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T abl eofCont ent s Aboutme A.1Des i gnF ut ur i ng A.2Des i gnComput at i on A.3Compos i t i on/Gener at i on A.4Concl us i on A.5L ear ni ngOut come A. 6Al gor i t hmi cS ket chbook Bi bl i ogr aphy


My name i sF r anci sNg and Iam bas ed i n Mal ays i a. I am a t hi r d year Bachel or of Envi r onment ss t udent .Overt he cour s e,Ihave r eal i z ed my per cept i on ofar chi t ect ur e has beenpr ogr es s i vel yevol vi ng.Under s t andi ngt he changi ng needsoft he wor l d,ar chi t ect ur et o mehasbecomemor ecompl ext haneverand t her ei snof i x eds ol ut i onf orever ypr obl em.T he devi at i oni nar chi t ect ur ehasgr eat l yf as ci nat ed me and enabl e me t ot hi nkbeyond t he t er m ‘ ar chi t ect ur e’ and i t s cor r el at i on wi t h ot her f i el dss uchass oci al ps ychol ogy,t echnol ogyas wel lasbi ol ogy.I n or dert of ur t herpur s ue my i nt er es t si nt hes ef i el ds ,Iam l ooki ngf or war df or t he l ear ni ng out come of S t udi o Ai r . Pr i ort ot hi sS t udi o,Ihaveequi ppedwi t hRhi no model l i ng s ki l l s , CAD dr awi ngs and Adobe i nf ogr aphi cs ki l l s .Ihave beeni nt r oduced wi t h par amet r i c des i gn whi ch i sa des i gn pr oces s bas edonal gor i t hmi ct hi nki ngus i ngpar amet er s asa dr i vi ng poi ntofar chi t ect ur e dur i ng t he s emes t erbr eak.Compar edt ocomput er ai ded des i gn ( CAD) ,par amet r i c des i gn al l owsmor e f l ex i bi l i t ybychangi ng t he val ue ofa s el ect ed par amet er t o al t er t he end r es ul t of t he al gor i t hm whi l e di r ect model i ng r emai ns a mer edocument at i ont ooli nar chi t ect ur e.Wi t h t headventoft oday’ st echnol ogy,par amet r i c des i gn al l owsar chi t ect st o opt i mi s e a des i gn goal agai ns tas etofdes i gncons t r ai ns .I not her wor ds ,we can ex pl or e mor es ophi s t i cat ed s ol ut i onsi nar chi t ect ur et hr oughdi gi t aldes i gn and f abr i cat i on.Over al l ,Ibel i eve t hatIam abl et odevel opanew par adi gm i nmydes i gn t hi nki ng al ong wi t h myopt i mi s m t owar dst he f ut ur e of ar chi t ect ur e i n t hi s s emes t er .

A

A B O U T M E


a

a.Di gi t al Des i gnandF abr i cat i on-Deni al Mas k


3C Ci t yWORKacbyAnt f ar m

3CCl i mat e, Convent i on, Cr ui s e.“I ti ss uppos edl ya ci t y bui l dt o accomodat e peopl e and ot hers peci es admi s t a heal t hy at mos pher e. ”


DES I GN A F UT URI NG . 0 1 byT onyF r y

Des i gn i sourabi l i t yt o pr ef i gur e whatwe cr eat e bef or et he actof 1 cr eat i on. I ti snotmer el ydr awi ng i deasand t hi nkcr eat i vel ybuta r evol ut i onar y act t o our f ut ur e envi r onment . When l ooki ng ant hr opol ogi cal l y,i ti sanappr oachofs ur vi valand t he ar tofl i vi ng. Es s ent i al l y,des i gni st hewaywel i ve,t obenef i tourl i f eandcr eat ea des i r edf ut ur e.Des pi t e,des i gnwi t houtunder s t andi ngwhati tneedst o 2 bemobi l i z edf ororagai ns t i snegat i vet ot hatofcr eat i onorknownas des t r uct i on.T oday,mos tdes i gner shaves of arf ai l edt or ecogni z et he 3 f undament al qual i t yofdes i gn.Ourf ut ur el i esi nt hehandofdes i gner s who needst o open t hei reyest ot he gl obalchal l engeswi t hi n our s pecul at i onr anges uchascl i mat echange,r es our cesdepl et i onand t heex ponent i algr owt hofwor l dpopul at i on.Ar eweabl et omi t i gat e t hef ut ur ecr i s i st hr oughdes i gn?T aki ngaccountofdes i gnf ut ur i ngi n ourdes i gn pr act i ces ,Ibel i eve t hatwe coul d devel op al t er nat i ve edi r ect our appr oach f r om def ut ur i ng and s ol ut i ons and r uns us t ai nabi l i t y. We asdes i gner ss houl dr et hi nkt he waywe des i gn and t he caus e of ef f ect t hat wi l l change our f ut ur e.

Gi vi ngr ecogni t i ont ot hepr epos i t i ont hatweonl yhave af ut ur ebydes i gnobvi ous l yt akesust ot heques t i on ‘ how canaf ut ur eact ual l ybes ecur edbydes i gn?’

1.F r yT ony,Des i gnF ut ur i ng:S us t ai nabi l i t y,Et hi csandNew Pr act i ce( Ox f or d:Ber g,2008) ,p.2 2.T ony,Des i gnF ut ur i ng.p.4. 3.T ony,Des i gnF ut ur i ng.p.3.


1 a

a.Dr opci t y-Geodes i cDome


CAS EA. 01( i )/ /DROPCI T Y Ar chi t ect s :GeneBer nof s ky,J oAnnBer nof s ky,Ri char dKal l wei tandCl ar kRi cher t Dat e

:1965

L ocat i on:Nor t hofT r i ni dad,S out her nCol or ado. Des i gnf ort henew envi r onmentas‘ des i gnf ort hef ut ur e’ :

