FOR INTERNATIONAL FLEET AND MOBILITY LEADERS
DOSSIER CAR MANUFACTURERS' STRATEGY Nexus Communication - Fleet Europe #89 - Periodic magazine - March 2017 - Deposit Office Liège X
• The turbulent future of diesel • Innovation in Safety • The Electrification blueprint • Fleet Car Calendar 2017
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MANAGEMENT Steps for Smart Fleet Procurement
La Poste, the largest EV fleet in the world p.56-57
CONTENT A DOUBLE WIN
PSA Group’s acquisition of Opel/ Vauxhall from GM turns PSA into Europe’s second-biggest car manufacturer. It also marks a major economic trend: synergy and consolidation are the favoured means to stay competitive, delivering economies of scale and optimising know-how. Consolidation will continue, especially in Europe. Regulation and taxation are pushing the demand for fuel efficiency and alternative powertrains. Diesel is out of favour, banned from an increasing list of city centres. This drives the need for an acceleration in R&D. Europe is a hotspot for testing new technologies and mobility services – a costly business increasingly requiring the pooling of resources, via mergers and acquisitions.
DOSSIER The strategy of the car manufacturers unraveled with a focus on the future of Diesel, Electrification, Innovation in Safety and the 2017 model launches Wanted: A Green German SUV ... 6–8 Squeezing out diesel.............................. 9–11 End of the road for diesel .............. 14-15 Drop in new diesel sales slows CO2 reduction.......................... 16–17 2017 Fleet Calendar ......................... 20-24
But R&D is already delivering results. Our dossier shows how car manufacturers are working towards a better connected, zero-emission and zerofatalities future for mobility.
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For fleet and mobility managers, this could mean a double win. Market consolidation can reduce the number of fleet partners, increasing harmonisation and lowering cost. And car manufacturers’ innovation will help achieve strategic corporate Health, Safety and Environmental targets.
Steven SCHOEFS Chief Editor, Fleet Europe
Competitiveness means sharing....25-26 From CO2 to NOx .....................................28-29 The final countdown for electrification.............................................. 32-35 Follow the guiding safety cars ...... 36-37 Innovating towards zero casualties ........................................................38-39
SMART MOBILITY REMARKETING
Free2Move, the new mobility brand of PSA Group
Insight in the calculation of the Mobility Allowance
Wolfgang Reinhold: “CARA delivers, for industry and consumers”
“There are many ways of reaching a target”, Jose Luis Criado………………… 40-41 Business Lease Group: “More versatile than most people realise” ………………… 42 4 questions to Jörg Löffler, CEO, Fleet Logistics Group ……………………………………………… 46
Why the OEM business model moves towards mobility …………………………………… 46-47
A preview of tomorrow’s car policy ………………………………………………………………………………………… 48-49
6 to 8 J U N E
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SEAT FOR BUSINESS Average fuel consumption from 4.1 to 7.2 l/100 km. Average CO2 mass emissions 96 to 164 g/km.
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Smart ways to save journeys and costs ………………………………………………………………………………………………54 The largest electric fleet in the World ………………………………………………………………………………………56-57
Seven steps to smart sourcing …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61-62 Fleet Europe Awards 2017: Time to apply…………………………………………………………………………… 64-65
WHAT IS IT ABOUT THE NEW OCTAVIA?
Consolidation and electrification Steven Schoefs @StevenSchoefs
Nobody will dispute that 2016 was a great year for fleet sales in Europe. Car manufacturers registered record fleet sales across the continent, including in its most mature and biggest markets. That makes new records in 2017 all the harder to attain. Nevertheless, this will be an exciting year too. The acquisition by PSA Group of GM’s European business underscores the consolidation trend in the industry. In Europe, that future will see a further decline in the appetite for diesel and a further rise of the electric vehicle.
IS IT THE TCO?
For fleet and mobility managers, these two trends – consolidation and electrification – create possibilities. The first, through harmonisation of suppliers; the second, via the emergence of new type of vehicle fleet: ecologically sustainable because it is zero-emission, and delivering mobility optimised for the needs of its users/ employees. As residual values of diesels drop, which they will, slowly but surely, electric powertrain vehicles will have an increasingly attractive TCO.
IS IT THE SAFETY?
IS IT THE RELIABILITY?
So: even if the trend is not of your choosing, your timing to act upon it is. Enjoy our dossier!
Low total cost of ownership is necessary for your company. But when it comes combined with reliability and safety, it becomes an incredible asset to your car fleet. So it isn’t that nobody knows exactly what it is about the New OCTAVIA. It is that when it comes to benefits, it’s almost impossible to pick just one.
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FLEET EUROPE #88
Combined fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions according to the legislation of the concerned country
Wanted: A Green German SUV Richard Worrow, Dataforce Steven Schoefs @StevenSchoefs
The European car fleet market has had an excellent 2016, with record figures in various important markets. Richard Worrow of market research specialist Dataforce highlights the main trends that are driving the fleet business in Europe. These trends will influence your corporate fleet strategy in 2017.
Already in 2015 Dataforce identified taxation and legislation changes as one of the main trends impacting the European fleet market. Since then the frequency of such changes have further increased with impacts on both the up and downside. Two examples worth mentioning are: an additional amortisation which boosted the Italian True Fleet Market’s recovery in 2016, while tax changes in the Netherlands brought down the Dutch fleet market by almost one third compared to 2015. TAXATION, LEGISLATION AND GREEN FLEETS In 2017, the revised bonus malus system will post a challenge for all players in the French fleet market and a new road tax system is about to confound TCO calculations in the UK. Above all, driving bans are looming in many of the European metropolitan areas
FUEL TYPE SHARES IN THE EUROPEAN TRUE FLEET MARKET 75
Diesel; 67% 58
Alternative 5% ‘12
Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom Diesel is on the decline as a True Fleet powertrain but has still a comfortable lead compared to other powertrains.
with CO2 emissions and pollution high on political agendas. It is still somewhat uncertain which cars will be eligible to drive in cities like Paris, London or Stuttgart by 2020. Shorter usage cycles may help to reduce uncertainties for company cars to some extent but residual values may well be under pressure. Although the diesel share in fleets has dropped significantly since its 2011 peak, more than two thirds of the company car market is still fuelled by these engines in 2016. While the relative share of diesel was down 3 percentage points in 2016, absolute figures continued to rise. However most notably, fleet registrations of petrol cars rose 16.1% and boosted the petrol share to 28%, the highest it has been since 2009. Despite noteworthy shares in some countries, the alternative fuels segment remained sluggish at a European scale and the 24% rise in Full Electric registrations could not compensate for a below average increase in hybrid and a slight decrease in CNG and LPG. With a lowering diesel and increasing SUV share alongside some tightening in the measuring methodology ahead (think of WLTP, RDE), meeting the 2021 CO2 targets will be an even tougher challenge for the OEMs. The price gap between electric or hybrid electric vehicles and pure internal combustion engines is likely to narrow further help OEMs reach the CO2 targets and avoid fines. SUV STILL KING 2016 was the year of the SUV. Ending 2015 with a 21.6% share of the market and in 2nd position, the segment did not take long to muscle its way into the number 1 position
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and by the end of January 2016 it had secured that position from compact cars and remained there for the rest of the year. The segment finished 2016 with 25.0% of the market and recorded its highest market share growth since 2004. This ever increasing demand has seen positive impacts for nearly all OEMs and even High-End Premium brands have entered the race, looking to wrestle some market share to their SUV product line-up. Maserati introduced us to the Levante, Tesla gave us the first EV SUV with gull wing doors and the Jaguar resurgence continues helped by the F-Pace. The segment is also generously assisted by the increasing popularity of the ‘Crossovers’ with the Mercedes GLA, BMW X1 and Renault Captur just some of the models that appear in the SUV Top 20 for 2016. Increasingly, the ‘Crossover’ continues with great effect to blur the lines between SUV and the Compact and Mid Class car segments, increasing the likelihood that SUV will remain in number 1 position for the foreseeable future. While the SUV-segment (3.46%) achieved the largest share increase for 2016, it was not the only segment to increase. Mini (0.42%), Large-Van (0.39%) and Utilities (0.29%) also grasped further share. Fiat continued its hold on the top spot for the Mini segment and increased its market share to 27.8%. The number 1 position in the Large-Van segment is again held by Ford with a 34.7% share and Utilities top billing again goes to Volkswagen with a 32.4% share. In terms of volume there was still some good news for other segments that have lost some of their share with the most visible increase coming from Mid-Class. While still not close to the high of 628,000 registrations in 2007 the segment has made good progress from the low of 398,000 in 2014 and it finished just shy of 471,000 for 2016. The resurgence has certainly been helped by extra volume from the mainstays of Mid-Class, the Audi A4, BMW 3 Series,
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SEGMENTATION SHARE IN TRUE FLEET MARKET FOR EU-7 27.5% 25.0% 22.5% Mini Small Compact Car Mid-Class Higher-Middle-Class Offroad/SUV Van Utilities
20.0% 17.5% 15.0% 12.5% 10.0% 7.5% 5.0% 2.5% 0.0% 2008
The SUV segment has become the most important vehicle segment for True Fleets in Europe’s biggest markets, while the previously so popular mid-class segment continues to loose momentum.
