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V¼-½À â P -Fô h -ˆÛ - ¤ï - Çe G

V¼-½ÀâP-Fôh-ˆÛ-¤ï-ÇeG

¯ô¤-OÛG-qü

¹-z-z=-ÁÛÅü

zô h -hÝ - hGÝ - qºÛ - Zï ¼ -zhÝ m -HÛ - ŸÛ - Lô ¾ -¤²hmÅ-¾ô - Pô - ZÛ - ÁÝ - ºDô ¼ -z¼-im-GÅô - ŸÝ ü zôh-ˆÛ-hGÝ-zTß-GÅÞ¤-¾Å-ºGݾ-±ôGÅ-qü

2


Gu-Chu-Sum Book Published by the Gu-Chu-Sum Movement of Tibet (Ex-political Prisoners’ Association) Jogibara Road, P.O.McLeod Ganj Dharamsala-176219 H.P. India Web site: www.guchusum.org E-mail: guchusummt@yahoo.com Biography of an activist. Vol 17

Char-Lung-Toh-Kyi-Mei-Tak Biography of Ani Pachen Dolma Edited by Dawa Tashi Cover and Design: Phurbu Tsering Copyright Š Gu-Chu-Sum Movement of Tibet First edition 500 copies, 2007 All rights reserved. No part of this book maybe reproduced by any means without prior written permission from the publisher.

Printed at Indraprastha Press (CBT), New Delhi-110002. 3


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V¼-½À â P -Fô h -ˆÛ - ¤ï - Çe G

4


h;¼-VG hq¾-¿k m -xÛ - ºƒï ¾ -¾Å-DÞ P Å-mÅ-z°¾-zºÛ - Vï h -zXô h ü q¼-Cæ m -Gž-zÁhü ..................................................................................GTÛ G JÀ ï P -zXô h ü ....................................................................................... ¿S ü ¾ï-±m-hP-qôü w-¤ï Å -ˆÛ - ¼Û G Å-¼Þ Å ü.............................................. 1 ¾ï-±m-GZÛÅ-qü ‚Û Å -qºÛ - hÝ Å -ˆÛ - º±¼-¾ô P Åü . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 ¾ï-±m-GÅÞ¤-qü D¤Å-qºÛ - M-Lô ¾ -h¤G-ºfzü . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 ¾ï-±m-zŸÛ-qü

hI-zô º Û - ¾G-q¼-fï z Å-qü . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

¾ï-±m-¿S-qü

¿Ë - ż-GmÅ-Çt ô Å -‚Å-qü ................................. 63

¾ï-±m-iâG-qü ¾ï-±m-zhÝm-qü

¤Û - Á-z¸º-zºÛ - hÝ Å -Ç+ z Åü ............................... 67 ;ô P -qô - ZÛ P -FÛ ¼ -GmÅ-Çt ô Å -‚Å-qü ............... 76

¾ï-±m-zMh-qü

hGº-º²ô ¤ Å-Fô h -ˆÛ - Bô - Ço P .ü .........................81 5


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V¼-½À â P -Fô h -ˆÛ - ¤ï - Çe G

¾ï-±m-hGÝ-qü

¼P-hzP-GÛ - Fô h -mÅ-ÇÀ ¼ -»PGŸm-hzP-hÝ - Mã ¼ -zü ...........................................91

¾ï-±m-zTß-qü

M¾-D¤Å-ºIÛ ¤ Å-qºÛ - ¾ô - ¹ü ......................103

6


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V¼-½À â P -Fô h -ˆÛ - ¤ï - Çe G

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V¼-½À â P -Fô h -ˆÛ - ¤ï - Çe G

V¼-½ÀâP-Fôh-ˆÛ-¤ï-ÇeG 14 14


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16

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18

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22

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24

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11

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26

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13

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28

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30

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32

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34

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36

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ŸïÅ-zXôh-ˆÛ-»ôh-q-hP.ü »P-ºGº-ÁÅ-ˆÛÅ-hqôm-¤hº-±P-ŸïÅ-zXôhˆÛ-»ôhü ¾ï-¤hº-±P-mÛ-hï-ÇS-Gô-ºWô-hqôm-ºGô-hGݺÛ-IÅ-»Ûm-q-hP.ü ¤f¼-D-Vß-wôG-mÅ-¤Û-Mãh-hP-zTÅ-q-VôÅ-fôG-bà-zB¾ü hï-XïÅ-Çkï-qGŸÝP-GÛ-±-z-Çtô¤-¤hº-mÅ-P-±ô-¾ï-¤hº-GŸÛÅ-;-hP.ü ¤Û-Åï¼-zTÅGmP-Çeï-z;º-ÁôG-hP.ü Ÿ-¤ô-¿UGÅ-¤hºü ¤²ôh-GôÅ-GÅï¼-qôºÛ-xãqü GŸm-»P-z;º-ÁôG-¼ÛGÅ-¤P-hG-ŸÛG-ˆP-GmP-Çeïü Gô-ºWô-hqômhGݺÛ-IÅ-¾-zÇ+ô-zŸG-‚Åü Çtô¤-¤hº-±P-¸ï¼-z-¤ÛP-hï-mÅ-fôGÅü P-»Û-¤Û-Mãh-Pô-¤-hï-¼ïhü P-±ô-zhÝh-ºhݾ-HÛ-Mãh-q-¼ïh-¸ï¼-Æô¾-ºhÝGü P-±ô-hï¼-GmÅ-GŸÛ-VGÅ-mÅ-¤Û-¼zÅ-D-ÁÅ-xÛm-¸Ûm-TÛP.ü PºÛ-q×-¾GňÛ-w-¾-zÞ-DôP-¤-GbôGÅ-‚ãP-¤ïh-q-hP.ü DôP-¾-ÆÛP-¤ô-zŸÛ-»ôh-ºhÝG zÞ-¤ô-GTÛG-μ-;-¤VôG-væ¾-HÛ-GÅP-»Þ¤-»Ûm-ŸÛP-Çtô¤-¤hº-±P-¿Ë-ŸïÅIGÅü »P-zÞô-;Ým-z¸P-Oôm-¤-Gô-ºWô-DP-Gż-±P-¾-¤mº-¤-vh»ôh-ˆP-VßP-hÝÅ-mÅ-ºhÅ-IôPÅ-xÛm-±¼-ºhÝG zXôh-Æô¾-¾-DôP-mÛ-»-¤±m-Tm-ŸÛG-»ôh-z¸ô-ºhÝG ±ïÅ-z¸PhÝÅ-z¸P-ÅôGÅ-ˆÛ-Ç+zÅ-Dô-¤ô-GTÛG-zÞ-DP-qºÛ-mP-ÇKô¤Å-zMz-mÅ-ÇkôhˆÛ-»ôh-q-hP.ü Ç+zÅ-¼ï-»Û-GïºÛ-G¸ÞGÅ-ˆÛ-ÇoP-z½‰m-¤P-qô-ŸÛG-ºV¼»ôP-GÛ-ºhÝG-¸ï¼ü „À-¤-hP-BïÅ-Vïm-h¤-q-¤P-qôÅ-DôP-¾-G¸ÛGÅ-¤fôPVïm-qô-GmP-GÛ-»ôhü »Ûm-mºP.ü w-¤ºÛ-z;º-z®m-iGÅ-mÅ-¤mº38


