÝ cô trong khoang hµng ®Õn môc tiªu trªn hµnh tinh. Kelly Humphries, ng-êi thuyÕt minh chuyÕn bay, vµo chiÒu h«m thø t- ®· gäi sù gi¸n ®o¹n mang tÝnh khoa häc nµy lµ ‘‘sù nghØ


76 t¹m thêi’’ trong lóc c¸c kÜ s- trªn mÆt ®Êt véi nghÜ ra mét c¸ch ®Ó c¸c m¸y tÝnh cña con thoi kh«ng ®Ó ý ®Õn bé phËn kiÓm tra nhiªn liÖu bÞ háng. Theo «ng Rich Jackson, Gi¸m ®èc ®iÒu khiÓn chuyÕn bay th× con tµu Endeavour víi 38 bé phËn ®Èy lín h¬n sÏ tiªu thô qu¸ nhiÒu nhiªn liÖu vµ lo¹i trõ ®iÒu mong ®îi con tµu sÏ lµm lan ra tai häa thiªn nhiªn quanh ®Þa cÇu. Vµo chiÒu h«m thø t-, tµu con thoi bay theo ph-¬ng thøc tù l¸i (hoa tiªu tù ®éng) vµ phi hµnh ®oµn ®· lµm viÖc theo hai ca suèt 24 giê liÒn kÓ tõ lóc cÊt c¸nh khái Florida vµo h«m thø s¸u, ®· h-ëng mät giê nghØ gi¶i lao bÊt ngê. ¤ng Jackson dù ®o¸n r»ng kho¶ng phÇn mÒm sÏ s½n sµng lµm viÖc vµo chiÒu thø ba, kho¶ng 24 giê sau khi trôc trÆc kü thuËt x¶y ra. Nãi víi c¸c phãng viªn t¹i tr¹m kiÓm so¸t chuyÕn bay t¹i Houston, «ng Jackson cho biÕt: ‘‘ Bé phËn chÊt hµng vµ nhãm kiÓm so¸t chuyÕn bay ®ang lµ viÖc rÊt tÝch cùc ®Ó phôc håi viÖc kiÓm so¸t c¸c vecnª vµ gi¶m thiÓu ¶nh h-ëng trong thêi gian cã sù cè.’’ C¸c nhµ khoa häc nãi r»ng sù trôc trÆc nµy kh«ng lµm h- háng c¸c h×nh ¶nh, nh-ng sÏ ph¶i mÊt mét thêi gian l©u ®Õn gÊp 5 lÇn ®Ó xö lý c¸c d÷ liÖu ra ®a vµ m¸y tÝnh cña chóng.


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ASSIGNMENT 16: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Britain is divided into 651 constituencies and people in each constituency select one person to represent them in the House of Commons. The simple majority system of voting is used in parliamentary elections in Britain and voting is by secret ballot. There are moves to have this changed to a preferential system. Voting is voluntary. All British people who are 18 years of age or over and not legally barred from voting can vote. Members of the Royal Family peers and peeresses who are members of the House of Lords and foreign nationals are not allowed to vote. People who are disqualified include those who are kept in hospital for mental health reasons people serving prison sentences and people convicted within the previous five years of corruption. Candidates Anyone aged 21 or over holding British citizenship, or a citizen of another commonwealth country or the Irish Republic, who is qualified. May stand for election to Parliament. People who are not qualified are members of the House of Lords, elegy of the Church of England, Church of Ireland, Church of Scotland and the Roman Catholic Church. Neither are bankrupts, public servants and officials and those who have been sentenced to more than one year‟s imprisonment. Candidates in a constituency have to pay a sum of money, about £1,000, as a deposit and if they get at least 5% of the votes they will get the money back. General Elections In theory, the election for or seats in the House of Commons takes place every five years. But, elections are usually held before the end of the five-year term. The Prime Minister has the right to decide when to hold a general election. Then the queen formally dissolves parliament and calls for the election of the new one. Britain is divided into areas called constituencies of roughly equal population. General elections often happen on a Thursday and people still go to word as usual. Therefore, the hours of voting are flexible, from 07:00 to 22:00; to give voters are given a ballot paper with the names of the candidates for that constituency, usually in alphabetical order, and sometimes with a brief description of the candidates‟ backgrounds or their parties. After that, spoiled ballots are eliminated. The legal ballot papers are counted and the candidate with the most support is the winner and becomes the Member of Parliament for the constituency. The Campaign Three weeks before a general election is the time for the campaign. The campaign takes place in every constituency all over Britain. Candidates resort to different means to attract their supporters. Canvassing Canvassing means local party workers go from door to door and ask people how they intend to vote. In this way, candidates can know people‟s voting intentions and attitudes so that they can adapt their campaign tactics. Party workers also revisit those who have promised to support their party and urge them to do so on polling day.


78 Public meetings Candidates have the right to hold public meetings whenever and wherever available during an election campaign. They invite guests including influential members of their parties, and wellknow people such as writers, actors and actresses, who support them, to the meetings and try to influence voters. Such meetings are often covered in detail by the media. The mass media Because newspapers and magazines in Britain are privately owned and financially independent of the political parties, the owners and the editors can decide to support any party they like, but radio and television are required to be impartial. News programmes cover all aspects of the major parties‟ campaigns. On these occasions, candidates appear on television and radio day and night. They are televised in factories, school, youth centers, and the farms, giving speeches about their party policies. Talkback radio allows people to pose questions to political leaders, and reports and commentaries from journalists holding interviews with leading figures from all the parties are broadcast. Manifestos The main parties publish manifestos during the election campaign. Manifesto are often launched by each party at a press conference and inform people of their policies and what they will do if they win the election. Manifestos might include the past achievements of the party and can attack the policies of the their opponents.

ASSIGNMENT 17: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Ha Noi- Ha Noi is trying to nearly double its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to US$1,100 per capita over the next five years. The ambitious projection has been based on the current annual GDP growth rate of 11.9 per cent. Participants at yesterday‟s Ha Noi Communist Party Conference were told if the current growth rate continues as expected, it should reach 15 per cent by the turn of the century. This should translate into a doubling of the GDP. The conference was also told the traditional rural and small industry base of the capital city‟s economy had rapidly been replaced by industrial endeavor and the trading and services industries, and that about 19 per cent of Hanoi families could now be classified as well-off. Last year‟s average GDP was estimated at $650 per capita compared with $470 in 1991. The sharp rise was due to massive investments from both foreign and domestic sources estimated as VND32, 570 (about $3.257 billion), according to a senior Ha Noi party official. Deputy Secretary of the Ha Noi Party Committee Le Xuan Tung told participants at the conference yesterday that part of the investment was spent on transfer of new technology and renovating equipment in existing industrial plants. The major part of the investment, however, was for setting up new joint ventures with foreign partners. By the end of 1995, up to 210 foreign investment projects had been licensed to operate in Ha Noi involving $3.3billion of prescribed capital. Of this amount $1.3billion has been consumed, Tung said.


79 This has helped Ha Noi along its chosen path to restructure its economic base towards industries and services rather than rely on its traditional agricultural and small industry underpinning. The proportion of industries and that of trade and services in Ha Noi GDP in the 1991-1995 period rose sharply to 33.1 per cent and 61.6 per cent respectively. Meanwhile the agricultural share fell to just 5.3 per cent of the total GDP share, Tung said. Tung said the change in the economic face of Hanoi was because of the sharp increase in the annual growth rate for the past five years. He said that a growth rate of 11.9 per cent was ensured year after year, which is almost double the figure set for the same period by the Ha Noi Party Committee back in 1991. Tung told participants that by the year 2000 the growth rate would reach 15 per cent per year and GDP per capita would be estimated at $1,100. By that stage the industrial share in Ha Noi GDP should reach 40 per cent, up seven per cent on the current rate. Five industries have been targeted as the key industries for the city, Tung said. They include mechanical engineering and electrical equipment production; textiles, garments and leather goods; the food processing industry electronics; and construction materials. In the next five years Ha Noi would need up to $9 billion in investment to develop new industrial zones, renovate existing industrial zones and build more high rise buildings in the inner city for office space, trade centers and entertainment centers. Hanoi has about 10 established and five new industrial zones. Many of the existing industrial areas need intensive-investment to replace old technology, and expand their premises for more plants. However the deputy party secretary for Hanoi reminded participants to the conference that more effort was needed to keep development in line with what he termed as a socialistoriented market economy. Ha Noi authorities had “failed to pay due attention to the consolidation of socialist production relationships” while the administration at all levels remained weak and “the role of the Party in different economic and social organizations remained limited,” he said. Tung‟s comments were supported by Party General Secretary Do Muoi, who also addressed the conference. The party leader told the Ha Noi conference that despite its initial success, Ha Noi should be more aware of economic development and human resource development. About six per cent of Hanoi‟s population remained unemployed which, Do Muoi said, was a challenge Ha Noi had to tackle. Part of the solution was to set up production groups, which could be engaged in small industries and the services industry. Deputy Secretary Tung said that in the 1991-1995 period the number of well-to-do families increased to nearly 19 per cent while those families classified as financially needy dropped to about two per cent.


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ASSIGNMENT 18: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Gardening is a traditional occupation in Vietnam and appeared at the same time or earlier than water rice cultivation. But VAC (abbreviation for “vuon” (garden), “ao” (pond for keeping fish) and “chuong” (husbandary) is an economic model that was introduced only 10 years ago. Foreigners who have come to Vietnam to learn about VAC in Vietnam say it is not very efficient in production scale and performance, but is a uniform cultivation model bringing both economic benefit and environmental advantages. From its first days of operation VAC has continually cemented its role in the national economic development. VAC now operates in 53 provinces, with over 10 million farmer households using the model. In recent years, VAC has been expanded in most localities throughout the country. Tens of thousands of hectares (on average) farms were set up in 13 midland and mountainous provinces) and -orchards were expanded to 350000-400,000 ha. This application of VAC became the main fruit suppliers for the country, simultaneously meeting export demand. According to the FAO, Vietnam's fruit output is at nearly four million tones per year, world's fruit output per capital at 65 kg, Asia Pacific 31 kg and Vietnam 61 kg. VAC has now become significant for the country's poverty alleviation and hunger eradication campaign providing on - the - spot jobs, prevention of malnutrition, permanent agriculture and settlement and for plantations for bare hills and barren land. Living standards of VAC households have improved greatly with revenue from VAC operations usually providing 60% of household's total income. VAC output value accounts for one of third of agricultural output value and will probably in-crease further. VAC has made rapid growth in the last 10 years, but has not penetrated all rural areas. If intensive cultivation and crop specialization was carried out through out the country, Vietnam's fruit output could reach 8 million tones per year in the 21st century. VAC should be considered as a national agricultural programme. If VAC is encouraged to reach its full potential, it will certainty obtain further effective growth contributing to the national economy and the environmental protection.


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ASSIGNMENT 19: Translate the following text into English H«m thø Hai võa råi, c¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu cho r»ng hä ®· cã b»ng chøng ®Ó kÕt luËn r»ng ph-¬ng ph¸p ®iÒu trÞ thùc nghiÖm b»ng c¸ch truyÒn huyÕt t-¬ng lµm cho bÖnh ph¸t triÓn chËm lai cho bÖnh nh©n nhiÔm HIV d-¬ng tÝnh vµ kÐo dµi thªm thêi gian sèng cho c¸c bÖnh nh©n AIDS. Tuy nhiªn, «ng Abraham ë khoa huyÕt häc cña §H Cambridge, nãi r»ng mÆc dï c¸ch ch÷a bÖnh miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng lµ sù ®ét ph¸ trong viÖc ®iÒu trÞ bÖnh AID S vµ kh«ng g©y ph¶n øng phô nµo, th× còng kh«ng nªn m« t¶ nã nh- mét ph-¬ng ph¸p ch÷a trÞ. Trong phÇn tr×nh bµy cña m×nh t¹i mét héi nghÞ ë Lu©n §«n «ng nãi:’’Døt kho¸t ®ã kh«ng ph¶i lµ mét ph-¬ng ph¸p ch÷a trÞ. Ch¼ng thÊy g× lµ ch÷a trÞ c¶, nh-ng h×nh nh- nã lµ h×nh thøc ch÷a trÞ tèt nhÊt.’’ ¤ng Karpasnãi viÖc nghiªn cøu cña Ph¸p vµ Mü vÒ c¸ch ch÷a bÖnh miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng ®-îc th«ng b¸o t¹i héi nghÞ ®· lµm cho nghiªn cøu ban ®Çu cña «ng v÷ng ch¾c h¬n. ¤ng tuyªn bè trong mét cuéc pháng vÊn qua ®iÖn tho¹i r»ng:’’ ViÖc nghiªn cwuws cã tÝnh chÊt mß mÉm vµ h¹n chÕ b»ng thuèc trÊn an chøng tá r»ng viÖc ch÷a trÞ nµy cã lîi cho bÖnh nh©n m¾c bÖnh AID S vµ kÐo dµi thªm thêi gian sèng cña hä.’’ ¤ng nãi r»ng nh÷ng nghiªn cøu do c«ng ty Hemacare ë Califonia vµ hai bÑnh viÖn ë Pa ri tiÕn hµnh còng cho they r»ng c¸ch ch÷a trÞ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng gióp lµm chem. L¹i sù tÊn c«ng d÷ déi cuarv bÖnh AIDS ë c¸c bÖnh nh©n khi xÐt nghiÖm they cã HIV d-¬ng tÝnh, lo¹i vi rót g©y ra bÖnh chÕt ng-êi nµy.’’ Qua c¸ch ch÷a trÞ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng, hµng th¸ng c¸c bÖnh nh©n ®-îc truyÒn nöa lÝt huyÕt t-¬ng lÊy tõ ng-êi kháe m¹nh cã nhiÔm HIV d-¬ng tÝnh. M¸u ®-îc lÊy hÕt c¸c hång cÇu vµ b¹ch hang cÇu vµ kh«ng cã vi rót HIV, nh-ng cã scws ®Ò kh¸ng trung hßa cao diÖt ®-îc vi rót. ¤ng Karpras nãi lµ lÇn ®Çu tiªn vµo n¨m 1985 «ng ®· ph¸t hiÖn nh÷ng ng-êi kháe m¹nh nh-ng bÞ nhiÔm HIV cã søc ®Ò kh¸ng nµy ë møc cao trong m¸u trong khi c¸c bÖnh nh©n AID S mÊt c¸c kh¸ng thÓ trung hßa nµy cã kh¶ n¨ng chèng l¹i bÖnh truyÒn nhiÔm. Bèn bÖnh nh©n ë Cambridge lµ nh÷ng ng-êi ®Çu tiªn ®-îc ch÷a trÞ theo c¸ch nµy vµ sau ®ã c¸c thö nghiÖm trªn qui m« nhá ®-îc


82 tiÕn hµnh ë Lu©n §«n vµo n¨m 1988 vµ 1989. Tuy nhiªn «ng Karpras nãi r»ng «ng kh«ng nhËn ®-îc quyx dµnh cho c¸c nghiªn cøu nµy ë n-íc Anh do ®ã viÖc nghiªn cøu ph¶i ®-îc tiÕn hµnh ë Mü vµ Ph¸p. Thö nghiÖm cña Hemancare nghiªn cøu tÝnh hiÖu qu¶ cña c¸ch ch÷a trÞ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng ®-îc tiÕn hµnh trªn 220 bÖnh nh©n AIDS h¬n 3 n¨m. Trong 12 th¸ng ®Çu cuéc thùc nghiÖm cho they møc tö vong gi¶m rÊt nhiÒu trong khi bÖnh nh©n ®-îc truyÒn huyÕt t-¬ng, trong khi bÖnh nh©n trong nhãm kiÒm chÕ b»ng thuèc trÊn an kh«ng ®-îc ch÷a trÞ th× tû lÖ tö vong cao gÊp 5 lÇn. Nhãm ®-îc ®iÒu trÞ cã 1 ng-êi bÞ chÕt trong sè 21 ng-êi, trong nhãm ng-êi ®-îc ®iÒu trÞ b»ng thuèc trÊn an th× cã 6 trong tæng sè 30 bÞ tö vong. H¬n n÷a, sè bÖnh l©y nhiÔm do bÖnh AID S g©y ra thÊp h¬n nhiÒu trong nhãm ®-îc ®iÒu trÞ vµ chÝnh b¶n th©n nh÷ng ng-êi hiÕn m¸u h×nh nh- hä còng they cã lîi. C¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu cho r»ng viÖc hiÕn m¸u cã vÎ nh- kÝch thÝch viÖc s¶n sinh c¸c kh¸ng thÓ trung hßa trong m¸u cña c¸c bÖnh nh©n nhiÔm HIV d-¬ng tÝnh. ¤ng Karpras nãi r»ng c¸c nghiªn cøu cña Ph¸p nh÷ng kÕt qu¶ t-¬ng tù. ¤ng nãi lµ c¸c nghiªn cøu Mü vµ Ph¸p cho b»ng chøng kÕt luËn ®Çu tiªn lµ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng lµ mét ph-¬ng ph¸p ®iÌu trÞ hiÖu.’’

còng tiªu c¸ch bÖnh

®em biÓu ch÷a AIDS

l¹i cña trÞ h÷u

ASSIGNMENT 20: Translate the following text into English H«m kh¸c, bµ l¹i kÓ vÒ mét gi¸o sÜ bµ biÕt. Vµo mét ®ªm, «ng ta ®· thøc giÊc vµ thÊy mét ng-êi l¹ mÆt ®ang dùa vµo cuèi gi-êng «ng. Mét chót lo sî, vÞ gi¸o sÜ ®· b×nh tÜnh hái xem ng-êi ®ã muèn g×. ‘‘Th-a, con muèn x-ng téi‘‘, víi mét giäng khµn khµn, ng-êi ®µn «ng ®¸p. VÞ gi¸o sÜ b¶o ng-êi ®ã r»ng h·y ®îi ®Õn s¸ng mai v× lóc nµy kh«ng tiÖn ®Ó x-ng téi. Ng-êi ®µn «ng l¹i th-a: ‘‘LÇn tr-íc con ®· ®Õn x-ng téi, nh-ng v× xÊu hæ, con ®· kh«ng nh¾c ®Õn mét téi lçi con ®· g©y ra, vµ ®iÒu nµy ®· lu«n ¸m ¶nh trong t©m trÝ con cho ®Õn giê. ‘‘ VÞ gi¸o sÜ biÕt ®©y lµ mét tr-êng hîp rÊt tåi tÖ. Ng-êi ®µn «ng ®ã ®· thiÕu thµnh thËt khi x-ng téi vµ cã lÏ «ng ta sÏ ph¶i nhËn l·nh téi chÕt.VÞ gi¸o sÜ choµng dËy vµ chuÈn bÞ ¸o quÇn. §Õn lóc tiÕng gµ b¾t ®Çu g¸y ngoµi s©n, «ng nh×n quanh nh-ng kh«ng thÊy ng-êi


83 ®©u c¶, chØ ngöi thÊy mïi gç ch¸y. ¤ng nh×n l¹i gi-êng nh-ng còng kh«ng thÊy dÊu ®«i bµn tay ®ang bÞ ch¸y. LÝ do lµ v× ng-êi ®µn «ng ®ã ®· thiÕu ch©n thµnh lóc x-ng téi. C©u chuyªn ®· ®Ó l¹i trong t«i mét nçi kinh hoµng. §iÒu tåi tÖ nhÊt lµ lóc bµ Ryan bµy cho chóng t«i c¸ch ®Ó ph¸n xÐt l-¬ng t©m. Chóng ta kªu tªn §øc Chóa Trêi cã v« cí kh«ng? Chóng ta cã ph¶i th¶o kÝnh víi cha mÑ kh«ng? (T«i ®· hái bµ ta lµ cã ph¶i kÝnh träng «ng bµ kh«ng vµ bµ b¶o lµ cã!) Cã yªu th-¬ng hµng xãm nh- chÝnh cho b¶n th©n m×nh kh«ng? (T«i l¹i nghÜ ®Õn sè tiÒn mµ Nora cã ®-îc vµo thø s¸u hµng tuÇn.) TÝnh l¹i th× t«i còng ®· vi ph¹m 10 ®iÒu r¨n, tÊt c¶ chØ v× bµ néi t«i. Vµ ®Õn b©y giê t«i cã thÓ nhËn ra r»ng chõng nµo néi t«i cßn ë trong nhµ t«i, chõng ®ã t«i vÉn cßn tiÕp tôc ph¹m téi. T«i sî x-ng téi ®Õn mÊt hån vÝa. Ngµy c¶ líp ®i, t«i gi¶ vê ®au r¨ng, hy väng sù v¾ng mÆt cña t«i sÏ kh«ng g©y sù chó ý. Nh-ng vµo lóc 3 giê, khi t«i ®ang c¶m thÊy yªn æn th× mét anh chµng ch¹y dÕn, cïng víi lêi nh¾n cña bµ Ryan b¶o r»ng t«i ph¶i x-ng téi vµo ngµy thø b¶y t¹ nhµ nguyÖn cïng ví nh÷ng ng-êi cßn l¹i. Tåi tÖ h¬n n÷a, mÑ t«i kh«ng ®i cïng t«i mµ l¹i lµ Nora. Giê ®©y, Nora n¾m buån b·. ®Õn bÖnh

Nora ®· cã c¸ch lµm t«i ®au ®ín mÇ mÑ kh«ng hÒ biÕt. lÊy tay t«i khi chóng t«i xuèng ch©n ®åi, mØm c-êi ChÞ Êy tá vÎ th-¬ng h¹i t«i nh- thÓ chÞ ®ang ®-a t«i viÖn cho mét ca mæ.

