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STUDIO AIR FINAL DESIGN JOURNAL 2014_Semester 2_Philip Belesky Ng Hann Clive_594870


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I would like to take this opportunity to thank Philip Belesky for his guidance and tutelage for which without it, the publication of this magazine would not have been possible.

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CONTENTS Introduction Part A Conceptualization

Part A1 Design Futuring Part A2 Design Computation Part A3 Composition Generation Part A4 Conclusion Part A5 Learning Outcomes Part A6 Algorithmic Sketches

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Part B Criteria Design Part B1

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Research Field Part B2

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Case Study 1 Part B3

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Case Study 2 Part B4

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Technique : Development Part B5

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Technique : Prototypes Part B6 Technique : Proposal Part B7 Learning Objectives & Outcomes Part B8

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Algorithmic Sketches

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Part C Detailed Design Part C1

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Design Concept Part C2

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Tectonic Elements Part C3

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Final Model Part C4

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Design Statement Part C5

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Learning Objectives and Outcomes

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“Hey there, I’m Ng Hann Clive from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. When I was young, I always desire freedom away from home. Now, I really miss home. How ironic.”

To quote Bruce Lee,

Why architecture? To be perfectly honest, it is my parents’ decision for me to enroll in this course. It is never something that I would dedicate my lifetime to pursue.

‘Do not pray for an easy life,

Sooner that I realized I’m totally wrong,

Pray for the strength to endure a difficult one.’

In the realm of architecture, not only that I found that it is a canvass where my imagination can be expressed into real, but it is also an intimidating beast that forced me to become stronger and better in person. Although there are tough times that pushed me to the edge of mental breakdown, it is precisely the blood, sweat and tears that make me addicted into architecture.

After all, Architecture Studio: Air would definitely be a stepping-stone leading me towards a clearer perspective of parametric design. I’m looking forward and excited to explore the unknown lying ahead of me.

Thanks to the amazing course provided by The University of Melbourne as it is so challenging that I’m still struggling to adapt even though it is already my third year battling architecture.

iNTRODUCTION 4

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Inspired by Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel: Creation of Adam, a love pavilion is designed for lovebirds in Argyle Square, Melbourne. Sculpture-like form is greatly appreciated in order to create a streamlined design. It is called Nicolé Momentó as a name to reminisce every moment being with love.

PREVIOUS PROJECT CONCEPTUALISATION 5


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conceptualization

partA


DESIGN fUTURING partA1 CONCEPTUALISATION 7


“The Wind Fountain portrays a strong ambition of revolutionary design that blends both artificial and nature together to achieve a futuristic idealization. With the ability to harvest renewable energy, it has incorporated sustainability into design aesthetic.”

Figure 1.1 wIND fOUNTAIN USING THE SITE AS ADVANTAGE TO HARVEST STRONG WIND AND SEA BREEZE FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION.

the Wind Fountain Gembong Reksa Kawula Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Sukkahville 2013 Competition Entry

From the reading, Fry’s emphasize heavily on the complex

phenomenon where relatively more people are ‘designing’ in present days but that design becomes increasingly trivialized and reduced to appearance and style.[1] People have forgotten what is initially important for architecture. Many have neglected the most fundamental aspect of architecture, which is creating a livable space for people. It is simple as that. As many already know, the most primitive and sustainable architecture origins from nature, thus it is always a wise decision to get inspiration from our mother nature. By looking at The Wind Fountain, although being generated by digital designing software, it is obvious to see that the architecture form has a strong resemblance with palm trees. In the case study, the team avoids an abstruse design form, which is inappropriate and unsuitable to the context and users; but rather a more practical form, which promotes sustainability.

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Figure 1.2 wIND fOUNTAIN EMMITS FLUORESCENT LIGHT USING WIND ENERGY PRODUCED.

In futuring design, it is not only desired to allocate scarce resources efficiently to the welfare of human being, but also avoiding the sacrifice of benefits by any circumstances of the future generation.[2] Hence, a giant visually appealing sculpture cannot be mistaken as an architecture as many factors has to be put into consideration. Particularly we are now on the cusp of one of the most dramatic changes in our mode of earthly habitation, enormous use of resources just for the sake of aesthetic purpose is unfavorable.

By incorporating parametric design with inspiration from nature, this design changes the perception of people towards digital generated architecture. The idea of combining the best of both worlds (parametric and nature) is promoted through creating a space where both aesthetics and sustainability is expressed. Without having artificial technology to an extreme nor nature influence at superlative, the continuity of a balance relationship between human beings and nature is preserved.

In order to position The Wind Foundation on an architectural standard parallel with the philosophy of futuring design, revolutionary constructing materials are incorporated. With the use of carbon fibre reinforced resin pole as main construction materials, high flexibility of the structure can be achieved, allowing the design embodies the movement of real trees in which they sway and move depending on the wind direction.[3] With the introduction of piezoelectric effect, vibration generated by wind can create enough stress and strain on piezoelectric crystals to generate electric current. Piezoelectric effect is a well-known property of certain materials to produce electrical power when they undergo strain and stress. [4] 2 3 4

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“Maple Leaf Design is inspired by the natural phenomena of photosynthesis, the most crucial biological process on earth that can never stop its cycle unless without sunlight. Hence, becoming the core of futuring design to create an eternal space that generate infinite amount of renewable energy.”

Figure 1.3 PLAN VIEW OF THE DESIGN INDICATING THAT LIGHT IS EMMITED DURING THE NIGHT WITHOUT ANY ENERGY REQUIRED.

Maple Leaf Phil Choo, Chulho Yang Stillwater, USA LAGI 2012 Competition Entry

The two questions, ‘How is the future being understood?’ and ‘What is meant by design?’ are mentioned by Fry to stress on the importance of creating a design that would allow us to foresee a bright future.[5] Architecture is a critical factor to determine the living standard and pattern around the world throughout human history. Instead of exaggerating on a futuristic design, Maple Leaf Design is a project designed for the benefits of future generation. As a leaf generates indispensable energy and oxygen from to mankind, the Maple Leaf Design structures generate electrical energy from sunlight and utilize methane gas obtained from buried waste.[6] By transforming a wasteland into a recreational park which not only promotes interaction between urban community but also creating awareness centering the topic of energy allows people to foresee a better quality of living in future generation. 5 6

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Figure 1.4 LATTICE STRUCTURE OF THE DESIGN WHICH EFFICIENTLY HARVEST ENERGY FROM THE GROUND.

It is important for a designer to measure his own understanding against the fact of design’s continually growing importance as a decisive factor in our future.[7] Nature alone cannot sustain us. We are too many and have done too much ecological damage. In the case study, decomposing waste with high toxic level on site was initially a design challenge. However, this site’s disadvantage factor is transformed into a good source of renewable energy by installing 600 gas-extraction wells in the park area resulting in a significant amount of methane gas can be extracted and put into use.[8] Apart from harvesting renewable energy, this project successfully dismantles the harm of toxic waste to the community. This project positively convey the message that energy can be generated simply from the waste we have created when nature can no longer satisfy our demand. This resource is less cost and proportionally meets the energy demand of human population at any time. As the age of ‘design democracy’ rises, many designs are produced with form and aesthetics that have never been achieved before.[9] Many are celebrating the fascinating outcome that computer software could produce. 7 8 9

Gradually, instead of using them as a stepping-stone to achieve a higher level of architecture, designers become blinded with these softwares. In Fry’s reading, it is mentioned that a design has to have an aim or goal rather than pure aesthetics.[10] In the case study, the organic shape of Maple Leaf emerged by creating a linear mapping of the gasextraction wells in the North Park area. By combining a lattice structure with refined linear design and connecting the pillars of covered gas-extraction wells, the Maple Leaf Design became a stable structure inspired by nature and the infrastructure of Fresh Kills Park. Furthermore, the lattice structure allows electricity to be generated by solar panels and to travel through the vein structure to distribute energy into the electrical grid as if a plant produces glucose using sunlight and sends it to the root and other parts of the body. Solar panels after 25 years of life will be decommissioned in a safe and environmentally friendly manner and will be replaced by newer solar panels having best performance at the time of replacement.[11] Aligning with Fry’s philosophy of futuring design, Maple Leaf Design is a parametric architecture that produce positive outcome to both present and future inhabitants. 10 11

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design computation partA2 12

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With the aid of computer in recent years, architecture has blossomed into an exciting field for the architects. New technologies such as digital modeling and 3D prefabrication has revolutionized the world of engineering and design, creating a larger piece of canvass to allow more complex creativity to be put into real. In the field of architecture, computation design methodology is the key to explore different attributes and complexities that were initially unimaginable. Distinct attributes can be spotted between computerization and computation. An obvious transition between hand drawing and digital design occurred after the introduction of computation in recent years.[12] Unlike computation, computerization softwares such as AUTOCAD and RHINO serve as a catalyst to speed up production without sacrificing precision. These programs aid in making designers easier to satisfy enormous industrial demands. On the other hand, computation is established using new design approach in which digital production methods such as mathematical ideal, logical algorithm and scripting are the factors directly affecting the design outcome.[13] In another words, computation based software like GRASSHOPPER can be described as an artificially intelligence designer that takes order directly from a human designer.