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qôºÛ-hô-qô-ZÛ-ÁÝ-¯-hGÝü GÅï¼-hP-G¸Ûü G»Þü ‚ã-¼Þ-ÅôGÅ-¼Ûm-Vïm-mô¼zÞºÛ-¤Gݾ-Mm-ÅôGÅ-¤P-qô-»ôhü DôP-¾-Zï-ºDô¼-HÛ-hGº-Zï-Çtäm-¤Vïh¤P-¾ü »Þ¾-Åô-ÅôºÛ-Çkï-hqôm-ÅôGÅ-hP-¤fÞm-¾¤-»ôh-qºÛ-V-mÅ-;Ým-HÛÅVï-¤fôP-hP-GÝÅ-z;ݼ-‚ïh-»Þ¾-hÝ-Hã¼ü DôP-¾-VßP-PÞºÛ-hÝÅ-mÅ-ˆP-GÁÛÅMãh-z¸P-¾ü ¤fô-h¤m-;Ým-¾-Zï-¼ÛP-VGÅ-ÇkP-¤ïh-qü Åï¤Å-¯-ºDô¾¾-iP-±ßGÅ-¿km-q-ŸÛG-ˆP-¼ïhü DôP-GÛÅ-EÛ¤-HÛ-¾Å-hôm-Vï-VßP-±P-¤ºGm-¾ïm-hGôÅ-q¼-zdïmü ÇS-hGôP-GP-hݺP-D-ºhôm-‚-Mã-ÅôGÅ-È-TPÇezÅ-zhï-ŸÛG-¾Å-»ôP-GÛ-¤ïhü q×-¾GÅ-ˆÛ-ż-Mãm-hÝ-ºƒï¾-GbàGÅ-‚ïh¤Dm-HÛ-¤Û-Ço-¤P-qô-»ôh-qºÛ-V-mÅü ¤Û-hï-hG-GÛ-ºhôh-¤ôÅ-zŸÛm-Ç+h-VºÛ¾ïºÞ-ºFâGÅ-mÅ-hÝÅ-±ôh-hï-¿e¼-μôGÅ-ºIô-»Û-»ôhü XïÅ-ÅÞ-Çkï-hGï-Fô¤DôG-Í-º²ô¤Å-M¾-ÆÅ-ˆÛ-iâP-hÝ-VôÅ-ŸÝ-z-ºFÛh-mÅ-hï¼-¾ô-GZÛÅ-®¤-MãmzŸÝGÅ-¤²hü hÝÅ-Ç+zÅ-hï¼-Åï¤Å-FÛh-ÅôGÅ-ˆÛ-hzP-¾ÞP-¤m-PG-fôzq¼-zdïmü ¤f¼-Ç+Ý-±ïºÛ-ºwïm-q-μôGÅ-qºÛ-Ç+zÅ-¾ºP-fÞGÅ-h¤-ŸG-GÅÞ¤zÇkh-q-¼ïhü Vß-¤ô-‚-»Û-¾ô-Çeï-uÛ-¾ô- 1933 ¾ô¼-Í-¤-¾GÅ-¾-P-BïÅq-hP-ü P-¼P-wÞh-qºÛ-h-hÝP-zÞ-GTÛG-BïÅ-ºhÝG-ˆP-hï-¹-z-¿S-iâG-®¤-ÅôPXïÅ-ºhÅ-IôPÅ-xÛm-ºhÝG Í-¤-¾GÅ-¾-yâ-GÝ-¤-BïÅ-q¼-hÝÅ-±ôh-¼ÛPqô-ÅôP-zºÛ-hzP-GÛÅ-¤Û-Mãh-¯-ÇeôP-¤Û-ºIô-zºÛ-hôm-hÝ-VßP-¤-GTÛG-„ÀPÅ-ˆPhï-¾-»P-yâ-GÝ-BïÅ-¤Û-ºhÝG P-±ôºÛ-EÛ¤-¾-zÞ-Mãh-P-¼P-GTÛG-qô-¾Å-¤ïh41


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44

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46

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48

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qºÛ-h¼-¯ï-¤hô-hP.ü ºWâÅ-qü Å-f¤-ÅôGÅ-ÅÞ-h¤PÅ-G®ôºÛ-zTôÅzNå¼-ŸïÅ-q-¾G-zÇe¼-‚Å-bïü hGôm-Çkï-IÔ-±P-hP-dïm-Ç+Ý-GÅÞP-fÞGÅdïm-¾-ÅôGÅ-Gbô¼-zÁÛG-zbP-z-hP.ü Mã-hPôÅ-qô-ºyôG-zTô¤-‚ïh-qÅôGÅ-ˆÛ-GmÅ-±ß¾-n¤Å-¼Û¤-zŸÛm-ºƒÛ-VߺÛ-mÝz-PôÅ-ÅÞ-»ôh-qºÛ-¤hô-Çeôh¤Pº-DÞ¾-HÛ-Å-GmÅ-GP-ż-Ez-q-hP-VzÅ-TÛG hï-DÞ¾-¾ºP-h¤PÅG®ôºÛ-zTôÅ-zNå¼-ŸïÅ-q-hï-¤-Ç+ݾ-hP-„ÀPÅ-ˆÛ-fôG-mÅ-GbôP-hGôÅ-qºÛiÛ¾-zOGÅ-‚Åü »ô-¾P-Vï-zºÛ-¾Å-ºGݾ-hï-ºiºÛ-ºôG-Gô-ºWô-μôP-DÞ¾HÛ-¤fô-¼Û¤-¤Û-Ço-n¤Å-hP.ü „À-hqômü hï-¤Ûm-¤Û-Åï¼-hˆãÅ-¤-ÅôGűP-¤ºÛ-Åï¤Å-¾-„Àô-»Û-»Þ¾-¾Å-ºhÅ-qºÛ-¾¤-Æô¾-hï¼-¤fº-GTÛG-bàPô-Lô¾-‚ïh-hGôÅ-qºÛ-„ÀP-‚-ÁÝGÅ-Vïm-zbôm-q-¼ïhü uÛ-¾ô1955 ¾ô-¤WâG-¾-ÇÀïzÅ-Ç+zÅ-¤hô-Çeôh-μôP-GŸÛÅ-DG-GÛ-hzÞ-º²ÛmhP.ü Gmh-»ôh-¤Û-Çoü hï-¤Ûm-„À-hqôm-±ôÅ-¤Û-h¤PÅ-Ç+ݾ-ÇÀôP-‚Åbï-»P-mÅ-»P-hÝ-ºV¼-GŸÛ-¤P-qô-zbÛP.ü hq¾-º‚ô¼-HÛ-V-Aïm-»Gqô-»ôh-qºÛ-EÛ¤-±P-¼ï-mÅ-¤Û-d-¼P-ºIÛG-GÅÞ¤-¼ï-hP-ü ºƒÛP-zÅ-¤Ûd-Gô-¾G-hP-zTÅ-q-V-GZÛÅ-¼ï-ºGm-¾ïm-‚-MãºÛ-IôÅ-Vôh-zŸG 1955 ¾ôºÛ-¾ô-¤WâG-bà-Vz-¤hô¼-»ôh-qºÛ-M-zôh-¸ÞP-ºƒï¾-ÍÞ-»ôm-¿Ëm-DP-GÛz;º-zbP-z-¿e¼ü μôP-GŸÛÅ-DG-GÛ-=âºÞ-¼Ûm-Lm-GŸôm-hP-ü „À-hqôm¤Û-iG-DG-GÛ-ºfÞÅ-¤Û-n¤Å-Vz-¤hô¼-ºhÝ-º²ô¤Å-‚Å-bïü ZÛm-ÁÅ49