‘‘¤i Chóa ¬i! Xin h·y gióp chóng con! ‘‘ Nora rªn rØ. ‘‘Mµ còng ch¼ng cã g× ®¸ng tiÕc v× em ®©u ph¶i lµ mét ®øa bÐ ngoan ph¶i kh«ng Jackie? ¤i, Jackie, tim chÞ ®ang nhãi ®au v× em ®©y! Em sÏ nghØ nh- thÕ nµo vÒ téi lçi cña m×nh nhØ? Nµy, ®õng quªn x-ng c¸i téi em ®· ph¹m víi bµ ®Êy nhÐ! ‘‘ ‘‘§Ó em ®i! ‘‘, võa nãi t«i cè giËt tay m×nh ra khái tay Nora. ‘‘Em kh«ng muèn ®i x-ng téi ®©u‘‘ ‘‘Sao l¹i kh«ng, em ph¶i ®i Jackie ¹!‘‘ Nora còng ®¸p l¹i víi giäng ®iÖu ®µy vÎ th-¬ng h¹i ®ã. ‘‘Em ph¶i ®i, nÕu kh«ng cha xø sÏ ®Õn nhµ t×m em ®Êy. Cã Chóa míi biÕt, chÞ kh«ng c¶m thÊy téi cho em chót nµo c¶. Em cã nhí c¸i lÇn em ®· cè giÕt chÞ b»ng con dao c¾t b¸nh m× kh«ng? Vµ c¶ nh÷ng lêi lÏ em ®· nãi n÷a? ChÞ kh«ng biÕt råi Cha sÏ lµm g× víi em. Cã thÓ Cha sÏ göi em cho ®øc Gi¸m Môc. ‘‘


84 M·i tËn b©y giê t«i vÉn cßn nhí lµ t«i ®· suy nghÜ mét c¸ch cay ®¾ng ®Õn thÕ nµo. T«i nghÜ nÕu t«i cã ®i x-ng téi th× chÞ Êy sÏ kh«ng biÕt ®Õn mét nöa nh÷ng g× t«i sÏ ph¶i nãi vµ lóc Êy t«i bçng hiÓu t¹i sao c¸i anh chµng trong c©u chuyÖn cña bµ Ryan ®· x-ng téi mét c¸ch kh«ng thµnh thËt. D-êng nhuwtooi còng c¶m th¸y rÊt xÊu hæ v× mäi ng-êi ®· kh«ng ngõng chª tr¸ch anh chµng ¸y. T«i vÉn cßn nhí nh- in c¸i ®åi cã con dèc dÉn xuèng nhµ thê. T«i cßn nhí c¶ nh÷ng ¸nh tµ d-¬ng tr¶i dµi hai bªn ngän ®åi n»m xa xa c¸i thung lòng bªn bê s«ng. Trong c¶nh t-îng Êy, khi quay nh×n l¹i nh÷ng kho¶ng kh«ng cña nh÷ng ng«i nhµ n»m c¸ch nhau, t«i bæng liªn t-ëng ®Õn c¸i nh×n cuèi cïng cña Adam vÒ v-ên ®Þa ®µng. Khi Nora ®· kÐo t«i xuèng hÕt nh÷ng bËc tam cÊp ®Õn s©n nhµ thê, chÞ Êy bçng ®æi giäng. Nora trë nªn hung d÷ vµ ®éc ¸c nhchÝnh con ng-êi thËt cña chÞ Êy. ‘‘§Õn råi ®ã’’ Nora cÊt cao giäng rÊt tù m·n råi quay manh ng-êi ®i nhanh vµo cöa nhµ thê. Khi s¾p b-íc ®i, chÞ kh«ng quªn nÐm mét c©u n÷a: ‘‘Vµ tau hi väng Cha sÏ cho mµy ®äc thËt nhiÒu kinh hèi lçi. §óng lµ ®å h®èn. ‘‘ Råi th× t«i biÕt m×nh ®· bÞ l¹c lâng thËt sù. T«i ®ang ®øng tr-íc ‘‘Tßa ph¸n xÐt‘‘. Khi t«i b-íc vµo, c¸ch cöa víi nh÷ng « kÝnh ®Çy mµu s¾c bçng ®ãng sÇm sau l-ng t«i. ¸nh mÆt trêi vôt t¾t ®Ó nh-êng chç cho bãng tèi th¼m s©u. Giã cø xµo x¹c bªn ngoµi lµm cho sù im lÆng bªn trong d-êng nh- vì ra l¹nh gi¸ d-íi ch©n t«i. Nora ngåi ®ã, ®èi diÖn víi cËu bÐ Jackie, bªn c¹ch tßa x-ng téi. Tr-íc Nora cã thªm hai cô giµ n÷a. Råi bçng nhiªn, mét bãng ®en tr«ng rÊt th¶m h¹i ®ang di ®Õn ®øng sau l-ng t«i cø nh- thÓ kÑp t«i vµo gi÷a ®Ó t«i kh«ng thÓ nµo tho¸t ®-îc dÉu t«i cã can ®¶m ®Õn ®©u. C¸i bãng ®en míi ®Õn - mét ng-êi ®µn «ng- ®øng ®ã, vßng tay l¹i, m¾t dâi lªn cao cÇu nguyÖn víi mét giäng rÊt ®çi thèng hèi. Lóc Êy t«i tù hái m×nh liÖu «ng Êy cã ph¶i lµ ng-êi còng gièng néi t«i kh«ng. Bëi v× chØ cã bµ míi khiÕn cho mét chµng trai ph¶i c- xö mét c¸ch th¶m th-¬ng nh- vËy. Nh-ng dï sao, anh Êy vÉn tèt h¬n t«i. Ýt ra anh ta ®· ®Õn ®©y ®Ó x-ng téi. Cßn t«i, cã thÓ t«i sÏ kh«ng x-ng téi mét c¸ch thµnh thËt, råi t«i sÏ bÞ chÕt ®i trong bãng ®ªm vµ liªn tôc trë vÒ ®Ó ph¸ ph¸ch ®å ®¹c.


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ASSIGNMENT 21: Translate the following texts into Vietnamese 1. Generally, after a time of stagnation, HCMC' s private textile embroidery industry has recovered and develop somewhat since 1991. Yet development is not stable because most private units work according to foreign orders. Consequently, they can't control their production plan, and labour price for making garments is limited by foreign partners (the labour cost of 1995 is equal to 65 - 70% of that in 1991 - 1992). Due to the very nature of the industry, the average wage of those working in this branch is only about VND 400,000 per month. Under the current fierce competition, the amount of 15% of total wages for social insurance and 2% for medical insurance that enterprises must contribute, if the proposed social insurance scheme comes into effect, will push up production costs to very high levels, making it difficult for Vietnamese ventures to compete effectively and occupy the market. To help private textile embroidery businesses survive, Mr. Nam has suggested, the State should amend the contribution rate of non - State ventures to Social Insurance schemes, as follows: - Social Insurance: 10% by enterprise, 3% by employee. - Medical Insurance: 1 % by enterprises, 1 % by employee The State should also issue a regulation concerning employees who are trained and recruited by an enterprise, and are obligated to work for at least two years. It is necessary that employees working at non-- State ventures should be given a work card. Employer agreement may be required if an employee want to leave his or her job. All members of HCMC's Textile - Embroidery Association agree on the implementation of contributing a part of total wages to Social and Medical Insurance, in compliance with the Labour Code. 2. Business leaders of big companies in HCMC have voiced difficulties they are facing with in the fierce competition against foreign companies, especially world giants. At a meeting on "How to encourage foreign investment and protect domestic production" held in HCMC last week, producers of Tico and Lux Detergent, P/S Cosmetics, Tribeco Soft Drink, Viet Thang Textiles, Saigon Beer and HCMC Poultry Company, had the same opinion that local enterprises are not in an equal footing in competing with foreign counterparts as they do not enjoy tax incentives as foreign-invested enterprises. Only a year after the US embargo was lifted, soft drink giants such as Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola, which have enjoyed superior advantages in capital, marketing policies and preferences under the Foreign Investment Law, have gradually eaten into the market shares of local producers. Other products are also in the same situation. Saigon Beer has to compete fiercely with breweries of foreign Joint-ventures. Local detergent producers, although capable of meeting domestic demand to the year 2000, have driven into the corner by giants such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever. To protect domestic production, local producers have proposed several measures to the Government. First, the State should devise specific development plans for foreign investment in terms of business field and geographical area and should not encourage foreign investment in products, which local enterprises can produce such as soft drink, detergent, paper and


86 cigarettes. Second, licenses should be granted only to JVs or 100% foreign-owned enterprises, which involve in projects requiring large capital, advanced technology or producing goods for export. Third, a law should be enacted against unfair competition that can lead to monopoly, dumping or price inflation that does not benefit consumers. Fourth, there should be a policy to encourage domestic investment and to grant domestic enterprises the same tax incentives as foreign investors enjoy. Fifth, a campaign to motivate local consumers to use domestic goods should be launched, creating conditions for domestic enterprises to develop.

ASSIGNMENT 22: Translate the following text into English Ng-êi nghÌo th-êng cã nhiÒu con h¬n nh÷ng ng-êi thuéc giíi trung l-u vµ th-îng l-u. Vµ d©n ë c¸c n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn th× cã nhiÒu con h¬n d©n cña c¸c n-íc ph¸t triÓn. Ngµy cµng cã nhiÒu chuyªn gia vÒ d©n sè thÊy ®-îc mèi quan hÖ kh¨ng khÝt gi÷a sè con trong gia ®×nh vµ sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ. T¹i mét vµi vïng, dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh cña chÝnh phñ cã lÏ kh«ng cã ®èi víi d©n nghÌo do ®iÒu kiÖn ®Þa lý. Ch¼ng h¹n nh- ng-êi d©n ë n«ng th«n sèng qu¸ xa trung t©m kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh. Do vËy hä kh«ng nhËn ®-îc th«ng tin vÒ c¸ch thøc h¹n chÕ sinh ®Î. Nh×n chung th× d©n thµnh thÞ cã nhiÒu th«ng tin h¬n d©n n«ng th«n. D©n ë thµnh thÞ ®-îc hæ trî dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh, vµ hä cã gia ®×nh Ýt con h¬n. V× thÕ chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng vÞ trÝ ®Þa lý n¬i mµ ng-êi d©n sèng ®ãng mét vai trß qan träng trong viÖc quyÕt dÞnh mät gia ®×nh nªn sinh bao nhiªu con: Gia ®×nh sèng ë thµnh thÞ th× cã Ýt con h¬n gia ®×nh sèng ë n«ng th«n. Nh÷ng lý do kh¸c lµ g×? Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ gia ®×nh, hay ë mét ph¹m vi lín h¬n lµ cña mét n-íc, lµ mét nh©n tè quan träng trong viÖc quyÕt ®Þnh sè con trong gia ®×nh. Ng-êi cã nhiÒu tiÒn th× cã Ýt con. Ng-îc l¹i, ng-êi nghÌo ë n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn muèn cã nhiÒu con. T¹i sao? Do hä ph¶i lÖ thuéc vµo sù ch¨m sãc cña con c¸i khi vÒ giµ. Hä kh«ng cã b¶o hiÓm, tiÒn h-u, hay sù gióp ®ì cña chÝnh phñ. Khi hä giµ c¶ th× ai sÏ gióp hä. C©u tr¶ lêi rÊt ®¬n gi¶n. Hä cã thÓ vµ sÏ quay sang nhê con c¸i gióp ®ì. Con c¸i cña hä b©y giê ®· trë thµnh ng-êi lín vµ ®ang ®i lµm viÖc. TÊt c¶ con c¸i cña hä ®Òu ph¶i chia sÏ vµ g¸nh v¸c tr¸ch nhiÖm ch¨m sãc cha mÑ. §èi vãi nhiÒu ng-êi nghÌo, mét gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ mét c¸ch thøc ®Ó ho¹ch ®Þnh cho t-¬ng lai. Chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ nguån b¶o hiÓm cho tuæi giµ.


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ASSIGNMENT 23: Translate the following text into Vietnamese “Indonesia will face a record food deficit this year as a result of lower harvests and a financial crisis that has raised the cost of imports”, two UN food agencies said yesterday. In a joint report, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the world Food programme (WFP) said large - scale international assistance would be needed to meet a short fall in rice, the country's main staple food. " FA0 - WFP urge donor countries to assist Indonesia in managing its drought- and financial crisis- related food problems " the report by the two Rome - based organizations said. Steep food price increases and rapidly growing unemployment were adding large numbers of people to those already living below the poverty line, the report added. " Approximately 7,5 million poor Indonesians in 15 provinces may experience acute food short ages during the upcoming dry season ". said the report on the world's fourth - most populous country whose economy has been shattered. The report was based on findings of an 11-- member mission from the two agencies, which visited the country from March 9 to April 1 in 1998. This year‟s yield would be about 47.5 million tones, 3.6 percent below last year's production. The shortfall was due to one of Indonesia's worst droughts this century. The report said the Indonesian government planned to import about 1.5 million tones of rice between April and September but this would still leave a deficit of two million tones. The shortfall would have to be made up by the international community in order to help the country to revive its battered economy. The major challenge facing the country was to ensure the food supply for some 7.5 million poor people since rice and overall food prices have increased by about 60 percent in the last 12 months, the report said.

ASSIGNMENT 24: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Vietnam on Wednesday said it would join the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) next year, dispelling speculation that Hanoi might put off membership until it. was better prepared. "Vietnam is now actively preparing all necessary conditions to become a full member of ASEAN next year," Deputy Prime Minister Phan Van Khai told business people over lunch organised by the Switzerland - based World Economic Forum (WEF), which is hosting a three day meeting here. Khai said that Hanoi would also participate in other regional organisations and would join the 17 - member Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum "When it is possible".


88 In Jakarta, Vietnamese Deputy Foreign Minister Vu Khoan was quoted as saying that his country would file an application for ASEAN membership by the end of this month or early in November. Khoan, who was speaking after meeting Jakarta - based ASEAN Secretary - general Ajil, Singh, said he did not expect any difficulties in joining, as quoted by the Antara news agency. APEC 's members include the ASEAN countries- - Brunei; Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand- - as well as the United States, Canada, Japan and China. An informal APEC leaders meeting will be held in Indonesia next month. Vietnam, which gained observer status in ASEAN in 1992, has said it is keen to become a full member of the group, which has ambitious programmes for cooperation, including the launch of an ASEAN Free Trade Area within 10 years. ASEAN officials had hoped that Vietnam might join ASEAN before leaders of the group 's six current members hold their next summit in Thailand in December 1995. "There are already regulations for cooperation in ASEAN. Once we are a member we will follow all regulations," Khai told reporters later, adding that Hanoi would work with others in Southeast Asia to ensure regional peace. Khai said his government would push ahead with reforms to improve conditions for foreign investment by putting a new legal framework and better administrative procedures in place. "We deeply understand that Vietnam is facing great challenges of global economic competition and so must try hard to do away with the danger of being left far behind by neighbouring countries, "he said

ASSIGNMENT 25: Translate the following texts into Vietnamese 1. Ngành sản xuất đã phát triển đáng kể trong thời kỳ tái thiết nền kinh tế của Philippines sau Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ II. Việc kiểm soát hàng hoá nhập khẩu của chính phủ đã thúc đẩy sự phát triển ngành công nghiệp nhẹ sản xuất các mặt hàng tiêu dùng cho thị trường trong nước. Vào những năm 70, chính phủ đã xây dựng bốn đặc khu kinh tế nhằm tăng cường sản xuất hàng hoá xuất khẩu. Các ngành công nghiệp trong các khu chế xuất này được khuyến khích sản xuất các mặt hàng xuất khẩu truyền thống. Những đặc khu kinh tế này đã thu hút vốn đầu tư của nước ngoài vào Philippines một phần nhờ vào chính sách miễn thuế cho các doanh nghiệp có vốn đầu tư nước ngoài. Xây dựng thành công những đặc khu kinh tế này đã tạo tiền đề cho sự ra đời các khu công nghiệp có qui mô lớn hơn. Chẳng hạn như, căn cứ hải quân Subic Bay của Mỹ trước đây nay đã trở thành một khu thương mại-công nghiệp khổng lồ ở Manila. Một khu công nghiệp-thương mại lớn với cơ sở hạ tầng hiện đại và được miễn thuế đã thu hút các ngành công nghiệp sản xuất hàng xuất khẩu và đầu tư nước ngoài. 2. Việt Nam đã nổ lực duy trì sự ổn định chính trị xã hội, phát triển kinh tế và quan hệ ngoại giao trong những năm gần đây. Những thay đổi tích cực của luật pháp đã ảnh hưởng không nhỏ đến tình hình sản xuất, tài chính và thương mại. Nhờ nông nghiệp thích ứng với thị trường tự do nên Việt Nam được xếp là nước xuất khẩu gạo lớn thứ hai trên thế giới sau Thái Lan. Tại Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh và vùng phụ cận những hoạt động dịch vụ và sản xuất đã phát triển và thay đổi nhanh chóng. Kinh tế phát triển mạnh một phần nhờ vào nguồn đầu tư vốn và công nghệ của gần 2 triệu Việt Kiều ở các nước trên thế giới. Đa số họ đã quay trở về Việt Nam để đầu tư và liên lạc với bà con.