I ns pi r ed byBuckmi ns t erF ul l erwhopi oneer ed i ngeodes i cdomes ,t hedr op out ar t i s t swer e abl et or ecr eat et he mat hemat i calut opi a wi t hs cr apsand det r i t us f oundar oundt hes i t e.T hei rgoal i ss i mpl e,i ns t eadofcr eat i ngwas t e,t heydef i ned anew l i f ef r om was t ebef or et het er m‘ gr eendes i gn’i sus edi nar chi t ect ur e.F r y’ s ment i oned i n Des i gn F ut ur i ng:“Aschange hast o be by des i gn r at hert han chance,des i gnhast o be i nt he f r ont l i ne oft r ans f or mat i ve act i on. ”1 Revi s i t ed t hei rdes i gnt hi nki ng,t hedr opar t i s t si deal i z edanew at t i t udet owar dsourf ut ur e; as us t ai nabl e,economi calandi nnovat i vewayt hatf os t eracr i t i calmes s aget o t hef ut ur egener at i on.Agai n,ourf ut ur ei sl edbydes i gner swhodet er mi nedf ora change i n at t i t ude and t hi nki ng.Have we been mor er es our cef ulwhen we des i gna pl ace f ort he communi t y?T oday,des i gner sand pl anner shave been ex per i ment i ngwi t hi nnovat i vecr eat i onst hatcoul dmi t i gat egl obalpr obl emsof t he f ut ur es uch ascl i mat e change and r es our ce ex haus t i on.I nS t eve Baer ’ s “Dome Cookbook’ ,s t udi es of nonconvent i onalt echni que i n ar chi t ect ur e hatar chi t ect ur e needst o be mor e economi caland s us t ai nabl et o s ugges t st r es pond t o ourf ut ur e envi r onment .F ori ns t ance,compar ed t ot r adi t i onal cons t r uct i onmet hod,dome s t r uct ur ei ss i gni f i cant l ymor er es i l i entand r equi r es l es smat er i al andwas t ewhi chi sani mpor t antf act ort ocons i der ,s pecul at edt hat wemayhavel i mi t edr es our cesi nt hef ut ur e. Wi t ht he adventoft oday’ sdes i gn t echnol ogy,t he dome s t r uct ur e can be r ef i nedf ur t herwi t haddedcompl ex i t ywhi l es i gni f i cant l yr educet het i met akent o cons t r uctt hedomes t r uct ur e.Des pi t e,t heyoungar t i s t swer eabl et obui l dhomes i ns pi r ed by mat hemat i ci ans and honor ed t he f i r s t Dymax i on Awar d by Buckmi ns t erF ul l erhi ms el f .Bei ng abl et o cr eat e dome hous eshasf as ci nat ed F ul l erofhow t hecommuni t i eswi t houtadvancemat hemat i cal backgr oundand s ophi s t i cat edt ool wer eabl et oi magi net hechangeofourf ut ur eanddes i gnt he new wayt ol i ve.I s n’ tt hi swhat‘ des i gnf ut ur i ng’i smobi l i z edf or ?2

b \\ T he cookbook i s publ i s hed as an i mpor t antmes s aget ot hepubl i cr at hert han j us t a manual . Of under s t andi ng t he f undament alqual i t i esofdes i gn,whati sour r ol e asa des i gnert o cr eat e pos s i bi l i t i est hat can l ead t o a bet t erf ut ur e.“Vi s i ons ar e needed t odayasmuch ast heyeverwer e; t hey s har pen cr i t i ci s m and s t r engt hen 3 hope. ” Wemus tbeawar eoft hechangi ng f ut ur e,whatmayi thol d and how we may s ecur eourf ut ur et hr ought hemeanofdes i gn f ut ur i ng. \\

c

Ref er ences : 1.T ony,Des i gnF ut ur i ng.p.6. 2.T ony,Des i gnF ut ur i ng.p.4. 3.T homas ,A.Mar kus ,Vi s i onsofPer f ect i on:Ar chi t cet ur eandUt opi anT hought ,( T hi r dEyeCent r e,1985) ,pg. 18. I mages : b.Secondedi t i onofDomeCookbookbyDavi dKr us chke. c.F abr i cat i onmanual ofGeodes i cDome.


a

a.Dol phi nEmbas s y ANT F ARM


CAS EA. 01( i i )/ /DOL PHI NEMBAS S Y Ar chi t ect s :ANT F ARM Dat e

:1974

L ocat i on:Specul at i vear chi t ect ur easapr act i ceofopt i mi s m:

S pecul at i vear chi t ect ur ei saf i ct i onal met hodol ogyofpr edi ct i ngourf ut ur e. T oday,ar chi t ect sar enotonl ydes i gni ngf ort hepr es entbutdes i gni ngacr os s t he pos i bi l i t i es f or t omor r ow’ s ar chi t ect ur e dr i ven by s pecul at i ve ar chi t ect ur e.“S pecul at i on i sconcer ned wi t h changi ng r eal i t yr at hert han 1 s i mpl ydes cr i bi ngi tormai nt ai ni ngi t ” . T heDol phi nEmbas s yf ocus espr i mar i l y ont hebui l tenvi r onmenti nbot har chi t ect ur aland ecol ogi cals ens eswhi l e s pecul at i ngourant hr opol ogi cal i mpactt owar dst hes ur vi val ofcet aceansi n t he f ut ur e.Wi t hout s pecul at i ve t hi nki ng,we ar e bas i cal l yl i mi t i ng t he pos s i bi l i t i est os hapeamor emal l eabl ef ut ur e.T heDol phi nEmbas s yi snott he f i r s tt o pr ove ouropt i mi s mt owar dsa s pecul at ed f ut ur e butt hi si deol ogy s houl d pus ht he young des i gner st oday t ot hi nk beyond t he pr es ent ar chi t ect ur eanddes i gnwi t ht hehopef orabet t ert omor r ow.

Whatdoesi tmeant ohaveabet t erf ut ur e?:

“F ut ur ei snota des t i nat i on buta medi um t o add i magi nat i ve t hough t o s pecul at e wi t h. ” ,2 Ant f ar m i samong t he paperar chi t ect swho ar e not bounded by t he l i mi tofpos s i bi l i t i esbutdes i gn outoft he cone wher e i magi nat i on l i es .( i mage d)T he Dol phi n Embas s yi st he r es ul tofdes i gn i magi nat i vel ybas edont hepr obl emst hatt heyhaves pecul at ed,f r om al i f e t hr eat eni ng wor l df ordol phi nt oa f ut ur eofcoex i s t encebet weendol phi n and human.( i mage d and e)Al t houghneverbui l t ,t he vi s i ondel i ver ed a power f ulmes s age t o human,a mes s age t hatwe des i gner shad been negl ect i ng s i nce t he devel opmentofweal t h and manki nd.Whatdoesi t meant ohaveabet t erf ut ur e?I st hatdi f f er entt oot herpeopl e( ors peci es ) ? ( pgs pecul at e)Ant f ar m envi s i onedaut opi anf ut ur ef ordol phi nsandhuman t oi vet oget her ,ani magi nat i ont hatdes i gnedt odevi at eawayf r om pr es ent day ‘ ant hr opocent r i ci s m’ .Cont r adi ct st ot hatofDr opci t y,t he Dol phi n Embas s y pr act i ced a nonhumancent r i c at t i t ude t owar ds t he f ut ur e. Al t hough i ti sonl y paperar chi t ect ur e,Ant f ar m’ si magi nat i on chal l enges how weval ueabet t erf ut ur eandvi ewi ngf ut ur ef r om aper s pect i veaway f r om ‘ ant hr opocent r i ci s m’ .