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¼ÛP-h¤PÅ-G®ôºÛ-zTôÅ-zNå¼-zbP-m-¾ïGÅ-ŸïÅ-qºÛ-¤P-±ôGÅ-Ç+ݾ-ÇÀôP‚ïh-qºÛ-GŸÛ-M-Vï-zºÛ-±ôGÅ-ºhÝ-º±ôGÅ-q-hP.ü ±ôGÅ-ºhݺÛ-fôG-zôhBôh-M-hqôm-¶P-VÛP-¤Ûm-HÛÅ-h¤PÅ-G®ôºÛ-zTôÅ-zNå¼-GbôP-hGôÅ-¾ÞGňÛ-Gb¤-zÁh-¤P-qô-‚Å-q-hP.ü G¾-bïü ŸÛ-zºÛ-fôG-mÅ-GbôP-¤fÞz-m-iG-qôºÛ-fôG-mÅ-GbôP-hGôÅ-qºÛ-ºhôh-±ß¾-zTPÅü ¶P-VÛP-¤ÛmHÛ-Gb¤-zÁh-hï-hG-¾-ºfÞÅ-¤Û-n¤Å-hP-¤Û-¤P-±ôÅ-¤fº-GTÛG-bà-PôLô¾-‚ïh-ˆÛ-»ôh-q-¤-¸hü zôh-GŸÝP-GÛ-z;º-hGôPÅ-WÛ-¿e¼-wïzÅ-q-hP.ü zôh-¤Û-¤P-GÛ-ºhôh-ºhÝm-WÛ-ºi-»Ûm-q-zTÅ-¾-ŸÛz-ºWâG-GbÛP-¸z-ˆÛ-fôGmÅ-Dô-±ôºÛ-zŤ-ºhÝm-GŸÛ¼-z¸ÞP-‚-hGôÅ-q-¾Åü M-¤ÛºÛ-ºhôh-q-¿e¼zTôÅ-zNå¼-‚ïh-q-ÅôGÅ-¾-hP-¾ïm-¯-z-mÅ-¤ïh-¾ÞGÅ-ˆÛ-mm-zXôh-‚Åq-hP-hÝÅ-¤±ßPÅü Ǩ¼-D¤Å-wÞ-q-hqôm-hP.ü ƒG-»z-Gô-zô-GZï¼qü ¤D¼-¤hô-GZï¼-qü ¼-¼Þ-zÇem-n¤ü zhG-GÛ-w-¤Gôm-qô-mô¼-zÞzTÅ-ˆÛÅ-±ôGÅ-ºhݺÛ-fôG-bà-Gb¤-zÁh-Çtï¾-bïü GTÛG-¤WâG-GZÛŤfÞh-ˆÛÅ-M-mG-GŸÝP-GÛÅ-zTôÅ-zNå¼-‚-MãºÛ-Pm-WâÅ-DG-¾-Lô¾-¾mzÇÀôGÅ-q-hP.ü ym-HÛ-w-»ÛÅ-M-¤ÛºÛ-ºGô-FÛh-hP-GmÅ-»ôh-¤Û-Ço-n¤ÅˆÛ-zTôÅ-¤ºÛ-μâ-ºzG-GÛ-GhôP-¼ÛÅ-h¤¼-Xïm-hÝ-zbôm-q-hP.ü Eïh-±ôwG-hP-GTÛG-q-¼ïh-TïÅ-±ÛG-Pm-¤P-qô-zÁh-qºÛ-hzP-GÛÅ-M-hqôm-n¤ÅP-M¾-hP-DôP-FôºÛ-GŸm-hzP-hÝ-Hã¼-bïü @Ýz-ÇeïGÅ-ˆÛ-ÇeïP-hݺP-Çkôh50


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fÞz-ˆÛ-¤Û-ºhÝG-TïÅ-qºÛ-¾ô-MãÅ-¤P-qô-zÁh-Mã-ºhÝG Ç+zÅhï¼-±ôGÅ-ºhÝ-Iô¾-XïÅ-¤hô-Çeôh-μôP-GŸÛÅ-DG-GÛ-ºGô-FÛh-n¤Å-mÅ-¤mº±ÛG-h¤-zTº-zŸG-q-hP-ü hïºÛ-DôPÅ-ÅÞ-Çkï-hGï-ºWô-¤hº-μôP-GÛ-¤D¼¤hô-GZï¼-q-ºVÛ-¤ïh-¤Gôm-qô-hP.ü ¼-¼Þ-zÇem-n¤ü ƒG-»z-±P-GÛÇ+Ý-±z-Gô-zô-GZï¼-qü Dô-¼-„À-¤ü ºfÞÅ-zô-GZï¼-qü Ǩ¼-D¤Å-μôPGÛ-Vß-ºzÞ¤-wÞ-q-hqômü Gô-��Wô-μôP-GÛ-Çtô¤-¤hº-hqôm-¤Gôm-mô¼ü ÍmG-hqôm-ÅôGÅ-»ôh-q-¼ïhü DôP-n¤Å-ˆÛÅ-Gô-ºWô-μôP-hP.ü ƒG-G»zˆÛ-Å-¤±¤Å-Vß-GZÛÅ-¤hô-ŸïÅ-q-hï¼-M-h¤G-z®m-º²â¾-q-¤f¼-z=ôhGbôP-ÇÀh-Æ-ŸÛP-zdm-qºÛ-M¾-ÆâP-G»Þ¾-ºHïh-hP.ü hï-¤Ûm-HÛ-¾ÅºGݾ-Ço-±ôGÅ-Çtï¾-MãºÛ-I-OÛG-‚Å-q-hqï¼-mü M-h¤G-GÛ-¾¤-z¸ôhP.ü ͼ-¾Åü zh¾-GbôP-Bï¾-ºiïmü hPôÅ-¸ôG-¤Dô-OæzÅ-‚-Mãz;G-Çkô¤-‚-MãºÛ-IôÅ-Vôh-hP.ü f-m-D¤Å-xôGÅ-ÅÞ-¤ÛP-IGÅ-Vï-zºÛ;ô-h¤¼-FG-ºzôG-TïÅ-qºÛ-¤mº-Gm-¤fÞ-¤ô-ŸïÅ-qºP-zŸG ¼P-»Þ¾-Gô-ºWô-μôP-hÝ-xÛ¼-¾ôG-¸Ûm-XïÅ-ÅÞ-ºƒÛ-VߺÛ-Á¼-PôÅ-ˆÛGmÅ-±ß¾-n¤Å-¼Û¤-zŸÛm-²-iG-Tm-hÝ-ºHã¼-zŸÛm-qºÛ-D¼ü 1958 ¾ôºÛ-¾ô-Çeôh-hÝ-ÇÀïzÅ-Ç+zÅ-Í-¤hô-hP.ü cï-Èô¼ü ZG-¼ôP.ü ¾Û-fP-ü JÀÛP-D-ÁÛÅ-ÅôGÅ-ˆÛ-Å-GmÅ-GP-ż-M-¤ÛÅ-z®m-Áïh-ˆÛÅ-zTôÅ-zN异-ºGô-±ßGÅ-q-hP.ü hïP-hÝÅ-Tm-HÛ-Gô-¤±ôm-fôGÅ-qºÛ-M-¤ÛºÛ-iG-ÁÝGÅ51


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V¼-½À â P -Fô h -ˆÛ - ¤ï - Çe G

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¤ÛºÛ-z;ôh-‚ãÅ-¾-ºGôG-Lô¾-‚-Mã-hP-hï-¤Ûm-M-h¤G-hqÞP-Bôh-‚ïh-VïhGż-Cæm-‚Å-qºÛ-GŸÝP-¾¤-DG-¾-hPôÅ-ÁÝGÅ-Mãh-GÅÞ¤-mÅ-wm-mÝÅ¿km-qºÛ-z;G-ºGôG-‚-Mãü hqôm-h¤PÅ-GôP-ºôG-±P-¤Å-lôG-¯-GTÛGbà-zOÛ¾-hGôÅ-q-hP.ü ‚-fzÅ-mm-bm-uôh-hGôÅ-qü zôh-ºhÛ-zŸÛmGZº-FÛ-z®m-qôºÛ-hÝÅ-Ç+zÅ-mÅ-ˆP-¼P-z®m-G®P-¤ºÛ-M¾-Dz-TÛG»Ûm-q-¾ô-MãÅ-ˆÛ-¼-vôh-‚ïh-zŸÛm-»ôh-q-¿e¼-mü ¤VôG-bà-Hã¼-zºÛ-¼PGÛ-¤ïÅ-qôºÛ-M¾-Dz-ºhÛ-zŸÛm-M-h¤G-GÛÅ-m¤-»P-z®m-º²â¾-‚ïh-hݺWâG-¤Û-¼ÞP-ŸïÅ-hqôm-h¤PÅ-»ôPÅ-ˆÛÅ-¤-IôÅ-zŤ-q-GTÛG-bà-¤fÞmmÅ-h¤-zTº-zŸG »P- 1957 ¾ô¼-Gô-ºWô-μôP-ºôG-DP-Gż-hqôm-HÛ-Å-GmÅ¿Ë-fôG-ºƒôG-Çkï-M-¤±ô-¿eï-z-ŸïÅ-qºÛ-DÞ¾-hï¼-M¾-ÆâP-h¤G-hqÞP-hz¼wm-±ßm-h¤-±ÛG-lôG-¯-GTÛG-OÛ¾-»ôP-Vïh-hÝ-Gô-ºWô-μôP-hP.ü JÀÛP-GŸÛźVÛ-¤ïh-lô-Xï-h¤G-ÁôG Ǩ¼-D¤Å-VßP-ºzÞ¤-hGôm-»Þ¾-GÅÞ¤ü M¾±ôGÅ-hqôm-h¤G-G®ôÅ-qºÛ-Ǩ¼-D¤Å-Å-DÞ¾-HÛ-h¤G-hqÞP-zTÅ-mÅM-h¤G-z®m-º²â¾-q-¾-ºGôG-Lô¾-D-Gbh-GTôG-Mã-hP.ü mP-hÝ-wm±ßm-GTÛG-wm-GTÛG-IôGÅ-‚-Mã-¾Å-mP-DÞ¾-xôGÅ-Ÿïm-ºfïm-ºEï¼-hP.ü mP-ºFâG-ÅôGÅ-ˆÛ-hzP-hÝ-¤-ÅôP-z-‚-MãºÛ-h¤-zTº-hP-IôÅ-Vôh-zŸG hÝÅ-Ç+zÅ-hï¼-Gô-ºWô-μôP-ºôG-GÛ-Ç+Ý-±z-Í-mG-hqôm-ºyÛm-¾Åü Gô-ºWô53