89

3. ChØ 1 n¨m sau khi lÖnh cÊm vËn cña Mü ®-îc b·i bá, c¸c c«ng ty n-íc gi¶i kh¸t khæng lå nh- Coca-cola, Pep si- Cola ®-îc h-ëng -u ®·i vÒ vèn, chÝnh s¸ch tiÕp thÞ vµ c¸c -u ®·i kh¸c theo luËt §Çu T- N-íc Ngoµi, nªn c¸c c«ng ty nµy ®· dÇn dÇn th©m nhËp thÞ phÇn cña c¸c nhà s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc. C¸c s¶n phÈm kh¸c còng r¬i vµo hoµn c¶nh t-¬ng tù. Bia Sµi Gßn ph¶i c¹nh tranh quyÕt liÖt víi c¸c c«ng ty bia liªn doanh víi n-íc ngoµi. C¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt bét giÆt trong n-íc, mÆc dï cã thÓ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu trong n-íc ®Õn n¨m 2005, nh-ng l¹i bÞ c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå nh- Procter & Gamble vµ Unilever dån vµo thÕ bÝ. 4. §Ó b¶o vÖ viÖc s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc, c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc ®· ®Ò nghÞ víi chÝnh phñ mét sè biÖn ph¸p. Thø nhÊt, nhµ n-íc nªn cã kÕ ho¹ch ph¸t triÓn dµnh riªng cho viÖc ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi vÒ l·nh vùc kinh doanh vµ ph©n bè theo vïng ®Þa lý vµ kh«ng nªn khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi vµo viÖc s¶n xuÊt ra c¸c s¶n phÈm mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc cã kh¶ n¨ng s¶n xuÊt ®-îc nh- n-íc gi¶i kh¸t, bét giÆt, giÊy vµ thuèc l¸. Thø hai, viÖc cÊp giÊy phÐp nªn ®-îc ¸p dông cho c¸c c«ng ty liªn doanh hay c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã vèn ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi tham gia vµo c¸c dù ¸n ®ßi hái cã nhiÒu vèn, c«ng nghÖ cao hay s¶n xuÊt c¸c mÆt hµng xuÊt khÈu. Thø ba, lµ nªn cã mét ®¹o luËt chèng ®èi viÖc c¹nh tranh kh«ng lµnh m¹nh cã thÓ dÉn ®éc quyÒn kinh doanh, ph¸ gi¸ lµm h¹i ng-êi tiªu dïng. 5. Trong tiếng Việt, từ “nước” vừa có ý nghĩa là quốc gia, vừa có ý nghĩa là nước, một liên kết về ngôn ngữ mà mối ràng buộc càng thấy rõ ràng sau một chuyến đi thăm vùng đất phì nhiêu nhất Việt Nam: Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long. Do phù sa bồi đắp của dòng sông Cửu Long làm phong phú vựa lúa đầy ắp này, tượng trưng cho nguồn lương thực của cả nước cũng như phong cách sinh hoạt kề cận sông nước của cư dân trong vùng. Đối với du khách, Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long là một trong những địa chỉ tham quan đẹp nhất Đông Nam Á, kết hợp cái kỳ ảo của vùng sông nước lung linh với cảnh quan đầy phấn khởi của một nền văn hoá vui tươi thể hiện qua cách sinh hoạt của dân địa phương cùng hoạt động thương mại. Trong khi những thành phố lớn như Cần Thơ, Mỹ Tho, Long Xuyên lập thành thế vững cho các tỉnh của Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long thì mạng lưới kênh rạch mênh mông lại là cái duyên có một không hai của vùng này. Sinh hoạt vui nhộn của vùng này không giống mấy với cách sinh hoạt của Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Tuy nhiên điều đó không có nghĩa là phải khó khăn lắm mới tới được Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long để thoát khỏi cái ồn ào náo nhiệt của thành phố lớn nhất Miền Nam này. Chỉ mất chừng ba giờ đồng hồ bằng xe đò trên Quốc lộ 1 là bạn là bạn đến Mỹ Tho, thủ phủ của tỉnh Tiền Giang và là điểm xuất phát tốt cho cuộc thăm dò vùng đồng bằng này.


90

CHAPTER 3:

ASSIGNMENT KEYS

ASSIGNMENT 1: II. EXERCISES: A. 1. change of form 2. change of meaning 3. change of form 4. change of meaning 5. change of form B 6.the jug contains water/ the jug of water/ 7. a car was bought by John/ John owned a car/ A car belonged to John. 8. the day is hot/ the day, which is hot 9. a blue long dress of mother/ mother has a blue long dress 10. the house of Peter/ Peter is the owner of the house/ Peter owns the house C. 1. the place where doctor works/ the docter owns the office 2 someone is treated by the doctor 3. thec doctor owns the book 4. the relative of the doctor/ the kinship 5. the hand is part of the doctor 6. the doctor owns the house D. 1. the same in meaning 2. different in meaning 3. the same in meaning 4 . the same in meaning 5. the same in meaning 6. the same in meaning 7. the same in meaning 8. different in meaning 9. the same in meaning 10. different in meaning E.


91 1. Where did you have/ get your shirt made? 2. Da Lat, which is surrounded by the great/imposing hills and mountains, takes up/covers/is situated in a large area on the Lam Vien Plateau. 3. Despite the great improvement in the woman status, other things must be done to improve womenâ€&#x;s health, nutrition and education. 4. Nowadays, the world has been facing a number of serious problems in spite of the fact that there have been dramatic progress in science, technologyand knowledge. One of the problems is the population explosion/boom in the developing countries. The population is growing in geometric progression while thee production of goods is growing in arithmetic prgression . 5. Charles Dickens, who belongs to the school of critical realism, is one of the greatest novelists in the world. What we value in his works is the criticism about evils and the contrast between the wealth and poverty in the English bougeois society of his time. The world he describes is that of the middle and lower classes in London.

ASSIGNMENT 2: II. A. 1. b.

2.a

3. a

4.a

B. 1. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for this hotel has been recommended by their friends. 2. Since the USA lifted the embargo against Vietnam, many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam. 3. Hue is famous for its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. 4. The participants discussed the causes of pollution environment. 5 . A motorcycle rider was robbed at Kampung early yesterday morning. C. 1. change word order 2. change structure/ change word collocation 3. change set expression 4. change the meaning of the verb and adjective 5. omitting relative clause D. 1. Thac Mo is a hydroelectric works with a designed of 150000 KW, annually produce 600 million KWH/ has an average annual output of 150000 KWH. 2. To construct this, nearly 15 million cubic meters of earth and stone must be dug up and banked up; over 350000 cubic meters of filtering layers were embanked; about 220000 cubic


92 meters of concrete were used and nearly 7000 tons of equipment and metal structures were installed. 3. Despite such enormous volume, the government has decided to have the construction finished in two years since the demand in power supply of southern localities has become very pressing. 4. So far, the construction units have carried out about 90% of the dug-up earth volume, concreted some 40% of the concrete volume. 5. According Mr. Nguyen Ba Man, head of the work managing committee, nearly all the basic items have met the demand in construction speed. 6. In mid November 93, the Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet came to inspect the building of Thac Mo Hydroelectric works. 7. The field leaders assured the Prime Minister that they already have grounds to ensure the operation of Turbine 1 in June 1994. 8. The task of blocking the current of Song Be River will start in December. 9. Thus, there will be a significant coincidence when Turbine 1 of Thac Mo Hydro-electric Plant starts operating. The North-South 500 KV transmission line will also be completed simultaneously. 10. With these sources of power in 1994, the South will basically free itself from the hunger for electricity.

D. 1. MÆc dï kÓ tõ n¨m 1990, ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc dµnh cho c¸c tr-êng häc ®· ®-îc t¨ng lªn nh-ng vÉn cßn rÊt thÊp so víi nhu cÇu trang bÞ ®Çy ®ñ cho tr-êng häc vµ c¶i tiÕn chÊt l-îng ®µo t¹o. 2. Tæng thèng Putin kh¼ng ®Þnh r»ng n-íc Nga lu«n coi träng mèi quan hÖ víi ViÖt Nam , ng-êi b¹n truyÒn thèng vµ lµ ®èi t¸c chiÕn l-îc ë §«ng Nam ¸. 3. Ng-êi ta lËp dù ¸n ®Ó t¨ng thªm c¬ héi héi nhËp cho 3000 trÎ em khuyÕt tËt ë ba tØnh , mét ë vïng nói, mét ë vïng duyªn h¶i MiÒn Trung vµ mét ë vïng s©u vïng xa 4. Hä ®· th¶o luËn mét lo¹t c¸c biÖn ph¸p nh»m môc ®Ých b¶o ®¶m sù hîp t¸c toµn diÖn vÒ kinh tÕ, th-¬ng m¹i, khoa häc vµ kü thuËt. 5. Ng-êi ta ®ang thùc hiÖn mäi næ lùc ®Ó n©ng cao nhËn thøc cña phô n÷ vÒ viÖc hä cã quyÒn ®-îc h-ëng sù an toµn lao ®éng , hay ®iÒu kiÖn vÖ sinh lao ®éng th«ng qua m¹ng l-íi truyÒn th«ng më réng. 6. Râ rµng r»ng c¸c tr-êng häc ë c¸c tØnh phÝa nam cã nhiÒu phßng m¸y vµ phßng thùc hµnh ®-îc dïng vµo viÖc ngo¹i ng÷ h¬n c¸c tr-êng ë c¸c tØnh phÝa B¾c. 7. §· cã bèn dù ¸n ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi cho gi¸o dôc. Vèn ®Çu tchñ yÕu tõ Ng©n Hµng ThÕ Giíi vµ Ng©n hµng Ph¸t triÓn Ch©u ¸.


93 8. 38 trong sè 50 sinh viªn ngo¹i ng÷ ®-îc b¸o Vietnam Courier nãi r»ng hä kh«ng thÝch lµm viÖc cho c¸c c«ng ty ®-îc n-íc ngoµi ®Çu t-. 9. ViÖt Nam vµ Trung Quèc ®ång ý më c¸c cuéc ®µm ph¸n ®Ó ký kÕt mét hiÖp ®Þnh vÒ l·nh thæ vµ biªn giíi vµ mét hiÖp ®Þnh vÒ l·nh h¶i tr-íc n¨m 2000. 10. Míi ®©y chÝnh phñ ®· d-a ra biÖn ph¸p khÝch lÖ nh- gi¶m thuÕ hoÆc cho vay -u ®·i cho nh÷ng chñ nh©n sö dông nhiÒu c«ng nh©n n÷.

ASSIGNMENT 3: Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese 1. Since early in the last lunar month, Tet has already roamed around the vicinities of Hanoi. 2. The peasants in the suburbs are probably the ones to feel the presence of Tet before anyone else because all their tasks from taking care of vegetables, fruits, grass, flowers to fattening pigs and poultry are for Tet‟s sake. 3. Moving down from Kinh Bac, we will see immense fields of flowers especially gladioli of all colors. 4. Adjacent to the inner city are flower districts: Nhat Tan, Nghi Tam, Quang Ba with a number of varieties: dark pink peach blossoms, juicy golden kamquat, purplish violet and bright red gerbera . 5. A few year ago, here was a vast land of flowers sufficiently meeting the need of ornamental plants for Hanoi people. 6. The local inhabitants have long been artisans devoting their lives to growing flowers. 7. It is a regret to see the narrowing flower acreage due to a change in business of a number of artisans. 8. Some have sold their land and left their occupations forever. Others have turned to building luxury villas rented out as mini hotels to foreign tourists with their own capital or in cooperation with those who have capital. 9. Stores and shops have musroomed, selling all kinds of goods from the most popular to the top-graded ones. 10 No wonder why Hanoi has changed and been developed in the open-door time. Hopefully, Hanoi and its people will always deserve the land of age-old culture. B 1. Mµn tr×nh diÔn chÝnh cña lÔ héi lµ mét mµn diÔn mang tªn ‘‘ §Êt Lµnh Chim §Ëu’’ d-îc tr×nh diÔn ®ång thêi ë ba s©n khÊu lín ë khu trung t©m. 2. Toµn bé khu vùc quanh ®Òn tËp trung ®Æc kÝn ng-êi, chØ chõa méy kho¶ng nhá cho nh÷ng nghi lÔ ®-îc tiÕn hµnh.


94 3. §Ó gi¶m bít chi phÝ trong viÖc t¨ng kh¶ n¨ng tiÕp cËn c¶u trÎ em tµn tËt víi gi¸o dôc, chÝnh phñ ®· ph¸t ®éng ch-¬ng tr×nh gi¸o dôc vµ héi nhËp céng ®ång. 4. Trong nh÷ng n¨m gÇn ®©y ®Ó lËp l¹i trËt tù c«ng céng, Hµ Néi ®· dêi mét sè khu chî t¹m ®Õn nh÷ng vïng ®· ®-îc qui ®Þnh. Nh-ng trong sè 4 khu chî ®¨ ®-îc qui ®Þnh , th× chØ cã chî §ång T©m ®-îc dêi tõ khu d©n c- §èng §a sang khu vùc §¹i La. 5. Ngoµi viÖc ®Çu t- tõ ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc, tÊt c¶ c¸c tr-êng häc ph¶i t×m c¸c nguån tµi chÝnh kh¸c ®Ó mua ®å dïng d¹y häc. Tuy nhiªn, c¸c nguån nµy chØ b»ng 13% ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc dµnh cho c¸c tr-êng phæ th«ng vµ 21% cho c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc. 6. Tæng thu nhËp ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc ®¹t xÊp xØ møc ®Ò ra ban ®Çu. Nh÷ng nguån chi tiªu b×nh th-êng vÉn ®-îc ®¶m b¶o, trong khi ®ã c¸c kho¶n chi bÊt th-êng cho c¸c vïng bÞ b·o, lôt, h¹n h¸n vÉn ®-îc thùc hiÖn. ViÖc th©m hôt ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc ®-îc gi÷ ë møc cho phÐp lµ 3,6% tæng thu nhËp quèc néi vµo n¨m 1998, thÊp h¬n n¨m 1997 lµ 4,2%. 7.. Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ cña ViÖt Nam ph¶i ®-îc xÐt trong hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi. Hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh Êy ®· g©y ra nhiÒu thiÖt h¹i vÒ sinh m¹ng vµ tµi s¶n còng nh- c¸c c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng vµ tµi nguyªn. 8. M¹ng l-íi truyÒn h×nh ®ang x©y dùng réng kh¾p c¶ n-íc. Ngoµi nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh t-¬ng ®èi hiÖn ®¹i, cã tõ l©u ®êi nh- ®µi truyÒn h×nh Hµ Néi vµ Thµnh Phè Hå ChÝ Minh, cßn cã 25 ®µi thuéc c¸c tØnh ®-îc thµnh lËp vµo n¨m 1988. Nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh nµy sÏ truyÒn nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh quan träng cña ®µi truyÒn h×nh trung -¬ng vµ ph¸t ch-¬ng tr×nh cña ®µi m×nh. 9. Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô N÷ ViÖt Nam ®-îc cö ®¹i diÖn ë Quèc Héi vµ chñ tÞch héi ®-îc quyÒn tham dù c¸c cuéc häp th-êng kú cña Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng ®Ó bµy tá quan ®iÓm cña Héi vµ ®Ò nghÞ nh÷ng ®iÒu lÖ liªn quan ®Õn phô n÷. 10. Gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam chÞu ¶nh h-áng râ rÖt cña nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp. Do chÝnh s¸ch më cöa, nÒn v¨n minh c«ng nghiÖp ®ang t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy, tõng giê vµo cuéc sèng gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam.

ASSIGNMENT 4:


95 A. 1. to give information 2. about invironmental protection / to be more exact, it is about deforestation. 3. It depends on the leaners‟ ability. 4. yes/ a bilingual dictionary and the context could help to discover the meanings of these words. 5.yes 6.

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N¹N PH¸ RõNG

Sù gia t¨ng d©n sè lµ mét nh©n tè g©y ra n¹n ph¸ rõng nhiÖt ®íi. Tuy nhiªn, nÕu cho r»ng viÖc më réng mét nÒn n«ng nghiÖp tù cung tù cÊp ®Ó nu«i sèng nhiÒu miÖng ¨n h¬n lµ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh, th× ®©y lµ mét gi¶i thÝch v« c¨n cø. §¹i bé phËn rõng ë Ch©u Mü La Tinh, §N¸ vµ Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng bÞ tµn ph¸ lµ do viÖc khai hoang ®Ó trång c¸c lo¹i n«ng s¶n xuÊt khÈu vµ do c¸c ho¹t ®éng bu«n b¸n gç , chø kh«ng ph¶i do n¹n du canh, du c- vµ t¸ ®iÒn g©y nªn. Hµng n¨m ho¹t ®éng bu«n b¸n gç ®· ph¸ huû 4500 km2 rõng, phÇn lín gç ®-îc xuÊt khÈu sang Mü vµ NhËt. Mèi liªn hÖ gi÷a n¹n ph¸ rõng vµ nhu cÇu thµnh lËp x· héi phån vinh ®-îc thÊy râ nÐt nhÊt ë Trung Mü vµ Brazin n¬i nh÷ng c¸nh rõng nhiÖt ®íi ®· bÞ biÕn thµnh ®ång cá ch¨n th¶ v× viÖc nu«i gia sóc mang l¹i c¸c kho¶n lîi nhuËn xuÊt khÈu gióp tr¶ nî n-íc ngoµi. Kho¶n nî n-íc ngoµi khæng lå ®ang ®Ì nÆng lªn vai d©n nghÌo chñ yÕu ®-îc dïng ®Ó trang tr¶i cho c¸c kho¶n mua s¾m xa xØ cña chÝnh phñ vµ qu©n ®éi. ViÖc x©y dùng c¸c ®iÒn trang ch¨n th¶ réng lín lµ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh dÉn ®Õn viÖc ph¸ huû 2000 km2 rõng nhiÖt ®íi hµng n¨m ë Trung vµ Nam Mü. §Êt khai hoang chñ yÕu dïng cho viÖc nu«i bß xuÊt khÈu phôc vô cho ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp thøc ¨n nhanh ë B¾c Mü, Ch©u ¢u vµ NhËt- vïng xøng víi tªn gäi lµ ‘‘vïng giao l-u hamburger’’ A. 1. to give information 2. about Vietnam,its language and people 3. It depends on the leaners‟ ability. 4. yes/ a bilingual dictionary and the context could help to discover the meanings of these words. 5.yes COUNTRY Our ancestors drank the water from the Red River, Da River, Me Kong River and tried hard/ spare no pain to protect them. Just think about the fact that very few languages in the world enjoy the uniformity as in the case of our mother tongue. In Vietnam, the word “nuoc” (in the river, lake and sea) have a synonym and homonym of the word “nuoc” signifying homeland.