Computer design rebels the idea of expressing creativity through sketching and drawings. Thus, computation-modeling software favors algorithmic approach when generating design.[14] 12 13 14

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“The Digital Grotesque is between chaos and order, both natural and the artificial, neither foreign nor familiar. Any references to nature or existing styles are not integrated into the design process, but are evoked only as associations in the eye of the beholder.� Hansmeyer

Figure 2.1 refined details frabricated by 3d-printer.

The Digital Grotesque Hansmeyer & Dillenburger 2013

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Figure 2.2 hIGH COMPLEXITY GENERATED USING COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN APPROACH.

In the Digital Grotesque Project, algorithms are used to create a form that appears at once synthetic and organic.[15] This project intends to design a space, which express the optimal level of digital technologies. With an reminisce composition of Gothic’s style, this design challenges the conventional stigma where computation design method and conventional architecture design are two different character that do not linked.

This ambitious design strikes a delicate balance between the expected and unexpected, between control and relinquishment. Thus, creating visual surprise, which I believe, surpass the standard of any conservative architecture not forgetting setting a milestone for computer design.

Problem solving flexibility and rational decision-making skills possess by designers are uniting with computation’s ability to analyze and interpret each and every data, parameter, etc. given in this project. I strongly believe that a bottom-up methodology is practiced to generate this design. Bottomup is a trending design method in which computer serve as an initiation to generate design forms, and designers would refine the design outcome after to ensure its real life constructability.[16] As a result, extreme standard of complexity in forms and geometries that is traditionally inconceivable to designers are successfully realized with the aid of computation design. 15 16 CONCEPTUALISATION 15


“Underlining the ideas of affordability, ephemerality and fragility, the twisting configuration of the project results in two entrances/ exits enabling the visitor to progressively experience a protected space which celebrates the connection between the Earth and the Skies. “

figure 2.3 tHE EXTERIOR OF THE DESIGN.

GOD EYE’S Christina Galanou & Koufopavlou Toronto, Canada Sukkahville 2013 Competition Entry

figure 2.4 DiFFERENT TYPES OF ALGORITHM INPUT RESULTED IN FORM OF PATTERN GENERATED.

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‘God’s Eye’ initial design concept expanded on the requirement for a sky opening, an integral element of the traditional Sukkah. This precedent undoubtedly demonstrate the practice of computational design where a mathematical algorithm is logically organized which eventually evoked the final form of ‘God’s Eye’ as an aesthetic design to satisfy Sukkah’s competition criteria.


figure 2.5 cLOSE-UP VIEW FOCUSING ON THE TEXTURE AND MATERIALITY OF THE DESIGN.

‘God’s Eye’ is subsequently fragmented into two interdepended systems – The Structure (Primary and Secondary) and the Skin (Weaved Cladding).[17] Both systems were continually developed through experimentation, digital simulation and Full Scale Mock-Ups. Two such mock-ups were built and tested in Cyprus prior constructing the project in Canada.[18] If the use of conventional method is put into practice, this project would be almost impossible to achieve in terms of its curvature forms and precision to attain the complexity of the outer layer of cladding. The integral system was continually developed through a series of virtual and physical simulations incorporating digital design techniques as parametric design and computer programming.

The membrane, serving structural and sheltering purposes, was realized by interweaving recycled single-sided corrugated cardboard strips, of variable widths, on the secondary structural system. A computational model enabled the calculation of the strips’ width and length thus eliminating waste and facilitating construction.[19] By practicing computational method, not only that the team are able to generate numerous prototypes for improvisation without sacrifice a significant amount of time and cost, but also making prefabrication stage to turn into a highly organized and convenient process. 19

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COMPOSITION & GENERATIVE partA3 18

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With the emergence of highly convoluted architectural style to satisfy modern living standard; simple digital based designs are no longer worthy production if they remain unresponsive towards rocketing demands from various aspects such as aesthetic, spatial organization, sustainability, functionality, constructability etc. To wrestle with the age of digitalization, architecture has repetitively given rise to new and newer types of innovative design approach.[20] Decades have been taken to give rise to digital architecture, which result in an interesting shift from hand design to computer generative design. Today, however, it only takes months for architects and designers to develop an entirely new program to generate a revolutionize outcome in respond to clients’ demand. With the use of computation-based programs, there are two types of approaches known as compositional and generative when design strategies are concerned. When compositional design techniques are put into use, designers are often the dominant character that manipulates computational software to refine design ideas that has been decided prior, may it be sketches or physical model.[21] In other words, computation program simply serve as a booster to improvise what has been conventional design. On the other hand, for designers, which favor generative approaches, they regularly insert an amount of data or information that eventually forms an algorithm. An ‘algorithm’ refers to the method of doing something and is made up of a set of procedures that are generally easy to follow. Then, it is the computer’s responsibility to logically apply these algorithms to generate a series of products. Sometimes, an enormous amount of outcome would be produced, and designers will have to select the most suitable product in which it performance is the best.[22] Instead of focusing on the surface qualities of design aspects, computation design at advance level focus on wider and deeper range of design possibilities and freedom. By indulging oneself to understand the mechanism behind computation programs, passionate exploration in the digital realm allows designers to manipulate scripting language and mathematical algorithm that result in producing customized forms as their outcome. If designers move one step further, it is not impossible for them to develop the own computation software of their own to assist in widening their design possibilities. Aligning with Brady Peter’s writing, “we are moving from an era where architects use software to one where they create software.” [23] 20 21 22 23

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“Sonar phosphorescence: A new version of iconic resonating within the current cultures.�

Figure 3.1 design Blends in with the site, both urban and nature(water)

PHOSPHORESCENCE Alisa Andrasek & Jose Sanchez Kaohsiung,Taiwan Competition Entry 2010

Phosphorescence is a very good example to describe generative strategies in computation. Inspired by mathematics of electro-magnetic fields, magnetic fabrics are stitching the site into the city whilst bringing the city and its inhabitants to the water, as an adaptive master plan.[24] Precise calculations together with appropriate data input at correct sequences are required to generate this design. Without the practice of generative strategies, designers alone are not able to generate such complex form from scratch, based on the movement of electro-magnetic force. 24

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figure 3.2 details focusing on shimmer qualities of the design

With attractive vibrant colors and light, polychromatic shimmer qualities are introduced to the site to enhance spatial relationship between both land (urban inhabitants) and water (nature or under water inhabitants). The design team has incorporated biological phenomenon in which phosphorescent glow is detected while brain neurons are transmitting information to the brain, together with the light landscape of Taiwanese streets, night markets etc. to design the best lighting possible for the site.[25] Again, this is something that is unachievable if using compositional strategies. Enormous data are to be collected for computer interpretation to form a chain of algorithms that produce a highly refined parametrics design which eventually realizes the conceptual glowing qualities of the project.

On the other hand, even though generative approach, in this case, has the capability to produced a relatively satisfying outcome, but designers would still need to concentrate on the shortcomings that needed to be altered. Although computation seems to be dominant in generative approach, designers still holds a crucial position, as many challenges cannot be overcome without human intelligence.[26] In this case study, designers play an important role to create adaptability for the design to suit the site. Being close to the waterside and urban area, this design has to be scaled or cropped into the most desired and efficient form without sacrifices its aesthetic, functionality and compliancy with local community. All these above, would definitely be the key factor to produce an favourable architecture in real. 26

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“In another way, I can be my own worst enemy. As a woman, I’m expected to want

everything to be nice, and to be nice myself. A very English thing. I don’t design nice buildings - I don’t like them. I like architecture to have some raw, vital, earthy quality. “ Zaha hadid

figure 3.3 The EXOSKELETON-LIKED EXTERIOR OF THE DESIGN

CITY OF DREAMS HOTEL TOWER Zaha Hadid Cotai, Macau 2017

figure 3.4 sHOWS THE FACADE OF THE TOWER DESIGN

Zaha Hadid, a Pritzer’s Prize award winning architect who

frequently transforms her primitive ideas into fascinating design outcome with the assistance of computation. Sketches or hand drawing that Hadid primarily produced served as a structural skeleton for this design. Then, Patrick Schumacher and his team use Autodesk® Maya® software as a conceptual sculpting tool to refine her designs.[27] In this case study, the tower’s exposed exoskeleton reinforces the dynamism of the design. Expressive and powerful, this external structure optimizes the interior layouts and envelops the building, further defining its formal composition and establishing relationships with the new Cotai strip.