Mercedes C-Class and Skoda Superb have all performed well over these recovery years. We have seen a further boost coming from new arrivals, Renault Talisman, Jaguar XE, BMW 4 Series have all secured Top 15 places and while perhaps still early days the Giulia may well herald Alfa Romeo’s successful return to the segment. GERMANY LEADS THE BRAND RANKING Compared to 2015, the podium positions remained unchanged in True Fleets for the big seven European Markets. Volkswagen was still in the lead but faced a drop in market share of 1.2 percentage points over last year. Audi and BMW raised their fleet registrations by 9.9% and 11.3% respectively both increasing their market share by 0.4 percentage points. Mercedes (ranking fourth with + 12.7%) and Renault (fifth, + 11.3%) were able to overtake Ford and the Top 10 ranking was completed by Opel, Peugeot, Nissan and Fiat. The Italian manufacturer (ranked 12th last year) showed a remarkable growth rate of 17.6% and this impressive performance narrowly prevented Skoda from entering the esteemed Top-10. For the full year 2016 a little over 700 units were all that kept the
DIESEL SHARE IN EU TRUE FLEET MARKET
PETROL SHARE IN EU TRUE FLEET MARKET
ALTERNATIVE POWERTRAIN SHARE IN EU TRUE FLEET
SUV SEGMENT SHARE IN EU-7 TRUE FLEET 7
TRUE FLEET CAR BRAND AND MODEL PERFORMANCE
2 SERIES GRAN TOURER
*Inclusive of 2015 iX35 figures
Czech car manufacturer from the coveted 10th position and now with the highly anticipated arrival of the Kodiaq in 2017 this target is firmly within their grasp. Of course Skoda’s 2016 was a very successful year with a double-digit growth rate of 11.2% for the EU-7. In addition the brand was able to increase its fleet volume in all seven countries and achieved growth rates of more than 20% in Belgium, France and Italy. Within the Top 32 brands only Mini, Jaguar and Tesla could tick the Growth box in all seven markets while Opel, Mazda and Dacia managed 6 out of the 7 with the UK being the missing market. At model level the analysis shows two major climbers for 2016: first came the Audi A4 with + 47.3% pushing its ranking from 11th to 3rd position behind the Volkswagen Golf (1st) and Passat (2nd). Second was the Opel/ Vauxhall Astra with + 26.5%, the compact car from the Rüsselsheim manufacturer achieved 5th in the ranking (14th in 2016). The Audi A4 and Opel Astra were of course the keys for the rising fleet registrations of their respective brands. In general it is really interesting to see which car lines and vehicle segments were crucial for their brands’ performances. In fact the picture is quite mixed: within BMW the increase came mainly from 3 completely different model segments with an SUV (X1), a MPV (2 Series Gran Tourer) and a Mid-Class car (3 Series). At Mercedes SUV models contributed the most (GLC, GLE) and for Renault
it was a mix of SUV (Kadjar) and Mid-Class (Talisman) – in the French Fleet Market number 1 in its segment in November & December 2016). A BRIGHT OUTLOOK FOR 2017 Following a period of firm growth, particularly in European fleet markets, the big question is how long this upward trend can continue. Many European fleet markets have achieved new records in 2016 and most others are already fairly close to the pre-crisis levels. While the True Fleet Market will certainly continue its expansion, driven by mobility trends, we are a little more cautious for the short-term outlook. Brexit turbulence could jeopardise demand in the UK and weakening government support might affect the Italian fleet market. On the other hand, the Spanish and the Dutch markets are set to grow and France and Germany may well surprise on the upside.
NORDICS But zooming in on a few key markets shows a clear trend: new-vehicle registrations in the Nordics, the UK and the Netherlands show diesel declining by almost 8% in the space of a single year, from 93.1% in January 2016 to 85.4% in January of this year. Most of the slack is picked up by petrol, rising from 6.01% to 13.2%, an increase of just over 7%.
CO2-BASED TAX The effects are particularly noticeable in countries where governments have moved
FUEL TYPE FOR NEW VEHICLES 100% 90%
70% 60% 50%
On balance, everything is in place to expect the True Fleet Market to reach a comparable level to 2016.
40% 30% 20% 10%
The effect only shows from a distance, because month-by-month data show a great fluctuation in diesel and petrol registrations – due to the popularity of new petrol or diesel models released in those months. The trend is clear and, says LeasePlan senior consultant Mathijs van der Goot, is driven in large part by government measures: “National governments across Europe are moving away from previous favourable treatment of diesels, and cities across the continent are banning diesels from their centres. Over 200 cities already have low-emission zones (LEZs) in place, and more are sure to follow”.
Analysing the corporate fleets it manages in its main European markets, LeasePlan confirms that diesel is still by far the preferred choice: 90%, versus 9% petrol and 1% other (for cars and vans in the Big Five markets, plus Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands and Austria).
You don't need to be a weatherman to know which way the wind blows, sang Dylan. The same goes for diesel: everybody knows it is trending down, even for fleets, the market segment where it remains most popular. But, as revealed by figures from Dataforce and LeasePlan, clean-air measures at local level and fiscal measures at national level are putting an extra squeeze on the downward trend.
GLC, GLK CLASS + 16.885
Frank Jacobs with the support of LeasePlan and Dataforce
% GROWTH RATE 2016 VS. 2015 : TRUE FLEETS EU-7
Squeezing out diesel
TRUE FLEETS EU-7 TOP-20 MODELS BY ABSOLUTE GROWTH 2016 VS. 2015
The fuel type for new vehicles on the road in the international corporate fleets. Source: LeasePlan, 2017. Scope: Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, UK, Spain, France, Sweden.
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PETROL FUEL TYPE NEW VEHICLES (SELECTED COUNTRIES) 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8%
“The dip in diesel is significant in a number of key markets, especially in northern Europe, but is not very pronounced yet across the whole continent. However, the trend is clear. And the fact that certain countries – Italy, for example – have added a significant number of LEZs may give cause
In France, the fiscal advantages for diesel cars are being abolished – gradually, so as not to cause too much trouble for the (French) manufacturers of diesel cars: companies can claim back 10% of VAT on petrol cars this year, 20% next year, 40% in 2019 and 60% in 2020. By 2021, there will be equality with the 80% currently allowed for diesel cars.
Cities have traditionally been at the forefront of traffic-controlling measures. But the focus is shifting from controlling congestion – by charging for entrance into the centre, or by restricting entrance based on even or uneven license plates – to reducing air pollution. And this trend is particularly aimed at diesels – once favoured because they produced less CO2 than petrol cars, but now shunned because they produce the much more harmful NOX.
CLEAR TREND “In all, 81% of LEZs require Euro 3 or 4 for diesels to enter, while for petrol cars, 77% of the LEZs only require Euro 1, for cars after 1993”, says Van der Goot, who nevertheless says the effect on fleets is fairly limited – for the time being.
The Dataforce figures show the diesel share of true fleets in the Netherlands dropped from 50.11% in 2015 to 38.96% in 2016. Electrics benefited a little, rising from 1.27% to 2.07%, while hybrids – now no longer favoured by the bijtelling – dropped from 20.42% to 10.58%. Petrol gained more than 20 percentage points, climbing from 28.2% to 48.38%.
“It is important to remember that no cities permanently restrict all diesel vehicles from their centres”, says Van der Goot. However, restricting access to diesel vehicles that have a Euro 6 certificate, required for all new vehicles after 2014 – as Stuttgart will do from 2018 – would exclude 90% of all diesel vehicles currently on the road in Germany.
