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Pengu ns IN Antarctica


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Contents 4

Antarctica

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Penguins

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Emperor Penguin

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King Penguin

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Gentoo Penguin

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Adelie Penguin

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Chinstrap Penguin

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Macaroni Penguin

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Rockhoppers Penguin

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More about Penguins...


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Map of Antarctica

The cruise enters Antarctica.

Sunrise in Antarctica


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Antarctica Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole. It is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14.0 million km2, it is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1 mile (1.6 km) in thickness.

Antarctica is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Antarctica is considered a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm along the coast and far less inland. The temperature has reached −89 °C. There are no permanent human residents, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent. Only cold-adapted organisms survive there, including many types of algae, animals (for example mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades), bacteria, fungi, plants, and protista. Vegetation where it occurs is tundra.


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Penguins

A Galรกpagos Penguin is on sunbath

Penguins are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the southern hemisphere, especially in Antarctica. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have become flippers. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. They spend about half of their lives on land and half in the oceans. Although all penguin species are native to the southern hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin live so far south. Several species are found in the temperate zone, and one species, the Galรกpagos Penguin, lives near the equator.


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Among extant penguins, larger penguins inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are generally found in temperate or even tropical climates (see also Bergmann's Rule). Some prehistoric species attained enormous sizes, becoming as tall or as heavy as an adult human. These were not restricted to Antarctic regions; on the contrary, subantarctic regions harboured high diversity, and at least one giant penguin occurred in a region not quite 2,000 km south of the equator 35 mya, in a climate decidedly warmer than today.

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A Emperor Penguin chick

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African Penguins

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King Penguins walk across the river. King Penguins are playing.


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Emperor Penguin The Emperor Penguin is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica. The male and female are similar in plumage and size, reaching 122 cm in height and weighing anywhere from 22 to 45 kg. The dorsal side and head are black and sharply delineated from the white belly, pale-yellow breast and brightyellow ear patches. Like all penguins it is flightless, with a streamlined body, and wings stiffened and flattened into flippers for a marine habitat. Its diet consists primarily of fish, but can also include crustaceans, such as krill, and cephalopods, such as squid. In hunting, the species can remain submerged up to 18 minutes, diving to a depth of 535 m. It has several adaptations to facilitate this, including


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an unusually structured hemoglobin to allow it to function at low oxygen levels, solid bones to reduce barotrauma, and the ability to reduce its metabolism and shut down nonessential organ functions. The Emperor Penguin is known for the sequence of journeys adults make each year in order to mate and to feed their offspring. The only penguin species that breeds during the Antarctic winter, it treks 50–120 km (31–75 mi) over the ice to breeding colonies which include thousands of individuals. The female lays a single egg, which is incubated by the male while the female returns to the sea to feed; parents subsequently take turns foraging at sea and caring for their chick in the colony. The lifespan is typically 20 years.

A Emperor Penguin is feeding its baby.

Emperor Penguin Family

Emperor Penguin chicks huddle together to keep warm.


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King Penguin and its chick King Penguin huddles with the chicks. King Penguin fights with the seal. The King Penguin couple King Penguins on the beach


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King Penguin The King Penguin is the second largest species of penguin at about 11 to 16 kg (24 to 35 lb), second only to the Emperor Penguin. There are two subspecies—A. p. patagonicus and A. p. halli; patagonicus is found in the South Atlantic and halli elsewhere. King Penguins eat small fish, mainly lanternfish, and squid and rely less than most Southern Ocean predators on krill and other crustaceans. On foraging trips they repeatedly dive to over 100 metres, often over 200 metres . King Penguins breed on the subantarctic islands at the northern reaches of Antarctica, South Georgia, and other temperate islands of the region. Spring is breeding time and they crowd together in huge numbers covering whole beaches. The total population is estimated to be 2.23 million pairs and is increasing.


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Gentoo Penguin The Gentoo Penguin, is easily recognized by the wide white stripe extending like a bonnet across the top of its head and its bright orangered bill. The Gentoo Penguin has pale whitish-pink webbed feet and a fairly long tail - the most prominent tail of all penguins. Chicks have grey backs with white fronts. As the Gentoo Penguin waddles along on land, its tail sticks out behind, sweeping from side to side, hence the scientific name Pygoscelis, which means ‘rump-tailed’.

A nest of Gentoo Penguins

Gentoo Penguins walk one by one.

Adult Gentoo Penguins reach a height of 51 to 90 cm, making them the third largest species of penguin after the two giant species, the Emperor Penguin and the King Penguin. The Gentoo Penguin calls in a variety of ways, but the most frequently heard is a loud trumpeting which is emitted with its head thrown back. The Gentoo Penguins climb above the beaches to grassy slopes looking for the perfect nursery. They make their nests in the top of tussock grass. This way the eggs are kept safely out of the mud where they would easily be broken. A Gentoo Penguin nest was made of stones and penguin tail-feathers.


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Adelie Penguin

The Adelie Penguin, is a species of penguin common along the entire Antarctic coast. They are among the most southerly distributed of all seabirds, as are the Emperor Penguin, the South Polar Skua, the Wilson's Storm Petrel, the Snow Petrel, and the Antarctic Petrel. In 1840, French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville named them for his wife, Adèle.