\\ T he wor d Ut opi ai scoi ned byT homasMor ef ort he t i t l eofhi smos tf amousbooki n1516.L i t er al l yi tmeansa ‘ nonpl ace’ .I ts er ved bot h asa cr i t i que ofhi sown s oci et yasavi s i onofapos s i bl ef ut ur e.\\3

Ref er ences : 1.Dunne,Ant hony& Raby,F i ona,S pecul at i veEver yt hi ng:Des i gnF i ct i on,andS oci al Dr eami ng( MI TPr es s ,2003)p.2. 2.Dunne,Ant hony& Raby,F i ona,S pecul at i veEver yt hi ng,p.3. 3.T homas ,A.Mar kus ,Vi s i onsofPer f ect i on,pg.7. I mages : b.ConeofPr ef er eabl eF ut ur ebyS t uar tCandy. c.Dol phi nEmbas s y


d.Dol phi nofPr es ent


e.Dol phi nofF ut ur e


MEDI AT EDMAT T ERbyNer iOxman

3Dpr i nt i ng us i ng chi t i n ex t r act ed f r om s hr i mp’ s ex os kel et on t hat bi odegr adesi nwat er .


DES I GN COMPUT AT I ON A . 0 2 T heabi l i t yt odes i gni snotonl ydomi nat edbyhuman,butal s oat al entf or s t ur y comput er s t o gener at e al gor i t hmi cbas ed f or m wi t h 21 cent par amet er si nput by human. Ox mans i n‘ T heor i es of t he Di gi t ali n Ar chi t ect ur e’ment i oned “f or mat i on pr ecedesf or m” ,t he val ue ofour des i gn i sno l ongert he out come butf or mat i i on t hr ough t he l ogi c of al gor i t hmi ct hi nki ngwhi chhel psdes i gner st odayt ot hi nkbeyondcomput er 1 asa t oolf ordocument i ng and comput er i z at i on. Des pi t e bei ng abl et o br eakt hought het r adi t i onal ar chi t ect ur al met hods ,ourhopei npar amet r i c ar chi t ect ur e t hat r es ul t si n var yi ng out comes and j ux t apos es wi t h ever changi ngr eal i t y.T hi swi l lbecomet henew agendaf ort her edef i ned ar chi t ect ur alpr act i ce oft oday’ sdi gi t algener at i on.A t ypi calques t i on: “S houl dwel i mi tourdes i gnbyus i ngcomput er s ?” .Asades i gner ,Ibel i eve t hatt hedes i gnpr oces si snotass i mpl easgener at i ngs ol ut i onst opr obl em. I nf act ,we ashuman ar e capabl et o eval uat e,t hi nkemot i onal l y and cr i t i ci z ei nt hedes i gni ngpr oces sandhence,wes houl dbemor econs ci ous whi l e ex per i ment i ng wi t h t he comput er gener at ed des i gn. T echnol ogyopt i mi s t i cal l ys peaki ng,comput er spl ayan i mpor t antr ol ei n s hapi ngourf ut ur e.Per hapsi nt hedi s t antf ut ur e,comput er swi l lbeabl et o cr eat e t hei r own par amet er s ,i nj ect t hei rf eel i ngs and s i mul at ed t o communi cat et hei rcr eat i vi t y.I ns hor t ,di gi t al ar chi t ect ur ehaspus hedusf ar f r om convent i onall anguagewhi chwear eabl et oex pl or et hepos s i bi l i t i es i ns ophi s t i cat ed f or ms ,mat er i alt echnol ogy,per f or mance cont r oland a 2 s pecul at i vevi s i ont owar dst hef ut ur e.

I ns t ead ofmet hodol ogi cal l y deci di ng ever yt hi ng f r om t he t op down,we make deci s i onsf r om t he bot t om up,s peci f yi ng t he r el at i ons hi psbet ween 3 par t swhi l es at i s f yi ngt heneedf orover al lbal ance. Makot oSeiWat nabe

1.Ox man,Ri vkaandRober tOx man,T heor i esoft heDi gi t al i nAr chi t ect ur e( L ondon;New Yor k:Rout l edge,2014) ,p.3. 2.Ox man,Ri vkaandRober tOx man,T heor i esoft heDi gi t al i nAr chi t ect ur e,p.7. 3.Wat anabeMakot oS ei ,I nduct i ondes i gn:AMet hodf orEvol ut i onar yDes i gn,( Bi r khaus er ,2002) ,8.


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b

a.AADRLBEHAVI OURALMAT T ER3-L i f eAquat echbyT hi nkT ank b.Det ai l ofr es pons i ves ki n c.Gr avi t at i onal f l ow i t er at i ons

c


CAS EA. 02( i )/ /L i f eAquat ech Ar chi t ect s :Ar mandoBus s ey,Edwar dRogerDougl as sL uckmann,Vi chayut hMeenaphant ,AnaMar gar i t aWangZ uni g Dat e