Italy has 133 Low-Emission Zones, more than any other country in Europe. Germany is next, with 91 zones, followed by the Netherlands (27), the UK (15), Sweden (10) and Belgium (9), with fewer numbers in other countries. However, the number of LEZs restricting access to all but Euro 6-compliant vehicles, in other words, the LEZs most relevant to fleet cars, is still very limited: Rome and Rotterdam (lorries only); Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim (fee-based access), Paris (only during high pollution) and Grenoble. Euro-6 LEZs will come into force in London (in 2020) and Brussels and Antwerp (in 2025).
50% MARKER The measure, which affects all cars, is already having a profound effect on the French market. Figures for February show the diesel share of total new car registrations at 47.7% - the second month in a row the figure dipped below the symbolic 50% marker. Year on year, diesel registrations fell by 13.8%. The French diesel drop was connected to a slump in corporate sales, but also to the rising tide of Low Emission Zones (LEZs) across France.
WHERE ARE THE EURO 6 LEZS?
from discussing anti-diesel measures to actually enacting them. In the Netherlands, the so-called bijtelling is car tax that was previously only CO2-based, thus favouring diesel. It has been reformed to favour only electric cars, and disfavour all fossil-fuel cars.
Europe sees more and more cities with Low-Emission Zones which will further impact the powertrain and fuel choice of corporate fleets. Here the entrnace of a Low-Emission Zone in Berlin, Germany.
STUTTGART For most LEZs (51%), the cut-off is Euro 4 for diesels, which places restrictions only on diesels up to 10 years. In fact, 30% of LEZs only place restrictions on Euro 3 diesels (2000 and later). Only 7% place restrictions on Euro 5 diesels (from 2009), while Euro 6 restrictions are in the works for only 2.5% of LEZs. Euro 6, the emission standards for new cars from 2014, are of course the most relevant for corporate fleets.
DIESEL FUEL TYPE NEW VEHICLES (SELECTED COUNTRIES)
That variety of measures makes it difficult from the point of view of an international fleet manager, that makes it difficult to draw conclusions relevant to vehicle policy. Fortunately, most LEZs share one critical characteristic: the restrictions are based on the EU emissions norms, from the oldest, Euro 1, to the most recent one, Euro 6.
Says Van der Goot: “The picture across Europe is very diverse: some cities restrict access based on vehicle type, length or weight. Some restrict access completely, others only on pollution-critical days. Others do allow access of polluting vehicles, against payment of a fee”.
to fleet managers with local responsibility to rethink their preference for diesel. In fact, since the amount of LEZs across Europe will most likely increase in the near future, as will the thresholds on diesels that can still enter, fleets should do well to consider introducing alternative powertrains, such as electric vehicles, to mitigate the risk of not being able to enter a city”.
200 LEZS According to official EU figures, there are about 200 LEZs across Europe, restricting access to the most polluting vehicles (see box).
The rise of petrol and decline of diesel in corporate fleets is clearly visible in the market figures of Denmark, Sweden and the UK.
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End of the road for diesel Jonathan Manning
As European fleets launch legal claims against Volkswagen for Dieselgate, and governments seek to improve air quality, has diesel had its day? Not yet, but the appetite for diesel is decreasing, also with fleets.
E-FUTURE OF FLEET The long term seems clear, but the short and medium terms are uncertain. Fleets see zero emission vehicles, powered by battery or fuel cell, as the future, but the two key questions are when, and what happens in the interim. Improvements in economy and emissions have seen manufacturers pitch diesel as the stepping stone to zero emission future. But plans to combat NOx and particulate air pollution in major cities are leading fleets to consider seriously hybrid and electric solutions in order to ensure unrestricted access to wherever their employees need to drive. And as the next generation of electric cars overcomes range anxieties, the e-future of fleet could be closer than many imagine.
Where next for diesel? It seems the fuel just can’t get a break, and as air pollution caused by NOx and particulate emissions becomes a major political issue, fleets face difficult decisions. On the one hand, fleet operators ought to sleep easy in their beds, confident that their Euro6 compliant diesel powered cars are the cleanest on the road. On the other hand, there’s the fear that any government measures to tackle pollution will treat all diesel vehicles the same, perhaps by excluding them from certain roads or increasing tax on the fuel. TIPPING POINT In years to come, historians may look back at the Volkswagen Group’s ‘Dieselgate’ scandal as the tipping point when fleets started to move seriously towards ultra low emission vehicles. As one senior fleet decision maker conceded, “I’ve never compared NOx emissions in an RFP,” but the scandal had prompted his company to conduct a global review of whether to keep Volkswagen and Audi on its fleet choice list. In the United States, Volkswagen has confirmed that fleets were among the plaintiffs who reached a multi-million dollar settlement with the car maker. Audi and Volkswagen owners will have the option of the manufacturer either buying back their car or fixing it and paying compensation of $5,100-$10,000 per car.
Asked whether European fleets have requested a similar settlement, a Volkswagen spokesman said, “We are in close contact with all our fleet customers and take care of the special needs of this customer group. We are confident that we will be able to satisfy their expectations regarding the diesel recall in the best possible manner.” Individual claims for compensation in respect of the NOx issue are being brought across Europe, and many litigators eyes are paying close attention to the class action being brought in the UK, where 33,000 vehicle owners, including small fleets, have joined a group litigation order against Volkswagen. The next court proceedings will be in October, and Volkswagen has insisted it, “will robustly defend any litigation that is brought against us in the UK, and we have made it clear to the claimant law firms that we do not anticipate that any UK customers will in fact have suffered any loss as a result of the NOx emissions issue.” NO RESIDUAL VALUE ISSUE Claims for financial loss may be difficult, because the residual values of the affected vehicles have proved to be resilient since the crisis. Rupert Pontin, director of valuations at Glass’s, said there was a short-term reaction against the cars after the scandal broke, with residual values dipping by 2-8%, “but only for a very short period. From a used car value perspective, the issue has gone away,” he added. “Their residual values are in line with where we would expect them to be.” FLEET EUROPE #89
Diesel is still King, but for how long?
But Damon Parker, head of litigation at Harcus Sinclair, the law firm spearheading the legal action against the VW Group in the UK, said the claim was not based on seeking compensation for financial losses. Among the plaintiffs are, “a small number who have selected their vehicles because of the environmental impact. Others are persuaded by the argument that they would have either not have purchased or would have made the purchase at a lower price if they had known.” Significantly, as VWs sold in the UK have European type approval, similar legal cases might follow across the continent. “We have been talking to European law firms,” said Parker. In Germany last month [3 February], the fish distributor Deutsche See, which runs a 500-strong Volkswagen fleet, launched legal proceedings against the manufacturer for ‘malicious deception’. The company claimed it had only entered a partnership with VW “because VW had promised the most environmentally friendly, sustainable mobility concept.” The big question facing the automotive industry is whether this type of reaction is VWgate or Dieselgate – a widespread fleet move away from diesel or just a loss of faith in one manufacturer. The KPMG Glocal Automotive Executive Survey 2017 found that 53% of industry decision makers believe ‘diesel to be dead’, and that it will
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be the first traditional powertrain to vanish from car makers’ portfolios. TCO-FRIENDLY At pharmaceutical firm Bristol-Myers Squibb, Ross Harris, associate director global fleet, said, diesel remains the most efficient fuel type for cars that are not going into cities. But the advent of low emission zones, exclusions and emission charges will hit diesel fleets that have to drive into urban areas. There will be pressure on fleet managers, he said, to provide vehicles that can be used without restriction or additional charge. “We are going through a review process now and we are going to be introducing electric vehicles to our choice list for the first time. We are starting to see vehicles with a 300 miles [480km] range, and if you have somewhere to charge it the excuses [not to go electric] are disappearing,” said Ross Harris. “We could easily see 25% of our vehicles being part electric power in the very near future.” For now, diesel still is King in European fleet land, thanks to its efficient Total Cost of Ownership equation. But the combination of an increased offer of modern alternative powertrain vehicles and the permanent pressure of cities and governemnets on diesel, will lead to a shift away from diesel. Not today, not tomorrow, but for sure on the mid-term.
Nissan, Ford and Mazda were the only brands to see an increase in CO2 emissions, due largely to the popularity of large and particular models such as the Nissan X-Trail, the Ford Mustang and the Mazda MX-5.
EVs and hybrids accounted for 39% of all new car registrations in Norway last year.
