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De Cultores Saber el vino May de 2010 Nº 44

Sumario • The challenge of the grapevine in a hotter world According to the scientific consensus, the planet’s temperature would reach 4ºC above the normal average in the year 2100; this would represent a great challenge for all wine regions.


The Birth of wine

Time of harvest

• Kobe, Japanese meat… typically Argentinean

Although it is very difficult to compete against our meat, from faraway lands, we receive one that, according to gourmet specialists, has an exceptional quality known as Kobe that is “on fashion” today.

• Sustainability, looking after the future Sustainable viticulture takes part of an increasingly stronger line of thought. It proposes the care of the aspects that ensure a harmonic development of vine growing production without any risk for the new generations.

• Tastes and scents with their own style

His consolidated background in the fires of Tierra del Fuego, turned him into one of the clear beacons of our gastronomy. He confesses he is in love both with the Mediterranean food and the tastes he has been incorporating during his trips around close and distant lands as well as the Argentinean wines.

Collectable publication published by Luigi Bosca Winery- Familia Arizu

Printed Edition


The vital process of grapevine has this mysterious fascination of the growth from all the vegetables. With the arrival of spring, there is a series of transformations that take place and reach a turning point until the beginning of autumn from the next year. That is when the most important act takes place: the harvest. Its precise date and care is the turning point for the characteristics of great wines. Due to genetics closeness, man usually captures the mystery of animal’s growth very easily. But at the same time, he stills watches with astonishment the same phenomenon in plants that is being developed before his eyes, getting fed with water and sun, putting into motion this wonderful “engine” of leaves that is called photosynthesis. Of course, as in

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the rest of arable vegetables, the influence of climate during this cycle is essential for grapevines, since the combination of sunny days, fresh nights and the absence of accidents (such as hail and frosts) not only allows for reaching the harvest with a happy end, but it also forms a balance in the grapes of the substances capable of generating higher quality wines. The continúa pág. 4

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The secret of making good wines

Master Wines in Finca El Paraíso (Farm)

I always say I am vey lucky for having been born in this industry. I was very fortunate for being able to enter the Winery and have my own space. The confidence of my family was essential; my father was the one who has passed on the affection I feel for this enterprise, and in turn, he has imbued me with a total devotion and dedication to the land. Our wines represent a great share of each of us: they are “exponents of terroir”, with a soul, built with the characteristics of time. When I was a child, my father used to repeat me again and again that the difference between a winery and a factory is the spirit and this something else it has. We have always had a clear goal in mind of being able to capture our identity and to be able to express the most complete version of the Argentinean wine to take it everywhere in each of our bottles. For Arizu, the fashions are temporary, but our labels aren’t; they are a tribute to the land and to all the people working on it. This is our only secret and the reason why we are able to make great wines, with charm and personality. Throughout the years, we have built an unrivalled business model in Argentina. Today, we have an international distribution network whose constitution and consolidation make me feel very proud of. Luigi Bosca has been in the same family of producers for 109 years that are genuinely oriented to quality. Four generations of wine growers have been involved, for long time, in understanding the intension of the grapevine and they have witnessed and been responsible for the big changes in the wine industry of the country. Our involvement in the external and internal market is approximately 50% in each of them, with a market presence in more than 50 countries around the world. And we are still growing because our unbeatable characteristic is to make the same product for every destination: the same wine, the same packaging, the same bottle, the same brand, the same communication… We don’t make red, white, rosé or special sparkling wines for export and that is what makes us proud. I was born in Mendoza, I live in Buenos Aires and I have travelled around the most diverse places of the planet for the last16 years in order commercialize and position our labels and to promote Argentinean wine. My wish? Being able to express the most complete version of the essence of Argentinean wine itself, and to place Luigi Bosca among the most important of the world.

To crown and as a final closure of the Argentina Wine Awards 2010 contest, one of the most important competitions of domestic wine industry, Arizu organized a special dinner for international Master Wines that took part of the jury from the event at the house of Finca El Paraíso. Before sitting at the table, they enjoyed a meal composed by several steps thought to match with the family wines; the group of twelve experts from different countries tasted, under the light of the moon, the complete collection of the Bodega Luigi Bosca labels. With a cup, pencil and notepad in hand, the Masters were able to exchange opinions about each exemplary in a night that was carried out in a soirée within an imposing framework. After the tasting, while some people were finding their place in the château particulier yards in Finca El Paraíso, where the dinner took place, others arrived with the Engineer Alberto Arizu (p) from a night tour around the Gewürztraminer vineyards. An intimate party where nothing was missing: incredible matching, interesting conversations, tango and all Luigi Bosca wines.