:2013

L ocat i on:T hef ut ur eofdes i gn-Comput at i onals i mul at i onast oolf ordi gi t almor phogenes i sandper f or mance: Wehavebui l thor i z ont al l yandver t i cal l y,butwhynoti nt el l i gent l y? I nt hedi gi t alage,t hewaywel ookat t het er m‘ des i gn’hast r ans cendedt oamor edi r ectwhi l ecompl exappr oach.“Di gi t al i nf or mat i oncanbe ex t r act ed,ex changed and ut i l i z ed wi t hf argr eat erf aci l i t yand s peed. ”L i f e Aquat echi sanex empl ar y pr ecedentt oex pl ai nhow gener at i vemet hodsi ndes i gncoul dchangeouri nt ui t i ont owar dsdes i gni ngt he f ut ur e.Des i gni snotcons t r ai nedby‘ f or mf ol l owsf unct i on’anymor easgener at i vedes i gnal l owsdes i gnt o communi cat ewi t hi t sdat aandf r om t hes chemeofL i f eAquat ech( pi cd) ,t hedat at hatwear el ooki ngf or i st hef l ui df l ow andt hei nt r i cat epat t er ni nducedbygr avi t at i onalf or ce.Ut i l i z i ngs i mul at i ons of t war e,t he anal ys i soft hes ei nf or mat i onar et r ans l at edi nt oapat t er ni nr es pons et ohow t hef l ui df l owsandt het her mal mechani s m der i ved f r om t he i nput geomet r y.Gener at i ve des i gn met hodol ogi es ar e capabl e of mani pul at i ng t hes e compl exi nf or mat i on accur at el yand make opt i mi z at i on t hr ough var i ousi t er at i ons whi ch i sal mos ti mpos s i bl e wi t houtdes i gn comput at i on.T hi si sex t r emel y di f f i cul tt o vi s ual i z e bef or e gener at i ve des i gni sdi s cover ed whi chi swhyt he 20t hcent ur ys t yl e ar er es t r i ct ed t o a mor er ect i l i near echnol ogi cal l ys peaki ng,di gi t al mor phogenes i si sappl i edi nt hecr eat i onofL i f eAquat echwher e f as hi on.T 2 convent i onalunder s t andi ng ar e cal cul at ed by t he chos en gener at i ve comput at i onalmet hods . By par amet r i cmeans ,t het eam wer eabl et ocal cul at et hepat hoft hef l ui df l ow us i ngt hegeomet r yasan i nputwhi l evi s ual i z i ngas i mul at edpat hwhi chal l owsf orf ur t herr ef i nementandopt i mi z at i on.( pi cd)

Wha tdoesi tmea nt obe gener a t i v e? \ \ Ge ne r at i v e de s i gn mi mi c snat ur e ’ s e v ol ut i onar y appr oac h t o de s i gn. De s i gne r sore ngi ne e r si nputde s i gngoal s i nt o ge ne r at i v ede s i gn s of t war e ,al ong wi t h par ame t e r ss uc h as mat e r i al s , manuf ac t ur i ngme t hods , c os tc ons t r ai ns . Unl i k et opol ogyopt i mi z at i on, ge ne r at i v e de s i gn e x pl or e s al l t he pos s i bl e pe r mut at i ons of a s ol ut i on, qui c k l y ge ne r at i ng de s i gn al t e r nat i v e s .I tt e s t s and l e ar nsf r om e ac hi t e r at i on what wor k sandwhat doe s n ’ t .\ \( aut ode s k ) ( d)

Evol vi ngf r om pr es entHVAC s ys t em,L i f eAquat echal s of eat ur edt hehydr oni cs ys t em asacool i ngs t r at egy, us i ngwat erast hepr i mar ychannelf orheatt r ans f er .T hi si sknownasper f or mat i vedes i gn,aconcept ual s t udy oft he per f or mance s ynt hes i z ed by a di gi t al l y gener at ed f or m,i nt er msofmat er i alpr oper t y, f unct i onals ys t em and r el at i ons hi p wi t ht he envi r onment .F ori ns t ance,t he t her malper f or mance ofL i f e Aquat ech s i mul at ed by a compr ehens i ve anal ys i soff l ui df l ow.S i mul at i on pr ogr am ar e capabl et o cal cul at et heheatpat hi nr es pons et ot hef l ow pat t er nwhi chal l owsdes i gner st os pecul at et heact ual per f or manceoft hedes i gnbef or ei ti sbui l t .T hi si sf undament al l yi mpor t antt ot oday’ spr act i ceasdes i gn becomesmor eper f or mancedr i veni nor dert oadaptt ot hechangi ngenvi r onment .

d

Ref er ences : 1.Kol ar evi c,Br anko,Ar chi t ect ur ei nt heDi gi t al Age:Des i gnandManuf act ur i ng( New Yor k;L ondon:S ponPr es s , 2003) ,p.13. 2.T homas ,A.Mar kus ,Vi s i onsofPer f ect i on,pg.7. I mages : d.Di agr amss howi ngs ys t em andper f or manceofL i f eAquat ech


a

b

a.MEDI AT EDMAT T ER-S i l kPavi l i onby Ner i Ox man b.6, 500s i l kwor mss pi nni ngs i l kt hr eads c.Domes t r uct ur ear t i cul at i ngt hes hapeofacocoon

c


CAS EA. 02( i i )/ /S i l kPavi l i on Ar chi t ect s :Ner i Ox manandMI TMedi aL abgr oup Dat e