110.2 111.0 112.1 (-1.3) (-2.2) 104.6 105.7 105.7 106.1 (-0.7) (+0.7) (+5.1) (0.0) (-1.0)
122.9 124.5 123.0 124.6 119.9 121.0 120.1 121.1 (-2.0) (-1.5) (-3.2) (-2.2) 117.9 115.7 (-0.6) (-1.3) (-1.9) (-3.2) (-3.2) (-2.1)
125.6 126.3 (-1.7) (-2.6)
JATO Dynamics carried out an analysis across 23 European markets. Thanks in large part to its support for alternative motorisations, Norway had the lowest CO2 emissions of all 23 European markets analysed. EVs and hybrids accounted for 39% of all new car registrations in Norway last year. Denmark and the Netherlands were the only countries where average CO2 emissions rose, in both cases due to changes in tax policy. Reducing tax incentives for PHEVs resulted in a 53% fall in demand in the Netherlands, while a raise in EV tax rates caused a 71% drop in Danish EV registrations.
15. Cezch Rep.
SEGMENT RANKING FOR CO2 EMISSIONS IN 2016 (including change in g/km vs. previous year): 200 168.3 (-14.5)
2016 COUNTRY RANKING FOR CO2 EMISSIONS (including change in g/km vs. previous year):
127.5 127.7 124.7 124.8 122.4 123.2 124.5 (-2.6) (-2.5) (-0.6) (+0.2) (-3.1) 120.1 122.0 117.6 117.7 (+2.1) (-0.8) (-3.9) (-4.8) 116.4 115.8 116.0 115.0 (-0.1) 111.8 (+0.8) (-0.9) (-1.6) (-0.6) (-4.3) (-3.7)
Toyota snatched the third spot from Renault, thanks to the strong performance of its hybrid range – accounting for 39% of Toyota’s European registrations in 2016.
104.0 105.6 101.9 103.3 (-3.6) (-0.3) (-1.7) (-2.3)
The average amount of CO2 emitted by new cars in Europe continued to fall in 2016. At 117.8 g/km, it was 1.4 g/km lower than in 2015, a drop of 1.2%. This represents the slowest annual improvement in CO2 emissions in a decade, says vehicle specification specialist JATO Dynamics. The analysts ascribe the slowdown to the slower growth of diesel registrations, which produce lower CO2 emissions.
TOP SPOTS FOR PSA BRANDS Brand-wise, Peugeot achieved the lowest CO2 emissions, for the second year running; primarily thanks to lower CO2 emissions for its petrol engines. The brand's top seller, the 208, decreased its average CO2 emissions by 1.3g/km to 98g/km. Second place was for PSA's other volume brand Citroën. Both brands owe their high rankings to their smaller ranges of SUVs and other large vehicles.
BRAND RANKING FOR CO2 EMISSIONS IN 2016 (including change in g/km vs. previous year):
Drop in new diesel sales slows CO2 reduction
drop in CO2 emissions. Worst results, apart from the Netherlands and Denmark, were produced by Greece (no change in CO2 emissions).
Not alone did Norway register the lowest level of CO2 emissions, but also the largest
As the SUV segment continued its rise in popularity throughout 2016, consumer preference for this heavy vehicle segment partially negated the overall trend towards lower CO2 emissions. However, the success of compact SUVs like the Volkswagen Tiguan and the Hyundai Tucson helped the SUV segment clean up its own act considerably, lowering emissions by 6.1g/km, more than all but one other segment. Luxury cars decreased their average by more than double that, due in part to increased diesel and PHEV registrations. The Sports segment was the only category to increase CO2 emissions, due to the high volume of registrations of the Ford Mustang V8. Looking at the JATO Dynamics analysis, it is good to see that the car industry is still making progress with regard to CO2 emissions and so fuel efficiency. That the rate of decline has slowed “is due to the increased market share of gasoline vehicles and the deceleration of the growth of diesel vehicles,” said Felipe Munoz, Global Automotive Analyst at JATO Dynamics. It is to be seen how CO2 emissions will evolve in 2017 but taking into account the increasing pressure on diesel from cities and governments
1. A (Fiat 500, etc.)
2. B (Ford Fiesta, etc.)
0 3. C 4. D (Opel (Volkswagen Astra, etc.) Passat, etc.)
5. E 6. F (Executive: (Luxury: BMW 5 Mercedes Series, etc.) S-Class, etc.)
7. F Mini-MPV
8. Medium & Large MPV
and the changing consumer behavior, also in corporate fleets, we can expect a further slowdown. Is this a bad thing? Not necessarily… if corporate fleets adapt their policy and choose for alternative powertrains or transport modes by incorporating other ‘environmental friendly’ and ‘smart mobility’ criteria with a positive impact on elements like fine particles, greenhouse gases and global warming, it is a positive evolution. Graphs: Source, JATO Dynamics 2017
FLEET EUROPE #89
FLEET EUROPE #89
AUTOMOTIVE GROUPS IN EUROPE
• BMW • MINI • Rolls-Royce • BMW i
• Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Cars Vans • Smart • Mercedes-AMG
• Alfa Romeo • FIAT • Lancia • Maserati • Jeep
June 6-8, 2017
• Corvette • Cadillac
• Hyundai • KIA • Genesis
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• Jaguar • Land Rover
Miami Marriott Biscayne Bay Miami, FL
• Peugeot • Citroën • DS Automobiles • Opel/Vauxhall
REGISTER BY MAY 5 TO TAKE • Peugeot • Renault Professional • Nissan ADVANTAGE OF • Citroën • Dacia PREFERRED PRICING Professional • Mitsubishi • Opel LCV OF $720 FOR• Infiniti • Alpine FLEET MANAGERS
• Renault • Nissan • Dacia
Join managers from the world’s largest multi-national commercial fleets who have global and/or regional fleet responsibilities for dedicated training, networking and education. • Toyota • Toyota Volvo • Volkswagen Volkswagen • Lexus • Daihatsu
• Audi • ŠKODA • SEAT • Porsche • Bentley • Bugatti • Lamborghini
Suffering a puncture can easily turn anyone’s journey into a nightmare. That’s why we’ve designed and engineered new Bridgestone DriveGuard tyres, which enable you to drive on safely for 80 km at up to 80 km/h*, providing you with complete peace of mind,
whatever type of puncture you get. Protect your whole family with tyres that offer best in class performance*, go to DriveGuard.com
In this overview we have listed the Automotive Groups and brands with activities in Europe. For the complete review, visit our Fleet Europe Website: www.fleeteurope.com
Visit www.GlobalFleetConference.com for more information. FLEET EUROPE #89
*Driving distance after a puncture may vary depending on vehicle load, outside temperature, and when the Tyre Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) is triggered. Bridgestone DriveGuard winter tyres are classified Wet Grip A in EU labelling. DriveGuard tyres are currently not available for vans, and are only available for cars equipped with a TPMS. Please refer to www.driveguard.com for more information. Bridgestone DriveGuard ranks high in the following TÜV SÜD criteria compared to 3 competing standard tyres and 3 competing runflat tyres: straight hydroplaning, hydroplaning in curve, dry braking asphalt, lateral wet grip and rolling resistance and at par with competitors with respect to pass by noise. Test performed in November 2015 by TÜV SÜD Product Service GmbH (Report No. 713073923-3 – Tyre size 225/45 R17).
Alfa Romeo JANUARY
2017 Car Fleet Calendar
FEBRUARY A5 g-tron
5 Series Touring
4 Series GranCoupé (FL)
Logan MCV Stepway
MAY C3 Picasso
6 Series GT
SEPTEMBER Q2 Coupé
THERE’S A PUNCTURE WAITING WITH YOUR NAME ON IT
CONTINUE DRIVING FOR 80 KM AT UP TO 80 KM/H
2017 Car FIAT
Fleet Calendar Mazda
Range Rover Velar
Insignia Grand Sport Insignia Grand Tourer
Panamera Sport Turismo
Panamera Turbo S E
ScĂŠnic Hybrid Assist
Countryman Cooper S E
S-Class (FL) & S-Class Plug-in (FL)
Insignia Country Tourer
FL = Facelift
The information is based on different automotive sources. As such the article has been prepared for general guidance about the launch dates of new car models.
Competitiveness means sharing Dieter Quartier
Developing and building vehicles is a tremendously expensive endeavour. That is why car constructors seek synergies and share platforms, engines and transmissions – not only across their own brands, but also with competitors. Some even have their entire product built by a direct rival.