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figure 3.5 complex interior design

figure 3.6 lobby is designed by parametric design approach

From previous case study that appreciates generative strategies is being understood as an efficient way of design only if human intelligence is incorporated. The same goes for compositional strategies. Designers should be responsive towards the possibilities that computation approach can contribute. Filling in gaps and polishing design imperfection are not the only aspects that computation software can provide, but also merging innovative engineering and formal cohesion into design spaces. The rectangular outline of the site is extruded as a monolithic block with a series of voids which carve through the its center of the tower, merging traditional architectural elements of roof, wall and ceiling to create a sculptural form that defines many of the hotel’s internal public spaces.[28]

This project that is expected to be complete in 2017 depicts a high standard of compositional approach of architectural computation as spatial organization, design aesthetic, site and client consideration, innovation construction technologies etc. have been unify together in harmony.

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In this age of architecture bottleneck when almost every kinds of geometry has been thoroughly experimented, designers unconsciously crave for extra possibilities and more complex forms to satisfy their creativity during design process. Innovative designs have forward so quickly until the method of computerization is no longer able to handle the demand of contemporary architecture. As computational approach allows the production of forms that are initially inconceivable, designers can produce numerous outcomes within a short period of time. Complementing with advanced fabrication technology, computational design now does not only exist in the world of virtual but in the world of reality, acknowledging our age to welcome a broader horizon of architecture. Today, as construction being one of the highest resource consumption fields in the world, designing architecture for sustainable future gradually becomes a necessity through the passage of time. Being aware that our natural resources are depleting at a rate faster than they could be replaced or recovered, abundant of green technologies are introduced. These technologies, however, are difficult to embody into conventional architecture due to their design limitations. On the other hand, the freedom for producing flexible and complex shape in virtual world of computation becomes an advantage for designers who desire to interweave energy production technologies into their design.

Parametric design will definitely be my intended design approach as it is a powerful tool for designers once familiarize with. It is the flexibility and precision of computation design that allows different experimentation to incorporate both design and green technology into the most pleasing outcome. In another words, creating a design that is able to achieve the optimal level of creativity and functionality. Today, massive amount of encouragement from all over the world to support the trend of green digital architecture has been established particularly in the form of design competitions such as Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) . All in all, through this new form of architecture, human can see faith in our future where nature and human are blend together to live in harmony.

cONCLUSION partA4 24

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Despite the fact that I have no prior knowledge concerning about digital architecture design, Task A has been an enjoyable yet productive exercise exposing me towards different computation design approach. Through exploring different precedents, my understanding towards the practice of architectural computing has significantly strengthened. In the beginning of this studio, I always has a thinking that the use of computational design is an architectural approach that would never be applauded by me for its main focus is on futuristic form rather than an continuation of cultural and memories of different generations. As someone whose ambition is to become an influential architect in the future, I certainly believe that the main difference between an architecture designs comparing to design sculpture is the continuity and reminisce of culture and human identity. Initially, I misunderstood that computation design is merely a tool in achieving a more visually striking design. It is until I come across all the assigned readings and precedents that gradually allow me to understand that architectural computing is the only architecture approach, which not only incorporates advance sustainability researches into design process but also manipulating different data to form algorithm to produce different design possibilities for future generations.

Having the first attempt in exploring Grasshopper allow me to experience unimaginable flexibility and complexity that this program can provide to an architectural design. It is indeed a very powerful computation design software. At this stage, I’m still struggling to adapt this new approach of design. Grasshopper has been extremely tough for me mainly due to my insufficient understanding and poor skills in appropriately utilizing different tools in this program. Despite all the challenges, I still remain passionate and trying really hard to seek for improvement. Realizing the fact that Grasshopper would definitely elevate my design skills to a higher level, I’m looking forward to learn more skills in the coming task.

LEARNING OUTCOMES partA5 CONCEPTUALISATION 25


Being a simple design with striking colours, this design becomes one of my favourite designs so far. By looking back at Week 2’s exercise, complex forms and strong dynamicity produces by the ‘Pipes’ would seems to be a better design to talk about. At least, there are more aspects that I can talk about. However, after four weeks of conceptualization studies have allow me to be aware an insight of a design. Complexity, at times, may be a burden to a parametric design. Complexity is needed when conventional simplicity is no longer able to cope with architecture’s functionality, particularly when new technologies or construction methods are incorporated by the design. All these I have learnt from the readings. Thus, in parametric design, although I am always fascinated by designs with complex form, simplicity would definitely be a design approach that I would incorporate it into my future research in this studio.

algorithmic sketches partA6 26

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Initially, I have never expected this would work for experimentation triangulation on to a spiral surface was a spontaneous thought. The outcome, however, is very satisfying. By making optimal use of two curvature surfaces, allowing them to twist around as they elevate above the ground level. Due to its spiral-liked characteristic, the tessellation of different colours is expressed better and turns out to be more visual appealing. I realised the fact that in some cases, human’s creativity would enhance aesthetic effect or even functionality of a computational design despite its dominant ability to produce fascinating outcomes.

CONCEPTUALISATION 27


PART A1 1)Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1-16 (p. 4). 2)Tony Fry, pp. 1-16, (p. 3). 3) Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) 2012 Competition Entry: The Wind Fountain, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/wf252rka/>, [11 August 2014]. 4) Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) 2012 Competition Entry, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/wf252rka/>, [11 August 2014]. 5) Tony Fry, pp. 1-16, (p. 8). 6) Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) 2012 Competition Entry-Maple Leaf, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/40574453/# >, [11 August 2014]. 7)Tony Fry, pp. 1-16, (p. 3). 8)Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) 2012 Competition Entry, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/40574453/# >, [11 August 2014]. 9)Tony Fry, pp. 1-16, (p. 10). 10)Tony Fry, pp. 1-16, (p. 12). 11)Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) 2012 Competition Entry, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/40574453/# >, [11 August 2014].

Part A2 12) Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture,(London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1-10, (p. 3). 13) Kalay, Yehuda E., Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design, (Cambridge, Ma:MIT Press), pp. 5-25, (p.17). 14) Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, (London;New York: Spon Press, 2003), pp.2- 24, (p.22). 15) Micheal Hansmeyer, Concept: The Digital Grosteque, <http://www.digital-grotesque.com/design_images.html?screenSize=1&color=1>, [13 August 2014]. 16) Branko Kolarevic, pp.2-24,(p. 11). 17) ‘God’s Eye’ – (Pavilion) -Sukkahville 2013 (International Design Competition) – Winning Entry, <http://www.cy-arch.com/gods-eye-pavilion/>, [18 August 2014]. 18 ) ‘God’s Eye’ – (Pavilion) -Sukkahville 2013, [18 August 2014]. 19) ) ‘God’s Eye’ – (Pavilion) -Sukkahville 2013, [18 August 2014]. 20) Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, The Building of Algorithmic Thought,83 (2013), pp. 8-15, (p. 10).

PART A3 21)Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, pp. 1-10, (p. 3). 22) Brady Peters, pp. 8-15, (p. 10). 24) Alisa Andreasek , Phosphorescence :Repository of Computation Design, <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=23.>,[13 August 2014]. 25) Alisa Andreasek , <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=23.>, [13 August 2014]. 26) Brady Peters, pp. 8-15, (p. 10). 27) Design Visualization: Zaha Hadid, <http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet index?siteID=123112&id=13462298&linkID=13454855>, [19 August 2014].

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28) Zaha Hadid Architects : City of Dreams Hotel Tower, <http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/city-of-dreams-hotel-tower-cotai-macau/>,[18 August 2014].

Image Credit Part A1 Figure 1.1 & 1.2 : Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) 2012 Competition Entry-The Wind Fountain, <http://landartgenerator.org/ LAGI-2012/wf252rka/>, [11 August 2014]. Figure1.3 & 1.4 : Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) 2012 Competition Entry-Methane And Photosynthetic Leaf for Eternal Life At Fresh Kills (MAPLE LEAF), <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/40574453/# >, [11 August 2014].

Part A2 Figure 2.1 &2.2 : The Digital Grosteque, <http://www.digital-grotesque.com/concept.html?screenSize=1&color=1>, [13 August 2014] . Figure 2.3,2.4 & 2.5 : ‘God’s Eye’ – (Pavilion) -Sukkahville 2013 (International Design Competition) – Winning Entry , <http://www.cy-arch.com/gods-eye-pavilion/>,[18 August 2014].

Part A3 Figure3.1 & 3.2 : Phosphorescence :Repository of Computation Design, <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=23.>,[18 August 2014]. Figure 3.3-3.6 : Zaha Hadid Architects : City of Dreams Hotel Tower <http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/city-of-dreams-hotel-tower-cotai-macau/>, [18 August 2014].

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CRITERIA DESIGN

PART B


RESEARCH FIELD PART B1


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CRITERIA DESIGN

CRITERIA DESIGN

PART B


RESEARCH FIELD PART B1 CRITERIA DESIGN

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FIGURE 1.1 & 1.2 ILLUSTRATE AN ADAPTATION OF STRIP & FOLDING ON A DESIGN.