96 Here like an immortal bloc the rivers and people are closely linked to the nature and people by a kind of everlasting cement. That is the patriotism of the Vietnamese people. In the world, there are many countries where people cannot communicate with one another when they travel from one province to another. In Vietnam, on the contrary, no matter where they are from, the north or the south, people are able to understand one another right at the first meeting.

ASSIGNMENT 5: A. 1. Trong lÞch sö loµi ng-êi khoa häc ®-îc xem nh- cã sø mÖnh gi¶i phãng con ng-êi khái sù ngu dèt, sù mª tÝn, gi¶m ®ãi nghÌo vµ t¨ng tÇm hiÓu biÕt cña con ng-êi vÒ thÕ giíi. 2. Tê N. A ®· ca ngîi c¸c nhµ khoa häc cña thêi ®¹i ®ã lµ c¸c nhµ truyÒn b¸ ¸nh s¸ng, nh÷ng ng-êi sÏ xua tan bãng ®ªm vµ më ra con ®-êng cho con ng-êi chinh phôc thiªn nhiªn. Trong thêi kú ®ã, nh÷ng ph¸t minh kh«ng t-ëng nh- m¸y bay, tµu ngÇm vµ ®iÖn tho¹i ®· ®-îc dù b¸o tr-íc. 3. Nh÷ng ai quan t©m ®Õn ngµnh c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh tin rµng chóng ta ®ang tr·i qua mét cuéc c¸ch m¹ng vÒ m¸y tÝnh. T¹i sao cuéc c¸ch m¹ng nµy x¶y ra ? §iÒu nµy cã mang l¹i hËu qu¶ g× cho x· héi? §Ó tr¶ lêi nh÷ng c©u hái nµy, cÇn phØa s¬ l-îc vÒ lÞch sö m¸y tÝnh. 4. M¸y tÝnh ®Çu tiªn -bµn tÝnh , do ng-êi Trung Quèc ph¸t minh c¸ch ®©y 5000 n¨m lµ tiÒn th©n cña m¸y tÝnh hiÖn ®¹i sau nµy. Cho ®Õn thÕ kû thø 17, ë Ch©u ¢u ch-a cã g× cã thÓ s¸nh b»ng bµn tÝnh vÒ tèc ®é còng nh- ®é chÝnh x¸c trong tÝnh to¸n. 5. M¸y tÝnh ®-îc ph¸t triÓn ®ång thêi ë §øc, Anh vµ Mü ®Ó t¨ng thªm tèc ®é còng nh- ®é chÝnh x¸c trong tÝnh to¸n cÇn cho viÖc gi¶i m· th«ng ®iÖp cña kÎ thï. 6. Ngµy nay , nhiÒu c«ng viÖc trong c¸c kh©u s¶n xuÊt vµ dÞch vô do con ng-êi ®¶m tr¸ch cã thÓ ®-îc thùc hiÖn nhanh h¬n vµ Ýt tèn kÐm h¬n nhê sù trî gióp cña c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh vµ c¸c thiÕt bÞ ®-îc m¸y tÝnh kiÓm so¸t. 7. Ng-êi m¸y ®ang dÇn thay thÕ c«ng nh©n trong d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt nh- nhµ m¸y chÕ t¹o « t« Fiat cña ý vµ Nissan cña NhËt. Vµo n¨m 1980, 50 robot ®· ®-îc c¸c c«ng ty cña óc sö dông ch¼ng h¹n nh- h·ng General Motors Ford, Nissan vµ Simpson Pope 8. C«ng ty nµo kh«ng sö dông c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh ®Òu kh«ng thÓ c¹nh tranh ®-îc víi c¸c ®èi thñ ¸p dông c«ng nghÖ nµy. B»ng chøng lµ sù thÊt b¹i cña c«ng nghiÖp s¶n xuÊt ®ång hå Thuþ SÜ trong 2 n¨m võa qua do bÞ ®ång hå ®iÖn tö c¹nh tranh nªn ®· thÊt thu 200 triÖu ®« la mçi n¨m.


97 9. Cïng víi viÖc c¬ giíi ho¸ ë mét sè qui tr×nh s¶n xuÊt, b-íc ®Çu ®· g©y ra n¹n thÊt nghiÖp víi sè l-îng lín. Nh÷ng nghÖ nh©n lµnh nghÒ trong ngµnh tiÓu thñ c«ng nghiÖp vèn khan hiÕm tr-íc ®©y, nay bçng d-ng tù hä c¶m thÊy thõa d- vµ thiÕu kü n¨ng trong nÒn c«ng nghÖ hiÖn ®¹i. 10. Nh÷ng ý t-ëng khoa häc vÜ ®¹i nµy ®· ph¸t triÓn vµo thÕ kû 18 vµ 19. Cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp Anh vµo cuèi thÕ kû 18 cµng cñng cè niÒm tin vµo mét x· héi khoa häc kü thuËt mÆc dï lîi nhuËn x· héi thu vµo kh«ng bï ®-îc chi phÝ x· héi bá ra . B 1. Dung Quat Bay is to the northeast of Binh Son District, QN Province. It is 18 km long and is protected by mountain ranges. 2. To the south of the bay is an area of flat land having geographical structure with an area of tens of square kilometers. 3. Here will be formed / established heavy industry and chemical zones, oil refineries, sea products processing zone, light industry zone, and a modern urban residential area with about 600000 inhabitants./ with a population of about 600000. 4. Another advantage is that Dung Quat lies about 12 km from roadway, railway lines, power transmission line and the trans-Vietnam optic cable. Thev supply of fresh water for this area is very convenient with a reserve of about 3 billion cubic meters per year taken from the Tra Bong River. 5. Today, we are going through a period of profound social changes like that of the first industrial revolution. It may be necessary for us to re-define the very notion of work itself.

ASSIGNMENT 6: A. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. The silt from the Mekong River helps to bring an ample granary representing the whole country‟s source of food as well as the local inhabitants‟ riverside lifestyle 2. The Mekong river itself with its huge tributaries and small canals navigable for tiny boats creates a majesty landscape as it flows through VN, the last part of its 4500 km-long journey, pouring into the East Sea. 3. It is significant that these overseas Vietnamese always direct their attention to their homeland, cherish a close link with their families and preserve the national identity which typifies the Vietnamese. 4. In addition to their support for their relatives, a number of overseas Vietnamese have contributed to the welfare of their country and taken part in relief movements to help those who suffer from natural calamities. They have also participated in the charity work following the tradition “ the luckier should help the sufferer.” 5. Before 1988, the effect of the banking system on the development and macro-economic management was minimal. In order to encourage the banking system to play a more constructive role, the government has taken new measures including the reorganization of the


98 banking system, the introduction of restrictive credit policies, and new policies on interest and free trade of gold in market. 6. The government implemented a comprehensive reconstructuring of wages and salaries of the governmental employees with a consolidation of consumer subsidies into the nominal wage structure. Though the monthly minimum wage increased, real salaries have declined substantially as a result of inflation. 7.The survey conducted by the VWU shows that traditional contraceptive methods have been widely used. The survey also indicates that 39% of married women used modern methods, the most frequent method being intra uterine device (IUD). B. 1. Nh÷ng ng-êi khëi x-íng ra viÖc dïng n¨ng l-îng nguyªn tö nhÊn m¹nh r»ng thÕ giíi nµy råi ®©y ch¾c c¾n sÏ trë thµnh mét thÕ giíi cña nguyªn tö. Ng-êi ta còng cho r»ng nh÷ng ng-êi chèng ®èi l¹i viÖc sö dông nguyªn tö ®ang chèng l¹i trµo l-u cña lÞch sö vµ cã mèi quan hÖ gÇn gòi víi dßng hä Luddites vèn lµ nh÷ng ng-êi chñ tr-¬ng ®Ëp ph¸ m¸y mãc ngay tõ khi cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp b¾t ®Çu. 2. C¸c b¸c sÜ cho thÊy lÇn ®Çu tiªn hä cã thÓ t¸i t¹o c¸c hÖ miÔn nhiÔm cña nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ nhiÔm vi rót bÖnh AIDS b¨ng c¸ch ®ét ngét t¨ng sè l-îng tÕ bµo m¸u mµ vi rót HIV huû diÖt. 3. Trong lÜnh vùc ®µo t¹o y khoa, nh÷ng viÖc ®· lµm ®-îc trong nh÷ng n¨m qua ®-îc ®¸nh dÊu b»ng sù kiÖn næi bËt lµ viÖc nhiÒu chuyªn gia vÒ ®µo t¹o y khoa , nhiÒu tr-êng ®¹i häc trªn thÕ giíi ®· dÆt vÊn ®Ò ph¶i xem xÐt l¹i néi dung ®µo t¹o ®éi ngò c¸n bé y tÕ . 4. Ng-êi thÇy thuèc ngµy nay nªn lµ ng-êi cña søc khoÎ . V× vËy ng-êi thÇy thuèc ®ã cÇn ph¶i biÕt ph¸t hiÖn , gi¶i quyÕt , phôc håi nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò søc khoÎ cña c¸ nh©n vµ céng ®ång. 5. Râ rµng r»ng mét th©n thÓ khoÎ m¹nh gióp cho mét t©m hån lµnh m¹nh, v× chÝnh nh÷ng t©m hån lµnh m¹nh ®iÒu khiÓn h-íng ®i cña hÖ thèng gi¸ trÞ. Mét ng-êi khoÎ m¹nh lµ mét ng-êi khoÎ m¹nh vÒ mÆt thÓ chÊt lÉn tinh thÇn. 6. Ngµy nay con ng-êi cã khuynh h-íng lo ©u vÒ søc khoÎ thÓ chÊt. Tuy nhiªn t«i muèn nhÊn m¹nh tíi tÇm quan träng cña søc khoÎ t©m lý. M¹nh khoÎ vÒ mÆt tinh thÇn lµ rÊt quan träng vµ lµ mét ng-êi thùc sù khoÎ m¹nh lµ ng-êi ®¹t ®-îc sù th¨ng b»ng hîp lý gi÷a thÓ chÊt vµ tinh thÇn.


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ASSIGNMENT 7: 1. The achievements of the renovation process in the past ten years have provided opportunities for women to obtain their goals. Their lives have been improved and women have become less burdened. Social services have helped to ease their housework and create favourable conditions for them to participate in social activities. 2. The Vietnam Women‟s Union which represents Vietnamese women nationwide , has renovated their organization and work style , thus attracting more and more women to social activities. It has also helped women deal with difficult matters of every life. It has proposed to the state laws and policies that make full use of women‟s potentials in the process of renovation. 3. Identification of the factors that leads to fast effective foreign language learning has become increasingly important because of a majority of learners who are very anxious , as adults, to learn a foreign language for a specific purpose : business, study, and diplomacy. The requirements for effective language learning may be taken into account in terms of the learners, the teachers and the curriculum. 4. The greatest attraction to the tourists is the age-old traditions typical of the Vietnamese culture. Thousands of historical and revolutionary relics have been graded by the government , hundreds of which have high artistic and historical value . Vietnam is a large community consisting of 54 ethnic groups with different traditions , customs and unique folk culture. hundreds of traditional handicraft villages have produced thousands of famous handicraft and fine art products. 5. If tourists go to an ethnic minority region, they will have an opportunity to engage in other fascinating cultural activities typical of the rainforest region. Take the buffalo stabbing ceremony as an example. Tourists should have to be present about a week before the ceremony to join the local inhabitants in looking for a suitable kind of bamboo to repair the Rong House (The community House) and to make a Neu tree ( The New Year Tree) to chase evil spirits. The ceremony provides tourists with a chance to observe the decoration of jars and the way they are chosen to store wine. They also have an opportunity to observe the way people choose the buffalo for the ceremony. 6. Social welfare is a major policy of Vietnam which has its origin in the age-old national traditions of solidarity and mutual assistance. The basic principle of the policy is to combine the responsibility of the state, the community, and the efforts of each individual within the society. This policy is being gradually extended to all the inhabitants in various forms. 7. Economic backwardness and the danger of lagging behind in the economic development are the great concerns of all the Vietnamese at home and abroad . If Vietnam lags far behind other countries, it will be a supplier of raw materials and cheap labour in the international division of labour. It will have to accept an inferior position and losses in the international cooperation and competition. This is the great challenge facing Vietnam in the current international context. 8. The humanism of the Vietnamese diplomatic line constitutes a typical characteristic. Though the Vietnamese have been victims of countless aggressions, they never lose their compassion . Also, their compassion is a factor which creates the strength and the diplomacy of the nation. Nguyen Trai, a national hero of the 15th century, left a legendary guiding principle which remains today: “ Using great justice to vanquish cruelty Humanism to subdue brutality”


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ASSIGNMENT 8: Translate the following text into English

Beijing may be the seat of political power, but Shanghai can lay claim to the title of commercial capital. Historic sites date back less than 80 years in Shanghai, and yet most visitors fall under the spell of this unique city where ambience is everything. The very name Shanghai still sends a ripple of excitement down most spines. It was a minor weaving and fishing town until the mid 19th century, when it began to develop as a trading and industrial center. Entrepreneurs and carpetbaggers from all over the world descended and developed it into one of the world's most cosmopolitan and sophisticated cities. From the 1920s on it became increasingly notorious as the place where anything could - and usually did - happen. Banks and commercial companies of all kinds built opulent head offices for themselves overlooking what were then open rice fields beyond the banks of the Huangpu river. This whole stretch has survived the busy bulldozers and today it forms a unique open - air museum of 1930s architecture. A stroll along the Bund is a must for everyone who visits what is still regarded by many as China's leading city. Skyscrapers, including some of the world's tallest buildings, have sprouted where the rice used to grow. The most prominent is the Oriental Pearl TV Tower - if time allows, the panoramic views from the upper levels make an unforgettable experience. The past is still tangible in sections of the former French concession, with its elegant villas and tree - lined streets. Around the corner from the Bund, the Peace Hotel and its venerable Jazz Band Are the best-known survivors from a more gracious age, but Shanghai has many other exquisite hotels from the 1930s, most of which are being lovingly restored to their former glory. Shanghai boasts one of the world's truly great museums, opened in 1996. It would be impossible to tour the entire treasure huose in a short visit, but even an hour in the galleries devoted to the bronzes, stones sculptures and ceramics will provide lasting memories.

ASSIGNMENT 9: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Ngày hôm qua, trong bài diễn văn chính phát biểu tại trường Đại Học Quốc Gia Hà Nội, Tổng Bí Thư Giang Trạch Dân kêu gọi giới trẻ Việt Nam và Trung Quốc nỗ lực nhằm thắt chặt tình hữu nghị giữa hai nước, góp phần vào sự nghiệp hoà bình và phát triển ở châu Á cũng như trên toàn thế giới. Tổng Bí Thư-Chủ Tịch nước Trung Quốc nói với sinh viên: “Các bạn trẻ thân mến, chính các bạn là những người tạo ra tương lai tươi sáng và tương lai thuộc về các bạn”. Tổng Bí Thư Giang Trạch Dân nhấn mạnh rằng mối quan hệ Việt -Trung sẽ phát triển tốt đẹp trong thế kỷ 21, trong đó nỗ lực chung của thanh niên hai nước là không thể thiếu.


101 Ông nói: thế hệ trẻ cả hai nước phải theo đuổi lý tưởng của mình và lao động không mệt mỏi để xây dựng Chủ Nghĩa Xã Hội. Ông phát biểu rằng: “Giới trẻ Trung Quốc và Việt Nam cần kế thừa và phát huy mạnh mẽ tinh thần cách mạng của cha ông, có tư tưởng vững vàng, chăm chỉ học tập, nỗ lực vì sự nghiệp phát triển Chủ Nghĩa Xã Hội, vì sự giàu có và thịnh vượng của mỗi nước”. Ông hy vọng giới trẻ Trung Quốc và Việt Nam sẽ gìn giữ, duy trì và phát triển mối quan hệ Việt-Trung, trao đổi và học hỏi lẫn nhau để tăng cường hiểu biết. Ông bảo đảm Đảng và Chính phủ Trung Quốc sẽ hoàn toàn ủng hộ sự trao đổi đó. Chủ tịch nước Giang Trạch Dân nói: “Trong lịch sử, cả Việt Nam và Trung Quốc đều bị đế quốc xâm lược nhưng chúng ta đều đã đánh bại chúng, giải phóng dân tộc và thống nhất đất nước”. Theo ông tình hữu nghị giữa Việt Nam và Trung Quốc không chỉ xuất phát từ lịch sử mà còn từ thực tiễn, như Chủ Tịch Hồ Chí Minh đã từng nhấn mạnh hai dân tộc “là đồng chí, là anh em”. Ông nói quan hệ Việt-Trung dựa trên cơ sở tin tưởng lẫn nhau, sự ổn định lâu dài, tiền đề, tình láng giềng thân thiện và sự bảo đảm . Ông nói thêm: “Hợp tác trên cơ sở hiểu biết lẫn nhau là cầu nối và cũng là mục tiêu cho tương lai thịnh vượng”. Chủ Tịch nước Giang Trạch Dân rời Hà Nội ngày hôm qua để đến miền Trung Việt Nam. Ở đó, ông đi thăm cố đô Huế, đã được UNESCO công nhận là di sản thế giới, và gặp gỡ các đồng chí lãnh đạo của thành phố cảng Đà Nẵng. Theo lịch trình, ông sẽ đến thăm phố cổ Hội An và công ty dệt may Hoà Thọ trước khi kết thúc chuyến đi thăm ba ngày đến Việt Nam.

ASSIGNMENT 10: Translate the following text into English Concerning a poor country like ours, “practising thrift and fighting against waste” must be always the national policy. In reality, however, waste has still been spreading everywhere. Waste appears in management, using budget, in basic construction investment, in land and office management, in State-owned enterprises, and waste also exists in the masses with costly weddings. Waste has really been a pressing problem of the society and one of the causes which considerably affects the economy of our country. As in the first year (1998), after the decree of


102 practising thrift and fighting against waste passed by the National Assembly‟s Standing Committee 10th session in Feb 26th 1998 and taking effective since May 1st 1998, the real expenses in 1998, according to reports of 12 Ministries and bodies functionally equivalent to Ministries, reduced in comparison with the balance in 1997, for instance, conference expenses: VND12.8 billion, business expenses: VND12.43 billion, telephone, fax expenses: VND9.57 billion, expenses for great reparation of fixed assets: VND80.94 billion, expenses for purchasing professionally fixed assets: VND153.7 billion. The State‟s budget in 1999 is estimated to continue economizing 10% of estimated regular expenses. Some regular expenses have sharply fell from 30% to 70%, e.g. expenses for purchasing office equipment, for conferences and receptions… “Reducing expenses” statistics while the Decree of practising thrift and fighting against waste is being carried out are really speaking numbers, which show that this campaign is taking a turn for better. These numbers, however, indicate that spending has so far been loose and that it is necessary to limit expenses. Financial inspections and annual balance reports helped to find out a breach of rules of administrative management of many enterprises and administrative bodies. One of the most pressing and costly expenses nowadays is: expenses for medal reception, branch forming celebration, conferences… Such festivities have cost so much money for hiring halls, parties, gifts… At the end of the year, restaurants are crowded with “Gods”, most of whom are public servants, because inhabitants have no such budget for those parties. While “free” inhabitants are leading a poor life and spending thriftily, practising thrift and fighting against waste in “subsidy spending mechanism” is a must.