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The Adelie Penguins' fight

These penguins are mid-sized, being 46 to 75 cm (18 to 30 in) in length and 3.6 to 6 kg (7.9 to 13 lb) in weight. AdĂŠlie penguins can swim up to 45 miles per hour (72 km/h). AdĂŠlie penguins are preyed on by leopard seals and skua. Distinctive marks are the white ring surrounding the eye and the feathers at the base of the bill. These long feathers hide most of the red bill. The tail is a little longer than other penguins' tails. The appearance looks somewhat like a tuxedo. They are a little smaller than other penguin species. Their appearance is closest to the stereotypical image of penguins as mostly black with a white belly.

The Adelie Penguins hatch their eggs.

Moulting Adelie Penguin chick


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1 Chinstrap Penguin and its chicks 2 Chinstrap Penguins keep a sharp eye out for the egg stealing Sheathbill. 3 A Chinstrap Penguin is resting. 4 Three Chinstrap Penguins is running.


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Chinstrap Penguin The Chinstrap Penguin is a species of penguin which is found in the South Sandwich Islands, Antarctica, the South Orkneys, South Shetland, South Georgia, Bouvet Island and Balleny. Their name derives from the narrow black band under their heads which makes it appear as if they are wearing black helmets. Other names for them are "Ringed Penguins", "Bearded Penguins", and "Stonecracker Penguins" due to their harsh call. Chinstrap Penguins can grow up to 68 cm (27 in) in length, and a weight of 6 kg (13.2 lbs); however, their weight can drop as low as 3 kg (6.6 lbs) depending on the breeding cycle. The adult Chinstraps' flippers are black, with a white edge. The face is white extending behind the eyes. The chin and throat are white as well. The short bill is black. The eyes are reddish brown. The legs and the webbed feet are pink. Their diet consists of krill, shrimp, and fish, for which they swim up to 80 km (50 mi) offshore each day.

They live on barren islands and large icebergs of the sub-Antarctic Region and the Antarctic Peninsula; however, they generally require solid, snowfree ground to nest on. They have an average life span of 15-20 years. Chinstrap Penguins are considered the most aggressive penguin.


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Macaroni Penguin

The Macaroni Penguin is a species of penguin found from the Subantarctic to the Antarctic Peninsula. One of six species of crested penguin, it is very closely related to the Royal Penguin, and some authorities consider the two to be the same species. Its name comes from a funny British hairstyle that was popular in the 1800s. It bears a distinctive yellow crest, and the face and upperparts are black and sharply delineated from the white underparts. Adults weigh on average 5.5 kg (12 lb) and are 70 cm (28 in) in length.

The adult Macaroni Penguin

Its chicks are distinguished by their smaller duller brown bill, dark grey chin and throat, and underdeveloped head plumes, often just a scattering of yellow feathers. The crest is fully developed in birds aged 3–4 years, a year or two before breeding age.


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Its diet consists of a variety of crustaceans, mainly krill, as well as small fish and cephalopods; the species consumes more marine life annually than any other species of seabird. These birds moult once a year, spending about three to four weeks ashore, before returning to the sea. Numbering up to 100,000 individuals, the breeding colonies of the Macaroni Penguin are among the largest and densest of all penguin species. After the summer months breeding, penguins disperse into the oceans for six months. However, widespread declines in populations have been recorded since the mid-1970s.

Nest on steep rough ground

The couple of Macaroni Penguins

A Macaroni Penguin chick


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Rockhopper Penguins on the beach Rockhopper Penguin and its chicks Rockhopper Penguin shouts. Rockhopper Penguins walk on the beach.


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Rockhopper Penguin The Rockhopper Penguins are experts at getting over rocks. They do this by hopping everywhere, which is probably how they got their name. This makes them look like they are made out of rubber. They can fall down small cliffs and bounce without getting hurt. They even hop into the sea, feet first. Rockhopper Penguins live on rough coasts where they have to hop up onto rocks and cliffs through the big surf. They are angry little penguins, picking fights with anybody who gets too close. This is the smallest yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin. It reaches a length of 45–58 cm (18–23 in) and typically weighs 2–3.4 kg (4.4–7.5 lb), although there are records of exceptionally large rockhoppers weighing 5 kg (11 lb). It has slate-grey upper parts and a straight, bright yellow eyebrow ending in long yellowish plumes projecting sideways behind a red eye.


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More about Penguins... Are penguins too lazy to fly? Millions of years ago, there were prehistoric penguins. They envolved from birds that flew. Eventually, they became flightless full-time swimmers. Some prehistoric penguins were over six feet tall and weighted over 200 pounds (91kg).

What is the scoop on penguin poop? A penguin's poop can make a big mess! It squirts out in a stream about two feet long. To poop, penguins turn away from their own nests, but they might splatter the fellow next to them. Penguins' poop, or guano, changes colour, depending on what they eat. The common colour of the poop is pink. Sometimes the poop is white if they eat too much fish. If it is green, it means they are starving.

Do penguins talk? Different species of penguins make different sounds. They honk, whistle, trumpet, buzz, bark, huff, quack, and growl. Each penguin also has its own unique voice. This helps penguins find their mates and chicks in a huge crowd. Penguin sounds belong to three main groups: • Territorial: "I want to keep this spot to myself, so get lost!" • Contact: "Hello, is that you?" • Pair bouding: "I like you—do you like me, too?"


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Penguins in Antarctica  

This is a booklet for the audience a brief introduction of Antarctica and penguins acting in the film. The information and photos used are...

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