Increasing production volumes to lower the relative cost is the only way forward for most OEMs. This usually means that the smaller brands are being absorbed by larger groups. Take Mitsubishi, for instance, which is now part of the RenaultNissan alliance. At the same time, medium to large-sized companies form partnerships, sharing technologies and production facilities. In the case of PSA and GM, such an industrial partnership eventually lead to an integration of Opel into the French group. We have drawn a picture of the current automotive landscape, showing which brands available in Europe belong to which group. We have also included the most important subsidiaries and affiliates of each conglomerate in the areas of parts production on the one hand and new mobility on the other. Below, you will find a brief overview of the most important inter-competitor automotive partnerships in terms of product development and vehicle construction. SHARED POWERTRAINS AND PLATFORMS BMW – Toyota: Toyota sources its 1.6 and 2.0 diesel engines from the Bavarian carmaker.
Daimler – Renault-Nissan: the 1.5 and 1.6 diesel engines in the Mercedes A, B, C, CLA and GLA are adapted Renault dCi units. The Infiniti Q(X)30 is derived from the Mercedes A-Class. Ford – PSA: the diesel engines of both groups (TDCi and HDi) are co-developed.
ENTIRE PRODUCTION OUTSOURCING GM – FCA: The Opel Combo is built by FCA and is basically a rebadged Doblo. GM – PSA: Opel’s soon to be launched SUV Grandland X will be built by Peugeot alongside the 3008, whereas the future 2008 and Citroën C3-based crossover shall be manufactured in Opel’s Zaragoza plant (Spain), together with the German brand’s Crossland X. GM – Renault-Nissan – FCA: the Opel Vivaro, Renault Trafic, Nissan NV300 and Fiat Talento are all in essence the same products, built both by GM in the UK (Vauxhall) and by Renault in France. GM – Renault-Nissan: the French automotive group also manufactures the Opel Movano and Nissan NV400 as derivatives of the Renault Master. PSA – FCA: the smallest and largest Fiat vans, i.e. Fiorino and Ducato, are built by PSA as clones of the Peugeot Bipper and Boxer/Citroën Nemo and Jumper (Relay). Toyota – PSA: The Toyota Proace is a sibling of the Peugeot Expert/Traveller and Citroën Jumpy (Dispatch)/Space Tourer. The Toyota Aygo is part of a similar arrangement: it rolls off the production line alongside the Peugeot 108 and Citroën C1. Daimler – Renault-Nissan: the Renault Twingo is produced by Smart and shares its underpinnings with the fortwo and forfour. The Mercedes Citan is a modified Renault Kangoo.
Tesla – Daimler: The Mercedes B-Class Electric Drive uses Tesla drive technology.
FLEET EUROPE #89
AUTOMOTIVE GROUPS IN EUROPE
• BMW • MINI • Rolls-Royce • BMW i
• Corvette • Cadillac
• Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Cars Vans • Smart • Mercedes-AMG
• Peugeot • Citroën • DS Automobiles • Opel/Vauxhall
• Alfa Romeo • FIAT • Lancia • Maserati • Jeep
• Hyundai • KIA • Genesis
• Peugeot Professional • Citroën Professional • Opel LCV
• Renault • Nissan • Dacia • Mitsubishi • Infiniti • Alpine
• Renault • Nissan • Dacia
Don’t let a puncture turn her sweet dreams into a nightmare. Bridgestone DriveGuard tyres
• Jaguar • Land Rover
You know every nut and bolt of your machines. We’ll take care of every detail of your fleet.
Suffering a puncture can easily turn anyone’s journey into a nightmare. That’s why we’ve
designed and engineered new Bridgestone DriveGuard tyres, which enable you to drive
• Toyota • Lexus • Daihatsu
• Volkswagen • Audi • ŠKODA • SEAT • Porsche • Bentley • Bugatti • Lamborghini
Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles
on safely for 80 km at up to 80 km/h*, providing you with complete peace of mind, whatever type of puncture you get. Protect your whole family with tyres that offer best in class performance*, go to DriveGuard.com
With our full-service Operational Leasing, we ensure your fleet is ready to respond to any challenge. At Alphabet, we consult you on the perfect mix of cars and vans from any brand. Add in our tailor-made full-service options and your fleet will run like a well-oiled machine.
In this overview we have listed the Automotive Groups and brands with activities in Europe. For the complete review, visit our Fleet Europe Website: www.fleeteurope.com
*Driving distance after a puncture may vary depending on vehicle load, outside temperature, and when the Tyre Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) is triggered.
Bridgestone DriveGuard winter tyres are classified Wet Grip A in EU labelling. DriveGuard tyres are currently not available for vans, and are only available for cars equipped Driving your business. www.alphabet.com/productportfolio with a TPMS. Please refer to www.driveguard.com for more information.
FLEET EUROPE #89
Bridgestone DriveGuard ranks high in the following TÜV SÜD criteria compared to 3 competing standard tyres and 3 competing runflat tyres: straight hydroplaning, hydroplaning in curve, dry braking asphalt, lateral wet grip and rolling resistance and at par with competitors with respect to pass by noise. Test performed in November 2015 by TÜV SÜD Product Service GmbH (Report No. 713073923-3 – Tyre size 225/45 R17).
6 IS THE NUMBER When the British Government conducted real world, RDE-style tests of the most popular Euro 6 diesel cars last year, not one met the 80 mg/km official legislative NEDC laboratory test limit. The average NOx emissions were 500mg/km, over six times higher than the official threshold. It’s interesting to note, however, that the average NOx emissions of the Euro 6 diesel cars tested were less than half the figure for Euro 5 models.
From CO2 to NOx Jonathan Manning
FLEET EUROPE #89
When RDE starts, its threshold for diesel NOx emissions will be 168mg/km, more than twice the 80mg/km limit set by Euro 6. The PSA Group has committed to publish RDE type-approval NOx figures for its vehicles this year, alongside lab-tested figures, information that will give fleets a more accurate picture of NOx emissions.
The average NOx emissions
The maximum NOx emissions (80mg/km) permitted by Euro 6 1200 1000 800 600 400 200
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Mercedes A 180
To control and limit pollutants from diesel engines involves significant investment from vehicle manufacturers in air management, fuel injection control, and after treatment systems, such as lean-NOx traps and catalytic reduction systems that work with
0 Kia Sportage
THE AVERAGE NOx EMISSION OF EURO 6 CARS IN REAL WORLD TESTING
“Although vehicles perform well during a type approval test, their real-world NOx emissions generally and almost with no exception deviate substantially from the type approval limits,” said TNO.
Few experts doubt that the long-term solution lies with zero emission vehicles, either battery powered or hydrogen. But in the short-term, identifying the cleanest internal combustion engines is difficult. That’s because new vehicle testing procedures are turning official emission figures on their head.
REAL WORLD NOx EMISSIONS
The combination of these factors explain why diesel has increased its market share over petrol, especially in the fleet market. In the UK, only 33% of company cars were powered by diesel in 2002-03; today that figure is above 82%.
The challenge for fleets that want to be environmentally friendly, operationally efficient and cost effective is to identify vehicles that will satisfy future emissions standards.
The issue facing fleet operators, however, is whether this type of clean diesel will be treated favourably by authorities, in terms of both tax and access to polluted city centres; or will authorities use a blunter tool, increasing the tax on diesel as a fuel and diesel vehicles, and treating all diesel vehicles as part of the problem not solution?
THE EURO 6 MAXIMUM OUTPUT OF NOx EMISSIONS
The RDE is focused on NOx, and actually takes cars out of the laboratory and onto the road to measure their performance – a truly ‘real world’ test. Tests commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, and carried out by TNO, found that NOx emission levels were five to six times higher under RDE conditions than laboratory testing.
ammonia-based additives such as AdBlue. Impressively, Mercedes-Benz new family of diesel engines already meets the 80mg/ km threshold, even when tested under RDE conditions.
The change in emphasis from CO2 to NOx presents a problem to corporate fleets accustomed to a world where selecting vehicles with low CO2 emissions delivered multiple advantages. The close correlation between CO2 emissions and fuel consumption meant that low emitting vehicles also had cheaper fuel bills. Tax incentives added extra motivation for both fleets and company car drivers to choose cars with the lowest CO2 emissions; at least 20 EU countries base some or all of their car taxation on CO2 emissions.