ASSIGNMENT 11: Translate the following text into Vietnamese 1. Thµnh phè Gaza- Nh÷ng ng-êi l·nh ®¹o cña Israel vµ Palestin ®· tiÕn hµnh ®µm ph¸n suèt ®ªm mµ theo c¸ch nãi cña «ng Dennis Ross - Ph¸i viªn cña Hoa Kú lµ ‘‘ mét ®ªm tèt lµnh cho c«ng viÖc’’ nh»m ph¸ vì sù bÕ t¾t trong viÖc Israel tr× ho·n ruts qu©n khái thÞ trÊn West Bank cña Heebron. ¤ng Ross rêi khái v¨n phßng cña nhµ l·nh ®¹o Palestin- Yasser Arafat, sím h«m qua sau 3 gê ®ång hå cã mÆt ë ®ã trong khi nh÷ng ng-êi tham dù ®µm ph¸n vÉn tiÕp tôc c¸c cuéc héi ®µm. ¤ng A ra fat nãi :’’ Cuéc gÆp gì ®· diÔn ra theo chiÒu h-íng tÝch cùc vµ cã tÝnh x©y dùng.’’ ¤ng cßn nãi thªm r»ng «ng vµ «ng Ross ‘‘ ®· gi¶i quyÕt mét sè khóc m¾c gi÷a t«i vµ «ng Êy’’, ®Ò cËp mét c¸ch râ rµng ®Õn gîi ý cña chÝnh «ng tuÇn tr-íc lµ «ng Ross ®· cã ý bªnh vùc Israel. ¤ng Ross- dù ®Þnh sÏ trë vÒ n-íc vµo ngµy h«m qua - ®ång ý r»ng:’’ Chóng t«i ®· cã mét lo¹t c¸c cuéc th¶o luËn tèt ®Ñp’’. Khi ®Ò cËp ®Õn c¸c cuéc ®µm ph¸n, «ng nãi:’’ §ã lµ mét buæi tèi


103 lµm viÖc tèt ®Ñp, nh-ng cßn mét sè vÊn ®Ò cÇn ®-îc gi¶i quyÕt.’’ Bªn trong tßa trô së chÝnh cña «ng Arafat, nhãm ®¹i diÖn Palestin do «ng tr-ëng ®oµn ®µm ph¸n Saeb Erekat dÉn ®Çu tiÕp tôc c¸c cuéc bµn th¶o víi Israel do hai «ng MaJ Gen Shaul Muha faz vµ Yitzhak cè vÊn cao cÊp cña Thñ t-íng Benjamin Netanyahu dÉn ®Çu. C¸c cuéc héi ®µm b¾t ®Çu vµo chiÒu Chñ NhËt ë Ze ru sa lem vµ sau ®ã chuyÓn ®Õn Gaza. C¸c c¬ quan truyÒn th«ng Israel pháng ®o¸n r»ng nÕu cuéc th-¬ng l-îng thµnh c«ng th× «ng Ro ss cã thÓ ho·n l¹i chuyÕn bay cña «ng vµ hai «ng Netanyahu vµ Arafat cã thÓ tæ chøc mét cuéc häp th-îng ®Ønh néi trong ngµy h«m qua hoÆc h«m nay. Israel s¾p söa rót qu©n ra khái Hebron - thµnh phè Westbank, vïng cuèi cïng bÞ chiÕm ®ãng- vµo th¸ng 3 th× ph¶i ho·n l¹i sau mét lo¹t tÊn c«ng cña bän khñng bè ë Israel. ¤ng Netanyahu, mét nh©n vËt cøng r¾n ®-îc bÇu lµm thñ t-íng vµo th¸ng 5 võa qua, ®· tr× ho·n viÖc tiÕp tôc rót qu©n, vµ næ lùc b¶o ®¶m an ninh cho 500 c- d©n ®ang sèng trong thÞ trÊn cña 130.000 ng-êi ¶ rËp. Ng-êi Palestin tõ chèi viÖc nèi l¹i c¸c cuéc ®µm ph¸n vµ yªu cÇu Israel tiÕp tôc rót qu©n nh- ®· cam kÕt trong b¶n HiÖp -íc vÒ quyÒn tù trÞ ®· ®-îc ký kÕt. Vµo ngµy Chñ NhËt t¹i Hebron, qu©n ®éi ®· v©y b¾t kho¶ng 100 ng-êi Palestin sau khi ®· cã kÎ nÐm 2 qu¶ bom vµo l·nh thæ cña ng-êi Do Th¸i nh-ng kh«ng cã ng-êi nµo bÞ th-¬ng. Hä bÞ qu©n ®éi chÜa sóng thÈm tra vµ b¾t gi÷ trong vßng nöa giê nh-ng sau ®ã phÇn lín ®· ®-îc th¶ ra. Ph¸t ng«n viªn cña qu©n ®éi nãi r»ng nhiÒu ng-êi Pale stin vÉn ®ang cßn bÞ b¾t gi÷. Mét ng-êi Pale stin ®ang ®i ngang qua vïng l·nh thæ Beit Hada ssah th× bÞ mét c¸i thang lµm b»ng kim lo¹i r¬i hoÆc ai ®ã nÐm tõ m¸i nhµ xuèng lµm bÞ th-¬ng; ng-êi nµy ®· ®-îc ®-a ®Õn bÖnh viªn thµnh phè ®Ó ch÷a trÞ 2. TP Hå ChÝ Minh - Sè l-îng du kh¸ch n-íc ngoµi ®Õn Viet Nam ngµy cµng t¨ng. Theo sè liÖu thèng kª gÇn ®©y cña Tæng Côc Du LÞch ViÖt Nam th× l-îng du kh¸ch t¨ng b×nh qu©n h»ng n¨m lµ 30%. MÆc dï l-îng du kahchs t¨ng, nh-ng t×nh tr¹ng kh¸ch ë l¹i kh¸ch s¹n gi¶m ®¸ng kÓ so víi nh÷ng n¨m võa råi. H¬n 6 n¨m qua,, c¸c kh¸ch s¹n liªn doanh vµ c¸c nhµ kh¸ch chØ khai th¸c


104 ®-îc tõ 85-90% sè phßng hiÖn cã. HiÖn giê chØ cßn ®¹t ë møc 60%, thÊp h¬n nhiÒu so víi c¸c kh¸ch s¹n cña nhµ n-íc vµ nhµ kh¸ch t- nh©n. Mét trong nh÷ng nguyªn nh©n chÝnh cña sù tôt gi¶m l-îng kh¸ch lµ do kh¸ch s¹n liªn doanh mäc lªn nh- nÊm, ®iÒu nµy dÉn ®Õn viÖc c¹nh tranh khèc liÖt vÒ gi¸ phßng vµ gi¸ dÞch vô. NhiÒu kh¸ch s¹n cã tæng doanh thu thÊp trong khi l¹i chÞu møc thuÕ cao, ®ang trë thµnh g¸nh nÆng cho c¸c «ng chñ vµ cã nhiÒu kh¸ch s¹n s¾p söa buéc ph¶i ®ãng cöa. §a sè du kh¸ch n-íc ngoµi h¨m hë ®Õn ViÖt Nam ®Ó t×m mét c¸i g× ®ã míi mÎ vµ muèn ®i ®Õn nh÷ng vïng cã vÎ ®Ñp tù nhiªn vµ hoang d· trong thêi gian l-u l¹i cña hä. V× lý do nµy, du lÞch ViÖt Nam cÇn tæ chøc l¹i viÖc qu¶n lý vµ ®Æt ra nh÷ng môc tiªu nh»m tháa m·n nhu cÇu hiÖn nay cña du kh¸ch. MÆc dï l-îng du kh¸ch vÉn t¨ng trong nh÷ng n¨m qua nh-ng sè du kh¸ch trë l¹i ViÖt nam lÇn thø hai rÊt Ýt. Râ rµng r»ng ngµnh du lÞch ViÖt Nam vÉn ch-a ®ñ søc hÊp dÉn du kh¸ch. Thªm vµo ®ã, c¸c ®iÓm du lÞch vµ c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn ¨n ë ®i l¹i ch-a ®¹t ®Õn tiªu chuÈn quèc tÕ. ViÖt nam hiÖn cã kho¶ng 22 tØnh vµ thµnh phè ®ang hoµn tÊt nh÷ng kÕ ho¹ch tæng thÓ chi tiÕt ®Ó x©y dùng c¸c khu nghØ m¸t cho du kh¸ch. Tuy nhiªn nh÷ng ®Ò ¸n nµy vÉn ch-a ®-îc triÓn khai, vÉn ®ang cßn ®ang ®-îc th¶o luËn. MÆc dï h»ng n¨m chÝnh phñ ®· chi h»ng chôc tØ ®ång ®Ó n©ng cÊp c¸c di tÝch lÞch sö quèc gia vµ c¸c khu nghØ m¸t, nh-ng do sù yÕu kÐm vÒ chuyªn m«n qu¶n lý nªn nh÷ng n¬i nµy vÉn ch-a cã thÓ thóc ®Èy sù ph¸t triÓn cña ngµnh du lÞch n-íc nhµ. §Ó c¶i thiÖn chÊt l-îng cña c¸c nhµ nghØ vµ t¨ng c-êng ho¹t ®éng cña kh¸ch s¹n, ngµnh du lÞch ViÖt nam cÇn chÝnh phñ ®Çu t- nhiÒu h¬n n÷a. Translate the following text into English More and more Vietnamese people are seeking study abroad at. their own expense. While the number of people who have already done so is relatively small - 2970 from mid 1992 to May this year - the numbers are expected to increase within the next. few years a: the Vietnamese economy strengthens and the government streamlines the procedures to make it. easier. But t he biggest boost to Vietnamese people courageously investing their money for themselves or their children to gain an international standard education has come through the staging of a special overseas education exhibition held in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi over the past two months. Called "Edukasia", the. exhibition featured universities, vocational schools and school equipment suppliers from Great Britain, France, Australia, The United States and Switzerland. The exhibition sought to establish what training or education private Vietnamese


105 students were seeking and the overseas institutions companies explained what they could offer. Courses in telecommunications, machine building. the hotel industry, tourism and cooking wt-re particularly featured. Up until now, most Vietnamese students have been going abroad for further study as recipients of international scholarship or funding from foreign government. Vietnam has been annually sending about 77 students and 160 senior level experts abroad through such officially sponsored scheme. Most of the private students have been going to Russia. Some to eastern European countries and a trickle to the Netherlands. Belgium, the USA, Denmark and Thailand. But. in April this year, a temporary halt has been put. on private places being offered to foreign students in Russia and Eastern Europe. While these existing avenues for Vietnamese students have required secondary school graduation and intensive courses in the relevant foreign language and computers, often these schemes were deficient in anticipating the problems foreign private students may encounter, particularly regarding duration and the level of the courses being offered. There has been an avoidable waste of time and money, and an attrition rate.

At "Edukasia", the courses on offer are delivered abroad it Vietnam by correspondence or distant training. Those student who want to go abroad for study must first of all be able to speak English which is an indispensable condition for initial contact: and assimilation of knowledge:

Educational standards are also set, such as marks obtained it each subject and health condition. A number of schools give priority to students with high marks in intelligence tests and offer them scholarship. But 90% of tested students have to pay education fees.

According to Mr. Charles Wilmot, the director of Edukasia, the fees are high, depending on the institution and the courses. But they are reasonably calculated. The lowest level is 2500 USD/year; while the most reputed USA schools and purses generally demand 3000 USD/year to 6000 USD/year. Fees for remote training are less, about 300 USD/year, and graduation diplomat are also recognized as equivalent to the regular training diplomas These institutions are ready to receive Vietnamese students and to facilitate entry visas. The remaining question depends upon a decision by the Vietnamese government. Mr. Wilmot stressed that in general, the accommodation and studying conditions of students in countries where there were Vietnamese students were very good. In Great Britain especially, there are organizations specialized in helping foreign students. Most Vietnamese studying abroad begin their training at the age of 18 to 19, the lowest allowed aged is 13. There is no limit for a maximum age studying abroad depends now only on these students willing to receive an advanced knowledge of the world.

ASSIGNMENT 12: Translate the following text into English Poor people often have larger families than middle class and upper class people. And people in underdeveloped countries have more children than people in developed countries. More and


106 more experts in population growth see the strong relationship between family size and economic development. In some areas, government family planning services may not be available to poor people due to geographic location. For example, people in rural areas may live too far away from family planning services. Therefore, they don't receive information about ways to control family size. In general, people in urban areas have much more information available to them than people living in rural areas. Urban people have help with family planning, and they have smaller families. So we can say that geography where people live - plays a part in determining family size: Urban families are smaller than rural families. What are the other reasons? Economic development of families and, on a larger scale, of nations, is an important factor in determining family size. People with a lot of money have fewer children. On the other hand, poor people in underdeveloped countries choose to have many children. Why? Because they have to depend upon their children to take care of them in their old age. They have no insurance, pensions, or government help. When they grow old, where can they get help? The answer is simple. They can and will turn to their children. Their children will be adults then, and they will be working. The children can all share the costs and other responsibilities of taking care of their parents. For many poor people, a large family is a way of planning and preparing for the future. We could say that a large family is insurance for old age in some societies.

ASSIGNMENT 13: Translate the following text into English China's powerful exporters are training their sights on, Vietnam, seeing their southern neighbour as ripe for a boost in purchases of consumer goods and machinery, Chinese executives said here Thursday. But Vietnam has a long way to go before it sees its exports to China grow as few products are likely to break into the more developed Chinese market, the executives said at the opening of a trade fair here. Some 60 firms from Beijing are showing off their wares ranging from cheap plastic toys and ornaments to off - road vehicles at the fair in Hanoi in what is the first exhibition of Chinese goods here since the two countries began patching up their relations. Beijing Jeep, a Sino - American auto manufacturer, is hoping to squeeze into Vietnam's growing car market but is facing stiff competition from Japanese firms already entrenched here, said Beijing Automotive Import Export Corp. (BAIEC) vice president Guo Fengli. "The market here is opening up quite quickly for our products, particularly as we are very competitive in pricing with our rivals," Guo said. BAIEC is looking to set up barter deals with Vietnam but is facing problems finding suitable moods to trade although Guo thinks he may have found the answer in the humble sweet potato. The Chinese firm is planning to trade cars for foodstuffs that will be sold in southern China but would prefer to exchange higher value goods.


107 "We don't know much about what Vietnam has to offer, "said Guo, a point repeated by other traders who were more eager to sell than buy. Cross border trade has boomed since the frontier was reopened in 1991. Officially, two - way trade stands at around 500 million US dollars although the illegal frontier trade is believed to b! much higher, with China enjoying a massive surplus. During a visit to China last week, Deputy Prime Minister Phan Van Khai called for both sides to replace the cross border trade with official agreements between trading companies and manufacturers that would boost sales of Vietnamese products., Vietnam wants to step up exports of coal and oil to southern China's booming manufacturing centres, which are thousands of kilometres (miles) from China's own sources of energy. Khai also called for more sales of rice and other food products and for Vietnam to import more manufacturing machinery and other technology from China.

ASSIGNMENT 14: Translate the following text into English Saudi Arabia has about 8.,853,000 people. Almost all of these people are Arab Muslims. In other words, they are followers of the Islamic religion. Saudi Arabia is a religious nation. The king of Saudi Arabia is both the political leader and one of the religious leaders of the country. The government laws are Islamic law (Muslim religious law), and the national language is Arabic. The Islamic religion is very important in the Saudi educational system. Before 1950 almost all education in Saudi Arabia was religious education. Students studied the Koran, the Islamic holy book. They tried to memorize as much as possible from this book. There were no colleges or universities before 1949 and only a few elementary and secondary schools. In 1953, the Saudi government established the Ministry of Education. This was really the beginning of the modern educational system in Saudi Arabia. When engineers discovered oil in Saudi Arabia, the country started to become very wealthy. Saudi leaders realized that Western technology was necessary for the country to develop. The leaders still believed that religious education was very important, but a modern country could not develop technologically with only a traditional, religious educational system. They decided to add other subjects to the educational system. They wanted to combine traditional religious education with modern technological education from the West. Religion is still an important part of Saudi education. Now, however, Saudi students study all kinds of other subjects too: languages (especially English), history, science, mathematics, computer technology, etc. Before 1950, there were about 20,000 students in Saudi Arabia. In 1982, there were 1,780,000 students. The educational system has grown faster in Saudi Arabia than in almost any other country in the world. All schools in Saudi Arabia are free.

ASSIGNMENT 15: Translate the following text into Vietnamese


108 Sau khi ®Æt nhiÒu hi väng vµo viÖc khoan tróng c¸c má dÇu khÝ ë ngoµi kh¬i ViÖt Nam, c¸c c«ng ty dÇu má khæng lå trªn thÕ giíi ®· nhËn ra nh÷ng rñi ro. C¸i gi¸ ®Çu t- khæng lå nh-ng l¹i nhËn ®-îc mät kho¶n lîi nhuËn cßm câi. T©m tr¹ng ®ã ®· gi¶m ®i trong sè nh÷ng c«ng ty n-íc ngoµi tham gia triÓn l·m tr-ng bµy c¸c mÆt hµng cña ngµnh c«ng nghÖ t¹i cuéc TriÓn l·m Dçu vµ khÝ ®èt Quèc tÕ lÇn thø hai ë Hµ Néi. ¤ng Melchior de Matharel, Vô Tr-ëng §«ng Nam ¸ cña h·ng Total Ph¸p ®· ph¸t biÓu : ‘‘ KÕt qu¶ kh«ng ph¶i lµ tÖ, nh-ng kh«ng lín nh- mét sè ng-êi ®· hy väng.’’ NÕu sù chó ý b©y giê lµ ‘‘khÈu hiÖu’’ ®· lµm thÊt väng c¸c c«ng ty dÇu löa n-íc ngoµi cã thÓ t¹o nguån an ñi tõ nh÷ng kh¸m ph¸ ®Çy khÝch lÖ võa qua vÒ dÇu do c«ng ty Mitsubishi vµ c«ng ty dÇu Petrornas Cairigali cña Malaisia, vµ vÒ khÝ ®èt cña BP, ë ngoµi bê biÓn nam ViÖt Nam. ViÖc th¨m dß dÇu khÝ ë thÒm lôc ®Þa ViÖt nam lµ hÕt søc khã kh¨n. Tuy nhiªn, «ng Matherel nãi r»ng thÒm lôc ®Þa ViÖt Nam lµ mét n¬i chøa dÇu. Sù nhiÖt t×nh cña nh÷ng ng-êi th¨m dß ®ét nhiªn suy gi¶m vµo th¸ng 5 tr-íc khi c«ng ty dÇu BHP cña óc th«ng b¸o tr÷ l-îng dÇu ë vÞ trÝ má §¹i Hïng, 375 c©y sè ë §«ng nam thµnh phè HCM lµ Ýt ái h¬n so víi dù trï. T¹i vÞ trÝ nµy, BHP -íc tÝnh s¬ khëi lµ tr÷ l-îng ë ®©y kho¶ng tõ 700 ®Õn 800 triÖu thïng dÇu, nh-ng hiÖn nay con sè Êy ®· xuèng ë 100 ®Õn 200 triÖu thïng. ViÖc s¶n xuÊt ®-îc dù kiÕn b¾t ®Çu vµo th¸ng tíi, ë møc khiªm nh-êng lµ 25000 thïng mét ngµy. §iÒu ®ã lµ ‘‘mét ®ßn gi¸ng m¹nh’’ cho BHP, mét c«ng ty ®· ®Çu t- ®Õn 240 triÖu ®« la ë ViÖt Nam vµ mét nöa cña kinh phÝ nµy ®· ®-îc sö dông cho dù ¸n §¹i Hïng. BHP ®øn ®µu mét hiÖp héi quèc tÕ bÇu chän vµo th¸ng 4/1993 cã tr¸ch nhiÖm triÓn khai tæng kinh phÝ 1,5 tû ®« trong lÜnh vùc nµy. BHP chiÕm 43,75% tæng sã vèn cña HiÖp häi, Petronas chiÕm 20%, c«ng ty quèc doanh Petro-Vietnam chiÕm 15%. PhÇn 21,25% cßn l¹i chia ®Òu cho c«ng ty Total (Ph¸p) vµ c«ng ty Sumitomo cña NhËt. Vµo thêi ®iÓm ®ã, chÝnh NhËt B¶n lµ kh¸ch mua hµng chÝnh cña dÇu th« ViÖt Nam, ®· lé diÖn ®Ó cã ®-îc mät c¬ may tèt nhÊt.