MATERIAL SYSTEM Strip & Folding Research Field

Stepping closer towards researching different

design attributes, the material system of Strip and Folding is selected for my exploration purpose. I am convinced that its characteristic of fluidity and continuity would provide me with diverse possibilities for constructing an interactive community space. Reinforced by Moussavi’s ideology in the paper of The Function of Ornament, “when the idea of randomness is fully understood, the sense of intuition can be expressed without restriction when demonstrating a parametric design”. If you perceive Strip and Folding based on the interpretation of architecture, you will realize its fluidity attribute could further link with a dynamic overview in our final design outcome. However, I am also aware that giving aesthetic manner alone to parametric design is never enough. As Moussavi mentioned, a fine piece of architecture should complete a body of integration, which consists of both functional and representational features. The intended design approach in Part B will be using Seroussi Pavilion as an initial point to explore the form of sculpture design (representational feature) together with the installation of sustainable energy (functional feature).

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The consideration of urban settings and cultural respect are the most crucial aspects that would vary the influential intensity of the design to provide a function as interactive community space. In his words, â&#x20AC;&#x153;apart from its exterior, interior design could be independent to create a different sensation to usersâ&#x20AC;?, Moussavi stresses heavily on the chemistry between the interactions between users and customize spatial dimension. Thus, I am looking at the direction to generate an outcome which will has its sophisticated aesthetic to interact with existing users, at the same time creating chemistry which allow users to look deeper beyond to understand the reason of why this architecture is created. Serving as educational purpose, the design outcome would be favorable not only in terms of its aesthetic beauty but also being an interactive space to create the awareness of sustainability.

CRITERIA DESIGN

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FIGURE 1.3 & 1.4 GIANT SUPERTREES WITH THE FORM OF NATURAL TREES BLENDS INTO SINGAPORE’S URBAN LANSCAPE BRINGING A TASTE OF SPECIALITY INTO THE CITY..

PRECEDENT Super Tree (Gardens by the Bay) Singapore

Gardens by the Bay is a 101 hectare property in downtown Singapore and is part of the country’s plan to convert the “Garden City” to a “City in a Garden”. On of the most talk about and unique features of the Garden South project are the “Supertrees.” These unique trees of up to 16 storeys in height can be found all around the Gardens – twelve at the Supertree Grove, while the remaining six are placed in clusters of threes at the Golden and Silver Gardens.

Providing scale and dimension to the Gardens while marrying the form and function of mature trees, the Supertrees also create height to balance the tall developments in the Marina Bay area. Gardens by the Bay is a 101 hectare property in downtown Singapore and is part of the country’s plan to convert the “Garden City” to a “City in a Garden”. On of the most talk about and unique features of the Garden South project are the “Supertrees.” These unique trees of up to 16 storeys in height can be found all around the Gardens – twelve at the Supertree Grove, while the remaining six are placed in clusters of threes at the Golden and Silver Gardens.

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Providing scale and dimension to the Gardens while marrying the form and function of mature trees, the Supertrees also create height to balance the tall developments in the Marina Bay area. Take a stroll along the 128-metre long walkway that connects the two 25-metre Supertrees at the Supertree Grove and take in a different view of the Gardens. Chill out at the 50-metre Supertree-top bistro and be captivated by the panoramic views of the Gardens as well as the surrounding Marina Bay area.

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CASE STUDY 1 PART B2.1 CRITERIA DESIGN

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“BIOTHING IS A RESEARCH-DESIGN LABORATORY WHOSE STRUCTURE DERIVES FROM PARTICULAR LINKAGES BETWEEN VARIOUS DISCIPLINARY AND TECHNOLOGICAL NODES, PROMOTING INTRA-SPECIFIC CREATIVE RELATIONSHIPS WHICH IN TURN SERVE AS A TRANSFORMATIVE TISSUE FOR THE DESIGN PROCESS ITSELF. AN ALGORITHMIC ARTICULATION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN THE CORPOREAL AND INCORPOREAL IS BIOTHING’S ATTEMPT TO ENGAGE WITH COMPLEXITY.”

FIGURE 1.4 & 1.5 SEROUSSI PAVILION DETAILING BEING INSPIRED BY ELETROMAGNETIC FIELD.

SEROUSSI PAVILION BIOTHING PARIS 2007

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Seroussi Pavilion by Biothing clearly shows the material system of strip and folding. It uses adaptive mathematical logics that allows for localized differentiation where the mathematics of electro-magnetic fields are used to derive the form. Electro magnetic fields (EMF) are conceptualized as primary vector points to cultivate different possibilities where attraction/ and repulsion of field charges are manipulated. Using mathematical rationale, different frequencies of sine function are further incorporated to manipulate its form. Seroussi Pavilion demonstrates the possibilities of a simple and yet visually appealing structure.


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CASE STUDY 1 PART B2.2 14

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Species 1

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Species 2

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Species 3

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Species 4

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Species 5

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Selected Outcomes

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Selection 1

Selection 2

This iterations look continuous and dynamic for its aesthetic appearance which directly align with the continuity and fluidity that are heavily being emphasized on ‘Strip and Folding.’

The graphmapper allows iteration to be visualized as a 3D form. Having similarity with flora form, it has a very strong potential to flourish into a desirable outcome.

Selection 3

Selection 4

A good demonstration of ‘Strip and Folding’ can be seen in this iteration. By incorporating attractor and repulsor component together with graphmapper into the subject, a 3D vortex formof lines and curvature is produced. Due to its large surface area characteristic, wind energy harvesting technology would be an ideal option to introduce into this iteration.

This iteration possesses the most fluid form compare to the other three. The number of spin force decreases as they get further away from the core. It allows form to be express in a flat spatial organization.

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Selection Criteria

PUBLIC ART INSTALLATION

Function as interactive space to create awareness among visitors.

RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATOR

Potential to inhabit sustainable energy material.

AESTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS

To attract visitors to the site.

FABRICATION

The possibility to fabricate design to adapt into real world situation.

FURTHER EXPLORATION

The potential for further development

PART B2.3 Selection Criteria & Outcomes CRITERIA DESIGN

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CASE STUDY 2 PARTB3 22

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“ITS ELLIPTICAL LATTICEWORK SHELL, WHICH HAS EARNED IT THE NICKNAME THE BIRD’S NEST, HAS AN INTOXICATING BEAUTY THAT LINGERS IN THE IMAGINATION. ITS ALLURE IS ONLY LIKELY TO DEEPEN ONCE THE ENORMOUS CROWDS DISPERSE AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES FADE INTO MEMORY.”

FIGURE 1.6 SHOWING THE FRONT FACADE OF ‘BIRD NEST’

BEIJING NATIONAL STADIUM Herzog & de Meuron Beijing, China 2008

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Beijing National Stadium is the world largest steel

structure with unwrapped steel used. This design combines a pair of structures: a bright red concrete bowl for seating and the iconic steel frame around it. Structural integrity of this design mainly lies on the steel framework. The vertically positioned steels resist compression and transfer loads to the footing below; horizontal positioned steels stabilize the load act on the structure and maintain its design form.It is amazing to understand how architectural design intent can have functional uses, which contribute to the design’s structural integrity. This design gives me an insight to solve the constraint from previous case study where forms were simply composed of lines without the consideration for material construction. Forms were generated for conceptual references only. However, in this case study, an advance level of computation has pushed ‘Strip and Folding’ to its maximum potential. By giving solid 3D form to this abstract conceptual design, ‘Bird Nest’ earns an opportunity to exist in the real world as true architecture.


FIGURE 1.7 AERIAL VIEW OF â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;BIRD NESTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

This design technically started out with a simple form with added complex geometry onto it. The calculation is so numerous that software is needed to ensure the web of twisting steel sections fitted together. In this case study, I am particularly interested in discovering how the random strokes of steel lattice are produced using computation. Its lattice structure is being dynamic. Random strokes not only portray a strong movement sensation but also act as a medium to enhance the interactivity between interior surrounding and exterior environment. In the previous case study of Serrousi Pavilion, computation method had been used as tools to generate form. In this case study, however, I have decided to shift our focus to generate desirable structure for the means of incorporation of sustainable energy and its aesthetic characteristic.

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Case stuDy 2 enginnering reVerSe enginnering reVerSe

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B3.2 ReversereVerSe Engineering_Step by Step enginnering 1 1

2 2

1

3 3

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STEP 1

Create three ellipse curves. SCriPT PSeuDo SCriPT PSeuDo

STEP 2

Adjust curvature (curve from two views) to loft the surface.

STEP 3

PSeuDo SCriPT 2.Adjust Adjust curvature (curve from views) to loft surface 2. curvature (curve from twotwo views) to loft thethe surface Divide the surface and interpolate curves to create vertical supporting structures.3.While adjusting step (N) to create horizontal 3.Divide Divide surface interpolate curves create vertical thethe surface andand interpolate curves to to create vertical structures for stabilizing vertical members .