Luigi Bosca Reserva Malbec 375 ml presentation Before the great development of the new world trends consumption, Luigi Bosca Winery launched its Luigi Bosca Reserva Malbec in a bottle of 375 ml, a new format that keeps the premise of offering consumers the same experience they find when opening a classic bottle of 750ml. This new presentation, a batch of few bottles, is more suitable for individual consumption of a great wine in everyday meals or in a trip. It is ideal to match it with red grilled or roasted meat, and it is distinguished for its great body and structure.

Lic. Alberto Arizu (h)


De Cultores | May de 2010

Science The grapevines before the climate change

When the sun gets hot According to the scientific consensus, the planet’s temperature would reach 4ºC above the normal average in the year 2100; this would represent a great challenge for all wine regions. What happens in Argentina?

The growing of grapevine and the elaboration of wine has always been subject, to a great extent, to meteorological conditions. In sum, the climate is the one that defines the possibilities of establishing a crop, for example, the extreme cold weather conditions in the vineyards, usually cause huge losses for the harvests. The same applies to high temperatures that can result in problems related to draught, development of diseases, soil erosion and ripening of the grapevine, the seasons would be shorter, the heat would be much more intense than today’s and the rainfalls would be less and less predictable. These are the possible consequences of the climatic change: a process caused by human activity that could significantly alter the weather conditions as a result of global warming caused by the release of the greenhouse gases concentrations (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons) into the atmosphere. These emissions catch an increasing portion of the terrestrial infrared radiation and they could increase the temperature between 1.5ºC and 4ºC in the year 2100. Gregory Jones, PhD in Environmental

Sciences, is the author of the first investigation that examines the effects of climate change in several wine-growing areas in the world, both in the past and the future. In his conclusions, he states that some regions would get more benefits, while others would face a very important challenge: “since 1950 to 2000, the rates of global warming in growing seasons in 27 areas that have been studied showed an average of 1.4ºC, while climate forecasts for the period between 2000 and 2049 foresee an additional warming of 2.2ºC. We should add some phenological changes to this circumstance that has been analyzed in several crops and stocks in Europe where, over the last 50 years, the grapevines have responded to this warming with an advance on the blossom, the veraison and harvest phases depending on their location and variety”.” The world enological geography as we know it, located in the ranges of medium temperatures between 10ºC and 20ºC in both hemispheres, could slowly move to the north and south respectively, around 180 kilometers per each grade centigrade.


This is an issue that has been going on for a while, and it is having repercussion among local vineyards and wine specialists, as the case of the engineer Alberto Arizu, who stated that “one of the impacts to be mitigated would be the shortage of irrigation water, and the moment of the year it is needed, since the grapevine is a spring-summer crop, and it is very demanding as regards the quantity needed during its growing period; all these in view of the fact that less flows are expected due to a reduction of snow on the on the Andes Mountain Ranges and an increase of the temperature”. Besides, he believes that at the farms “they should intensify the works in the vineyards be it for refocusing, so as to have less incidence of sun rays especially during the afternoon which causes burnings on the grape bunches, as well as the cultural tasks on the green side of the plant: pruning, thinning, trimmings and others; and of course in all the precautions that have to do with frosts, and hales”. For the engineer, as it is happening on other latitudes, there would be a wide range of possibilities opened to establish new productive oasis although Argentina has an advantage compared to the rest: “Our country has a great quantity of areas that are still unexplored, some which could be highly suitable for vitiviniculture with one or two grades above average”. In his words, the most highlighting point to be taken into account from this phenomenon is that “we, wine growers, have to be aware that climate change is a short term reality, therefore –exactly as we have been doing in Luigi Bosca– we should be alert and watchful to understand it in order to be able to minimize their side effects and to enhance the relative advantages they can provide to us”.