109 C«ng ty DÇu KhÝ ViÖt nam- NhËt b¶n (JVPC), mét chi nh¸nh cña tËp ®oµn dÇu khÝ Mitsubishi ®· th«ng b¸o trong th¸ng 6 lµ ®· cã mét sù kh¸m ph¸ rÊt høa hÑn t¹i vÞ trÝ R¹ng §«ng. Theo kÕt qu¶ ghi nhËn ®-îc tõ mét tõ mét giÕng dÇu th¨m dß, khu vùc khai th¸c cã thÓ cã cïng chÊt l-îng nh- vÞ trÝ má B¹ch Hæ ë gÇn mét ®Þa ®iÓm duy nhÊt hiÖn giê ®ang ®-îc kinh doanh khai th¸c ë ViÖt Nam. Tr÷ l-îng cña B¹ch Hæ -íc tÝnh ë møc cao nhÊt lµ 3000 triÖu thïng. Nh-ng Ýt nhÊt cÇn ph¶i mét n¨m n÷a vµ cÇn ®Õn viÖc khoan dß n÷a th× míi cã thÓ x¸c ®Þnh chÝnh x¸c ®-îc môc tiªu viÖc th¨m dß cña c«ng ty NhËt. Nh÷ng ng-êi bi quan th× cho r»ng cÇn ®Õn kho¶ng 5 n¨m míi ®¸nh gi¸ ®óng vµ ®Çy ®ñ tr÷ l-îng dÇu cña ViÖt Nam. ViÖc th¨m dß vµ khai th¸c khÝ ®èt còng chøng tá ®ã lµ mät dÞch vô ®ang gÆp khã kh¨n, dï c¬ may ®· mØm c-êi víi víi c«ng ty BP Anh, mét ®¬n vÞ mµ trong th¸ng 9 ®· th«ng b¸o lµ ®· ph¸t hiÖn ra hai tói dÇu khÝ, -íc tÝnh ®¹t ®-îc 57 tû mÐt khèi ë Nam C«n S¬n, phÝa nam thµnh phè HCM. C«ng ty BHP vµ c«ng ty Quèc gia Na Uy Statoil ®· mua l¹i c¸c phÇn ®Æc nh-îng cña c«ng ty khÝ ®èt vµ dÇu khÝ quèc gia Ên §é (ONGC) vµo n¨m 1992. Liªn hiÖp, víi ONGC n¾m 55% cæ phÇn, BP 30% vµ Statoil 5% ®· tiÕn hµnh th¨m dß vµ thö nghiÖm theo mét hîp ®ång ph©n chia s¶n phÈm víi ViÖt Nam, mét ®¬n vÞ lÇn l-ît nhËn 5% tiÒn gãp vµo, c¨n cø trªn quyÒn lîi cña mçi ®èi t¸c Ch©u ¢u. Translate the following text into English The failure of a space shuttle steering jet Wednesday forced NASA to suspend a radar survey of Earth as Endeavour's 10 day environmental research flight passed the halfway mark. The problem was a hindrance to the $384 million space Radar Laboratory but not a danger to the astronauts, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration said. Officials said a fuel temperature sensor failed, disabling a leak detection system in the suspect thruster and triggering a shutdown of five others, called verniers, which are needed to fine-tune the shuttle's orbital path and precisely point cargo bay instruments at targets on the planet. Mission commentator Kelly Humphries late Wednesday called the scientific hiatus "temporary pause" while ground engineers hastily devised a way for shuttle computers to ignore the broken sensor.


110 Maneuvering Endeavour with its 38 larger thrusters would consume too much full and eliminate hope of extending the natural disasters around the globe, according to flight director Rich Jackson. Late Wednesday the shuttle was flying on autopilot and the crew, which has been working in two shifts around the clock since Friday's liftoff from Florida, was enjoying an unexpected time-out., Jackson predicted the software patch would be ready by Thursday afternoon, about 24 hours after the malfunction occurred. "The payloads community and the flight control team are working very hard to regain venire control and minimise the impact. in the intervening time period". Jackson told reporters at Mission Control in Houston. Scientists said the problem would not harm the images but that it would take up to five times longer to process the radar data in their computers.

ASSIGNMENT 16: Translate the following text into Vietnamese N-íc Anh ®-îc chia lµm 651 khu vùc bÇu cö ng-êi d©n ë mçi khu vùc chän ra mét ng-êi ®¹i diÖn cho m×nh ë h¹ viÖn. ë Anh hÖ thèng bÇu cö ®¬n gi¶n ®-îc sö dông trong c¸c cuéc bÇu cö quèc héi theo ph-¬ng thøc bá phiÕu kÝn. HiÖn nay, hÖ thèng nµy cã nh÷ng ®iÒu chØnh ®Ó ngµy cµng trë nªn tèi -u h¬n. ViÖc bÇu cö lµ hoµn toµn tù nguþªn. mäi ng-êi d©n Anh tõ 18 tuæi trë nªn kh«ng bÞ t-íc quyÒn bÇu cö do ph¹m ph¸p, ®Òu cã thÓ bá phiÕu bÇu cö. Nh÷ng ng-êi kh«ng cã quyÒn bÇu cö bao gåm: thµnh viªn cña hoµng gia, c¸c nhµ quý téc lµ thµnh viªn cña th-îng nghÞ viÖn hoÆc lµ c- d©n n-íc ngoµi. Ngoµi ra cßn cã bÖnh nh©n n»m viÖn do cã vÊn ®Ò vÒ t©m thÇn ph¹m nh©n ®ang thi hµnh ¸n vµ nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ kÕt ¸n, trong vßng n¨m n¨m tr-íc ®ã vÒ téi tham nhòng.

øng cö viªn: BÊt cø ai trªn 21 tuæi lµ c«ng d©n n-íc Anh c¸c n-íc trong khèi thÞnh v-îng chung hoÆc lµ n-íc céng hoµ Ai Len, cã ®ñ tc¸ch th× ®Òu cã thÓ øng cö vµo quèc héi, nh÷ng ng-êi kh«ng cã quyÒn øng cö lµ thµnh viªn cña th-îng nghÞ viÖn, t¨ng l÷, gi¸o sÜ thuéc gi¸o héi Anh, gi¸o héi Ai Len, gi¸o héi ScètLan vµ gi¸o héi Thiªn chóa gi¸o La M·, nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ ph¸ s¶n, ng-êi lµm dÞch vô c«ng céng vµ nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ kÕt ¸n tï tõ 1 n¨m trë lªn còng kh«ng ®-îc tham gia tranh cö. C¸c øng cö viªn trong mét khu vùc bÇu cö ph¶i tr¶ mét kho¶ng tiÒn 1000 b¶ng nh- lµ mét kho¶ng tiÒn ®Æt cäc. NÕu dµnh ®-îc Ýt nhÊt 5% phiÕu bÇu cö th× hä sÏ ®-îc nhËn l¹i sè tiÒn ®ã. Tæng bÇu cö:


111 Theo nguyªn t¾c, bÇu cö h¹ nghÞ viÖn ®-îc tæ chøc 5 n¨m mét lÇn. Nh-ng c¸c cuéc bÇu cö th-êng ®-îc tæ chøc tr-íc khi kÕt thóc mét nhiÖm k× 5 n¨m. Thñ t-íng lµ ng-êi cã quyÒn quyÕt ®Þnh thêi gian tæ chøc tæng bÇu cö. N÷ Hoµng cã thÓ gi¶i t¸n Quèc héi vµ kªu gäi mét cuéc bÇu cö ®Ó lËp nªn quèc héi míi. N-íc Anh ®-îc chia thµnh c¸c vïng gäi lµ khu vùc bÇu cö dùa trªn sè l-îng d©n c- xÊp xØ nhau. Tæng bÇu cö th-êng ®-îc tæ chøc vµo thø 5 vµ mäi ng-êi vÉn ®i lµm nh- th-êng lÖ. Do ®ã, thêi gian bÇu cö rÊt linh ®éng kÐo dµi tõ 7h ®Õn 22h ®Ó cho tÊt c¶ mäi ng-êi ®Òu cã thÓ ®Õn bá phiÕu. T¹i c¸c ®Þa ®iÓm bá phiÕu, cö tri ®-îc ph¸t phiÕu bÇu cã in tªn c¸c øng cö viªn ë khu vùc bÇu cö ®ã, danh s¸ch th-êng s¾p xÕp theo thø tù anphabe ®«i khi cßn cã mét b¶n tãm t¾t vÒ tiÓu sö øng cö viªn vµ ®¶ng cña hä ®-îc ®i kÌm víi l¸ phiÕu. Sau ®ã, c¸c phiÕu kh«ng hîp lÖ sÏ bÞ lo¹i vµ ng-êi ta sÏ tiÕn hµnh kiÓm phiÕu ®èi víi sè phiÕu hîp lÖ vµ øng cö viªn nµo nhËn ®-îc nhiÒu phiÕu ñng hé nhÊt sÏ lµ ng-êi th¾ng cuéc vµ trë thµnh thµnh viªn Quèc héi ®¹i diÖn cho khu vùc cña m×nh. ChiÕn dÞch tranh cö: ChiÕn dÞch tranh cö diÔn ra trong vßng 3 tuÇn tr-íc ngµy tæng bÇu cö. ChiÕn dÞch tranh cö diÔn ra ë mäi khu vùc bÇu cö trªn toµn quèc. C¸c øng cö viªn sö dông mäi lo¹i ph-¬ng tiÖn, s¸ch l-îc ®Ó thu hót sù ñng hé cña ng-êi d©n. VËn ®éng tranh cö: VËn ®éng tranh cö cã nghÜa lµ nh©n viªn cña §¶ng ë ®Þa ph-¬ng ®i ®Õn tõng gia ®×nh vµ hái ng-êi d©n vÒ ý ®Þnh cña hä, xem thö lµ hä ®Þnh bÇu ai. B»ng c¸ch nµy, c¸c øng cö viªn cã thÓ biÕt ®-îc ý ®Þnh còng nh- th¸i ®é cña ng-êi d©n, tõ ®ã hä cã thÓ ®iÒu chØnh c¸c chiÕn l-îc cña m×nh. Ngoµi ra nh©n viªn ®ã sÏ quay trë l¹i nh÷ng gia ®×nh cã ng-êi ®· høa lµ sÏ ñng hé §¶ng cña hä ®Ó thóc giôc hä bá phiÕu cho ng-êi cña §¶ng m×nh trong ngµy bÇu cö. MÝt tin: øng ®©u gåm næi víi lªn

cö viªn cã thÓ tæ chøc mÝt tin bÊt cø n¬i nµo bÊt cø n¬i cã thÓ trong suèt chiÕn dÞch bÇu cö. Kh¸ch mêi cña hä bao nh÷ng ng-êi cã tÇm ¶nh h-ëng lín ttrong ®¶ng, nh÷ng ng-êi tiÕng ñng hé hä nh- nµh v¨n, diÔn viªn ®Ó g©y ¶nh h-ëng ®èi cö tri. Nh÷ng cuéc mÝt tin nh- thÕ th-êng ®-îc ®-a trän vÑn c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn th«ng tin ®¹i chóng.

Th«ng tin ®¹i chóng: Do b¸o vµ t¹p chÝ ë Anh th-êng lµ thuéc së h÷u t- nh©n vµ ®éc lËp vÒ mÆt tµi chÝnh ®èi víi c¸c ®¶ng ph¸i chÝnh trÞ nªn ng-êi chñ bót hoÆc ng-êi biªn tËp cã thÓ ñng hé bÊt cø ai hä muèn.


112 Tuy nhiªn, ®µi ph¸t thanh vµ ®µi truyÒn h×nh th× kh¸c lu«n lu«n c«ng b»ng, kh«ng thiªn vÞ. Ch-¬ng tr×nh tin tøc ®-a tin vÒ mäi mÆt cña chiÕn dÞch tranh cö cña c¸c §¶ng. Trong thêi gian nµy, c¸c øng cö viªn xuÊt hiÖn trªn ®µi vµ tivi suèt ngµy ®ªm, ta cã thÓ thÊy hä ë nhµ m¸y, xÝ nghiÖp, tr-êng häc, trung t©m thanh niªn vµ ë c¶ c¸c n«ng tr¹i. Hä ph¸t biÓu c¸c chÝnh s¸ch cña ®¶ng m×nh. Ch-¬ng tr×nh ®èi tho¹i trùc tiÕp trªn ®· cho phÐp mäi ng-êi ®Æt c©u hái cho c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o chÝnh trÞ. Bªn c¹nh ®ã, c¸c bµi t-êng thuËt, bµi b×nh luËn do c¸c phãng viªn ghi l¹i trong c¸c cuéc pháng vÊn víi c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña c¸c ®¶ng còng ®-îc ph¸t sãng. B¶n tuyªn ng«n: C¸c ®¶ng lín cho xuÊt b¶n b¶n tuyªn ng«n cña ®¶ng m×nh trong suèt chiÕn dÞch bÇu cö. Mçi ®¶ng ®Òu ®-a ra b¶n tuyªn ng«n cña ®¶ng m×nh nh- lµ mét Ên phÈm tham kh¶o. Nã cung cÊp cho ng-êi d©n nh÷ng th«ng tin vÒ chÝnh s¸ch cña ®¶ng, vÒ nh÷ng g× hä sÏ lµm nÕu hä ®¾c cö. C¸c b¶n tuyªn ng«n cßn bao gåm nh÷ng thµnh c«ng tr-íc ®©y cña ®¶ng. Ngoµi ra ®«i khi nã cßn chøa ®ùng sù c«ng kÝch cña ®¶ng nµy ®èi víi ®¶ng ®èi lËp.

ASSIGNMENT 17: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Hµ Néi ®ang cè g¾ng t¨ng gÊp ®«i GDP lªn 1100 ®«la MÜ trong vßng 5 n¨m tíi. KÕ ho¹ch ®Çy tham väng nµy ®-îc ®-a ra trªn c¬ së 11,9% tØ lÖ t¨ng GDP h»ng n¨m cña thµnh phè. T¹i §¹i héi §¹i biÓu §¶ng Bé thµnh phè Hµ Néi ®-îc tæ chøc võa qua, c¸c ®¹i biÓu ®· ®-îc th«ng b¸o: nÕu tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng vÉn tiÕp tôc nh- dù tÝnh th× GDP sÏ ®¹t kho¶ng 15% vµo ®Çu thÕ kØ. §iÒu ®ã cã nghÜa lµ GDP ®· t¨ng gÊp ®«i. §¹i héi còng ®Ò cËp ®Õn vÊn ®Ò c¬ së CN nhá truyÒn thèng cña nÒn kinh tÕ thñ ®« t¨ng nhanh bÞ thay thÕ bëi c¸c ho¹t ®éng CN vµ nghµnh c«ng nghiÖp dÞch vô-th-¬ng m¹i. Ngoµi ra ®¹i héi cßn ®-îc b¸o c¸o lµ kho¶ng 19% sè hé gia ®×nh ë Hµ Néi cã thÓ xÕp vµo diÖn hé giµu. Møc GDP b×nh qu©n n¨m ngo¸i cña thµnh phè ®-îc -íc tÝnh lµ kho¶ng 650 ®«la. Cao h¬n so víi 470 ®«la n¨m 1991 (tèc ®é t¨ng tr-ëng m¹nh mÏ). Sù t¨ng tr-ëng nµy lµ kÕt qu¶ cña hµng lo¹t c¸c dù ¸n ®Çu ttrong n-íc vµ n-íc ngoµi -íc tÝnh vµo kho¶ng 32,570VND (kho¶ng 3.275 triÖu USD).


113 Phã chñ tÞch héi ®ång Nh©n D©n thµnh phè Hµ Néi, «ng Lª Xu©n Hïng b¸o c¸o víi ®¹i héi r»ng: Mét phÇn cña sè vèn ®Çu t- ®· ®-îc sö dông cho qu¸ tr×nh chuyÓn giao c«ng nghÖ, ®æi míi thiÕt bÞ trong nghµnh CN. PhÇn lín sè vèn ®Çu t- cßn l¹i ®-îc dïng vµo viÖc thiÕt lËp c«ng ty liªn doanh víi ®èi t¸c n-íc ngoµi. Vµo cuèi n¨m 1995 cã ®Õn h¬n 210 dù ¸n ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi ®· ®-îc cÊp giÊy phÐp kinh doanh trªn ®Þa bµn thµnh phè Hµ Néi víi tæng sè tiÒn lªn tíi 3,3 tØ ®«la. ¤ng Tïng nãi trong sè ®ã lµ 1 phÇn 3 tØ ®«la ®· ®-îc sö dông. §iÒu nµy ®· gióp Hµ Néi trong viÖc lùa chän h-íng c¬ cÊu l¹i c¬ së kinh tÕ theo h-íng CN-DV thay cho c¬ cÊu cñ víi vai trß trô cét cña CN nhá vµ n«ng nghiÖp truyÒn thèng. Theo lêi «ng Tïng, tØ lÖ s¶n phÈm CN, th-¬ng m¹i, dÞch vô trong ®ã tæng s¶n phÈm quèc néi cña thµnh phè Hµ Néi giai ®o¹n 1991-1995 t¨ng lªn ®Õn 33,1% ®èi víi c«ng nghiÖp vµ 61,6% ®èi víi th-¬ng m¹i vµ dÞch vô. Trong khi ®ã tØ lÖ n«ng nghiÖp l¹i gi¶m xuèng tæng GDP.

cßn 5,3% trong

¤ng Tïng cßn nãi sö thay ®æi cña bé mÆt kinh tÕ Hµ Néi cßn nhê vµo sù t¨ng vät cña tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng h»ng n¨m cña 5 n¨m tr-íc. ¤ng nãi tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng 11,9% hµng n¨m cµng ®-îc ®¶m b¶o ch¾c ch¾n, con sè nµy cao h¬n gÊp ®«i so víi tØ lÖ ®Ò ra n¨m 1991. ¤ng Tïng b¸o c¸o víi c¸c ®¹i biÓu r»ng vµo n¨m 2000 tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng cña thµnh phè sÏ ®¹t 15% 1 n¨m. GDP -íc tÝnh ®¹t kho¶ng 1000 ®« la. Vµo thêi ®iÓm ®ã tØ lÖ s¶n phÈm c«ng nghiÖp tæng sè GDP cña thµnh phè Hµ Néi sÏ ®¹t 40% t¨ng 7% so víi hiÖn t¹i. N¨m ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp ®· ®¹t ®-îc môc ®Ých trë thµnh ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp then chèt cña thµnh phè bao gåm: ngµnh s¶n xuÊt thiÕt bÞ ®iÖn, m¸y mãc, c¬ khÝ; ngµnh dÖt; chÕ biÕn thùc phÈm; ®iÖn tö; vËt liÖu x©y dùng. Trong 5 n¨m tíi Hµ Néi cÇn kho¶ng 9 tØ USD ®Ó ®Çu t- x©y dùng ph¸t triÓn nh÷ng khu c«ng nghiÖp míi, ®æi míi c¸c khu c«ng nghiÖp cñ, x©y dùng c¸c toµ nhµ lín ë trung t©m thµnh phè ®Ó lµm c¸c v¨n phßng ®¹i diÖn, khu th-¬ng m¹i, khu vui ch¬i gi¶i trÝ, Hµ Néi ®· cã kho¶ng 10 khu c«ng nghiÖp vµ 5 c¸i kh¸c ®ang ®-îc x©y dùng. NhiÒu khu c«ng nghiÖp hiÖn nay cÇn nh÷ng kho¶ng ®Çu t- theo chiÒu s©u ®Ó thay thÕ c¸c kÜ thuËt cñ, më réng x©y dùng nhiÒu nhµ m¸y h¬n n÷a.