:2013

L ocat i on:MI TMedi aL ab New agef abr i cat i onwi t hbi ol ogi calmat er i al : Ar chi t ect ur ehass hi f t edf r om s t udyi ngt hepr oper t i esofpr eex i s t i ngmat er i al st o t hedi s cover yofbi ol ogi cal mat er i al asadepar t ur eoft henew agef abr i cat i on. Embr aci ngbot hbi ol ogyand t echnol ogy,t heS i l kPavi l i onex pl or ed t heus eof s i l kasnew ar chi t ect ur alf abr i c and s i l kwor msast he gener at oroft he des i gn. S t udyi ng t he nat ur e ofs i l kwor mswhi ch i ss ens i t i ve t ol i ght ,per f or at i onsof di f f er ents i z esanddens i t i esar edi gi t al l ydes i gned.T hepr i mar yl ayerofs i l ki sl ai d byCNC ( comput er numer i cal l ycont r ol l ed)machi neand depl oyed s i l kwor ms asbi ol ogi calpr i nt er si ncr eat i onoft hes econdar ys t r uct ur e.( medi amat er i al s ) T he s i l kt hr eadspr oduced bys i l kwor msar e cont i nuousand eex hi bi tvar yi ng pr oper t i es( t oughex t er i orands of ti nt er i or )di f f er entf r om t hehomogenousr es ul t of3D pr i nt i ng.T hes i l kpr oducedbys i l kwor msi sr enewabl ewhi l er egener at i ve, cr eat i ng an ar chi t ect ur et hatcan bui l d ar chi t ect ur e.S t ar t ed wi t h 6, 500 s i l kwor ms ,t hey pr oduced 1. 5M eggs whi ch can pr oduce 250 addi t i onal pavi l i ons .T hechal l engei ndi s cover i ngnew mat er i al si nar chi t ect ur alpr act i ce hasbecomemor ecommont odaywi t ht headventofmoder nt echnol ogy.I n s hor t ,S i l kPavi l i on hass hown usmor et han j us ta new mat er i albutal s ot he pos s i bi l i t yofus i ngs i l kwor msasbi ol ogi cal 3Dpr i nt er s . “ Des i gnbyNat ur e” : T het er m “des i gnbynat ur e”i sdi f f er entf r om “des i gnf ornat ur e” .( vi meo)Nat ur e i sf ul lofr es our ces .T oday,we l ear n how t o des i gn f r om t he pr i nci pl esand pr oces s esofnat ur e and t hi si s“des i gnbynat ur e” .Rat hert hani mi t at i ng t he f or m ofnat ur e,t he S i l kPavi l i onhaspr ovent hatnat ur e candes i gni t s el fand s ynt hes i z ei t sownmat er i al s .Whencompar edt oBuckmi ns t erF ul l er ’ sBi os pher e, t heS i l kPavi l i oni smadeofor gani cs i l ks ynt hes i z edbys i l kwor mswhi l er equi r esno par t sandas s embl ywher east hebi os pher ei smadeofs ynt het i cpar t sas s embl e t oget hert oget heranddes i gnedf ort heenvi r onment .( vi meo)I snat ur eamor e s us t ai nabl e ar chi t ectt han human? I ndeed,t he cons t r uct i on ofnat ur e wi l l pr omi s e a mor es us t ai nabl ef ut ur et han mos toft he bui l di ngswe cons t r uct t oday.Wi t ht he ai d ofdi gi t alt ool s ,we ar e abl et o el evat e ourdes i gn wi t h pr i nci pl esofnat ur e,cons t r uctbi omi met i cal l yand wel come t he new l i ghtof or gani cmat er i al si nar chi t ect ur e.

d. Bi os pher e by Buckmi ns t er F ul l er “Des i gnedf orNat ur e” e.S i l kPavi l i i onbyMedi at edMat t err es ear ch gr oup-“Des i gnedbyNat ur e”


L i Qui d-

byAl i s aAndr as ek

T he L i Qui d pr oj ect chal l enges t he compos i t i on gener at ed byas s i gni ng “unnat ur al � val uesofgr avi t yandt he vi s cos i t yofl i qui d.


COMPOS I T I ON/ GENERAT I ON Whati nf or msconpos i t i on?Conver s el y,whatdoesi ti nf or ms ?Compos i t i on ex i s t si n many l evel s ,f r om t he mi cr os copi c compos i t i on ofDNA t ot he gr owi ngcompos i t i onofourur banenvi r onment s .T heywer ei nf or medbya s etofr ul eswhi ch def i nest he boundar yofcompos i t i on.I n ar chi t ect ur al s ens e,acompos i t i onmus tdel i vers omef or m ofphys i cal l ywhi chi nf or msus as peci f i cl anguage t o des cr i be t he compos i t i on,f ori ns t ance,dens e, cl us t er ed,ax i al andbal anced.Gener at i onont heot herhand,i sas t udyof t he compos i t i onalr ul esand t hr ough a s er i esofgener at i ve pr oces s esa compos i t i oni sf or med.I nt he t heor yofemer gence,gener at i oni nnat ur e hasas el f or gani s i ngs ys t em orbehavi ourwhi chhel pedt hem t oevol veor mai nt ai ni t s el f .1 S uchgener at i vef or cesmovef r om l owl evel uni t st ohi gher l evelofs ophi s t i cat i onascanbes eeni nt hecr ys t al l i z at i onofas nowf l akes whenf r act al scompos i t i onar e gener at ed and s l owl yf or mi ng a compl ex 2 T hus ,t hes e nat ur als ys t emsar es t udi ed and wi del yappl i ed i n s t r uct ur e. t oday’ sar chi t ect ur ei nr es pons et ot he f undament alr ul esi nnat ur e.Wi t h acces st oadvancet echnol ogy,compos i t i onals t udi escl os ert onat ur ear e madepos s i bl eandt hes ewi l lbecover edi nt hef ol l owi ngex ampl esi nt he COMPOS I T I ON/GENERAT I ONcas es t udi es .

A . 0 3

Oneoft hegr eatadvancesi nt houghti nourowner a happenedwhenaconnect i onwasf or medbet ween 3 t hepr oces s esofnat ur eandt hewor l doff or ms .

Sanf or dKwi nt er

1.Hens el Mi chael ,Emer gence:Mor phogenet i cDes i gnS t r at egi es ,( AD,2004) ,p.6 2.J ohns onS t even,Emer gence:T heconnect edl i vesofant s ,br ai ns ,ci t i esands of t war e( S cr i bner ,2002) ,p.5. 3.Ar anda/L as ch,Pamphl etAr chi t ect ur e( Pr i ncet onAr chi t ect ur l Pr es s ,2005) ,p.92.


a

b

a.BL OOM GamebyAl i s aAndr as ekandJ os eS anchez b.Modul e( i ndi vi dual par t )ofbl oom game c.S kel et al compos i t i oncr eat edbyBL OOM game

c


CAS EA. 03( i )/ /BL OOM Game Ar chi t ect s :Al i s aAndr as ekandJ os eS anchez Dat e

:2012

L ocat i on:L ondon

Cr eat i ngs oci alexper i encet hr oughar chi t ect ur eof‘ emer gence’ . Concept ual i z ed asur bant oy,t heBL OOM gamei sdes i gned t oengagepeopl ei ns oci alpl ay andt hei deaofgener at i vedes i gn.Us i ngt hepr i nci pl eofaggr egat i onmet hod,t hecomponent s 1 ar econnect edf r om j oi nt st oj oi nt st of or m amor ecompr ehens i ves t r uct ur e. Asacr eat i vet oy, i tchal l engespeopl et oex pl or et hedi f f er entgener at i veout comet hr ought hear tofpl ayand t hei ri magi nat i on.Whent heypl aywi t has peci f i cpat t er norr ul e,auni queout comei sachi eved andt hel i mi t l es spos s i bi l i t i esof‘ gr owi ng’anar chi t ect ur ees t abl i s hedanew s oci al ex per i encef or t he publ i ct o cr eat e and gr ow t hei rown pavi l i on t hr ough gener at i ve des i gn met hods . Emer genceasex pl ai nedear l i er ,evol vesf r om al owl evel uni t si nt oahi gherl evel ofcompl ex i t y i st hei deaf r om t henat ur als ys t em ofhow pl ant sgr ow andt hewaycr ys t alf or ms ,i st r ans l at ed i nt oani nvi t i ngs oci al act i vt i yandt os t ar tt hegamet hatcr eat esr andom compos i t i oni nf or med 2 Whencompar edt ot hear chi t ect ur eoft hepas t ,t hegener at i ve byt hepeopl ewhoi nvol ved. andi magi nat i veat t r i but esi nt heBL OOM gamei st heener gyneededi nt hepr es ents oci et y,t o abl et o cr eat e and i magi ne t he l i mi t l es spos s i bi l i t i esoft he f ut ur e dr i ven byt he conceptof emer gence.