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D-¾ïGÅ-¤VôG-væ¾-qh-¤-;Ým-z¸P-¼P-Iô¾ü z®ôm-¤ÛP-qh-¤-zhï-Vïm¸ï¼ü DôP-»Þ¾-‚ô¾-HÛÅ-hq¾-ºz¼-hÝ-wïzÅ-Ç+zÅ-M-¤ÛÅ-DôP-h¤GuÛ-‚Å-q¼-zljh-zbGÅ-mÅ-¤Û-¾ô-ZÛ-ÁÝ-¿ËG-®¤-z®ôm-DP-hÝ-zTßG-q-¤¸hü ºfz-¯ôh-hP-h;º-ÇkÝG-¤P-qô-¥PÅ-»ôhü ¤f¼-z®ôm-Iô¾-‚ãPmÅ-¾ô-GÅÞ¤-zŸÛ-®¤-¼ÛP-zÇem-hP-ºIô-z¼-wm-qºÛ-xG-¾Å-Mãm-¤fÞhhï-¤²h-q-¼ïhü DP-Gż-hqôm-ÅôGÅ-„À-hqôm-Ç+Ý-±z-n¤Å-hP.ü Ǩ¼D¤Å-wÞ-q-hqôm-Ç+Ý-±z-mP-„Àôm-zÞ-Dï-zŤ-Gbmü Ç+Ý-ÆâP-¿kÛP-hqôm-‚¤Åq-zTÅ-»ôhü Ç+zÅ-hï¼-ym-HÛ-w-¤Gôm-qô-mô¼-zÞ-¾GÅ-ljàm-GŸÛ-wôG-»ôh-ˆP.ü M-h¤¼-z®m-º²â¾-qºÛ-«ô-Ȥ-Tm-HÛ-¼P-GÁÛÅ-Pm-qÅ-GP-ż->À->ÀôºÛ¯çz-uôh-hï-hG-ºƒÛ-VߺÛ-Á¼-mÝz-GP-ż-¾G-Çe¼-‚-zŸÛm-»ôh-qºÛ-fôG h¤G-ÁÝGÅ-ˆP-ÇS¼-¾Å-¿ËG-qºÛ-ºw¼-Çoôm-HÛÅ-zôh-ˆÛ-M¾-zÇem-VzÆÛh-²-iG-Tm-hÝ-Hã¼-z¼-zdïmü DôP-GÛÅ-P-m-±-¾Å-iG-Bïh-‚ãP-±ïÇeôh-xôGÅ-M-¤ÛºÛ-Gô-¤²ôh-Vï-ÁôÅ-hï-Gbô¼-hï-Çtô¤-¤hº-¤Gôm-mô¼-HÛźhÛ-‚Å-ÅôP-¸ï¼-z-ŸÛG-¤-‚Å-m-ºIÛG-fzÅ-¤ïh-TïÅ-»P-mÅ-»P-hÝ-zXôhzŸÛm-q¼-¤f¼-Aïm-ºhÅ-ÅÞ-xÛmü hÝÅ-hï¼-DôP-hGÝP-IPÅ- 42 ¾ÅÅôm-¤ïhü DôP-ºhÅ-IôPÅ-¤-ÅôP-GôP-GÛ-ÇS-mÝz-bà-GÅÞP-q¼-¿Ë-ż-P±ô-¤hô-Çeôh-hqôm-ºGô-n¤Å-ˆÛÅ-M¾-z-¼Ûm-qô-VïºÛ-G¸Û¤-VßP-¤W¾-D-fôz54


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Ç+zÅ-fÞGÅ-hHïÅ-Ÿ¾-º²â¤-¤hPÅ-hP-zTÅ-bï-um-HÛÅ-P-±ô¼-G¸ÛGÅzŸÛm-GÅÞP-JÀïP-¤²hü ºƒÅ-ÅÛ¾-GmP.ü ºIô-D¼-P-±ô-¾-D-zbGÅhP-h¼-GôÅ-Vïm-fG-Çoï-¼ï-GmP.ü um-¼Å-G¸ÛGÅ-ˆÛ-xG-P-±ôºÛ-¤Gô¾-zŸG-GmP-¤²h-‚ãP.ü P-¼P-mÅ-GÅô¾-z-wÞ¼-±ßGÅ-ÅÞ-zbz-Çeï-Ǩôm¾¤-zMzü GP-GÛ-¤hÝm-mÅ-xÛ¼-D-Ç+ô¼-hÝÅ-Åï¤Å-mP-Bô-z-iG-qô-BïÅq-hP-VzÅ-TÛG-¤ÛG-mÅ-¼P-hzP-¤ïh-q¼-¤VÛ-¤-Áô¼ü Í-aÛ-¼ÛG-º²ÛmhP-P-GZÛÅ-»P-¤Z¤-hÝ-PÞ-Áô¼ü h-mÛ-&M¾-z-¼Ûm-qô-Vï-hP-zôh-ºhÛzŸÛm-M-¤ÛºÛ-hzP-ºôG-bà-Áô¼-MãºÛ-Zïm-D-È-TP-Vïm-qô-ºhÝG-TïÅ-»P-»PGÅÞP-GÛ-ºhÝG hÝÅ-Ç+zÅ-hï¼-M-h¤G-hP-Gô-ºWô-Ǩh-hÝ-h¤G-ºfz-iG-qô-‚ïhzŸÛm-qºÛ-ÇKP-»Ûm-q-hP.ü »z-¤Gôm-mô¼-¤VôG-ºhÅ-IôPÅ-ºIô-Ç+zÅGÝÅ-¤ô-¼P-¾ô-Zï¼-zŸÛ¼-Åômü GÝÏÅ-¤ôÅ-Áݾ-º²Ûm-HÛ-fôG-mÅ-Gô-ºWôDÞ¾-HÛ-hqôm-DG-±ô-hP-¤Z¤-hÝ-hï-ÇSºÛ-¤mº-Gm-GŸÛ¼-z¸ÞP-Åô-ÅôºÛ-EzDôPÅ-¤Û-h¤PÅ-¾-h¤G-Ç+ݾ-h¤G-IzÅ-ˆÛ-¾Å-hôm-GP-hGôÅ-WÛ-zŸÛmhP-„ÀPÅ-‚Å-q-¤-¸hü Gô-ºWô-Ǩh-xôGÅ-Å-¾-ZG-„À-¤-‚P-Vßz-lô-Xï¤hÝm-hÝ-ym-HÛ-w-ºhÅ-qôºÛ-XïÅ-¾-xG-hP-¤Vôh-ºzÞ¾-ÅôGÅ-hGï-OæzˆÛ-¾Å-GP-‚-hGôÅ-¤Ûm-HÛ-fh-¾-BzÅ-ºWâG-ŸÝÅ-q¼ü ¼Ûm-qô-VïÅ-hqômmÛ-¼ÛG-º²Ûm-HÛ-I¾-hÝ-xÛm-±¼-ÅôP.ü hï-Oæz-hGôÅ-zŤ-m-zOæz-m-ºIÛG55