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Tiempo de cosecha viene de pág. 1

timely recollection of a good grape that is slowly ripened in a well-located vineyard has for itself a great percentage of the final success when the goal is to get an outstanding product as regards its expression of colors, scents and tastes. However, the harvest is no more than the epilogue of an annual process started in spring and ending in autumn. With the arrival of the first one, the winter dream for plants is finished and the yoke of grapevine is opened giving birth to sprouts, that after 45 days, they become small green grape grains. Since then to the moment of the harvest, these grains go through a series of transformations divided into three well-defined periods that, once again, are a source of wonder. The so-called “herbaceous” period, includes around 60 days during the months of November and December, during that time, the grapes increase their size thanks to their constant contribution of nutrients. For several weeks, the fruit is mainly composed of acids, with a predominance of malic acid, with a taste that is mostly green and hard. Then comes the “veraison” period, by mid January, that corresponds to the physiological stage of grains coloring that takes approximately between 15 and 30 days. This phenomenon would be more fascinating for anyone who would be patient enough to watch it in detail since the white varieties go from green to different shades of yellow, while the dyes turn the pale reddish to different shades of dark red. Each grain changes its color in just one day, although not all the vineyard makes it simultaneously, and this tinges it with a vibrant and dynamic color to all the vegetal extension. Before starting with the ripeness period per se, they carry out the leaf removal, a traditional wine growing operation in high quality vineyards. It is about suppressing the leaves spread at the same level of the bunches to increase the sun exposure, the temperature and the aeration of the grains in order to facilitate its later ripened. The leaf removal is done on the face of the bunch exposed to the

sugar and losing acidity, especially due to the slow natural replacement of malic acid to tartaric acid, with a fresher and better taste. All such modifications are vital for a proper balance of substances that are transferred to the wine and they shape its personality. On the other hand, it is in that precise moment when the typical scents that belong to each variety are generated on the skins of the grains. In the red cultivars, there is also a slow maturity of the polyphenols or vegetable tannins that lose part of their initial hardness until getting more rounded and nice.

Now yes, time to harvest

An instant during the 2010 harvest captured by the lens of the photographer Juan Hitters, in Finca Los Nobles

rising sun or, failing this, to the north, starting with the oldest leaves (that is to say, the weakest), since the younger ones are paramount to keep a good vegetative performance of the grapevine. From then on, the ripeness of bunches starts, a moment when the grains of the grape are still getting fat, accumulating


Determining the right moment for harvesting is one of the main keys since the different levels of maturity have, as we have seen, a direct influence on acidity, the alcoholic strength (derived from sugar) and the content of tannins. These parameters change according to each variety and each kind of wine you want to create. Just to mention a few examples, a white wine meant to be the basis of sparkling ones, requires certain specific and harvested varieties at a very early age to limit the content of sugar and to preserve a good grade of refreshing acidity. Very different is the case of a late harvest wine, since for their elaborations, they need ripened grapes beyond their vegetative period (hence its term “extra maturity”) in order to get a good alcohol grade framed in an important content of natural sugar. The same difference can be established between a young red wine to one for aging, or between a fruity white one of the year and a white one selected for fermentation and oak ageing.

Over the years, the recollection techniques have changed. However, today in the high-quality vineyards there is an evident comeback to the origins. Over the centuries, the grape was harvested cutting each bunch by hand, trying to make it during early morning hours. The bunch was carefully placed in a basket that could be transferred just by one man until the mill. With the time and the

De Cultores | May de 2010

Keys to determine the moment of harvest The demands for modern vitiviniculture establish very precise parameters to determine the right moment in which the grape of a certain lot should be collected. These are the main factors to be considered when taking this decision: • Variety of the grape: the differences between the stocks are the first point to be considered. Each of them has their own characteristics that are improved if the maturity point established for its harvest is the best one.

• Location of the farm: a same variety will not mature in the same way in two pieces of different lands. In the different fertile areas of Mendoza, for example, the ripeness is developed faster than the low areas and more slowly in the high ones. • The climate speed of the season: the same variety in the same vineyard can also behave in a different way according to the prevailing weather conditions of each year. The temperatures and the insinuation accumulated are two main aspects in that regard.