1- Connecti ndi vi dual pi eces

2- Di s covers equencesyoul i ke

3- Putt hem t oget her !

d

Ref er ences : 1.Andr as ek.A.andS anchezJ . ,Bl oom,( Bar l et t S chool ofAr chi t ect ur eUCL ,2016) ,p.45. 2.J ohns onS . ,Emer gence,p.5. I mages : d.Di agr am ofBL OOM GAME


a

a.Pr i mi t i ves ,Veni ce-Ar andaL as ch


CAS EA. 03( i i )/ /Pr i mi t i ves( Veni ce) Ar chi t ect s :Ar andaL as ch Dat e

:2010

L ocat i on:Veni ce

F or mscomesf i r s tort hef unct i on? Combi ni ng t he r omant i ct r adi t i on ofr ui ned l ands cape and modul arf r act al s ,Ar anda L as ch cr eat edf r act al sofmodul aruni t swhi char econf i gur abl eandbet r ans l at edi nt odi f f er entt ypes 1 Bygener at i vemeans ,i t er at i onsofs i mi l arconceptar eex pl or edbychangi ngval ues off ur ni t ur e. ofpar amet er s .T hef or mf i ndi ngmet hodal l owsL as cht ocr eat el ar geamountofi t er at i onsdur i ng 2 t hef or mf i ndi ngpr oces sus i ngt hel ogi cofal gor i t hm. T hes ef or mst henhavet obeopt i mi z edor chos ent os ui ts peci f i cf unct i ons .I scomput ergener at edf or mt hes ameasS ul l i van’ s‘ f or mf ol l ows f unct i on’ ?‘ F or mf ol l owsf unct i on’s i mpl ydes cr i besades i gnedf or m needst of ol l ow t hepr ogr am det er mi ned pr i ort odes i gn.T hemet hodol ogyofcr eat i ng t hepr i mi t i veshoweveri si nr ever s e. F or m ar e gener at ed r egar dl es sofi t ’ sf unct i on and f unct i onsar e as s i gned t o each f or m af t er war ds .T he gener at i ve met hod opensup a new pos s i bi l i t yf ordes i gner st o engage ex t ens i vel ywi t hf or mf i ndi ngpr oces sbef or es t udyi ngt hef unct i onorpr ogr amsas s oci at edwi t h t hef or m.Of t enl y,t hi spr oces swi l lr es ul ti na concept ualr at hert haner gonomi cdes i gnwhi ch meanst hef or m hast obef ur t heropt i mi z ed t omeett hecr i t er i a of‘ f unct i on’orl ef tasi t sr aw uner gonomi cf or m.I ns hor t ,par amet r i c des i gn pr ovi desapower f ulconcept i on off or msby des cr i bi ng a r angepos s i bi l i t i esand t hi sdi ver t sar chi t ect st odayf r om f ocus i ng onf unct i onbut 3 cel ebr at et hei nf i ni t es ynt hes i soff or ms .

b \\ T heBauhausAccentT abl esar egoodex ampl esof ‘ f or mf ol l owsf unct i on’ .Compar edt oL as chPr i mi t i ves , t he Bauhaust abl esar e cons t r ai ned wi t hs i mi l arf or ms wher east he Pr i mi t i ve ar e mor e dynami ci nt er msof conf i gur at i onandf or m.\\

c

Ref er ences : 1." Pr i mi t i ves ,Veni ceBi ennal ei nAr anda/ L as ch, "Ar andaL as ch,l as tmodi f i edF ebr uar y 23,2017,ht t p: / / ar andal as ch. com/ wor ks / moder npr i mi t i ves veni ce/ 2.Ox man,Ri vkaandRober tOx man,T heor i esoft heDi gi t al i nAr chi t ect ur e( L ondon; New Yor k:Rout l edge,2004) ,p3. 3.Kol ar evi c,Br anko,Ar chi t ect ur ei nt heDi gi t al Age:Des i gnandManuf act ur i ng( New Yor k;L ondon:S ponPr es s ,2003)S ugges t eds t ar twi t hp17. I mages : b.BauhausAccentT abl es c.Pr i mi t i vesi t er at i vef or msofdi f f er entf ur ni t ur e


DALCanopyDes i gnbyDi gi t alAr chi t ect ur alL ab

Di gi t al t ool s and met hodol ogi esal l ow us t o cal cul at e and f abr i cat e a s ki nl i ke qual i t yi nar chi t ect ur e.


CONCL US I ON T he r ol e ofar chi t ect st oday hass hi f t ed f r om t he one i nt he pas t , awakened byt he di gi t alage,ar chi t ect sar e abl et o ex pl or e bot ht he vi r t ual andr eal i t yofades i gn.Ar chi t ect ur egr owsaswi deasourt hi nki ng 1 evol vesandwemus tadaptour s el vest ot heuncer t ai nt i esoft hef ut ur e. T hi si swhenar chi t ect ur es t ar t edt obui l di t spat hawayf r om convent i onal mode,r edef i ni ng whatdes i gni smobi l i z ed f ora bet t erf ut ur e.T he new des i gnpr act i cesi nvol ve t he s pecul at i ve and concept ualt hi nki ng t han s ol vi ngpr obl emsdi r ect l y.I ns t eadoff r om At oB,webegant oex pl or et he al t er nat i ves whi ch l eads t o di f f er ent out comes us i ng di gi t al mor phogenes i s .I ndel i ber at el y,we s t ar t ed t o ques t i on t he r el at i ons hi p bet weenhumanandcomput er si ns hapi ngourf ut ur e.Whenwel ooked atouri mpr act i cal i t yi nourpas t ,wer eal i z edt hatar chi t ect ur al des i gnhas t obemor et echnol ogi cal i nvi t i ngandwes houl ds t ar tt oact i vel yempl oy comput at i onal des i gni nt oday’ sar chi t ect ur al pr act i ces .Ofcour s e,f l aws par es t i l lpr es enti nt he di gi t aldi mens i on ofdes i gn,comput er sar e not abl et o‘ des i gn’yetandt heyl ackofi magi nat i on.However ,wecoul dnot t odayex pl ai n ar chi t ect ur e wi t houtex per i ment i ng wi t h di gi t alt ool sas s omet i meshumanact i vi t ymayhavebeenl i mi t ed byt hecompl ex i t yof t hef ut ur ewor l dandcomput erhel psust oconnectwi t ht hem.Whyt hi si s i mpor t ant ? Wel l ,comput at i onaldes i gn hel ped us t o s i mul at et he s cenar i osi nt he f ut ur e and gener at e pat t er nsand ef f i ci ents ol ut i onsi n r es pons et ot hedi gi t al l ys i mul at edcondi t i ons .