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HÛ-q-w-¤-IôPÅ-GôP-Gô-DÞ¾-Å-GmÅ-Eôm-»ôPÅ-¾-M-¤Û-GTÛG-ˆP-¤ïhq-z¸ô-MãºÛVôh-Åï¤Å-zŸG Ç+zÅ-hï¼-M-¤Û-GTÛG-ˆP-¤fôP-Mã-¤Û-ºhÝG hïºÛ-Mã-¤±m-GP-»Ûm-¤Ûm-im-HÛ-¤Û-ºhÝG JÀÛP-GŸÛÅ-ºVÛ-¤Ûh-lô-Xï-hqômh¤G-n¤Å-hP.ü ÇK-Xï-hqôm-¤ô-±ï-¼ÛP-hq¾-¤ô-hqôm-h¤G wÞ-q-hqôm»Þ¾-hGôm-GÅÞ¤-HÛ-hqôm-h¤G 1959 ¾ô¼-Çkï-hGï-M¾-ÆÅ-hzÞÅM-¤D¼-hqôm-¤Gôm-n¤Åü ºôG-¤-hqôm-¼ÛGÅ-n¤Åü Íô-Mm-lô-Xïü Pm-ºyh-hqôm-h¤G HP-DP-hqôm-hGï-ÇeôzÅ-G®ôÅ-hqôm-h¤G-ÅôGżۤ-zŸÛm-Gô-ºWô¼-ºhÝ-º²ô¤Å-‚ãP-ü hï-hÝÅ-Gô-ºWô-uÛ-hP-»P-ÇKôÅ-P±ôºÛ-ºƒôG-Çkï-DG-mÅ-h¤G-MG-¼ôGÅ-¼¤-¤Dô-vôh-‚Åü 1958 ¾ô¼hqôm-¤Gôm-mô¼-ºhÅ-IôPÅ-ÅôP-XïÅ-ÅÞ-M-h¤G-GÛÅ-Gô-ºWô-DÞ¾-hÝ-²-iGVï-zºÛ-iG-qôºÛ-hqÞP-ºWâG-‚Å-bï-P-±ôºÛ-GmÅ-zzÅ-ZÛm-zŸÛm-Wï-Ÿm-WïÇkÝG-bà-ºIô-zŸÛm-»ôh-q¼-zdïmü Gô-DÞ¾-Eôm-»ôPÅ-ˆÛÅ-¼P-Å-¼P-ÆâPGÛ-hôm-hÝ-IôÅ-Vôh-zŸG IôÅ-Vôh-ˆÛ-Gbm-ºzïzÅ-¿e¼-Å-DÞ¾-DG-GÛhqôm-h¤G-»ôPÅ-ˆÛÅ-M-h¤G-hP-zÇeàh-¤¼-¾ô-GTÛG-»Å-¤Å-ˆÛ-h¤Gºfz-‚Åü hï-¿e¼-mºP.ü h¤G-hôm-HÛ-ÇeôzÅ-ÁÝGÅ-hP.ü ¤±ôm-V¾ïGÅ-ZïÅü ¤hï¾-μÅ-z¸P-Ÿmü Mz-xôGÅ-ˆÛ-hqÞP-Çoôm-hP-¤DôOæz-Bï¾-ºiïm-HÛ-V-Aïm-z¸P-Ÿm-HÛ-z¼-Eh-Áô¼-zºÛ-hzP-GÛÅ-hI-zôºÛ±ß¼-Lô¾-¤fº-hG-¾-ºGôG-Lô¾-¤-fÞz-q-hP.ü ¿ËG-q¼-hÝ-Å-PôÅ-‚P57


58

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fP-hÝ-M-¤ÛºÛ-¤ï-NôGÅ-hP-Gm¤-Iâ-ÅôGÅ-ÁÝGÅ-iG-Vï-zºÛ-hzP-GÛÅ-Íh;¼-hqôm-hP.ü ¤ôh-qô-hqôm-ÅôGÅ-hqôm-h¤G-¤Û-ZÝP-z-ŸÛG-Ç+zÅhïºÛ-h¤G-ºFâG-GÛ-mP-±ï-ÆôG-Áô¼ü hï-hP-VzÅ-TÛG-bà-hI-zôºÛ-h¤GhqÞP-¾ºP-Gôh-VG-Vïm-qô-‚ãP-Çeï-h¤G-¤Û-VÛG-ÇeôP-¿ËG-®¤-HÛ-±ï-ÆôGÁô¼-z¼-IGÅü Ç+zÅ-hï¼-h-hÝP-Gô-ºWô-Çeôh-Ǩh-ˆÛ-¤Û-ÉG-d-ÉG-n¤Å¼Û-ºGô¼-zÇkh-»ôh-ˆP.ü ¤Û-Åï¼-n¤Å-M-¤ÛºÛ-h¤G-GÛÅ-¤mm-mÅ-zÇkh»ôhü hÝÅ-hï¼-P-±ô-mP-„Àôm-ŸP-qô-ºVÛ-¤Ûh-lô-Xï-zMãh-hï-M-¤ÛÅ-»Û-GïfïPÅ-D-ÁÅ-zÇ+ݼ-zºÛ-mP.ü Eïh-hP-Eïh-ˆÛ-mP-¤Û-±P-¤-¤¼-¾ôG-ÁôG Mã-mô¼-ÅôGÅ-¾-ZïÅ-Bôm-¤Û-»ôP-zºÛ-ºGm-¾ïm-‚Å-VôG-¾ü hï-®¤-¤¸h-Gô-¾G-ˆP-±P-¤-¯ÛÅ-vôh-‚ïh-hGôÅü hï-¿e¼-‚Å-mü Gô-GmÅvôh-Mã-»Ûm-ŸïÅ-ºDôh-ºhÝG »Û-Gï-hï-¤fôP-hÝÅ-Dô-±ôºÛ-zŤ-„Àô-WÛ-zŸÛm¤Gô-zbGÅ-ŸÝ-Mã-¾Å-¿kôG-Çeïü Ÿï-ºDôm-HÛ-©-D-hï-zÅ-Vï-¼Þ-xÛm-q-¤¸hü P-±ô-Gô-ºWô-DÞ¾-hÝ-M-¤ÛÅ-¤Û-zÅh-d-ºHï¾-hP-zÆïGÅ-GÅôh-ºyôGzTô¤-‚Å-qºÛ-»Ûh-Bô-zºÛ-‚-z-n¤Å-»Ûh-¾-ºV¼-z-hP.ü hï-zÅ-ymHÛ-w-»ÛÅ-GÅÞPÅ-qºÛ-zÇÀz-‚-ŸÛG-Çeïü &M¾-z-»Ûh-zŸÛm-mô¼-zÞ-hPzôh-M¾-Dz-hP-¤Û-¼ÛGÅ-¾-GÝÅ-z¯Û-hGº-Ÿïm-hGôÅ-q-hP.ü zÇemÆÛh-¼P-hzP-GÛ-hôm-hÝ-ÆôG-„ÀôÅ-GbôP-fÞz-m-BïÅ-wô-¼z-¼ïhü GÝP-FmbP-mÛ-GPÅ-¿YôPÅ-¤Û-¼ÛGÅ-hP-VôÅ-ÆÛh-ˆÛ-zÇem-hI-GTÛG-zÞ-hï-¼ïhü GÝP58