Create three ellipse curves 1. 1.Create three ellipse curves

supporting structures. While adjusting step to create horizontal supporting structures. While adjusting step (N)(N) to create horizontal 1.structures Create ellipsevertical curves for stabilizing vertical members structures forthree stabilizing members . .

STEP 4 STEP 5

STEP 6

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Reverse curves to add4. complexity into structure. 2.Reverse Adjust curvature (curve from two views) to loft the surface 4.Reverse curves to add complexity structure. curves to add complexity intointo structure.

3. Divide the surface and interpolate curves to create vertica

Dispatch curves randomly to simulate random strokesWhile of steel supporting structures. adjusting step (N) to create horizonta lattice of the Birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Nest. structures for stabilizing vertical members . Offset and loft curves on surface for curve extrusion. 4. Reverse curves to add complexity into structure. Offset curves on surface with solid mode to build realize the real form of structure. Structure on the initial lofted surface as a result.


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SPECIES / ITERATION PART B4 28

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Species 1 Alteration of Bird Nestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parameter is made. Points are shifted to enhance different intensity of dynamicity. Besides, the alteration enables difference aesthetic continuity as curves are randomly reduced.

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Species 2 Researches are stressed on Bird’s Nest structural exploration. In these species, a new plugin ‘Weaverbird’ is introduced to experiment different structural attributes. Meshes are altered to intensify the complexity of curvature and continuity characteristic in real form. Frames (WbFrame) are added not only to improve the aesthetic appearance of the species, but also contributing to structural integrity.

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Species 3 Researches are stressed on Bird’s Nest structural exploration. In these species, a new plugin ‘Weaverbird’ is introduced to experiment different structural attributes. Meshes are altered to intensify the complexity of curvature and continuity characteristic in real form. Frames (WbFrame) are added not only to improve the aesthetic appearance of the species, but also contributing to structural integrity.

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Species 4 Fourth and Fifth Species: By keeping ‘Weaverbird’ as a key plugin, all the framings are modified into windows in the fourth and fifth species. New excitement is found in the exploration of Bird Nest’s structural variation as a difference form of aesthetic and material innovation can be achieved here.

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Species 5

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Species 6 Sixth & Seventh Species: Manage to gain an advantage to further explore Bird Nestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s form and complexity in depth. By improvising the current structural form of Bird Nest, species sixth generates alteration to understand the possibilities of different aesthetic styles that could be expressed by an individual component. On the other hand, species seventh and eighth generate modification to favour the dynamic appearance and fluidity movement of Bird Nestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structure as a whole.

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Species 7

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Apart from the brief criteria, the selection criteria

that I have decided include aesthetic appearance, potential for further development, and fabrication possibilities require thorough consideration in order to push this measure to its optimum standard. By referencing the ‘search’ concept from Kalay, it is mentioned that in order to obtain the best result, problems have to be tackled by producing candidate solutions for consideration and choosing the right solution for further consideration and development.[5] As Kalay proposed, any difficulties encounter in selection criteria can be solved if when solution includes following aspects: - Depth -Breadth -Priority Hence, by exploring a problem’s logical conclusion in depth, creating several alternative ways out and prioritizing the most promising solution, only design confusion such as materiality selection, structural integrity and aesthetic appearance can be solved efficiently. A few suitable iterations in previous species were selected to further develop in order to approach an ideal structural form in species ninth and tenth. Main focus heavily lies on prioritizing structural aesthetic of Bird Nest.

SELECTION CRITERIA & OUTCOMES PART B4.2 CRITERIA DESIGN

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Species 8 Species Eighth: Both grasshopper definitions which window and frame are emerged together in order to enhance better structural complexity and visual appearance.

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Species 9 Species Ninth: The customization of WbFrame gives extra texture to Bird Nestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sub- structure which directly contributes to further materiality selection and fabrication possibilities.

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Desirable Energy Generator Wind Belt Technology

Desirable Energy Generator Colour Solar Cell Technology

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TECHNIQUE : PROTOTYPES PART B5 CRITERIA DESIGN


Being blessed with abundant of wind resources due to its

geographical region, I am particularly interested in adapting wind energy into my parametric design. Instead of focusing on conventional wind turbine, new windbelt technology has caught my attention as its powerful mechanism for generating electricity surpasses the efficiency of turbines. As this technology performs best at wind speeds of 7m/s or higher, it would reached its optimum efficiency at Copenhagen. Denmark is a wind climate domination country where average wind speed often reaches 10m/s. Windbelt’s dynamic form, flexibility and strip-formed fit well with our design core of ‘Strip and Folding’. By researching our site in depth, Denmark government intends to increase the use of wind energy from supporting 22% of nation’s total electricity consumption to 50% by 2020. Denmark government incentive has favored large amount of investment in research and development to improvise the efficiency of wind technology, and of course reducing cost. These therefore, lead to our interest in using windbelt technology as its potential continues to grow positively.

Furthermore, the development of coloured solar cell in recent

years has also caught my attention while doing research concerning renewable energy. Because solar panels are designed to accumulate as much light from the sun as possible, they’re typically very dark in colour. It makes them more efficient, but also kind of an eyesore, minimising their adoption. So researchers have developed what they believe to be the world’s first semitransparent, coloured solar panels. What’s particularly important about this innovation is that the colours were not created by adding dyes or a film that can obscure the light hitting the panels. Instead, the colours are produced by the mechanical structure of the solar cells themselves causing them to reflect different wavelengths depending on the thickness of the semiconductor layer. Traditional black solar cells absorb all wavelengths of visible light. Coloured solar cells are designed to transmit, or in other versions, reflect certain colors, so by nature they’re kicking energy from those wavelengths back out to our eyes rather than converting it to electricity.

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PROTOTYPE TEST How Sustainable Energy Generator can Interact with Users on Site?

Keeping in mind that not only renewable energy harvesting has to be incorporated to the design, but most importantly is the interaction between both users and architecture that has to be focus on in order to create awareness amongst the public. In this case, prototypes are designed to test particularly on solar and wind technology. Thus, 2 prototypes are being generated to test what kind of chemistry can sustainable energy generator produced to interact with users on site.

TESTING PROTOTYPES PART B5.2 CRITERIA DESIGN

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PROTOTYPE TEST 1 Colour Solar Cell Technology

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TEST AIM : Prototype 1 is fabricated to investigate what kind of chemistry can sustainable energy generator produced to interact with users on site.

TEST PROCEDURE : In this test, a prototype is fabricated as similar with our design to incorporate solar energy. Tracing paper having certain degree of translucent effect is used as a representation of solar panels. Tracing papers are then cut into different shapes to fit onto the prototype. Also, these papers are painted with fluorescent colours to be similar with solar panels, which made from stained glass in real world. This prototype is then ready to be tested by light in terms of sun path orientation and light intensity.

TEST OUTCOMES : As different intensity of sunlight shines onto the prototypes, different intensity of coloured shadow is produced onto the ground. There is no doubt that different colours of solar panels will create a vibrant sensation to the site. Furthermore, testing on sun path orientation also allow me to discovered the length and direction of shadow at different times. I believe this factor would contribute different influence to the site circulation at different time. The test outcome has enabled me to understand that different categories of users would be impact differently towards the design. Children particularly, would be exposed to an interesting design incorporating with green technology at young age. Awareness would be created amongst younger generation. Apart from serving as an educational design to public, I believe that by incorporating

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PROTOTYPE TEST 2 Wind Belt Technology

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TEST AIM : Prototype 2 is fabricated to investigate what kind of chemistry can sustainable energy generator produced to interact with users on site.

TEST PROCEDURE :

In this test, a prototype is fabricated as similar with our design to incorporate wind belt energy. Strings are used as a representation of wind belt and organized in such arrangement similar with real world design installation. Strips of strings, which are fastened on to the prototype, create “Strip and Folding” design aesthetics and ready to be tested by ‘wind movement’. Hair dryer would be used to produce different intensity of wind from different direction towards the prototype.

TEST OUTCOMES :

Different intensity of wind generated will cause the strings to vibrate at different intensity. The vibration of strings synchronizes with the wind speed, producing different intensity of ‘triggering/vibrating’ sound. In real world situation, I am convinced that these vibration sounds generated by windbelts would provide at extraordinary sensation to users on site. Curiosity arise from these vibrating objects would not only increase the interaction between each and every users, but also spreading awareness concerning sustainable energy use to the public.

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This public art installation aims to attract visitors to the site through its aesthetic characteristics and create an interactive community space to raise the awareness of sustainable energy. Upon the idea that â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;windâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is the most dominant natural resource at the site, the organic form of lattice structure of my proposed design was emerged from the wind direction study. It integrates wind belt technology to create a dynamic environment that attracts visitors to visualize wind movement and sensing the sound from wind belt, thereby encouraging the awareness of renewable energy. As far as sunlight is concerned, the organic form of lattice structure of my proposed design was emerged from the idea of leafy veins and plant cells. It integrates colour solar cell to create a vibrant environment that allows visitors to visualize different colours and sensing the sun intensity and direction, thereby encouraging the awareness of renewable energy. The design aligns site attributes for flexible and innovative outcomes where the form was followed by the dominant wind direction and sun path direction to determine the most efficient angle for wind belt and solar cell installation respectively to optimize the efficiency.