A . 0 4

“ T he ar chi t ecti sno l ongeran or gani z erof mat t erands pace,butades i gnerofs ys t ems wi t h mul t i l ayer ed component sand compl ex 2 –Li s sC.Wer ner r el at i ons hi p.

1.F r yT ony,Des i gnF ut ur i ng,p.2 2.L i sC.Wer ner ,[ En] Codi ngAr chi t ect ur e:Pr ef ace,( Car negi eMel l onUni ver s i t y,2013) ,p.9


Vous s oi rCl oudbyI wamot oScot t

Dr awn f r om Gaudi ’ s hangi ng chai nmodel s , comput er pr ogr am ( Kangar oo) al l ows s i mul at i onofgr avi t i onal f or ce t o gener at ea compr es s i ve vaul t s t r uct ur e.


L EARNI NG

OUT COME Depar t ed f r om a s hal l ow under s t andi ng of ar chi t ect ur al comput i ng,I begant os eet hel i ghtof i t scr i t i cali mpor t ancewhi chIf or mul at edf r om t he r ef l ect i onoft her eadi ngsandt hel ect ur econt ent . Ir eal i z ed t hatf or mi ng ar gument sonwhatIhave l ear ned i nt he cas es t udyhel ped me t o decode t het heor yoft het hr eemai nt opi cs :des i gnf ut ur i ng, des i gncomput at i onandcompos i t i on/gener at i on ofhow t heymayhaveappl i edi nact ual ex ampl es i nt oday’ sar chi t ect ur et han pur ef i ct i onali deas . T hr oughout t he s t udi es , Is t ar t ed t o l ook at ar chi t ect ur alcomput i ngasamor epr omi s i ngway t os ecur e ourf ut ur e whi l e cons t r uct i ng a new des i gnphi l os ophyi nt oday’ sar chi t ect ur al pr act i ce t of i nd t he nott he f or m oft he des i gnbutwhati s del i ver edf r om t hef or m us i ngdi gi t al t ool s .

A . 0 5


RUBY-

byF r anci sNg

Rever s e Engi neer i ng Di nar a Kas ko’ s ( al gor i t hmi cpas t r ychef ) Rubychocol at ecake


AL GORI T HMI C

S KET CHE S A Par amet r i cs cr i pt i ngorknownasdes i gnal gor i t hm 1 henew i sa new f or m ofdi gi t aldes i gnt hi nki ng.T comput at i onal t hi nki ng f aci l i t at es gener at i ve f or mf i ndi ng and ex pl or e di f f er entout comesby changi ng t he val ues oft he par amet r i ci nput . S i mi l art o baki ng,di f f er entamountofi ngr edi ent s ( r epr es ent i ng par amet r i c i nput s ) wi l lr es ul ti n di f f er entf or m ofcakes .( i magea,b)Gr as s hopper pr ogr am al l owsdes i gneri ns cr i pt i ngi nt er f acesby s i mpl y connect i ng component s and del i vera par amet r i calt hi nki ng and met hodol ogi eswhen ex per i ment i ng wi t h des i gn.Ar anda L as ch s ai di n herbook:“a pr obl em wel lput i s a pr obl em hal f s ol ved” , al gor i t hm i s no l es st r ue i n t he f or mul at i onofar chi t ect ur et echni ques .2

. 0 6

When ar chi t ect shave a s uf f i ci entunder s t andi ng of al gor i t hmi c concept s ,when we no l ongerneed t o di s cus st he di gi t al as s omet hi ng di f f er ent ,t hen comput at i oncanbecomea t r uemet hod ofdes i gn 3 –Br adyPet er s . f orar chi t ect ur e.

1.Ox man,Ri vkaandRober tOx man,T heor i esoft heDi gi t al i nAr chi t ect ur e,p. 7. 2.L as chAr anda,Pamphl etAr chi t ect ur e:T ool i ng( Pr i ncet onAr chi t ect ur al Pr es s ,2006) ,p. 9. 3.Pet er s ,Br ady. ,Comput at i onWor ks :T heBui l di ngofAl gor i t hmi cT hought ,( Ar chi t ect ur al Des i gn,83,2,2013)p. 12.


WEEK1 / /Al gor i t hmsofPl ant s


Echi nocact usgr us oni i / /Gol denBar r el Cact us

I t er at i on1 <Pol arAr r ay> - 30

I t er at i on2

<Pol arAr r ay> - 15

Not es :Di f f er entdens i t i esar eex per i ment edbychangi ngt henumber st o<Pol arAr r ay>


al ( pi ne)

S peci esB

S peci esA

S peci esC

I t er at i onA1

I t er at i onB1

I t er at i onC1

S cal e:0. 65 Rot at i on:0. 40

S cal e:0. 65 Rot at i on:0. 40

S cal e:0. 65 Rot at i on:0. 40

I t er at i onA2

I t er at i onB2

I t er at i onC2

S cal e:0. 10 Rot at i on:0. 55

S cal e:0. 10 Rot at i on:0. 55

I t er at i onA3

I t er at i onB3

S cal e:0. 65 Rot at i on:0. 90

S cal e:0. 65 Rot at i on:0. 90

S cal e:0. 10 Rot at i on:0. 55

I t er at i onC3

S cal e:0. 65 Rot at i on:0. 90

Not es :Di f f er enti t er at i onsar eex per i ment edbychangi ngt hes cal ef act orandr ot at i onangl e.