Action is being taken. Legal cases across Europe are forcing local authorities and national governments to respond. In Paris, the new Crit'Air scheme has introduced six different emissions standards for cars, which will make it easier for the authorities to block the city’s streets to the most polluting cars and give priority access to the cleanest. Across the Channel in London, a T-charge (toxic) of £10 (€9) per day will come into force in October for vehicles that do not meet Euro 4 standards.
WLTP The new Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures (WLTP) should provide more realistic CO2 results than its predecessor, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), but a far bigger disruption will occur when the Real Driving Emission (RDE) test procedures begin this September.
CO2 VERSUS NOw “A car engine running at high temperature tends to emit less CO2 but more NOx,” explains the ACEA, the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association. “A lower engine temperature will result in more CO2 but less NOx.”
Dr Samantha Walker, director of research and policy at Asthma UK, said: “Two thirds of people with asthma tell us that air pollution makes their symptoms worse, putting them at an increased risk of a potentially life-threatening asthma attack. It’s vital that action is taken to address this.”
The new generation of Mercedes-Benz diesel engines beat the 80mg/km of NOx emissions in real world RDE tests.
THE NEW DAILY TOXIC CHARGE (T-CHARGE) FOR OLDER DIESEL VEHICLES TO DRIVE INTO LONDON
Global warming remains an urgent issue for the planet, but national and local governments appear more concerned with local air pollution than greenhouse gases. Unfortunately, the technology that combats C02 actually increases NOx emissions and vice-versa.
THE ASTHMA ISSUE But diesel exhaust is in the crosshairs of health professionals, who blame the fuel for dangerous levels of air pollution. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organisation, has classified diesel exhaust as carcinogenic, while exposure to NOx is blamed for triggering respiratory diseases including asthma.
The goalposts have moved. Environmentally-focused fleet operators, who once concentrated on the carbon dioxide emissions of their vehicles, are now tasked with reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx).
NOx Emissions (mg/km)
A rapid change in environmental focus, from carbon dioxide to nitrogen oxide emissions, poses a major challenge for corporate fleets looking to operate the ‘cleanest’ vehicles possible.
Note: Direct comparisons between vehicles are unreliable due to different test conditions Source: Source Department of Transport, UK
Recharge your business.
The new Golf GTE with 883 km (NEDC)* total range. The new Golf GTE takes your business further: with a range of 883 km (NEDC)* you get to business meetings fast, economically and with fewer stops. All while enjoying pure driving pleasure on your travels.
We make the future real. Fuel consumption in l/100 km: 1.8–1.6 (combined), energy consumption in kWh/100 km: 12.0–11.4 (combined), CO₂ emissions (NEDC), the NEDC range varies depending on the tyres; the value of 50 km for electric range (883 km total range) is achieved with 18" tyres. The actual range achieved in realistic conditions also differs according to driving style, speed, use of comfort features
in g/km: 40–36 (combined). * Based on the cycles carried out on test rollers in accordance with the New European Driving Cycle 16" tyres, a range of 48 km (848 km total range) is achieved with 17" tyres and a 45 km range (829 km total range) is attained with or auxiliary equipment, ambient temperature, number of passengers/load, and terrain.
The final countdown for electrification Dieter Quartier @DieterQuartier
Most OEMs agree that the countdown to the electric revolution has begun. However, to insure product acceptation, you need more than just a good product: it’s about offering extra services and solutions that make electric life easier. In the light of stringent CO2 targets and long term sustainability, hybrids are considered the most feasible solution in the short term. By giving the combustion engine some electrical assistance, it needs less fuel to put and keep a vehicle in motion. With zero emissions as the ultimate objective and batteries yielding ever more range, the fossil fuel burning engine will eventually cede its place entirely to electric motors. Why the e-evolution isn’t happening faster than it is, has to do with charging infrastructure on the one hand, and battery
Jaguar will enter the full-electric vehicle market in 2018 with its I-Pace SUV.
cost plus charging time on the other. The first obstacle is slowly but surely disappearing, pushed by the EU and supported by OEM initiatives like BMW’s ChargeNow. The second aspect is expected to improve considerably over the next years, spurring a proliferation of new models – and supporting services. VOLVO: FIRST EV BY 2019 In 2015, Volvo announced one of the automotive industry’s most comprehensive electrification strategies, including a commitment to having its first battery electric vehicle on sale in 2019. According to the manufacturer, range anxiety continues to be addressed from both a technology and recharging infrastructure perspective. It is convinced that over the next three years, EVs will cease being a niche technology and enter the mainstream. “We have come to a point where the cost versus benefit calculation for electrification is now almost positive. Battery technology has improved, costs are going down, and fleet acceptance of electrification is starting to no longer become a question,” says John Wallace, Global Fleet Director. By 2020, 10 per cent of Volvo’s global sales will be electrified cars. It is his opinion that a key contributor to the success of electric vehicles could be ‘usership’ instead of ownership. Volvo’s sales model for EVs will be adapted accordingly.
FLEET EUROPE #89
BMW accelerates electrification with extended autonomy for the i3 and active support of charging network development.
TESLA MOTORS: SETTING THE PACE Although not mainstream yet – something that might change with the Model 3 – Tesla has an incredible brand awareness. According to the Californian car maker, fleet management and leasing companies are progressively adding EVs to their fleet, while becoming more comfortable with the relevant residual value and SMR budget. “The price of 1 kWh is likely to come down further, to make electric cars more and more affordable for a wide audience”, says Berith Behrens, Communication Manager Benelux. “As far as our sales approach is concerned: customers can order online as well, so they do not have to physically visit our stores to order their Tesla”, she continues. Incidentally, Tesla does not work with importers and dealers. Moreover, Tesla has a proprietary fast-charger network. The Superchargers along the major motorways allow you to ‘fill up’ 80 per cent of the battery in 30 minutes, the Destination chargers are meant for full charging when you are sticking around.
FLEET EUROPE #89
HYUNDAI: A DIFFERENT VIEW Like many of its competitors, the SouthKorean automotive group Hyundai Motor sticks to a multi-solution approach for the coming years, with various degrees of electrification – from hybrid to 100 per cent electric. What makes the brand stand out, is that it is the only one to have a single model that can be had with three e-powertrain options: the Ioniq exists as a Hybrid, an Electric and a Plug-In. The Ioniq Electric targets customers who do not drive long distances. Those that do and still want a zero-emissions solution, can opt for another type of electric propulsion: a fuel cell – basically an EV with its own power plant that runs on hydrogen. Main advantage: fuelling takes just 3 minutes, and it gives you 600 kilometres of liberty. At the Geneva Motor Show 2017, Hyundai presented the FE fuel cell concept as a preview of its 2018 ix35 FCEV successor.
FUEL STATIONS BECOME CHARGING STATIONS Reacting to rising electric and plug-in hybrid sales, fuel suppliers are preparing to install battery-charging points at a number of their European petrol stations. Shell will offer them at a selection of stations in urban areas in the UK and the Netherlands later this year. Total is studying the viability of installing charging points at some stations in its French home market. The Italy-based supplier ENI is already offering electricity at some of its domestic and central European petrol stations.
BMW DIGITAL CHARGING SERVICE: GREEN AND MEAN BMW i has recently introduced an intelligent service for predictive, convenient, cost-effective and green power-optimised charging. DCS carries out the charging process fully independently and autonomously and is based on two core functions: tariff and solar optimised vehicle charging. In the first case, it aligns the charging plan to the customer’s electricity tariff, making use of the lowest electricity rates. In the second case, it predicts the solar power based on the weather forecast and the output of the photovoltaic system specified by the customer and establishes a charging plan.
NISSAN: E-BELIEVER OF THE FIRST HOUR Nissan continues to dominate the e-market worldwide with more than 280,000 EVs sold globally, mostly Leaf (5-door hatchback) and e-NV200 (minivan). “At Nissan we consider EV as part of a full eco-mobility system and an important pillar as part of our Nissan Intelligent Mobility vision”, explains Vincent Gaubert, Marketing Manager Corporate Sales. “In terms of services, we offer a 360-degree approach to electric vehicles, based on several pillars.” First, Nissan uses a collaborative partnership approach with innovative companies to grow infrastructure across Europe. Second, it is piloting the effectiveness of the vehicle to grid system (V2G) in different European cities, before deploying the technology more widely. Third, it offers scalable energy storage systems fit for domestic and office use. Finally, with Intelligent Get&Go Fleet Solution, TCO is reduced by allowing people to share their cars, increasing the use you get out of a fleet and, potentially, reducing the number of vehicles you need. JAGUAR: PROMISING I-PACE IN 2018 One of the brands that caught many by surprise is Jaguar, when it announced it would be launching a midsized full-electric SUV by next year. Built by Magna Steyr in Austria, this Cat of the New Age will be the first ‘generalist’ alternative to the models of a certain California-based car, battery and solar panel manufacturer. Jaguar promises 500 kilometres of range from a 90-kWh battery and some 400 hp distributed over both axles.