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60

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64

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66

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72

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94

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100

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106

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¸Ûm-fô-hï-»P-hÝÅ-hï-mÅ-z¸ÞP-¤±¤Å-Vhü hï-ZÛm-z®ôm-DP-mÅ-¾Å‚ïh-hP-¤Z¤-hÝ-Å-GmÅ-Åô-Åô¼-ºIô-hGôÅ-q-¾Å-¿Ë-Å-ÅôGÅ-Å-GmÅGŸm-¾-zBôh-¤Û-VôG-qºÛ-Ç+ô¼-zXôhü Ç+zÅ-hï¼-ym-mÅ-z®ôm-DP-GÛºGô-FÛh-¾-Æâ-¤ô-mh-GŸÛ-¿YÛh-qô-»ôh-q-¤-¸hü f-m-¤ÛºÛ-¼ï-z-»P-¤ïhqºÛ-Zïm-DºÛ-Ç+ô¼-mm-zXôh-‚Å-q¼-zdïm-P-¼P-¿Ë-ż-GmÅ-fÞz-®¤-‚ãP.ü hÝÅ-Ç+zÅ-hïºÛ-¼ÛP-¾-¿Ë-¿km-G®ßG-¾G-DP-hP-zôh-ˆÛ-¤ÛP-IGÅ-Vï-zºÛGhm-Å-GÅÞ¤-ÅôGÅ-¾-GmÅ-¤W¾-¾ïGÅ-q¼-ŸÝÅ-ÁÛP.ü G®ßG-¾GDP-hÝ-Wô-zô-¼Ûm-qô-VïºÛ-Ÿ¾-¤W¾-‚ãP-z-mÛ-PºÛ-¤Û-±ïºÛ-mP-GÛ-fïPÅ-hP-qô»Ûm-q¼-zdïmü hGº-hh-¸ÞP-hÝ-ºƒï¾-zºÛ-¤VÛ-¤-hzP-¤ïh-hÝ-Áô¼ü hGº¿km-hÝ-VôÅ-¤W¾-hÝ-ºIô-zºÛ-Ç+zÅ-¼ÛG-GmÅ-Gż-XïºÛ-mP-hÝ-Gbô¼-zÁÛGfïzÅ-q-n¤Å-Z¤Å-GÅô-‚ïh-qºÛ-ÇKP-¼ïh-ºhÝG ym-mÅ-Ÿ¾-ºhïzňÛ-±ß¾-hÝ-ZÛm-IPÅ-zhÝm-¼ÛP-hï-G¼-¾Å-;-‚Å-bï-zÇkhü Ç+zÅ-hï¼¼P-GÛ-º‚ãP-ºHã¼-HÛ-¤Û-±ïºÛ-¾Å-hzP-GÛ-fh-¾-zŤ-„Àô-ºi-¤Ûm-ºDô¼z hP-ü Gmh-hôm-¤P-qô¼-»P-hG-qºÛ-¾m-ºhïzÅ-ÁÛG-¤-½‰ïh-ˆP-ü &Ç+ݤhÝm-¤W¾-z¼-ºIô-MãºÛ-zŤ-„Àô-hï-¡h-hï-M-¤±ôºÛ-¡-½ÀzÅ-G»ô-z-¿e¼GTÛG-ºWGÅ-GZÛÅ-¾PÅ-»Ûm-q¼-zdïmü Gmh-hôm-hï-¼P-¾-„Àô-fGzTh-q-hP-VzÅ-TÛG hq¾-ºz¼-væ¾-Ç+ݺÛ-iâP-hÝ-zBôh-hï-DôP-¾-P-¼P106


¼P-hzP-GÛ - Fô h -mÅ-ÇÀ ¼ -»P-GŸm-hzP-hÝ - Hã ¼ -zü

93

M-G¼-hÝ-ºIô-MãºÛ-GmÅ-¾ÞGÅ-n¤Å-ŸÝÅ-q¼-DôP-GÛÅ-ˆP-fÞGÅ-¤ZïÅqô-GmP-Ÿô¼ü ym-¾-»P-h-¿e-M-¤ÛºÛ-¾G-ºôG-mÅ-f¼-®¤-»Ûm-qÅ-¹ÁÅ-¼ÛP-ºfïm-®¤-‚Å-bï-P¾-GÅô-zMG-m-GP-ºi-ºhÝG-TïÅü z;ºGmP-‚ãP-zÅ-hï-¿e¼-‚-Mã¼-„Àô-fG-zThü hÝÅ-»Þm-hï-hG-GÛ-¼ÛP-ÇÀ¼-»P-¿Ëô-GmÅ-hP-ü G®P-GmÅü zŤ»Å-¤VÛ¤Å-wÞ-ÅôGÅ-zôh-ˆÛ-IGÅ-Tm-HÛ-hGôm-Çkï-hP.ü GmÅ-¼Ûü ¼ÛFôh-ÅôGÅ-¤P-qô¼-GmÅ-¤W¾-ŸÝ-zºÛ-Gô-Ç+zÅ-h¤ÛGÅ-zž-Tm-fôz-qhP-ü ¿ËG-q¼-hÝ-zŤ-»Å-¤VÛ¤Å-wÞ¼-¹-z-zhÝm-¼ÛP-ÇKô¤-Oæz-¾-zÇkhü hï-XïÅ-ƒG-»ï¼-q¼-hGÝP-¾ô-zM-hP-zhÝm-¾-wïzÅ-qºÛ-Í-¤hô-Xï-z®ßmÇ+Ý-¤hÝm-mÅ-zTßh-¾ïm-ŸÝÅ-mÅ-zhÝm-yG-GÅÞ¤-®¤-hï-G¼-zÇkh-q-hPhï-XïÅ-xÛ¼-¾ôG-mÅ-Åï-¼-hݼ-Fôh-Xï-z®ßm-¤Z¤-hÝ-ŸG-zTß-GTÛG-Çkôh-MãºÛGô-Ç+zÅ-ˆÛ-z;º-iÛm-fôzü Ç+zÅ-hï¼-M-¤ÛÅ-GÅôm-z¸ÞP-GP-ŸÛG-‚ňP-&M¾-z-¼Ûm-qô-Vï-¤W¾-z¼-ºIô-MãºÛ-„Àô-fG-zTh-¸Ûm-q¼-zdïmü ¿ËÅ-mÅ-GŸÛÅ- ¯ï-z¼-½ÀPÅ-ºDô¼-¾-zÇkh-q-hP-hï-mÅ-Ç+zÅ-¼ï-½ÀPÅ-ºDô¼hP-Ç+zÅ-¼ï-@P-fP-hÝ-zBôh-hï-ZÛm-GÅÞ¤-HÛ-XïÅ-¾-GŸÛ-mÅ-ºI¤-¾-ÇÀïzÅü ºI¤-mÅ-ŸôGÅ-q-ÇS-qô¼-»¼-¾PÅ-bï-¸¤-q-zL¾-mÅ-ºIô-Ç+zÅ-¾¤hˆÛ¾-hÝ-M-h¤G-GTÛG-GÛÅ-ºWâ-z¸ÞP-‚Å-q-hP-ü h¤G-¤Û-hïÅ-GÁïGÁï-GbôP-zŸÛm-hÝ-uÛ-zhïºÛ-ZÛm-dôG-¤Û-Ço¼-¯ÛÅ-vôh-‚Åü Zïm-dôG-¤Û107


108

V¼-½À â P -Fô h -ˆÛ - ¤ï - Çe G

ÇoÅ-GÁï-GÁï-¤P-qô-zbP-z-hP-¤±m-¤ô-z¼-z;G-mÅ-¤f¼-Å-V-ºhÛ-mÅD-ƒ¾-bï-xÛ¼-¾ôG-HÛÅ-ŸïÅ-zXôh-‚ãP-ü ¤f¼-fzÅ-ÁïÅ-hP-h;º-ÇkÝG¤P-qôºÛ-ºôG-mÅ-z¾-»Þ¾-hÝ-º‚ô¼ü z¾-»Þ¾-hÝ-zôh-GŸÝP-GÛÅ-Vïh-º²âGÅ-GmP-zºÛ-Çoï-¾ïm-DP-GÛ¾Å-‚ïh-ºGº-ÁÅ-hP-Pô-fÞG-‚ãP-z-hP-ü hï-mÛ-P-¼P-¾-V-¤±ôm-mÅ-zÁhm-¤Û-¾ô-ZÛ-ÁÝ-¿ËG-GÛ-¼ÛP-¾-¼P-¼ïºÛ-M¾-Dz-ˆÛ-¾Å-‚ïh-q-Pô-ºyh-‚ãP-zhP-qô-hï-»Ûm-q¼-zdïmü Åï¤Å-¾-zXôh-¤Û-ÁïÅ-qºÛ-hGº-ÇoP-hP-vô-zVïÅ-Vï¼-ºwï¾ü hï-G¼-Çkôh-¼ÛP-hÝ-xôGÅ-GP-ż-zhG-GÛÅ-±ôh-hqG¾Å-zL¾-zºÛ-Çoï-¾ïm-¸z-MÅ-GmP-z-hP-¾¤-z¼-hÝ-ºIâ¾-zŸÝh-‚ïh-q¼»P-±P-¤-z;ôh-OÛG-GP-¾ïGÅ-GmP-z-zTÅ-ˆÛÅ-„Àô-zhï-zG-wïzÅ-ˆÛfôG-mÅ-»Þm-¼ÛP-Åï¤Å-¾-zTPÅ-qºÛ-zhG-GÛ-¼ï-Ǩôm-bïü &GôP-Å-¤VôGMãm-ŸÝGÅ-GmP-»Þ¾-hP-¼P-¼ïºÛ-GŸÝP-GÛ-Vz-ÆÛh-hP.ü ¼ÛG-GŸÝP.ü VôÅ-¾ÞGÅü uÛ-±ôGÅ-ˆÛ-‚ïh-ÇKôºÛ-¿eï-GmÅ-»Ûm-qºÛ-l-¼¤-Å-¾ºÛ-xôGÅÅÞ-zBôhü zhG-GÛÅ-»Þm-¼ÛP-Åï¤Å-¾-zTPÅ-qºÛ-GmÅ-¤VôG-hï¼-Åï¤Å¾-±ôh-hqG-ºi-¤Ûm-‚Å-qºÛ-¤f¼-l-¼¤-Å-¾¼-zhï-„ÀG-PP-º‚ô¼ü l-¼¤-Å-¾¼-º‚ô¼-zºÛ-ÅP-ZÛm-hï-¼P-hÝ-Ç+Ý-Pô-Ç+¾-ºI¤-¾GňÛÅ-&GôP-Å-Vïm-qôºÛ-¤W¾-D-»ôh-¾ÞGÅ-ˆÛ-Gb¤-z¸P-hïü fïPÅ-hPqô¼-Gô-zÅ-hÝÅ-hï¼-zhG-GÛ-Åï¤Å-¾-hGº-±ô¼-WÛ-ºi-‚ãP-¤Ûm-mÛ-zôh-¤Û108