TECHNIQUE : PROPOSAL PART B6 CRITERIA DESIGN

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DESIGN AERIAL VIEW CRITERIA DESIGN

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In previous study, two most efficient renewable energy harvesting

technology have been selected to incorporate into our design. In terms of materialization, consideration has been focusing on a few aspects to ensure that this virtually designed architecture can be construct and function at its optimum level in real world scenario.

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Structural Stability Structural Integrity would be the main concern for parametric design for it to be constructed in reality. To encounter this problem, design form has to be sensible in order to comply with construction standard.

Structural Continuity Structural continuity is considered as the most important aspect in my selected material system of Strip and Folding. Strip and Folding attributes of each construction element would be a challenging portion in the design as conventional fabrication would not be favorable to produce this kind of form. To encounter with this problem, appropriate material integrated with advance fabrication technology would be highly desirable.

Lifespan & Resistance As this design is built to last, strong and long lasting materials have to be used in order to reduce the cost of maintenance and resource consumption in a long term.

TECHNIQUE : MATERIALITY PARTB6 CRITERIA DESIGN

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Materiality Aluminum Metal Foam Metal Foam is selected as the main material to construct the main body of the design to provide structural integrity.

Corrosion Resistance

Concerning the fact that the site is being close to the sea, high corrosion resistance material has to be adapted to avoid long-term maintenance and cost. In this case, aluminum would definitely be one of the most desirable material due to its high corrosion resistance properties.

Super Lightweight Material

Due to its foam lattice liked structure; aluminum manage to be 6 times lighter than solid aluminum. Lightweight material would reduce the cost for transportation, thus contributing to low carbon emission and low embodied energy.

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High Compression & Tensile Strength

As the design appears in the form of strip and folding, tensile resistance and elasticity definitely have to be put into consideration to achieved structural integrity. Aluminum metal foam in this case, is able to respond to the design form. By customizing different density, aluminum form can satisfy different intensity of stresses at different situation.

Made from Recyclable Material

Being able to promote the importance of sustainability through architecture, the use of recyclable or environmental friendly materials would be convincible. In the case, aluminum metal foam that is made from aluminum scrap mostly from aluminum can is 100% recyclable.

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TECHNIQUE : SCALE PROPOSAL CRITERIA DESIGN

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PERSPECTIVE CRITERIA DESIGN

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PERSPECTIVE CRITERIA DESIGN

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In this studio, there have been a lot of challenges to be overcome. In relation, satisfying each and every learning objective is not an easy task.

At the initial point where I started adapting a new digitalizes designing method also known as parametric computation; it was difficult to develop an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities. In this case, by using Woodbury’s reading as a guide book to perceive the parametric fundamentals, solutions are given on how to get started on case study, parametric algorithm and also fabrication considerations.

Besides, this studio also stress on the understanding of relationships between architecture and its surrounding environment. This objective may not sound crucial but it does contribute a lot into my design process in terms of sustainability and green technology consideration. Moreover, my design satisfies real world construction criteria as I fulfilled the objective which requires me to reflect and study digital fabrication possibilities in depth. Last but not least, by fulfilling all learning objectives, I have developed my very own style of computation design where individuality can be expressed by using computer-aid program.

Choosing the right decision related to algorithm design and parametric modeling was indeed one of the toughest requirements to be satisfied. Besides, Kalay’s reading also provides me with some useful technique such as the ‘search’ process. This however, becomes an advantage for me to generate better ideas and iterations when comprehend.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES PART B8 62

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Although a lot of progressions have been achieved until this stage, there are still some defects and incompleteness which are needed to be concerned. One of the main adjustments from structural material has to be researched in detail. By having a good direction to proceed, the details of construction such as joints and materiality have to be researched in depth in order to optimize their performance when integrated into the design. Apart from construction materials, sustainable energy generatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s technology also has to be further developed. The information gathered is not enough to realized the whole design idea onto the site. More studies have to be focus on the mechanism and detailing of both windbelt and solar panels.

Moreover, positioning and orientation of the design on site also needed to be refined. Initial distribution of the design on site is based on the wind direction and sun orientation. However, further data collection has to be obtained in order to increase the precision and accuracy of each designâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s position on site. Data collected will be expected to be analysed using Grasshopper plugins like Ladybug and Firefly to aid the installation of windbelt and solar panels at its best position.

As a conclusion, there are still a lot more work to be done in order to push my design energy harvesting to its optimum condition and refining its aesthetic appearance.

LEARNING OUTCOMES PART B7 CRITERIA DESIGN

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ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES PART B8 64

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Strips of Case Study 2 have been customized into pipes for rendering. A surprising outcome. CRITERIA DESIGN

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ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES PART B8 66

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Original design which its position is organized by spin force and attractor/repulsor point. However, it is too complex for post production as every single â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;treeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; are different to one another. CRITERIA DESIGN

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Text References: Balaguru, Low Cost Energy Production Using Wind Belt Technology (2013) < http://ijeit.com/vol%202/Issue%209/ IJEIT1412201303_48.pdf > [accessed 26 September 2014]. Farshid Moussavi and Michael Kubo, eds,The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar, 2006), pp. 5-14 Humdinger, Wind Belt Kit (2013) <http://learn.kidwind.org/files/manuals/WINDBELT_MANUAL.pdf> [accessed 26 September 2014]. Kalay, Yehuda E., Architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5-25 Kammer ,Aluminum Foam European Aluminum Association (2013)< http://www.alueurope.eu/talat/lectures/1410.pdf > [accessed 26 September 2014]. LAGI, Design Guidline (2014) <http://landartgenerator.org/designcomp/downloads/LAGI-2014DesignGuidelines.pdf> [accessed 26 September 2014]. Liszewski Andrew, University Of Michigan Develops Coloured Solar Cells (2014) < http://www.gizmodo.com.au/2014/03/color-solar-panels-let-stained-glass-windows-produce-cheap-power/ > [accessed 26 September 2014]. Misfitsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; The New Architecture of Austerity (2011) < http://misfitsarchitecture.com/tag/beijing-nationalstadium-structure/> [accessed 26 September 2014].

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Image Credit: Biothing, Seroussi Pavilion (2007) : <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5> [accessed 26 September 2014]. Beijing National Stadium : < http://img.galerie.chip.de/imgserver/communityimages/916600/916650/ original > [accessed 26 September 2014]. Material System : < http://www.grasshopper3d.com/photo/parametric-structure1?xg_source=activity > [accessed 26 September 2014]. Aluminum Metal Foam : < http://dgnbx.blogspot.com.au/2013/07/innovation-in-architecture.html > [accessed 26 September 2014]. Wind Belt : < http://www.humdingerwind.com/press.html > [accessed 26 September 2014]. Colour Solar Panel : < http://solar.calfinder.com/blog/products/colorful-solar-panelspack-more-punch/ > [accessed 26 September 2014]. Lagi Site Images : < http://landartgenerator.org/designcomp/# > [accessed 26 September 2014].

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1

PROJECT PROPOSAL

PART C : DETAILED DESIGN


PROJECT PROPOSAL

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DESIGN CONCEPT PART C1 3

PROJECT PROPOSAL


INTERIM PRESENTATION FEEDBACK (1) Design is quite simple, does not look very parametric and exciting. Further development and expansion of design are required.

To address the feedback from the interim Presentation, here are the steps that has been conducted :

(2) Position and orientation of the design on site seems unconvincing. Advanced wind and solar analysis are to be integrated.

(1) Further Development of New Design Form

(3) Design tectonics and constructability unspecified. Detail study and research should be conducted to improvise this matter.

(2) Refining the Orientation & Positioning of Design at Site (3) Generate Outcomes For Construction & Tectonic Details

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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DESIGN CONCEPT This large scale sculpture/architecture aims to excite visitors to the site through

parametric aesthetics at the same time, creating awareness of sustainable energy. As wind and solar energy are the most dominant resources at the site, a design form which can incorporate both wind-belt and solar panel technology is generated through computationÂŹal design. As windbelt technology is able to visualize wind movement into vibrating sound; new developed solar panel technology is capable of reflecting different types of wavelength to produce different colours of reflection. These innovation technologies are expected to create interaction toward visitors on site. Integrating the understanding in Part A, an ideal parametric design should be able to generate bizarre forms merging together with existing advanced technology which eventually produced a sustainable architecture which promotes well-being of current users at the same time does not sacrifice the benefits of future generation. Furthermore, many great architects believed that the most ideal architecture should resemblance the attribute of nature. Hence, in this design proposal, the use computational methods, parametric programs and artificial technologies to create the most synthetic nature for the welfare of human kind will be the motivation and principle behind the design concept.