Nissan, pioneer in electric mobility, will continue the EV road with investments in product, infrastructure, charging network and shared e-mobility services.
As the launch is still another year away, Jaguar Land Rover cannot disclose much about the services that support the adoption of its product, but one of the elements of the package will be the possibility to rent a conventional vehicle for a number of days per year to fulfil the customer’s temporary transport needs which the I-Pace cannot fulfil. VOLKSWAGEN AND DAIMLER: SPECIFIC E-BRANDS Now that the e-Golf offers an NEDC range of 300 km, VW is likely to welcome more EV prospects in their showrooms. From 2020, the carmaker will deploy a new family of e-vehicles under the I.D. brand, with a completely new design, fully dedicated to the specifics of an electric drive. “Of course the electrification of our vehicles is going hand in hand with the digitalization of our offers and the integration of multimodal mobility options”, says Sarah Unverricht, function?
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Daimler’s current electric line-up consists of the B Class and smart fortwo/forfour, but in the meantime, it has figured out an entirely new strategy, based on a fully-fledged electric sub-brand named EQ. Indeed, it has a similar vision to that of Volkswagen, based on four features: connected, autonomous, shared and electric. This EQ brand will offer its customers what Daimler calls an electro-mobile ecosystem, i.e. not only the vehicle itself, but an overall package with tailored offers and services regarding the infrastructure, for example.
In terms of services, BMW has a product called Digital Energy Solutions, which allows you to customize the charging infrastructure to meet your company’s requirements. In addition to in-house charging systems, Digital Energy Solutions also offers home charging solutions and public and semipublic charging stations. The solution developed for your company includes access to public charging networks such as ChargeNow.
BMW: AN ‘I’ FOR THE FUTURE Just like the e-Golf, the upgraded BMW i3 now offers a range of 300 km. Aware of the fact that charging convenience at home and on the road is paramount to the success of EVs, the Bavarian car maker has entered a joint venture with Volkswagen, Porsche, Daimler and Ford to build a high-power DC charging network with 400 ultra-fast charging stations along the most important roads in Europe.
FLEET EUROPE #89
The Toyota Prius is ‘Best in Class 2016’ in the Large Family Car category.
The items below can save thousands of lives on European roads every year. Why not restrict your vehicle choice to those cars that are equipped with them? The possible extra costs can be offset by lower insurance premiums and repair bills, not to mention the downtime avoided. ADAS are also likely to increase the resale value of a vehicle.
© 2016 Euro NCAP
Follow the guiding safety stars Dieter Quartier @DieterQuartier
Independent organisation Euro NCAP gives an answer to the question how safe a vehicle is compared to its competitors. As technology evolves, so do the rating criteria. Today, a car without crash-avoiding systems can no longer get five stars. The very first tests exposed serious safety hazards in various popular family cars, pushing OEMs to rethink the way they were designing and building vehicles. Today, 9 out of 10 cars sold on the European market hold a Euro NCAP rating. INEVITABLE AND EVOLVING Euro NCAP is a voluntary test, of which the criteria are much stricter than the ones used in European legislation. Car manufacturers cannot afford to develop cars that yield a poor Euro NCAP rating, as the results are widely published by the press and strongly influence consumer demand for a vehicle. Under the EuroNCAP dual rating system, the Fiat Tipo got 3 stars without ADAS, and 4 stars with.
Euro NCAP (for new Car Assessment Programme) celebrates its 20th anniversary this year. It was founded by the Transport Research Laboratory of the UK Department for Transport and soon received the official support of the EU and several governments and consumer organisations in its member states, making it the European safety benchmark. Since its creation in 1997, over 630 safety ratings were published, some 1,800 cars crash-tested and over 160 million euro was collectively spent to make cars safer.
possible injuries, measured on the crash test dummies in the car. In 2009, Euro NCAP modified the rating system. It integrated a rear-impact (whiplash) test and attached more importance to child protection and pedestrian protection. Regarding the latter aspect, the organisation felt that carmakers were putting much more effort in assuring occupant safety than protecting those outside the vehicle. ADVANCED DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS Since 2014, the number of stars reflects not only how good a car is at digesting an impact, but at avoiding a crash, too. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) or active safety systems such as Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), Lane Keep Assist and Lane Departure Warning are now tested and included in the overall safety rating.
By regularly toughening its assessment procedures, Euro NCAP stimulates further improvements in vehicle safety. And much faster than European legislation could ever do – first of all, there is a multitude of countries involved, each with their own view, and secondly, because once in place, laws no longer provide an incentive.
In 2016, Euro NCAP further adapted its assessment rules by including autonomous emergency braking for pedestrians. Vulnerable road users, including cyclists, account for almost half of Europe’s total road deaths. According to Euro NCAP, research has shown that the fitment of effective pedestrian detection systems on passenger cars could prevent one in five fatal pedestrian collisions.
Initially, there were four tests, simulating realistic accident conditions: frontal impact (at 64 km/h into an offset deformable obstacle), side impact (at 50 km/h), side impact pole test (32 km/h) and pedestrian safety (40 km/h). The number of stars (from one to five) represented the overall safety rating, primarily based on the forces, i.e.
Since 2016, the rating also depends on which the active safety equipment the OEM is offering as standard in each market. In other words, five stars not only means that the test result was excellent, but also that safety equipment on the tested model is readily available to all consumers in Europe.
FLEET EUROPE #89
FLEET EUROPE #89
ADAS: WHY YOU SHOULD SET THE EXAMPLE
DUAL RATING AND BEST-IN-CLASS Since 2016, cars can get a dual rating from EuroNCAP: a base rating which indicates the safety of a vehicle with no safety tech on board apart from what is standard throughout the EU28 region, and – upon request of the manufacturer – a second rating for a car equipped with extra crash avoidance systems available as an option (“Safety Pack”). A Fiat Tipo, for instance, has been rated three stars in its basic configuration and four stars when equipped with extra active safety features. Likewise, the KIA Niro got four stars for the standard version and five stars for the Safety Pack-equipped derivative. This difference clearly shows the improvement in safety which can be achieved by the additional crash avoidance equipment. Moreover, EuroNCAP publishes a list of the vehicles that performed best in their category, so the consumer can see immediately which cars outdo their competitors – something the star ratings do not allow. Because the criteria for each star rating become more stringent very year, the ‘Best in Class’ comparison is made only within each calendar year so that all vehicles are assessed against the same standards. An interesting feature on the EuroNCAP website (euroncap.com) is the fact that you can compare vehicles within the same category (Business and Family Van, Executive, Large Family Car, Large MPV, et cetera) or even apply a filter to select only hybrid and electric vehicles, for instance. Integrating an objective safety rating in your car policy has never been easier.
• AEB City: a low-speed crash-avoiding system that can recognise stationary cars in front of it. If the driver does not respond to the initial warning, it brings the vehicle to a full stop or avoids a more serious impact. Some – not all – can detect pedestrians, too. • AEB Inter-urban: a highspeed, more advanced crash-avoiding system that can detect moving obstacles and brake autonomously (to a full stop if necessary) if the driver does not react to the warning signals. • Lane Departure Warning: a camera-based mechanism that warns the driver when the vehicle is about to cross the road markings along the carriageway (unless he uses the indicator). • Active Cruise Control: a radar-based system that adapts the vehicle’s speed to that of the preceding vehicle to maintain a safe distance, accelerating to the desired speed when the obstacle moves out of the way.
Innovating towards zero casualties
Dieter Quartier @DieterQuartier
Carmakers, not least the ones with a strong fleet focus, attach a great deal of importance to safety. Indeed, avoiding incidents and accidents is at the heart of their customer’s concerns. These eight innovations set the example and hopefully inspire all fleet stakeholders.