114 Tuy nhiªn phã bÝ th- §¶ng uû thµnh phè Hµ Néi cÇn nh¾c nhë c¸c ®¹i biÓu r»ng cÇn ph¶i næ lùc h¬n n÷a ®Ó gi÷ v÷ng sù ph¸t triÓn theo h-íng ‘‘nÒn kinh tÕ thÞ tr-êng’’ theo ®Þnh h-íng x· héi chñ nghÜa. ¤ng cßn nãi ‘‘chÝnh quyÒn thµnh phè Hµ Néi ®· thÊt b¹i trong viÖc x©y dùng sù ®oµn kÕt c¸c quan hÖ s¶n xuÊt kinh doanh x· héi chñ nghÜa’’. Trong khi bé m¸y hµnh chÝnh c¸c cÊp cßn yÕu vµ ‘‘vai trß cña §¶ng trong c¸c tæ chøc kinh tÕ x· héi kh¸c nhau vÉn cßn h¹n chÕ’’. Nh÷ng tham vÊn cña «ng Tïng cßn ®-îc Tæng bÝ th- §æ M-êi còng cè thªm, «ng Tïng chØ ph¸t biÓu víi ®¹i héi r»ng: Bªn c¹nh nh÷ng thµnh c«ng ban ®Çu Hµ Néi cßn chó ý ®Õn viÖc ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ vµ x©y dùng nguån nh©n lùc. §ång chÝ nãi 6% nh©n d©n thµnh phè Hµ Néi thÊt nghiÖp lµ mét th¸ch thøc mµ thµnh phè cÇn ph¶i gi¶i quyÕt. Cã thÓ lµ b»ng c¸ch lËp nªn c¸c nhãm s¶n xuÊt ®Ó tõ ®ã h×nh thµnh c¸c c¬ së c«ng nghiÖp nhá vµ ph¸t triÓn c«ng nghiÖp dÞch vô. §ång chÝ phã bÝ th- Lª Xu©n Tïng nãi r»ng: trong giai ®o¹n 1991-1995 sè l-îng c¸c gia ®×nh giµu t¨ng lªn gÇn 19%. Sè hé nghÌo gi¶m xuèng chØ cßn kho¶ng 2%.

ASSIGNMENT 18: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Lµm v-ên lµ mét nghÒ truyÒn thèng ë ViÖt Nam, nã xuÊt hiÖn ®ång thêi hay sím h¬n nghÒ trång lóa n-íc. Nh-ng VAC ( viÕt t¾t cña v-ên, ao, chuång) lµ mét m« h×nh kinh tÕ hiÖn ®¹i míi ®-îc ®-a vµo hoat ®éng c¸ch ®©y 10 n¨m. Ng-êi n-íc ngoµi ®Õn ViÖt Nam ®Ó nghiªn cøu m« h×nh VAC ë ®©y nãi r»ng: Tuy nã kh«ng cã hiÖu qu¶ cao trong viÖc thùc hiÖn qui m« s¶n xuÊt nh-ng lµ mét m« h×nh s¶n xuÊt ®ång bé mang l¹i lîi Ých kinh tÕ lÉn lîi Ých vÒ m«i tr-êng.Tõ nh÷ng ngµy ®Çu tiªn cña qu¸ tr×nh ho¹t ®éng, m« h×nh VAC lu«n g¾n chÆt vai trß cña m×nh trong sù ph¸t triÓn cña nÒn kinh tÕ quèc d©n. HiÖn n«ng ®ang hµng nói,

nay VAC cã mÆt trªn kh¾p 53 tØnh víi h¬n 10 triÖu chñ hé sö dông m« h×nh nµy. Trong nh÷ng n¨m gÇn ®©y VAC ®· vµ ®-îc ph¸t triÓn trªn hÇu hÕt c¸c vïng kh¾p c¶ n-íc. Víi chôc ngµn hecta ®Êt canh t¸c ë c¸c tØnh Trung du vµ miÒn v-ên c©y ¨n qu¶ ®· më réng tõ 350,000 ®Õn 400,000 hecta


115 M« h×nh VAC ®-îc ¸p dông ®· trá thµnh nguån cung cÊp rau qu¶ chÝnh cho c¶ n-íc, ®ång thêi còng ®¸p øng cho nhu cÇu xuÊt khÈu..Theo FAO ( Tæ chøc L-¬ng N«ng ThÕ Giíi) th× s¶n l-îng rau qu¶ ViÖt Nam ®¹t xÊp xØ 4 triÖu tÊn mçi n¨m. S¶n l-îng rau qu¶ b×nh qu©n ®Çu ng-êi trªn thÕ giíi lµ 65 Ki l«, ch©u ¸-Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng lµ 31 kg vµ ViÖt nam lµ 61 kg. HiÖn nay VAC cã mét ý nghÜa quan träng trong viÖc xãa ®ãi gi¶m nghÌo ®èi víi c¸c n-íc chËm ph¸t triÓn, tæ chøc ho¹t ®éng t¹i chç ®Ó ng¨n ch¨n suy dinh d-ìng, t¹o dùng c¸c v-ên c©y hay ®ån ®iÒn trªn khu ®Êt trèng ®åi nói träc, t¹o ra sù ph¸t triÓn mét nÒn n«ng nghiÖp l©u dµi vµ æn ®Þnh.møc sèng cña c¸c hé n«ng d©n thùc hiÖn m« h×nh VAC ®· ®-îc c¶i thiÖn ®¸ng kÓ víi møc thu nhËp h»ng n¨m tõ ho¹t ®éng VAC ®¹t 60% tæng thu nhËp. Gi¸ trÞ s¶n phÈm VAC chiÕm 1/3 gi¸ trÞ tæng s¶n phÈm vµ sÏ t¨ng h¬n n÷a. MÆc dï m« h×nh VAC ®· ph¸t triÓn nhanh nh-ng nã ch-a ®-îc thùc hiÖn ®ång lo¹t th«n. NÕu tËp trung më réng th©m canh lo¹i c©y trång tren kh¾p c¶ n-íc, th× nam cã thÓ ®¹t ®-îc 8 triÖu tÊn mçi n¨m

trong vßng 10 n¨m qua, ë tÊt c¶ c¸c vïng n«ng vµ chuyªn m«n hãa c¸c s¶n l-îng rau qu¶ ViÖt ë thÕ kû 21.

VAC nªn ®-îc xem nh- lµ mét ch-¬ng tr×nh n«ng nghiÖp quèc gia. NÕu VAC ®-îc khuyÕn khÝch ®Ó ph¸t huy hÕt mäi tiÒm n¨ng cña nã th× ch¾c ch¾n sÏ ®¹t ®-îc hiÖu qu¶ cao, gãp phÇn vµo viÖc ph¸t triÓn n-íc nhµ vµ gãp phÇn vµo viÖc b¶o vÖ m«i tr-êng.


116

ASSIGNMENT 19: Translate the following text into English Researchers said on Monday they had conclusive evidence an experimental AIDS treatment using plasma transfusions delays the onset of the disease in HIV positive patients and prolongs the lives of AIDS sufferers. DR. Abraham Karpas of the University of Cambridge's department of haematology said, however, that although Passive Immune Therapy (PIT) was "breakthrough" in treating AIDS and had no known side effects it should not be described as a cure. "It is definitely not a cure. There is no cure in sight, but it looks as if it is the best form of treatment," he said in his presentation to a London conference. Karpas said U.S. and French studies on PIT released at the conference confirmed his original research. "Their double - blind, placebo - controlled studies showed that this treatment benefits AIDS patients and prolonged their sure, survival,'' he stated in a telephone interview. He said the studies, conducted by the Hemacare Corporation of California and two Paris hospitals, also showed that PIT helped to delay the onset of full - blown AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) in people tested positive for HIV, the virus that causes the deadly disease. Under PIT, patients receive a monthly transfusion of half a litre of plasma taken from healthy HIV - positive individuals. The blood has the red and white cells removes and is free of HIV but has high levels of neutralising antibodies that kill the virus. Karpas said he first discovered in 1985 that people with HIV who were otherwise healthy had high levels of these antibodies in their blood while AIDS patients lost these neutralising antibodies and their ability to fight infections. Four patients in Cambridge were the first to receive the treatment and subsequently small scale trials were carried out in London in 1988 and 1989. But Karpras said he has failed to receive funding for his research in Britain and studies had therefore been set up in the US and France. The Hemancare trial studied the effect of PIT on 220 AIDS patients over 3 years. It found that in the first 12 months the mortality rate was greatly reduced in the group who received the plasma transfusion while those in the control group, where no treatment was given, had a death rate of five time higher. The treated group had one death in 21 people while the placebo group had six deaths in 30. Moreover, the number of AIDS - linked infections was far lower in the treated group and the blood donors themselves also appeared to benefit. The researchers said donating blood appeared to stimulate the production of neutralising antibodies in the blood of HIV - positive patients. The French studies produced similar results, Karpas said he said the U.S. and French studies represented the "first conclusive evidence that PIT is an effective AIDS treatment".


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ASSIGNMENT 20: Translate the following text into English Another day she said she knew a priest who woke one night to find a fellow he didn't recognize leaning over the end of his bed. The priest was a bit frightened -naturally enough but he asked the fellow what he wanted, and the fellow said in a deep, husky voice that he wanted to go to confession. The priest said it was an awkward time and wouldn't it do in the morning, but the fellow said that last time he went to confession, there was one sin he kept back, being ashamed to mention it, and now it was always on his mind. Then the priest knew it was a bad case, because the fellow was after making a bad confession and committing a mortal sin. He got up to dress, and just then the cock crew in the yard outside, and to and behold! When the priest looked round there was no sign of the fellow, only a smell of burning timber, and when the priest looked at his bed didn't he see the print of two hands burned in it! That was because the fellow had made a bad confession. This story made a shocking impression on me. But the worst of all was when she showed us how to examine our conscience. Did we take the name of the Lord, our God, in vain? Did we honour our father and our mother? (I asked her did this include grandmothers and she said it did.) Did we love our neighbours as ourselves? Did we cover our neighbour's goods? (I thought of the way I felt about the penny that Nora got every Friday.) I decided that, between one thing and another, I must have broken the whole ten commandments, all on account of that old woman, and so far as I could see-,, 9-n long ac, he remained in the house, I had no hope of ever doing anything else. I was scared to death of confession. The day the whole class went I let on to have a toothache, hoping my absence wouldn't be noticed; but at three o'clock, just as I was feeling safe, along comes a chap with a message from Mrs. Ryan that I was to go to confession myself on Saturday and be at the chapel for communion with the rest. To make it worse, Mother couldn't come with me and sent Nora instead. Now, that girl had ways of tormenting me that Mother never knew of. She held my hands as we went down the hill, smiling sadly and saying how sorry she was for me, as if she were bringing me to the hospital for an operation. "Oh, God, help us!" she moaned. "Isn't it a terrible pity you weren't a good boy? Oh Jackie, my heart bleeds for you! How will you ever think of all your sins? Don't forget you have to tell him about the time you kicked Gran on the shin." "Let me go!" I said, trying to drag myself free of her, "I don't want to go to confession at all." "But sure, you'll have to go to confession, Jackie," she replied in the same regretful tone. "Sure, if you didn't, the parish priest would be up to the house, looking for you. Isnâ€&#x;t God knows, that I'm not sorry for you. Do you remember the time you tried to kill me with the bread knife under the table? And the language you used to me? I don't know what he'll do with you at all, Jackie. He might have to send you up to the bishop." I remember thinking bitterly that she didn't know the half of what I had to tell - if I told it. I knew I couldn't tell it, and understood perfectly why the fellow in Mrs. Ryan's story made a bad confession, it seemed to me a great shame that people wouldn't stop criticizing him. I remember that steep hill down to the church, and the sunlit hillsides beyond the valley of the river, which I saw in the gaps between the houses like Adam's last glimpse of Paradise.


118 Then, when she had maneuvered me down the long flight of steps to the chapel yard, Nora suddenly changed her tone. She became the raging malicious devil she really was. "There you are!" she said with a yelp of triumph, hunting me through the church door." And I hope he'll give you the penitential psalins, you dirty little baffler.' I knew then I was lost, given up to eternal justice. The door with the coloured-glass panels swung shut behind me, the sunlight went out and gave place to deep shadow, and the wind whistled outside so that the silence within seemed to crackle like ice under my feet. Nora sat in front of me by

ASSIGNMENT 21: Translate the following text into Vietnamese 1. Nh×n chung sau mét thêi gian ho¹t ®éng tr× trÖ, nÒn c«ng nghiÖp dÖt thªu t- nh©n cña Thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh ®· ®-îc kh«i phôc vµ ph¸t triÓn ë møc ®é nhÊt ®Þnh kÓ tõ n¨m 1991.Tuy nhiªn sù ph¸t triÓn kh«ng æn ®Þnh bëi v× hÇu hÕt c«ng viÖc cña c¸c xÝ nghiÖp t- nh©n ®Òu phô thuéc vµo ®¬n ®Æt hµng cña n-íc ngoµi.Do vËy, hä kh«ng thÓ kiÓm so¸t ®-îc kÕ ho¹ch s¶n xuÊt, vµ gi¸ lao ®éng cho s¶n phÈm may mÆt bÞ c¸c ®èi t¸c n-íc ngoµi qui ®Þnh rÊt thÊp ( tiÒn c«ng lao ®éng n¨m 1995 chØ b»ng 65%-70% so víi c¸c n¨m 1991 vµ 1992.).Do tÝnh ®Æc thï cña ngµnh nµy, nªn l-¬ng trung b×nh cña c«ng nh©n trong ngµnh may-thªu chØ kho¶ng 400.000 ®ång/th¸ng. Víi sù c¹nh tranh gay g¾t hiÖn nay, b¶o hiÓm x· héi chiÕm ®Õn 15% vµ b¶o hiÓm y tÕ lµ 2% trong tæng sè l-¬ng mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp ph¶i ®ãng, vµ nÕu nh- kÕ ho¹ch dù kiÕn cña b¶o hiÓm x· héi ®-îc phª duyÖt, th× gi¸ thµnh s¶n xuÊt sÏ rÊt cao g©y khã kh¨n cho c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt ViÖt Nam trong vieec c¹nh tranh cã hiÖu qu¶ vµ chiÕm lÜnh thÞ tr-êng. §Ó gióp c¸c doanh nghiÖp thªu-may t- nh©n sèng cßn, «ng Nam ®· ®Ò nghÞ nhµ n-íc nªn söa ®æi tû lÖ ®ãng gãp cña c¸c doanh nghiÖp ngoµi quèc doanh ®èi víi chÝnh s¸ch b¶o hiÓm x· héi nhsau: - B¶o hiÓm x· héi: 10% ®èi víi doanh nghiÖp vµ 3% ®èi víi c«ng nh©n - B¶o hiÓm y tÕ c«ng nh©n

:

1% ®èi víi doanh nghiÖp

vµ 1% ®èi víi

Nhµ n-íc còng nªn ban hµnh mét qui ®Þnh cã liªn quan ®Õn ng-êi lao ®éng ®· ®-îc c¸c doanh nghiÖp tuyÓn dông vµ ®µo t¹o buéc ph¶i lµm viÖc tèi thiÓu lµ 2 n¨m. C¸c c«ng nh©n lµm viÖc trong


119 c¸c doanh nghiÖp ngoµi quèc doanh cÇn ph¶i ®-îc cÊp thÎ lµm viÖc. NÕu mét c«ng nh©n nµo ®ã muèn th«i viÖc th× ph¶i ®-îc doanh nghiÖp cñ qu¶n ®ång ý. TÊt c¶ mäi thµnh viªn cña c¸c c«ng ty may-thªu ë Thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh ®Òu ®ång ý thùc hiÖn ®Çy ®ñ viÖc ®ãng gãp mét phÇn l-¬ng vµo b¶o hiÓm x· héi vµ y tÕ, thÓ theo ®óng qui ®Þnh cña luËt lao ®éng. 2. C¸c chñ doanh nghiÖp cña c¸c c«ng ty lín ë TP Hå ChÝ Minh ®· nªu ra nh÷ng khã kh¨n mµ hä ph¶i ®-¬ng ®Çu trong viÖc c¹nh tranh gay g¾t víi c¸c c«ng ty n-íc ngoµi, ®Æc biÖt lµ víi c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå thÕ giíi. T¹i mét cuéc häp bµn vÒ : Lµm thÕ nµo ®Ó khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu tn-íc ngoµi vµ ®¶m b¶o s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc ®-îc tæ chøc t¹i TP Hå ChÝ minh tuÇn qua, c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt cña c¸c c«ng ty bét giÆt Tico vµ Lux, Mü phÈm P/S, n-íc gi¶i kh¸t Tribeco, dÖt ViÖt Th¾ng, bia Sµi gßn vµ c«ng ty gia cÇm vËt nu«i TP Hå ChÝ Minh ®Òu thèng nhÊt mét ý kiÕn lµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc kh«ng c©n søc trong viÖc c¹nh tranh víi c¸c ®èi t¸c n-íc ngoµi v× hä kh«ng ®-îc h-ëng chÝnh s¸ch -u ®·i thuÕ nh- c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã vèn ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi. ChØ 1 n¨m sau khi lÖnh cÊm vËn cña Mü ®-îc b·i bá, c¸c c«ng ty n-íc gi¶i kh¸t khæng lå nh- Coca-cola, Pep si- Cola ®-îc h-ëng -u ®·i vÒ vèn, chÝnh s¸ch tiÕp thÞ vµ c¸c -u ®·i kh¸c theo luËt §Çu T- N-íc Ngoµi, nªn c¸c c«ng ty nµy ®· dÇn dÇn th©m nhËp thÞ phÇn cña c¸c nahf s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc. C¸c s¶n phÈm kh¸c còng r¬i vµo hoµn c¶nh t-¬ng tù. Bia Sµi Gßn ph¶i c¹nh tranh quyÕt liÖt víi c¸c c«ng ty bia liªn doanh víi n-íc ngoµi. C¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt bét giÆt trong n-íc, mÆc dï cã thÓ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu trong n-íc ®Õn n¨m 2000, nh-ng l¹i bÞ c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå nhProcter & Gamble vµ Unilever dån vµo thÕ bÝ. §Ó b¶o vÖ viÖc s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc, c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc ®· ®Ò nghÞ víi chÝnh phñ mét sè biÖn ph¸p. Thø nhÊt, nhµ n-íc nªn cã kÕ ho¹ch ph¸t triÓn dµnh riªng cho viÖc ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi vÒ l·nh vùc kinh doanh vµ ph©n bè theo vïng ®Þa lý vµ kh«ng nªn khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi vµo viÖc s¶n xuÊt ra c¸c s¶n phÈm mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc cã kh¶ n¨ng s¶n xuÊt ®-îc nh- n-íc gi¶i kh¸t, bét giÆt, giÊy vµ thuèc l¸. Thø hai, viÖc cÊp giÊy phÐp nªn ®-îc ¸p dông cho c¸c c«ng ty liªn


120 doanh hay c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã 100% vèn ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi tham gia vµo c¸c dù ¸n ®ßi hái cã nhiÒu vèn, c«ng nghÖ cao hay s¶n xuÊt c¸c mÆt hµng xuÊt khÈu. Thø ba, lµ nªn cã mét ®¹o luËt chèng ®èi viÖc c¹nh tranh kh«ng lµnh m¹nh cã thÓ dÉn ®éc quyÒn kinh doanh, ph¸ gi¸ lµm h¹i ng-êi tiªu dïng. Thø t- nªn cã chÝnh s¸ch khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t- trong n-íc vµ cho c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc ®-îc h-ëng chÝnh s¸ch -u ®·i thuÕ nh- c¸c nhµ ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi. Thø n¨m, nªn ph¸t ®éng mét chiÕn dÞch ®éng viªn ng-êi ViÖt Nam dïng hµng néi ®Þa, t¹o ®iÒu kiÖn cho c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc ph¸t triÓn.