• Sanity of the bunches: a climate accident or persisting rainfalls can anticipate the harvest to preserve its sanity, since they generate problems, such as the smashing of grains or phytosanitary diseases. • Design of the wine: this is without any doubt, the most important point. According to the kind of product we want to get, we establish its accurate recollection date. So parameters such as color, tannic maturity, equilibrium of acids and sugar as well as the richness of the primary scents are considered among others.

need of big volumes of common wines, the process was sped up: the unloading of the basket was made without delay and throughout the day (including in the hottest hours), in trucks that transferred tones of grapes to the winery. Unfortunately, these causes serious problems in the quality and sanity of the bunches due to the big loading pressures, smashing of grains, premature fermentations during the transfer and a big loss of the most natural scents contents in that fragile raw

material. In our days, under the renew quality concepts managed in the world of high-range wines, we live a turn back to the methodic and careful harvest in baskets or boxes avoiding the maltreatment as well as the excess of leaves in the woody parts of the plant. But technology has also made a great advancement if the rows are set in such a way so as to allow the passage of harvesting machines, we can use these miracle mechanics of viticulture. The

result is good if the proper precautions of the case are taken; today both methods coexist (manual and mechanic) in vineyards from the entire world. Such advancements would not have been possible without the change in the relationships between agronomists and enologists. Over the years it seemed that both were completely divorced, a vineyard and a winery were two different worlds. Today it is very clear that the good wine is originated in the vineyard therefore, we have to imagine it from the moment the vital cycle of the plant begins. So a continuity of actions starts and twins the tasks of agronomy and enology turning wine growers into elaborators and vice versa. The process has been clearly shown with a brilliant execution and efficiency in the results. The best wines of our time insinuate an integral design that does not separate the field from the winery. This way, the harvest has become a kind of hinge that joins both stages, that enriches the wonderful experience of vitiviniculture. And also, like in the remote past, it represents a party where effort by man has its reward. A joyful party, full of pleasure for the wine of the year that was turned into reality and full of hope for the wine dreamt for the next year. In sum, the noblest of the drinks has a celebration characteristic in its origin itself, a link with the vitality of nature.

The work is very intense during the harvest season (Finca La Linda, 2010 harvest).


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Gastronomy Kobe’s cuts

Japanese meat… typically Argentinean Although it is very difficult to compete against Argentinean meat, from faraway lands, we receive one that, according to gourmet specialists, has an exceptional quality. It is known as Kobe, it is “on fashion” and today, it is possible to taste it in some restaurants from the City of Buenos Aires. Their arrival to these lands

In the country of cows, the traditional races had to face a new competitor. It is the Kobe cattle, considered by many gourmets as the best meat in the world. Where does its name come from? It is named after the city of Kobe, the capital of Tajima province. Actually, the race is called kuroge wagyu. In that remote country, they just breed from 5 to 15 animals per farm. The central point is the special care given to each of them, almost comparable to the care given to an infant. Apart from the diet –strict one– we have to add the sake and beer, especially in summer so that the cattle increase the fodder consumption. It is a low saturated-fat meat–half of any other bovine– and with a special taste defined by the connoisseurs as soft texture, almost velvety. If you think that the Japanese “mimes” end up with their intakes you are wrong. These are complemented with ambient music and especial massage that help to relax the muscle tones so that the meat can get very tender and that just a minimum proportion of fat is marmorized. This means that the fat is distributed through very small channels and in a streaked

way. But just drinks, anti –stress sounds and massages are not the only things these cattle receives, they also cover them with sake, they rub it with especial sponges. United States, Canada, New Zeeland, Australia and now, Argentina are some of the countries already producing it.

The birth of a great race

The Kobe cattle were born around 1800 from a crossbreed of Asian animals with British and European races. At the beginning, they were introduced in Japan so as to feed the rice-growing workers. During many years, the cows lived in isolation and they developed a purity of the race that has been kept till these days. The specimens are crossbred with their own stock breeding. With the passage of time, the receptors of this titbit were others: the soldiers from the Japanese Imperial army who returned from the battlefield. Today, the privilege of tasting it is placed not on the honors achieved, but on the price you have to pay for it, around €400 in Japan and €100 to €300 in Europe depending on the cuts.