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PROJECT PROPOSAL


SOLAR & WIND ANALYSIS : REFINING THE ORIENTATION AND POSITIONING OF

The focus of this design is to optimize

wind and solar energy generation on site. This was achieved by the in-depth wind tunnel analysis and solar radiation analysis respectively in Refshaleøen, Copenhagen. The new introduced program, Vassari, stimulates the condition of wind from multidirections and strengths on site upon the real data of Wind Rose Diagram. The wind tunnel stimulation eventually informed the design. The wind tunnel analysis indicates that south west region is dominantly windy than the rest areas on site. Apart from that, Vassari generated solar radiation analysis also informed that the sunlight intensity on the site throughout the whole year. By focusing on the area which promises optimal sunlight exposure, the positioning of solar panels at site become more efficient and precise. Our team concluded that the design needs to be built within the south west region to effectively capture wind and sunlight at optimal and generate energy without redundantly using of materials.

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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SPRING EQUINOX

FALL EQUINOX

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PROJECT PROPOSAL


SUMMER SOLSTICES

WINTER SOLSTICES

SOLAR ANALYSIS DIAGRAM

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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PROJECT PROPOSAL


WIND ROSE AND WIND TUNNEL DIAGRAMS INDICATES WIND FLOW INTENSITY AT DIFFERENT TIMES.

WIND ANALYSIS DIAGRAM

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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PROJECT PROPOSAL


OUR TEAM CONCLUDED THAT THE DESIGN NEEDS TO BE BUILT WITHIN THE SOUTH WEST REGION TO EFFECTIVELY CAPTURE WIND AND SUNLIGHT AT OPTIMAL AND GENERATE ENERGY WITHOUT REDUNDANTLY USING OF MATERIALS.

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DESIGN FORM

AVATAR

To address the feedback from the interim

Extraterrestrial Rainforest Unknown Planet

presentation, a study is conducted to further developed new design forms.

The previous design is considered as too simple. In this case, my tutor has suggested to develop different forms of flora that would eventually give rise to an exciting outcome. By using the movie â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Avatarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; as precedent, new inspirations are integrated into the design. Exotic style of different vegetation that has introduced in the movie Avatar inspired more ideas to the initial design.

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PROJECT PROPOSAL


The simple â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;floraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; form of the initial design is transformed into complex vegetation using different grasshopper approaches such as graphmapper, repellent and attractor points. Outcomes are then selected to meet the design requirements. Three forms are chosen for its aesthetic and constructibility. Next, these three forms are produced at different scale and arrange randomly to create a complex organization which expect to resemblance with natural rainforest.

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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FLORA FORM VEGETATION Generated from the idea of Strip &Folding. Developed from points which then integrated with SpinForce, Decay, MergeField, GraphMapper and finally Veronoi. Aims to incorporate colour solar panel due to its large surface area exposing towards the sunlight. Also, each flower petals would bring out colourful, vibrant visual

SPIRAL FORM VEGETATION Generated from initial design (flora) by further developing it using Graphmapper (Parabola). Aims to incorporate windbelt technology due to its dynamism which allows windbelt to install at all direction.

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PROJECT PROPOSAL


LEAF FORM VEGETATION Generated from initial design (flora) by further developing it using MergeForce and Attractor Points. Aims to incorporate both windbelt and colour solar panel due to its large surface area combine with its spanning and folding characteristics. This allows windbelt to install at all direction and solar panels to be exposed effectively towards the sunlight.

DESIGN REFINEMENT PROJECT PROPOSAL

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PROJECT PROPOSAL


The three forms are produced at different scale and arrange randomly to create a complex organization which expect to resemblance with natural rainforest.

DESIGN ORGANIZATION PROJECT PROPOSAL

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STEP 1

Position points in respond to the site analysis.

STEP 2

Development of flora species using spinforce, decay, graphmapper and veronoi.

STEP 3 STEP 4

Evolved species are then being form by attractor points

STEP 5

Evolved species are then being manipulated by parabolic distribution

STEP 6

Organization of flora species into scale of 3 or 4

STEP 7

Organization of both evolved species into scale of 3 or 4

STEP 8

Transforming the leaf species into two different attribute : solar & wind

STEP 9 STEP 10

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Further development of existing design

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Pipeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; curve in resemble of steel tube Using the flora species as center point, randomly place the evolve species to form a rainforest

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PSEUDO SCRIPT PROJECT PROPOSAL

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TECTONIC ELEMENT PART C2 21

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Windbelt is a core construction element that is repeated across the design. It is a holistic energy generator as well as a tectonic element that serves both functional and aesthetic purpose. Windbelt is the non-incremental innovative technology originated by Shawn Frayne associated with his company Humdinger to enhance the social adaption. It was discovered to be a useful and powerful mechanism for catching the wind at scales and costs beyond the reach of conventional wind turbines. It relies on â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;aeroelastic flutterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, which uses a tensioned membrane undergoing a flutter oscillation to pull energy from the wind. The theory is based on the electromagnetic induction, which produces electricity across coil in a changing magnetic field. As the membrane vibrates, electricity is produced.

WINDBELT BRIEF PROJECT PROPOSAL

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CONSTRUCTION DETAIL 01 :

WINDBELT 23

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BEARING SUPPORT

PROTECTION COVER

WINDBELT STRUCTURE

MAGNET

STATOR

BELT

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STEEL SCREW

STEEL JOINT

BEARING PLATE

BEARING JOINT NYLON SCREW

BASE PLATE

CLIPPER

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JOINT TO STRUCTURE

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BALL BEARING OSCILLATION JOINT


WINDBELT STRUCTURE

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CONSTRUCTION DETAIL 02 : WINDBELT INSTALLATION (CLOSE-UP VIEW)

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CONSTRUCTION DETAIL 02 : WINDBELT INSTALLATION (CLOSE-UP VIEW)

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MODEL MAKING PROCESS : TECTONICS DETAIL PROJECT PROPOSAL

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The constructed model (prototype) is

being test for its usability. A voltmeter is attached to detect the currect produce by electromagnetic force through the vibration of windbelt. An electrical fan is used to provide different intensity of air current to the wind belt. First, the outcome is not succesful because the consideration of the beltâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tension have not been put into account. The belt is too loose, making the vibration less effective. Then, we decided to increase the tension of the windbelt by stretching its frame. As the windbelt tightens, the vibration created by air movement has generated a current value of 2.60 Volt, which is equalivent to more than one AA size battery. As a conclusion, the windbelt test is considered as successful. However, the windbelt still have the potential to increase its capability of energy harvesting if below factors are improvised: (a) The tension of the belt (b) Material of the belt (c) Positioning of windbelt towards the wind

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CONSTRUCTION DETAIL 03 :

GLASS PANEL

PHOTOGLASS MEMBRANE

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SEALANT STRIP

STEEL SCREW

FRAME SUPPORT

PRIMARY ALUMINUM STRUCTURE

PRIMARY ALUMINUM STRUCTURE

SOLAR PANEL : EXPLODED DIAGRAM PROJECT PROPOSAL

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Coloured Solar Panel is an innovative

technology being develop by University of Michigan (U-M) scientists in March 2014. They have invented a transparent, coloured solar cell that could turn windows, shades and billboards into solar energy collectors. Traditional black solar panels are able to absorb light from the entire visible spectrum, returning efficiency levels of around 25 percent. Other transparent and coloured solar technology like dye-sensitised cells, whereby organic solar material is sprayed or printed onto glass, offer returns of around 10 percent. U-Mâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s coloured solar cell contains no dyes or internal structures. The cell contains a layer of amorphous silicon engineered to absorb certain wavelengths of light but to reflect others, meaning the viewer sees reflected blue light while red light is being captured and converted to energy, or vice versa. The light absorbing dye is what drives the energy production of the panels. The photons on the transparent surface enter an excited state during the presence of sunlight. The photons then produce a current to be carried across to a metal-oxide surface. Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s particularly important about this innovation is that the colours werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t created by adding dyes or a film that can obscure the light hitting the panels. Instead, the colours are produced by the mechanical structure of the solar cells themselves causing them to reflect different wavelengths depending on the thickness of the semiconductor layer.

SOLAR PANEL PROJECT PROPOSAL

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CONSTRUCTION DETAIL 04 : Footing joint are integrated into the design with galvanised bolt to hold the design in position. This enables the structure to stand on its own without additional supports that might affect overall performance of the design. Through numerous refining, this design possesses structural integrity which allows it to exist in real but without sacrificing its aesthetic appearance.

FOOTING JOINT PROJECT PROPOSAL

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CLOSE-UP: FOOTING JOINT PROJECT PROPOSAL

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CONSTRUCTION DETAIL 05

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These Buttweld vacuum fittings are designed to be used in conjunctions with aluminum pipe, and are easily welded to the flanges or each other during on-site installations. Vacuum buttweld fittings are designed to be used in any vacuum applications where minimizing the number of sealed joints is critical.