ASSIGNMENT 22: Translate the following text into English Poor people often have larger families than middle class and upper class people. And people in underdeveloped countries have more children than people in developed countries. More and more experts in population growth see the strong relationship between family size and economic development. In some areas, government family planning services may not be available to poor people due to geographic location. For example, people in rural areas may live too far away from family planning services. Therefore, they don't receive information about ways to control family size. In general, people in urban areas have much more information available to them than people living in rural areas. Urban people have help with family planning, and they have smaller families. So we can say that geography where people live - plays a part in determining family size: Urban families are smaller than rural families. What are the other reasons? Economic development of families and, on a larger scale, of nations, is an important factor in determining family size. People with a lot of money have fewer children. On the other hand, poor people in underdeveloped countries choose to have many children. Why? Because they have to depend upon their children to take care of them in their old age. They have no insurance, pensions, or government help. When they grow old, where can they get help? The answer is simple. They can and will turn to their children. Their children will be adults then, and they will be working. The children can all share the costs and other responsibilities of taking care of their parents. For many poor people, a large family is a way of planning and preparing for the future. We could say that a large family is insurance for old age in some societies.

ASSIGNMENT 23: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Hai c¬ quan l-¬ng thùc cña Liªn Hîp quèc ngµy h«m qua ®· cho r»ng Indonesia sÏ ®èi mÆt víi sù thiÕu hôt l-¬ng thùc trÇm


121 träng trong n¨m nay. §ã lµ hËu qu¶ cña nh÷ng vô mïa thÊt thu vµ cña cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh ®· lµm t¨ng gi¸ nhËp khÈu. Trong mét b¶n b¸o c¸o chung, tæ chøc L-¬ng N«ng thÕ giíi (FAO) vµ Ch-¬ng Tr×nh L-¬ng Thùc ThÕ Giíi (WFP) cho r»ng viÖc gióp ®ì cña thÕ giíi lµ cÇn thiÕt ®Ó gi¶i quyÕt viÖc thiÕu hôt g¹o t¹m thêi, nguån l-¬ng thùc chÝnh cña ®Êt n-íc. B¶n b¸o c¸o chung cña hai tæ chøc cã v¨n phßng ®Æt t¹i Rome th× hai tæ chøc FAO vµ WFP thóc giôc c¸c n-íc tµi trî gióp Indonesia gi¶i quyÕt c¸c vÊn ®Ò liªn quan ®Õn h¹n h¸n vµ khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh. B¶n b¸o c¸o nãi thªm r»ng gi¸ l-¬ng thùc ngµy cµng t¨ng cao, sè ng-êi thÊt nghiÖp ngµy cµng ®«ng lµm t¨ng thªm sè ng-êi sèng d-íi møc nghÌo ®ãi. Mét b¶n b¸o c¸o vÒ mét n-íc ®«ng d©n thø t- trªn thÕ giíi mµ nÒn kinh tÕ ®· bÞ tµn ph¸ cho r»ng :’’ Vµo kho¶ng 7,5 triÖu ng-êi Indonesia nghÌo khæ ë 15 tØnh cã thÓ ph¶i sèng thiÕu ¨n trong mïa kh«’’. B¶n b¸o c¸o dùa trªn nh÷ng cø liÖu do mét nhãm c«ng t¸c gåm 11 thµnh viªn cña hai tæ chøc nµy. Nhãm nµy ®· ®Õn Indonesia tõ ngµy 9 th¸ng 3 ®Õn 1 th¸ng 4 n¨m 1998. S¶n l-îng n¨m nay chØ -íc ®¹t 47,5 triÖu tÊn, thÊp h¬n 3,6% so víi n¨m ngo¸i. Sù tôt gi¶m nµy do mét trong nh÷ng ®ît h¹n h¸n nghiªm träng nhÊt ë Indonesia trong thÕ kû nµy g©y nªn. B¶n b¸o c¸o cßn cho biÕt mÆc dï chÝnh phñ Indonesia dù ®Þnh nhËp khÈu 1,5 triÖu tÊn g¹o tõ th¸ng 4 ®Õn th¸ng 9, nh-ng n-íc nµy vÉn cßn thiÕu 2 triÖu tÊn n÷a. Kho¶n thiÕu hôt nµy sÏ ®-îc céng ®ång quèc tÕ gióp ®ì ®Ó nh»m cøu v·n nÒn kinh tÕ ®ang l©m vµo c¶nh khèn cïng. B¶n b¸o c¸o cho biÕt th¸ch thøc chÝnh mµ ®Êt n-íc nµy ®ang ®èi mÆt lµ b¶o ®¶m cung cÊp ®ñ l-¬ng thùc cho 7,5 triÖu ng-êi nghÌo ®ãi v× gi¸ g¹o vµ c¸c lo¹i l-¬ng thùc kh¸c t¨ng 50% trong vßng 12 th¸ng qua.

ASSIGNMENT 24: Translate the following text into Vietnamese H«m thø t-, ViÖt Nam tuyªn bè lµ sÏ gia nhËp HiÖp Héi c¸c n-íc §«ng Nam ¸, nh»m xua ®i pháng ®o¸n lµ Hµ Néi muèn lÇn l÷a viÖc trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cho ®Õn khi chuÈn bÞ tèt mäi ®iÒu kiÖn. ‘‘ ViÖt Nam hiÖn giê ®ang tÝch cùc chuÈn bÞ mäi ®iÒu kiÖn cÇn thiÕt ®Ó trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cña ASEAN vµo n¨m tíi.’’ Phã Thñ T-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i ®· tuyªn bè nh- vËy víi c¸c doanh nh©n t¹i mét b÷a ¨n tr-a do DiÔn ®µn Kinh tÕ thÕ giíi (WEF) -


122 trô së ®Æt t¹i Thôy SÜ- tæ chøc. WEF lµ c¬ quan ®øng ra duy tr× cuéc häp kÐo dµi 3 ngµy ë ®©y. Phã Thñ T-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cho biÕt ViÖt Nam còng muèn tham gia vµo DiÔn §µn Hîp T¸c Kinh TÕ Ch©u ¸- Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng ( APEC) víi 17 thµnh viªn. khi cã ®ñ ®iÒu kiÖn. T¹i Jakarta, Thø tr-ëng ngo¹i giao ViÖt Nam Vò Khoan nãi r»ng n-íc «ng sÏ ®Ö ®¬n xin trë thµnh héi viªn A SEAN vßa cuèi th¸ng nµy hay ®Çu th¸ng 11. Thø tr-ëng Vò Khoan, sau khi gÆp «ng A Jit Singh Tæng th- ký A SEAN- v¨n phßng ®Æt t¹i JaKarta, ®· ph¸t biÓu r»ng «ng kh«ng muèn cã mét trë ng¹i nµo trong qu¸ tr×nh gia nhËp A SEAN. Th«ng tÊn x· Antara ®· trÝch dÉn lêi tuyªn bè cña «ng. C¸c thµnh viªn APEC bao gåm c¸c quèc gia thuéc Indonesia, Malaisia, Phillipine, Xingapore vµ c¸c n-íc Mü, Canada, NhËt vµ Trung Quèc. Mét chÝnh thøc cña c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o c¸c n-íc tham tæ chøc t¹i Indonesia vµo th¸ng tíi.

A SEAN- Brun©y, Th¸i Lan- cïng cuéc häp kh«ng giaAPEC sÏ ®-îc

ViÖt nam ®· ®¹t ®-îc kÕt qu¶ lµ trë thµnh quan s¸t viªn ASEAN trong cuéc héi nghÞ cña khèi nµy vµo n¨m 1992, ®· tuyªn bè lµ thiÕt tha mong muèn trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cña tæ chøc nµy, ®· cã nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh víi nhiÒu hoµi b¶o vÒ sù hîp t¸c, bao gåm c¶ viÖc ph¸t ®éng khu vùc tù do mËu dÞch A SEAN trong vßng 10 n¨m. C¸c viªn chøc ASEAN còng ®· hy väng lµ ViÖt Nam cã lÏ sÏ gia nhËp A SEAN tr-íc khi c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña 6 quèc gia thµnh viªn tham dù cuéc häp th-îng ®Ønh tæ chøc t¹i Th¸i Lan vµo th¸ng 12 n¨m 1995. ‘‘ §· s½n cã nh÷ng qui ®Þnh vÒ viÖc hîp t¸c trong khèi A SEAN. Mét khi chóng t«i lµ héi viªn th× chóng t«i sÏ tu©n theo mäi qui ®Þnh. Phã Thñ T-íng nãi thªm r»ng Hµ Néi sÏ lµm viÖc víi c¸c n-íc kh¸c t¹i §ong Nam ¸ ®Ó b¶o ®¶m nÒn an ninh khu vùc. ’’ Phã Thñ t-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cho biÕt chÝnh phñ cña «ng sÏ ®Èy m¹nh c¸c næ lùc b»ng nh÷ng viÖc c¶i c¸ch ®Ó hoµn thiÖn c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn cho sù ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi qua sù h×nh thµnh mét c¬ cÊu luËt ph¸p míi vµ c¸c thñ tôc hµnh ch¸nh thÝch hîp h¬n. Phã Thñ t-íng nãi: ‘‘ Chóng t«i hiÓu ®-îc lµ ViÖt Nam ®ang ®èi phã víi nh÷ng thö th¸ch lín lao cña sù c¹nh tranh kinh tÕ toµn cÇu vµ nh- thÕ chóng t«i ph¶i cè g¾ng thËt tÝch cùc ®Ó g¹t bá ®i mèi nguy c¬ tôt hËu ®»ng sau c¸c n-íc l¸ng giÒng.’’

ASSIGNMENT 25: Translate the following texts into English


123 1. The manufacturing sector expanded significantly during the post-World War II reconstruction of the Philippine economy. Government controls on imports promoted the development of light industries that produced consumer goods for the domestic market. In the 1970s the government created four special economic zones designed to stimulate manufacturing for the export market. Industries in these export-processing zones receive incentives to produce traditional exports. The zones have helped to stimulate foreign investment in the Philippine economy, in part because they are exempt from certain taxes and restrictions on foreign ownership of businesses. The success of these zones has led to the creation of other types of special economic zones, such as large industrial estates. Businesses receive tax exemptions and other incentives in these zones. The former U.S. naval base at Subic Bay, for example, is now a huge industrial-commercial zone in Manila. Its modern facilities and duty-free economic zone have attracted new export-focused industries and foreign investment 2. Vietnam has sought to maintain socio-politic stability, develop economic and diplomatic establishment in recent years. The positive legal changes have had a tremendous influence on the production, financial and commercial situations. Vietnam ranked as the world‟s secondlargest rice exporter to Thailand because its agriculture responded dramatically to free market. In manufacturing and service activities the rapid growth and change occurred in and around HCM City. Much economic expansion was partially driven by an influx of investment and technology from some 2 million overseas Vietnamese in many different countries worldwide, most of whom had returned to Vietnam for their investment and contacts with their relatives. Only a year after the US embargo was lifted, soft drink giants such as Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola, which have enjoyed superior advantages in capital, marketing policies and preferences under the Foreign Investment Law, have gradually eaten into the market shares of local producers. Other products are also in the same situation. Saigon Beer has to compete fiercely with breweries of foreign Joint-ventures. Local detergent producers, although capable of meeting domestic demand to the year 2005, have driven into the corner by giants such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever. 3. To protect domestic production, local producers have proposed several measures to the Government. First, the State should devise specific development plans for foreign investment in terms of business field and geographical area and should not encourage foreign investment in products which local enterprises can produce such as soft drink, detergent, paper and cigarettes. Second, licenses should be granted only to JVs or foreign-owned enterprises which involve in projects requiring large capital, advanced technology or producing goods for export. Third, a law should be enacted against unfair competition that can lead to monopoly, dumping or price inflation that does not benefit consumers. 4. In Vietnamese the word “nuoc” carry a double meaning of “country” and “water”, a linguistic association recognizable after a journey to the most fertile land in Vietnam- the Mekong Delta. The silt from the Mekong River helps to bring an ample granary representing the whole country source of food as well as the local inhabitants‟ riverside lifestyle. For tourists, the Mekong Delta is one of the most fascinating tourist destinations in South-east Asia. It offers the marvel of the glittering waters coupled with the gaiety of a culture demonstrated by the local lifestyle and commercial activities. The big cities such as Can Tho,


124 My Tho and Long Xuyen provide a vantage for the nine provinces of the Mekong Delta while the immense network of rivers and canals is regarded as the great boon second to none in this region. The exciting life in this region is not very similar to that in HCM City. However, it does not suggest any difficulty in reaching the Mekong Delta to escape the excitement of the greatest city in Southern Vietnam. It takes only a three-hour drive( by bus, though) on the National Highway Number 1 to get to My Tho, the capital of Tien giang & an ideal departure point for exploring this delta region.


125

REFERENCES Bolinger, Dwight. 1977. Meaning and Form. Longman, London, UK. Catford, J.C. 1985. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Oxford University Press, London, UK. Halliday, M.K.A. 1976. Cohesion in English. Longmans, London, UK. Larson, Mildred L. 1998. Meaning-based Translation.University Press of America. Maryland, USA. Newmark, Peter. 1989. A Textbook of Translation. Prentice Hall International, Hertfordside, USA Palmer, F.R. 1981. Semantics. Cambridge University Press, London, UK. Reyburn, D. 1979. Cultural Equivalences in Translation. Oxford University Press, London, UK. Rose, Marilyn. 1982. Translation Spectrum. State University of NY Press, New York, USA Steiner, G. 1985. Aspects of Language and Translation. Oxford University Press, London, UK. Tosh, Wayne. 1975. Syntactic Translation. The Hague, Mouton, USA


CONTENTS Introduction Chapter 1: THEORY OF TRANSLATION Lesson 1: Form and Meaning Lesson 2: Kinds of Translation Lesson 3: Steps in a Translation Project Lesson 4: Strategies for Translators Lesson 5: Patterns and Sources of Errors Chapter 2: ASSIGNMENTS Assignment 1 Assignment 2 Assignment 3 Assignment 4 Assignment 5 Assignment 6 Assignment 7 Assignment 8 Assignment 9 Assignment 10 Assignment 11 Assignment 12 Assignment 13 Assignment 14 Assignment 15 Assignment 16 Assignment 17 Assignment 18 Assignment 19 Assignment 20 Assignment 21 Assignment 22 Assignment 23 Assignment 24 Assignment 25 Chapter 2: ASSIGNMENT KEYS Assignment 1 Assignment 2 Assignment 3 Assignment 4 Assignment 5 Assignment 6 Assignment 7 Assignment 8 Assignment 8

1 2 2 11 21 27 34 49 49 51 54 55 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 65 66 67 68 70 71 73 73 74 76 77 78 78 79 81 81 82 84 85 86 87 89 90 90


Assignment 10 Assignment 11 Assignment 12 Assignment 13 Assignment 14 Assignment 15 Assignment 16 Assignment 17 Assignment 18 Assignment 19 Assignment 20 Assignment 21 Assignment 22 Assignment 23 Assignment 24 Assignment 25 References

91 92 94 95 96 98 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 106 107 107 109


Thông tin về tác giả của giáo trình: - Họ và tên: Nguyễn Văn Tuấn - Sinh năm: 1963 - Cơ quan công tác: Tổ Biên-phiên dịch, Khoa Tiếng Anh, Trường Đại học Ngoại Ngữ Huế - Địa chỉ email: tuannguyen11863@yahoo.com Phạm vi và đối tượng sử dụng giáo trình: - Giáo trình Translation 1&2 chủ yếu sử dụng để dạy cho sinh viên ngành Tiếng Anh, chuyên ngành Biên phiên dịch. Giáo trình này còn có thể dùng để dạy hoặc dùng như nguồn tham khảo cho sinh viên ngành Quốc tế học, Việt Nam học. - Giáo trình có thể dùng cho các trường Đại học ngoại ngữ, Đại học sư phạm ngoại ngữ, Học viện quan hệ quốc tế. - Yêu cầu kiến thức trước lúc học môn này: Để học tốt môn này, người học cần phải có kiến thức cơ bản về ngữ nghĩa, ngữ dụng và diễn ngôn. Ngoài ra người học cần có kinh nghiệm ít nhiều về công tác biên-phiên dịch hoặc là đang tham gia công việc này hoặc là sinh viên đang học các môn biên-phiên dịch thực hành - Các từ khóa để tra cứu: Source language, Target language, Meaning-based translation, Literal translation, Translation errors, Exegesis, Translation evaluation, Strategies for translators, Paraphrase, The 4 T's in translation - Đã xuất bản năm 2001 tại NXB Đại học Huế, tái bản năm 2006 tại NXB Đà Nẵng


Translation12  

COLLEGE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH

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