In the year 1988, doctor Luis Barcos tasted this meat in Japan and he was surprised for its potential development, its marmorized fat, its tenderness and taste. These especial characteristics made him think about the implementation of the project in Argentina. In 2000 when he returned to the country, he imported Wagyu genetics from the United States, Canada and Australia. With them, they inseminated Aberdeen Angus animals, so as a deduction; the result of the crossbreeding from two of the best meats in the world should give “the best of the best cuts”. It was within this framework that a group of seven breeders agreed on this last idea and they formed the Wagyu Breeders Association. Today, they have more than 5.000 production animals in ranches scattered all around fields from the provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, La Pampa, Córdoba and San Luis, which manage common rules so that everybody can keep the same quality and procedure standards. The result is the cow meat Wagyu, commercially known as Argentinean Kobe Beef that is served in some restaurants from the City of Buenos Aires and that are also exported. For example in Volver, the resto from Abasto Plaza Hotel (Av. Corrientes 3190), created a space devoted to the Kobe Club, where it is possible to taste almost all the cuts expect for the tenderloin and strip loins that are sent abroad, although it is worth mentioning that at Palacio Duhau Park Hyatt Buenos Aires (Avenida Alvear 1661), we can get tenderloin. We can also find it in La Cabaña (Rodríguez Peña 1967) they prepare sloulder clod, flank, flank steak, short ribs, and cap of rump. They are all good options that a real gourmand must taste together with the Luigi Bosca labels.

De Cultores | May de 2010

Environment Sustainable development

Looking after the future Sustainable viticulture takes part of an increasingly stronger line of thought. It proposes the care of the aspects that ensure a harmonic development of vine growing production without any risk for the new generations. Sustainability is a concept that has been attracting scholars’ attention from different disciplines during several decades. Biologists, sociologists, antropologists, gographers, architects and city planners among others, have tried to define its meaning with greater accuracy. The history of this philosophy of this way of seeing the world, started in 1972 during the United Nations Conference on Environment held in Stockholm. There, 103 states and more than 400 governmental organizations were able to generate the conviction that we were going through an environmental planetary crisis. Later, in 1987, the Environmental UN Commission issued a document warning humanity that they should change their lifestyles, their production and commercial interaction. In this document (called Brundtland Report) sustainable development was defined as “those who satisfy the current needs without endangering the capacity of future generations so as to satisfy their own needs”. After that, other

notions that include a more comprehensible definition were included such as the quality of lifestyle. Viticulture is of course not indifferent to these problems. Many world companies are seriously engaged in this issue; they adapt and improve their field producing processes according to the rules of a sustainable agriculture. Luckily, if we compare them with other productions, the growing of grapevine has many advantages on that regard. It does not degrade soils, it does not produce serious environmental impacts and it can be perfectly integrated to the surrounding landscape (in fact, in most of the cases, it makes it more beautiful). Anyway the responsibility for the future of humans is an issue we should take very seriously, that is the reason why the work to be done is under way. Today, the notion of “sustainable viticulture” is defined as the balanced integration of the quality requirements, the environmental protection and the economic benefits of the companies.

To achieve this goal, the new discoveries of grapevine ecophysiology have allowed for the advancement of multiple fields. Some of them are the biodegradability of pesticides, the use of natural fertilizers, the “soil management”, the creation of new growing systems, the study of the potentiality of native stocks, the combinations in the management of the vineyard (minimum pruning, lyra, modulated espalier) and the diversification of products, such as the especial grape juice and wines with low alcohol content. Some of these ideas are so innovative and promising that make a real revolution for the next years. This way, such an old and noble activity like vitiviniculture will be still focused within the parameters that ensure the survival of diversity, complexity and the functioning of ecological systems that support life.

Some objectives of the sustainable development Besides the evident concern about ecology, sustainability is after other goals related to the comprehensive improvement of people’s lives. These objectives are basically the following ones: To live a healthy, safe and productive life, in tune with the nature. To increase spiritual and cultural values from individuals and societies. -To look for ways that takes us to equality and brotherhood among peoples and nations. To find alternatives that allow us to distribute the wealth as an access to resources and opportunities. To avoid, by all means, human suffering and the environment’s degradation.

It is getting dark at Finca Los Nobles (Farm), while the grapes are still filling the baskets during the 2010’s grape harvest.