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ALUMINIUM FOAM Aluminium foam were selected as primary structural material as it has an extremely lightweight characteristic which possessed higher tensile and compression strength compare to normal aluminium. This allows dynamic bending form of the design to be easily constructed with the minimal amount of time. Besides, the density of the aluminium foam can be modified to suit different situations. Increasing the foam density would offer more strength and vice versa. This would promise an efficient use of material at different parts of the design without any wastage of natural resource and embodied energy. Its high corrosion resistance also assure structural integrity of the design even being close to the sea. Aluminium foam is later cladded by anodized aluminium to present with a vibrant characteristic and extra protection.

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CONSTRUCTION DETAIL 05 :


PRIMARY STRUCTURE PROJECT PROPOSAL

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The physical model is made at a scale of 1:100, in a rectangular form as same as the site boundary. Constructed in a hybrid process of 3D printing and laser cut fabrication.

The physical model conveys the design intent and serves as a proof of the contractibility of the full scale structure. The model demonstrates the performative aspect of visual appearance, shading and circulation path.

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CONSTRUCTION PROCESS PART C3 PROJECT PROPOSAL

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This public artwork installation is an artificial rainforest which harvest energy for the wind and sun.

Just like any other vegetation, the wind and sun granted life to this architecture. “Without the existence of wind and sun, this design is merely an obnoxious logistics of aluminium tubes; Without the existence of wind and sun, it will not only be the extermination of all architecture, but every single mortal on earth; Without the existence of wind and sun, there will be no soul in the flesh, nor any emotions, attachments, inspirations, intelligence and memories; Without the existence of wind and sun, all shall perish into the realm of oblivion.” Transformed from Wind_Sun, I decided to swap its vowel into “A” that symbolizes the word ‘Architecture’ and ‘Air’. Hence, the design is named Wan_San.

DESIGN NAME : WAN_SAN 55

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PERSPECTIVE PROJECT PROPOSAL

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NIGHT VIEW PROJECT PROPOSAL

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GENERAL STATEMENT Wan_San is a vibrant aluminium rainforest incorporated with the windbelt and colour solar panel technology. It is inspired to integrate with wind and sun to generate clean energy and offset demands in Copenhagen. Not only acting as an energy generator, the installation aims to fully interact with users to raise their awareness of sustainability. This would be achieved through the vibration of windbelts which produces visual plus hearing stimulation, and the colour reflection of the solar panels. The project is designed through computation approach that expands interdisciplinary integration in its design potential, including material selections, fabrications, forms and abstractions. Hence, dynamicity seen in the design not only served as architectural aesthetics, but also to optimize the harvesting of wind and solar energy. With the aid of wind tunnel and solar radiation analysis, this project is proposed to be built within the south west region of the site for optimizing energy yield from wind and sun. Another significant quality of this proposal includes the possibility to move from conceptualizing into reality practice. Different types of joints such as: foundation joint and welded joint are integrated into the design to enables the structure to stand on its own without additional supports that might affect overall performance of the design. Through numerous refining, this design possesses structural integrity which allows it to exist in real but without sacrificing its aesthetic appearance.

STRUCTURAL MATERIAL SELECTION Aluminium foam were selected as primary structural material as it has an extremely lightweight characteristic which possessed higher tensile and compression strength compare to normal aluminium. This allows dynamic bending form of the design to be easily constructed with the minimal amount of time. Besides, the density of the aluminium foam can be modified to suit different situations. Increasing the foam density would offer more strength and vice versa. This would promise an efficient use of material at different parts of the design without any wastage of natural resource and embodied energy. Its high corrosion resistance also assure structural integrity of the design even being close to the sea. Aluminium foam is later cladded by anodized aluminium to present with a vibrant characteristic and extra protection.

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RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATOR : WIND ENERGY Windbelt is the first non-incremental innovative technology beyond this century-old approach. The phenomenon destructive force was discovered to be a useful and powerful mechanism for catching the wind at scales and costs beyond the reach of wind turbines. It relies on ‘aeroelastic flutter’, which uses a tensioned membrane undergoing a flutter oscillation to pull energy from the wind. The theory is based on electromagnetic induction, which produces electricity across conductor in a changing magnetic field. As the membrane vibrates at a higher frequency, higher voltage is produced. Windbelt performs at its optimal in the wind speeds of 15mph (7m/s) or higher; hence the technology is appropriate in this context as the average wind of Copenhagen is over 10m/s. A normal size windbelt in the speed of 6m/s wind can generate over 44kWh in a year and the voltage supply of each windbelt is around 3-4V; which is equivalent to the amount of energy allowing a small electronic device to be fully charged. There are over 7,000 windbelts installing in this project, which means over 300,000kW amount of energy will be generated annually. It is equivalent to supply energy consumption for 230 persons or 75 families in Copenhagen per annual. However, as wind flow is dynamic, the structure is difficult to perform at 100% efficiency at all time. In order to highly optimize wind energy generating potential, the integrated design successfully provide opening at different angle to maintain the wind continuity through space. This surpasses the limitations of conventional wind turbines that achieve its maximum efficiency only when wind is captured on certain planar degree. This can be the reason why windbelt device is claimed to be 10-30 times more efficient than a conventional wind turbine. Hence, the project enables the wind flowing through the continuous orientated windbelts from multi-direction, in order to achieve its optimum energy harvesting even during slow wind speed. Energy production in windbelt installation is made possible to replace conventional wind turbines in the future. The new technology is introduced to harvest relatively larger amount of wind energy with lesser cost and easier construction. The proposal is an innovative pioneer organized for windbelt installation in a delightful way to increase people’s awareness towards new possibilities of renewable energy. The innovative technology in social influence acts as a pioneer of ambitious initiatives to expand wind power towards 2020. Furthermore, the windbelt art installation responds to government incentive in Copenhagen which encouraged public support for wind power by creating a community-owned facility and using local construction method and materials. Thus, the land art project engages visitors through their interactions with site and its potential in popularizing the innovative renewable energy in future through design.

RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATOR : SOLAR ENERGY The light absorbing dye is what drives the energy production of the panels. The photons on the transparent surface enter an excited state during the presence of sunlight. The photons then produce a current to be carried across to a metal-oxide surface. Colour solar panel operates at a rate of 9-10% efficiency. However, it is expected that future technology will allow its extension to 15%. Wan_San aims to produce 6000kWh per annum assuming at maximum solar exposure during peak daylight hours. The easily replaceable solar panels on the flowers allows for future upgrade to increase efficiency as well as power production. Assuming maximum exposure during peak daylight hours which provides high photon influx, coupled with our optimisation of the thickness of out conductive glass substrate and the dye colour coefficient to ensure maximum absorption rate, the installation is estimated to be able to generate approximate 6000kWh of clean solar energy per annum.

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Interrogating the brief requirement would be the primary concern for Architectural Studio: AIR. Only by having a thorough understanding of required criteria would enable me to incorporate both art and sustainable energy technology as one. Besides, the design has also successfully achieved the aim of interacting users with existing site conditions, not forgetting raising awareness among users. Developing further understanding of computational design, data analysis and types of programming is achieved by introducing data collection program such as Vassari. Through that, I am able to breakthrough earlier limitations in computational design by knowing various attributes of wind and solar factor. In fact, with solid evidence and statistical values, many assumptions earlier have been validate, thus developing a strong confidence to move forward. Capabilities for parametric architecture to adapt sustainable technology is met. From every researches and exercises which I have attempted throughout the semester, I have learned to pick up on my mistakes and promise further improvement. After several hardships, I become more capable on refining my parametric design to an extend which both renewable technology can be perform optimally. Being able to improvise and introduce own style of computational techniques into the final design is the major achievement in this subject. Beginning from Seroussi Pavilion to Beijing National Stadium, I undergoes several bottleneck situation when I attempt to incorporate the best of both architecture into one. After several hardships, I managed to breakthrough and produces a new outcome which our style is adopted. All in all, this studio is immensely challenging. It nearly killed me. It makes me stronger than ever. Thank you, Studio Air.

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1. Jonathan Atteberry, How welding works (2013) <http://science.howstuffworks.com/welding3.htm> [accessed 1 November 2014]. 2. Humdinger, Windbelt Innovation: Micro (2012) <http://www.humdingerwind.com/#/wi_micro/> [accessed 1November 2014]. 3. NDT, Electromagnetic Induction (2011) <http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/HighSchool/Electricity/electroinduction.htm> [accessed 1 November 2014]. 4. Nicole Casal Moore, Transparent, color solar cells fuse energy, beauty (2014) <http://ns.umich.edu/new/multimedia/videos/22020-transparent-color-solar-cells-fuse-energy-beauty> [accessed 1 November 2014]. 5. Energy Matters, University Of Michigan Develops Coloured Solar Cells (2014) <http://www.energymatters.com.au/renewable-news/em4206/> [accessed 1 November 2014].

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Studio Air Journal_Clive