L i ndenmayerT r ee

S peci esA

I t er at i onA1

S cal e:0. 75 Count :10

I t er at i onA2

S cal e:0. 50 Count :10

I t er at i onA3

S cal e:0. 60 Count :13

S peci esB

I t er at i onB1

S cal e:0. 60 Count :6

I t er at i onB2

S cal e:0. 75 Count :10

I t er at i onB3

S cal e:0. 50 Count :5

S peci esC

I t er at i onC1

S cal e:0. 35 Count :9

I t er at i onC2

S cal e:0. 45 Count :6

I t er at i onC3

S cal e:0. 35 Count :5

Not es :Di f f er enti t er at i onsar eex per i ment edbychangi ngt hes cal ef act orandcount


S edum S t ahl i i -Cor al beads


S hoot

Not es :Di f f er entdens i t i esar eex per i ment edbychangi ngt henumber st o<Pol arAr r ay>


WEEK2 / /L i nesPr ot ocol

Geomet r i c ( i ) Pr ot ocol 1.Dr aw l i nesont woedgeofpaper 2.Cons t r uctpoi nt sonl i nes 3.Dr aw aci r cl ei nt hemi ddl e 4.Cons t r uctpoi nt sonci r cl e 5.S hi f tpoi nt sonci r cl e 6.Connectpoi nt sonl i net opoi ntofci cl e


Geomet r i c Pr ot ocol ( i i ) 1.Dr aw l i nesont woedgeofpaper 2.Cons t r uctpoi nt sonl i nes 3.Connectpoi nt sont hel i neswi t hBi Ar c


Recur s i ve Pr ot ocol ( i ) 1.Dr aw acur ve 2.Or i entt hecur vet ot heendpoi nt 3.S cal et henew cur veby0. 9 4.Repeats t ep2and3


Recur s i ve Pr ot ocol ( i i ) 1.Dr aw acur ve 2.Or i entt hecur vet ot hecent r epoi nt 3.S cal et henew cur veby0. 8 4.Repeats t ep2and3


01

02

Condi t i onal Pr ot ocol ( i ) 03

1.Dr aw acur ve 2.Or i entt hecur vet ot heendpoi nt 3.Rot at et henew cur veby60ยบ 4.Cul l t hecur vecl os ert ot heedge 5.Repeats t ep2,3and4


01

02

Br anchi ng Pr ot ocol ( i ) 03

1.Dr aw acur ve 2.Or i entt hecur vet ot heendpoi nt 3.Rot at et henew cur veby60ยบ 4.S cal et henew cur veby0. 8 5.Repeats t ep2,3and4


Condi t i onal Pr ot ocol ( i i ) 1.Dr aw acur ve 2.Or i entt hecur vet ot heendpoi nt 3.Rot at et henew cur veby90ยบ 4.Cul l t hecur vecl os ert ot heedge 5.Repeats t ep2,3and4


Br anchi ng Pr ot ocol ( i i ) 1.Dr aw acur ve 2.Or i entt hecur vet ot heendpoi nt 3.Rot at et henew cur veby90ยบ 4.S cal et henew cur veby0. 7 5.Repeats t ep2,3and4


Mul t i pl e Pr ot ocol ( i ) 1.Dr aw t hr eedi f f er entcur ve 2.Or i entt hecur vet ot heendpoi ntaccor di ngt ol i s t 3.Rot at et henew cur veby45ยบ 4.Repeats t ep2and3


Mul t i pl e Pr ot ocol ( i i ) 1.Dr aw t hr eeci r cl es 2.Or i entt heci r cl est ot het angentofci r cl eaccor di ng t ot hel i s t 3.Rot at et henew ci r cl esby10ยบ 4.S cal et henew ci r cl esby0. 9 5.Repeats t ep2,3and4


WEEK3 / /Aggr egat i on

Rul e1 A 1’ 2 B 2’ 3 A A B BA


Rul e2 A 1’ 1 B 2’ 3 A AB B BA


Rul e3 A 3’ 1 B 2’ 1 A AB B B


Bi bl i ogr aphy Andr as ek.A.andS anchezJ . ,Bl oom,( Bar l et tS chool ofAr chi t ect ur eUCL ,2016) Ar anda/L as ch,Pamphl etAr chi t ect ur e( Pr i ncet onAr chi t ect ur l Pr es s ,2005) ,p.92. Dunne,Ant hony& Raby,F i ona,S pecul at i veEver yt hi ng:Des i gnF i ct i on,andS oci al Dr eami ng( MI TPr es s ,2003) F r yT ony,Des i gnF ut ur i ng:S us t ai nabi l i t y,Et hi csandNew Pr act i ce( Ox f or d:Ber g,2008) Hens el Mi chael ,Emer gence:Mor phogenet i cDes i gnS t r at egi es ,( AD,2004) J ohns onS t even,Emer gence:T heconnect edl i vesofant s ,br ai ns ,ci t i esands of t war e( S cr i bner ,2002) Kol ar evi c,Br anko,Ar chi t ect ur ei nt heDi gi t al Age:Des i gnandManuf act ur i ng( New Yor k;L ondon:S ponPr es s ,2003) L i sC.Wer ner ,[ En] Codi ngAr chi t ect ur e:Pr ef ace,( Car negi eMel l onUni ver s i t y,2013) Ox man,Ri vkaandRober tOx man,T heor i esoft heDi gi t al i nAr chi t ect ur e( L ondon;New Yor k:Rout l edge,2014) Pet er s ,Br ady. ,Comput at i onWor ks :T heBui l di ngofAl gor i t hmi cT hought ,( Ar chi t ect ur al Des i gn,83,2,2013) " Pr i mi t i ves ,Veni ceBi ennal ei nAr anda/ L as ch, "Ar andaL as ch,l as tmodi f i edF ebr uar y23,2017,ht t p: / / ar andal as ch. com/ wor ks / moder npr i mi t i ves veni ce/ T homas ,A.Mar kus ,Vi s i onsofPer f ect i on:Ar chi t cet ur eandUt opi anT hought ,( T hi r dEyeCent r e,1985) Wat anabeMakot oS ei ,I nduct i ondes i gn:AMet hodf orEvol ut i onar yDes i gn,( Bi r khaus er ,2002)


STUDIO AIR - PART A  
STUDIO AIR - PART A  
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