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De Cultores | May de 2010

Profiles Interview with Pablo Massey

Tastes and scents with their own style His consolidated background in the fires of Tierra del Fuego, turned him into one of the clear beacons of our gastronomy. He confesses he is in love both with the Mediterranean food and the tastes he has been incorporating during his trips around close and distant lands as well as the Argentinean wines. Pablo Massey started cooking at a very early age going hand with hand with the well-know Chef Francis Mallmann, by the late eighties. In the middle of pots and knives from that mythical restaurant from Honduras’s street, much before Palermo became a gourmet pole, he got convinced that his calling was not in the study of farming, a carrier he had chosen and started, but in the eccentric life of the sybarite profession par excellence, being a cook. That was how after almost one decade of learning next to Mallmann and graduated with honors from Gato Dumas, he got on a gastronomic discovery trip around France, Spain, Italy, Canada, United States and Singapore to get fed with new tendencies, while also shaping the restaurants from the city of Buenos Aires, giving lessons and presenting a TV program. But it was his experience in Italy with Mediterranean food what branded him –especially la toscana and la florentina– and it was as an inspiration source to shape his culinary identity so typical of him, and this capacity of combining colors, textures and scents. Also the time he spent in distant lands such as Thailand, contributed with an outstanding influence on his dishes. He worked in very prestigious restaurants such as Le Bristol París and the River Café in London and he served many international celebrities such as Ralph Lauren, Antonio Banderas, Robert Duvall and even Madonna, the queen of pop. He is restless, always in a good mood and known for his style and passion, from Uruguay, his new venture located in San Isidro, he thinks about the position of Argentinean food in the world and about the wines from Arizu Family.

Do you have any anecdote with a Luigi Bosca wine as the star? I remember a night when part of the board had dinner with friends in Uruguay, in my restaurant, and they ordered a Luigi Bosca | Malbec D.O.C. as we have run out of the stock, I invited Alberto to go into the cellar to chose other wine and he decided for a Finca Los Nobles Luigi Bosca | Cabernet Bouchet. Curiously enough, he did not choose the same varietal, which shows the multiple options their label collection has to match with the meals.

Our gastronomy is still looking for an identity, what do you think will be the trend in the next years? The one of intensifying that search by chefs to define it in the most accurate way. When I think about Argentinean food I think about the dishes of Northwest of the country, full of tradition: bit spicy and delicious elaborations. We have to try to focus our gastronomy in combination with our roots, the influence of the migratory currents and our products. I think that we, as cooks, have the responsibility of incorporating all these on the menus. Do you recall any person from your family that has left you an unforgettable mark to make you take a decision on your current profession? Without even knowing it, my lovely grandmother María Salas de Atucha she instilled me into food in general, although she did not know how to make a hard- boiled egg.

Throughout the four generations, the passion of Luigi Bosca was to interpret the grapevine’s intention. Can we give the chef’s opinion in one single phrase? Knowing that I’m not good at short phrases, what I was able to discover was that here is no better motivation, in terms of passion, than to see the restaurant full and the fact that people can’t decide on what to choose from the menu because of its wide variety. Both feelings are very nice, and they keep you in motion looking for new menus and combinations. Which wine from Luigi Bosca are you identified with? Finca Los Nobles Luigi Bosca | Malbec Verdot that I discovered in the year 2000. It is one of my favorites due to its personality and versatility to combine with different dishes. Besides, I think that the better the wine, the better it can be adapted to any matching. Do you have any especial association or idea regarding wine and your life? To open a bottle of wine is part of the pleasure, I associate it with good moments, cooking at home, ending up a good cooking night.

De Cultores Nº 44 - May 2010 Directors: Fabricio Portelli and Giorgio Benedetti | Editor in chief and owner: Leoncio Arizu S.A. - Alicia Moreau de Justo 740 Of 7/8, Dock 5 - (C1107AAP) Buenos Aires, Argentina - (54-11) 4331-2206 e-mail: | Printed in Gráfica Mediterránea, Zárate 1356, San Martín, Buenos Aires Province, CP 1650 | Intelectual Property Register Nº 739.330. The total and/or partial reproduction is permitted citing its source. Issues with free distribution

Drink with moderation. Not allowed for people below 18.

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De Cultores #44 June, 2010

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