¼P-hzP-GÛ - Fô h -mÅ-ÇÀ ¼ -»P-GŸm-hzP-hÝ - Hã ¼ -zü

95

ŸÛG-GÛ-PôÅ-mÅ-zÁh-m-¤Û-±ïºÛ-mP-GÛ-G¾-ºGPÅ-Vï-zºÛ-hÝÅ-±ÛGÅ-ÁÛG»Ûm-qÅ-vô-z-hï-zÅ-ºwï¾ü hPôÅ-GŸÛºÛ-¤W¾-D-ŸÝ-zºÛ-Ç+zÅ-fôG-¤¼ym-mÅ-¤W¾-DºÛ-Ç+Ý-xG-fïPÅ-GÅÞ¤-º±¾ü ºIô-z-¤Û-n¤Å-ˆÛÅ-zXôhzŸÛm-q-¿e¼-¤Gôm-qô-GP-ZÛh-ˆÛ-¼Ûm-fP-ƒ¾-zºÛ-z;º-ÇÀôz-GmP-zÅü »Þm¼ÛP-Åï¤Å-¾-Z¼-zºÛ-ÇkÝG-zÇS¾-HÛ-ºDÞ¼-qô-¤P-qô-ŸÛG-M-¤±ôºÛ-¡-½ÀzźWGÅ-q-¿e-zÞºÛ-±ô¼-ÇoP-¢Ûmü GÝÅ-¤ôÅ-ˆP-¼P-GÛÅ-¤fôP-fôÅ-¥ôPGÅÞ¤-¾Å-‚ãP-zºÛ-ÇS-xÛºÛ-GmÅ-±ß¾-¤P-qô-ŸÛG-GÛ-fôG-¾-¼ÛG-q-zOÛ¤ÅmÅ-ljm-hÝ-GÅô¾-MãºÛ-ºzh-¯ô¾-‚Å-q-¿e¼ü GmÅ-±ß¾-n¤Å-Vh-¾ÞŤïh-q¼-ŸÝ-MãºÛ-Gô-Ç+zÅ-fôz-q-hï-»P-zhG-GÛ-¤Û-±ïºÛ-mP-hÝ-G¸Û-zXÛh-VïzºÛ-hôm-Vïm-ŸÛG-»Ûm-q-Ghôm-¤Û-¸ü Ç+¾-z-z¸P-qô-hï-ºiºÛ-ºôG-zhG-GÛ-Åï¤Å-±ô¼-hPôÅ-mÛ-h-mÛ-ÁÛ»P-ºHôh-q-¤ïh-zŤ-qºÛ-zŤ-„Àô-»P-ºDô¼-z¼-‚Åü hï-XïÅ-¤Û-¼ÛPz¼-GmÅ-¤VôG-lô-Xï-Ghm-hÝ-ÇÀ¼-»P-&GôP-Å-¤VôG-GÛÅ-ZÛm-IPÅ-zhÝm¼ÛP-¾¤-¼Û¤-z;º-ºFÛh-hP.ü ±ï-¢Ûm-»Ûh-zŸÛm-ºDô¼-¾ôºÛ-±ï-hzP-GmPzü hï-zŸÛm-±ôGÅ-ºDô¼-zdm-zŸÝGÅ-GmP-z-hP-VzÅ-TÛG P-±ôzôh-hÝ-xÛ¼-¾ôG-GmP-¤Dm-HÛ-zôh-¤Û-n¤Å-¾-fôm-¤W¾-ŸÝ-zºÛ-z;º-iÛmfôz-Çeï-¤Gôm-qô-GP-ZÛh-ˆÛ-xG-¸ÞP-iôm-¤ô-zhG-GÛ-uÛ-zô¼-ºWôG-GmP-¤²hhï-‚Û¾-‚Û¾-GmP-zÅü ¼P-PôÅ-mÅ-ˆP-¤Gôm-qô-GP-ZÛh-zôh-GPÅ-Tm109


110

V¼-½À â P -Fô h -ˆÛ - ¤ï - Çe G

¿YôPÅ-ÅÞ-ŸzÅ-Åô¼-zhï-ºDôh-hP.ü GŸÛÅ-‚ïÅ-zôh-¤Û-n¤Å-¤Z¤-º²ô¤Å»ôP-zºÛ-Ǩôm-¾¤-ºhïzÅ-zŸÛm-D-xÛ¼-zÇ+ô¼-hÝÅ-»Ûh-„ÀôP-qô¼-Hã¼-ŸÛP¼P-TG-zôh-¤Û-n¤Å-¾-ºWÛG-dïm-¤Û-»Þ¾-ºhÛ¼-¤fôP-h;ôm-qºÛ-VôÅ-M¾ºhÛ-¿-ezÞ-ŸÛG-»ôh-ˆP-ü D-ƒ¾-HÛ-z¼-fG-mG-qôÅ-ºhÛ-¿e-zÞºÛ-xÛ-mP-GZÛÅÅÞ-HïÅ-hGôÅ-‚ãP-z-¼ïh-zŤ-mÅ-¼P-hzP-¤ïh-q¼-¤VÛ-¤-Áô¼-z-hP.ü f-m-¤ÛG-GÛ-¤hÝm-hÝ-»ôh-qºÛ-¾¤-»P-¤fôP-¤Û-fÞz-q¼-Hã¼ü zôh-hÝ-xÛ¼-¾ôG-‚Å-XïÅ-¿Ë-ż-¹-z-GZÛÅ-®¤-zÇkh-q-hP-hï-XïÅÇÀ¼-»P-w-»Þ¾-hÝ-¾ôG hÝÅ-»Þm-hï-hG-GÛ-¼ÛP-M-h¤¼-HÛÅ-zôh-¤ÛºÛÅ-DP-ü Å-ŸÛP-ÇKô-xãGÅ-Åï¤Å-Tm-hP-f-m-»PÅ-qºÛ-GPÅ-¿YôPÅ-ˆÛ¼Û->ÀâP-»P-f¤Å-Th-hzP-hÝ-zÇkÝÅ-q¼-zdïmü ¾ô-¤P-z®ôm-DP-mP-hݾÞÅ-qºÛ-P-¼P-¿e-zÞ-GÅôm-qô¼-GmÅ-fÞz-q-®¤-‚ãP-»P-ü h-V-VGÅdïm-GŸÛ-dïm-¤ïh-q¼-Dï¼-AP-GTÛG-qÞ¼-¾ÞÅ-bï-ÅÞÅ-ˆP-¿e-dôG-‚ïh-¤Dm¤ïhü hï-XïÅ-¾ô-GÅÞ¤-®¤-HÛ-XïÅ-ÆÛh-WâÅ-¾-ym-zÞºÛ-ºHã¼-¿kôG-‚ãPz-hP-VzÅ-TÛG-Å-ŸÛP-ym-zÞ-vh-q-¤-¸hü h-hÝP-Vz-¤hô¼-Vz-ÆÛhIôÅ-±ôGÅ-ˆÛ-Mãm-¾Å-‚ïh-hGôÅ-±ß¾-ÅôGÅ-ˆP-zXôhü »Ûm-mºP.ü hômhPôÅ-fôG-¼P-PôÅ-mÅ-OÛG-º²âGÅ-hï-hG-GÛ-mP-hÝ-º²â¾-ŸÝGÅ-‚-ºhôh¤ïh-q-mÛ-ÇS-mÅ-zŤ-„Àô¼-»ôh-q-ŸÛG-Çeïü OÛG-º²âGÅ-hï-hG-mÛ-¤ÛP®¤-¾Å-hôm-HÛ-hzP-V-zïh-uôh-zbP-Çeï-¤Û-h¤PÅ-¾-wm-zhï-Cæm-MãºÛ110


¼P-hzP-GÛ - Fô h -mÅ-ÇÀ ¼ -»P-GŸm-hzP-hÝ - Hã ¼ -zü

97

Gô-Ç+zÅ-¤ïh-q-¼ïhü hï¼-zdïm-Dô-±ôÅ-z;ôh-zOÛGÅ-‚Å-qºÛ-OÛG-º²âGÅhï-hG-GÛ-mP-hÝ-º²â¾-ŸÝGÅ-¤Û-‚ïh-qºÛ-„Àô-fG-G®P-¤-zThü 1985 ¾ô¼-ºƒÛ-Vß-w-¼Û-Fô¤-DôG-Í-º²ô¤Å-VôÅ-ÇK¼-PôÅ-ˆÛ„À-¤-hP-»P-ÇKôÅ-ºƒâG-q-lô-Xï-ºVP-GÛ-»P-ÆÛh-¼Ûm-qô-Vï-ÅôGÅ-¤W¾z¼-xÛm-bï-hï-G¼-¹-Pô-GÅÞ¤-¿ËG-®¤-Çkôh-¼ÛP-ºƒâG-q-Xô-Xï-ºVP-¼Ûm-qôVï-¤VôG-mÅ-hzP-¾ÞP-FÛh-ÅôGÅ-„Àô-»Ûh-±Û¤Å-qºÛ-z;º-iÛm-fôzü ºƒâGq-lô-Xï-ºVP-GÛ-»P-ÆÛh-fÞz-zÇem-qj¨-ºyÛm-¾Å-hq¾-z¸P-qô-¤VôG-¤ÛZG-z®ôm-DP-hP-ü lô-;ô-hGôm-z®ôm-DP.ü h¼-¯ï-¤hô-z®ôm-DP-ÅôGÅM-h¤¼-HÛ-z®ôm-DP-¼Û¤-q-ºIÛ¤Å-mÅ-ºfz-¯ôh-IPÅ-¤ïh-ˆÛ-ºôG-mÅh;º-ÇkÝG-¥PÅ-q-ŸÛG-¼ïhü hï-ÇS-Fô¤-DôG-lô-hGôm-z®ôm-DP-mÅ-ƒôÅ‚ô¾-hÝ-wïzÅ-Ç+zÅ-z®ôm-DP-GÛ-HP-zdô¾-mÅ-wïzÅ-q-¼ïhü z®ôm-DP¾-ÇKïºÞ-DÞP-¤ïh-¾-ÇKô-¾ºP-ÇKô-¿UGÅ-zMz-»ôh-q-¼ïhü »Ûm-mºP.ü ÇSiô-z®ôm-¿eô-zB¾-z¼-ºIô-Ç+zÅ-DôP-zŸÝGÅ-¤ïh-qÅ-¤Gô-¤-GbôGÅ-¾ÞÅqô-f¼-fzÅ-¤ïh-qºÛ-ÍÛ-DÞP-VßP-VßP-hïºÛ-mP-mÅ-ƒôÅ-xÛm-q¼-M-h¤G-n¤ÅÈP-ÅPÅü hïP-GÛ-hÝÅ-ºhÛ¼-DôP-ÇS¼-zŸÛm-Fô¤-DôG-bà-zÇem-hP-ºIôzºÛ-hôm-hÝ-VôÅ-ˆÛ-¤²h-ºyÛm-MÅ-zŸÛm-»ôh-¤ÞÅ-¾GÅü hï-XïÅ-¿Ë-ż-ÇÀïzÅ-mÅ-¾ô-GÅÞ¤-xÛm-q-hïºÛ-¼ÛP-¼P-PôÅ-mÅzôh-ˆÛ-¤-ºôPÅ-qºÛ-‚-GŸG-Gż-Cæm-HÛ-hôm-hÝ-ŸzÅ-ºhïGÅ-GP-»ôh111


112

V¼-½À â P -Fô h -ˆÛ - ¤ï - Çe G

ŸÝÅ-q-hP-hï-hG-¾-Iâz-ºƒÅ-ˆP-¤Û-h¤m-q-ŸÛG-‚ãP-»ôh-q¼-zdïm-Åï¤Å¾-vô-z-ºwï¾-zŸÛm-ºhÝG Ç+zÅ-¼ï-zŤ-»Å-¤VÛ¤Å-zÞ-hP-ü ƒGG»P-μôP-ü ƒG-»ï¼-qü ºƒÛ-GÝP-Gbï¼-Oô¤-ÅôGÅ-GmÅ-Vïm-DG-¾M¾-zºÛ-ŸzÅ-zdm-hP-ü zÇem-q-MÅ-qü zhG-ÅôGÅ-ºIô-;Ým-HÛűï-¼zÅ-mÅ-zÅGÅ-qºÛ-zÁG-¢ôP-ÅôGÅ-Vïh-zTßh-¾ïm-¹-¼ï¼-fïPÅ-ZÛÁÝ-¯-GTÛG-hP-hï-¤Ûm-ÇKô¤-Oæz-ÅôGÅ-ˆP-¾ïGÅ-q¼-‚Åü 1987 ¾ôºÛ- 9 qºÛ-±ïÅ- 27 ZÛm-ÇS¼-Mãm-¿e¼-ŸôGÅ-qm¤-zž-z-hP-VzÅ-TÛG-G®ßG-¾G-DP-hP-©ï-¼Þ-hGôm-q-ÅôGÅ-zÇ+ô¼z-zMz-q-hP-ü zÅP-GÅô¾-‚ïh-q-ÅôGÅ-‚Å-XïÅ-xÛ¼-mP-hÝ-¾ôG-q-hPhÝÅ-»Þm-GP-º±¤Å-ÅôP-XïÅ-ˆÛ-Vß-±ôh-zTß-qºÛ-G»Å-G»ôm-®¤-¾-ºƒÅÇtäPÅ-hGôm-qºÛ-hGï-ºhÝm-q-Zï¼-GTÛG-GÛÅ-Çoï-FÛh-hïü zôh-¼P-z®m»Ûmü &GôP-Å-¤VôG-FÛ-¾ô¼-zdm-q¼-ÁôG M-h¤¼-z®m-º²â¾-qzôh-mÅ-¤f¼-z=ôh-GbôP-hGôÅ-ŸïÅ-ÅôGÅ-ˆÛ-Q¤-zXÛh-¿km-qºÛ-ºzôhOºÛ-Fôh-mÅ-zôh-ˆÛ-¤Û-¼zÅ-Gż-q-±ôÅ-fïPÅ-hP-qô¼-GŸÛ-M-Vï-zºÛ-MLô¾-HÛ-¾Å-ºGݾ-hï-hÝÅ-hï-mÅ-z¸ÞP-ºGô-±ßGÅü P-±ôÅ-ˆP-Wô-DP-GÛ-Ç+ô¼-z-GÅÞ¤-zMz-mÅ-Wô-zô-hzÞ-CºÛ-¤hÝmPôÅ-mÅ-±P-¤Å-¤IÛm-q-G¸ïPÅ-ÅÞ-ÇeïGÅ-mÅ-&M¾-z-zÇem-º²Ûm-M¤±ô-Ç+Ý-±ï-FÛ-¾ô¼-zdm-qô¼-ÁôG M-h¤¼-z®m-º²â¾-q-zôh-mÅ-¤f¼112


¼P-hzP-GÛ - Fô h -mÅ-ÇÀ ¼ -»P-GŸm-hzP-hÝ - Hã ¼ -zü 99

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114

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116

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