VOLVO: NEXT-GEN CITY SAFETY Introduced by the brand new XC60 as a standard feature, the enhanced version of the brand’s pioneering autonomous emergency braking system City Safety now includes evasive capability. When automatic braking alone would not help avoid a potential collision, the XC60 steers away from the obstacle.
BMW: REMOTE CONTROL PARKING Getting your car in and out of a narrow parking spot gets a lot easier and safer with BMW’s remote control. Just step out of your new 5-Series and guide it with the use of the BMW Display Key. The car’s sensors and cameras monitor the parking manoeuvre. When parked, you can press a button to turn off the engine.
MERCEDES-BENZ: DRIVE PILOT WITH EMERGENCY STOP Radar-controlled cruise control and active steering are not new, but in the case of the new E-Class, the engineers have taken the capabilities of the systems to the next level. With the Drive Pilot on, the driver must hold the steering wheel every 15 seconds – if he doesn’t, the car will slow down by itself, activate the hazard lights and eventually come to a stop.
OPEL: INTELLILUX LED MATRIX HEADLIGHTS Forget about HID-headlights: this new lighting technology not only provides brighter light, but also better visibility and efficiency. The system deactivates the LEDs that would otherwise blind oncoming vehicles or hinder vehicles in front but fully illuminates all the other areas, adapting the range and bundle to the situation.
AUDI: COLLISION AVOIDANCE ASSIST Audi’s system assists Q5 drivers when they need to steer around an obstacle to avoid a collision. Using camera and radar data, it computes an optimal avoidance track, taking into account the distance, width and offset of the vehicle ahead. If the driver steers after an initial warning jolt, it assists with specific torque interventions in the power steering system.
TESLA: AUTOPILOT 2.0 Building on the experience with the first generation Autopilot, version 2.0 will be 10 times as safe as a human driver, according to the Californian carmaker. Since October 2016, all new Teslas leave the factory equipped with the hardware to support full autonomous driving in the future. The upcoming Model 3 will probably have the honour to inaugurate the system.
LEXUS: INTERSECTION BLIND SPOT DETECTION The new LS, Lexus’ flagship saloon, is the first car in the world that can look around corners. Using millimetre-wave radar positioned at the front of the car, it can detect vehicles coming from either side in crossroads with limited lateral visibility. If there is cross traffic to watch out for, the safety system alerts the driver through the head-up display.
FORD: INTELLIGENT SPEED ASSIST Using the traffic sign recognition system of the car, ISA adjusts the set cruise control speed automatically to the detected speed limit. The driver can still modify the set speed manually and has the option to override the limitation by accelerator pedal kick-down – something he may have to do in an emergency situation.
FLEET EUROPE #89
FLEET EUROPE #89
There are many ways of reaching a target Steven Schoefs & Caroline Thonnon @StevenSchoefs & @CarolineThonnon
Jose Luis Criado was in two minds about the International Fleet Hall of Fame award he won at the Fleet Europe Forum in Barcelona last November: “Of course, the acknowledgement from the industry is nice. But I did not want it to mark the end of my career”. The award did coincide with his retirement as Managing Director of LeasePlan International.
Jose Luis can still clearly remember his first car. “I had just finished high school. This was back in 1971. My dad gave me a Peugeot 405. A grey one. It was a wonderful car. A real boys' car. It had a sunroof, and seatbelts were not compulsory. It was a nice car for inviting a girl to go watch the moon...”
Jose Luis Criado
has worked in the fleet industry for 30 years, both in Europe and at a global level.
This was back home in Argentina, where trouble was brewing. The Criado family sent their two sons to Europe, to study, but above all to be safe. “This is in 1973. In hindsight, it was a good decision, because Argentina did get into a terrible mess, with terrorism and many people going missing. I was nineteen at the time, and for me, coming to Europe meant I got back in touch with a girl I met a few months earlier, skiing in Gstaad. That was Jane, who became my wife. We have been together ever since. When things calmed down in Argentina, my dad wanted me back to help with the family business. But I said no”.
Love kept you in Europe. What got you into the leasing business? I trained as a hydraulic engineer, but I never worked in engineering. My first real job, in 1981, was for a company called American Appraisal, doing business valuations. The company was just starting up in Spain. I stayed there for about seven years. In 1987, they sent me to open up a branch in Portugal. And then there was a series of coincidences. My brother, who worked for Dutch retail company Makro, knew a guy at LeasePlan who asked him if he knew someone to head up their new business in Spain. Their first manager there was not doing so well. As a consultant, I knew a bit about leasing. I started as a go-between, introducing people to LeasePlan. But the job looked interesting. So, I asked my brother: Do you mind if I give it a try? I was interviewed in Madrid by Anton Goudsmit, the first CEO of LeasePlan. We clicked, and ten days later I was in Almere to meet Huib van der Meulen, the inventor of Open Calculation. We had dinner, discussed the history of Mexico and Cortez. Drank some wine. And the next morning, I went home with a contract. FLEET EUROPE #89
Did you know what you were getting into? To be honest, I thought LeasePlan did equipment leasing. I had no idea they did cars, or that something like fleet management even existed. But I enjoyed it. When I joined in 1988 as country manager for Spain, we had two hundred cars and we were the only vehicle lease company in Spain. That was nice: we were not just selling a brand, but introducing a whole new concept. In 2000, when Hugo Levecke became CEO, LeasePlan was reorganised into regions, and I became responsible for Southern Europe, and by extension South America. Hugo and I didn't click as well as I did with the previous guys. So in 2004, when ABN Amro sold LeasePlan to Volkswagen, I took the opportunity to move on. I started my own consultancy firm and I remained independent until 2010, when the new LeasePlan CEO Vahid Daemi invited me back. Vahid had been CEO since around 2007 and before that he had been Managing Director of LeasePlan UK. That is where I knew him from. We had worked together on several projects, and we had a good relationship. It was great to be back, and that is where I have been, until a few months ago.
Do you still have your car consulting business? No, CAR was dissolved in 2010 when I came back to LeasePlan – a full-time occupation. My second son Alejandro worked with me at CAR. He developed Carindex, a database for operational cost. We sold that to Solera when I dissolved CAR. So I can say that I had a genuine startup.
What projects are you thinking about now? I want to write another book. My previous book, Libro Blanco del Renting, published in 2011, dealt with Spain only. The next one should be international, focusing on the evolution of services: why they evolve at different speeds in different markets. For example: electric cars will break through in Northern Europe before Southern Europe, because of regulatory pressures. Other important factors explaining regional differences are education and infrastructure. If you are more likely to get stuck in FLEET EUROPE #89
traffic in Sao Paulo than in Paris, it is not because they have more cars, but because they have less tunnels. But the ultimate direction of the book will also depend on the sponsor because they will have an angle too.
What would you have done differently in your career? Nothing is ever a hundred percent right or wrong. What matters more, is how you try to make it work. During my consultancy period, I learned that people in big companies automatically assume their way is the right way. But there are many different ways of achieving a target. It depends on who you work with.
ON THE FUTURE OF VEHICLE LEASING The future will be hybrid: some leasing companies will widen their scope to a more comprehensive mobility and become integrators. Others, probably the smaller ones, will stay in a niche and become subcontractors.
ON POWERTRAINS Here, the future is also going to be a mixture. Some markets will retain traditional leasing, fuel- and cost-based. In cities, regulations will require you to provide electric vehicles. So: hybrid vehicles in cities, petrol ones in the suburbs and diesels for long distances.
ON SMART MOBILITY LCVs are rational, but cars are emotional. Otherwise, we would all be driving second-hand Ladas. LeasePlan Netherlands started with a mobility card fifteen years ago, but either we didn't sell it right, or the market didn't want it. Perhaps mobility alternatives are like the electric car: it will come, but slowly.
ON BALANCING WORK AND FAMILY There is no secret. You need a patient spouse. And a lot has to do with the age of the kids. The last of our four kids left home four years ago. So I travel more. Still, I try to leave Monday morning and be back Thursday evening.
ON ALTERNATIVE CAREER PATHS I learned to love this business because I enjoyed working with the people. I like interaction. Put me in an office behind a screen all day, and I would hate it. I enjoy talking, discussing. And travelling. Perhaps I would have enjoyed the travel industry too.
Business Lease: More versatile than most people realise Business Lease Group is leveraging its strengths in the Netherlands and Eastern Europe to grow to the next level. Setting out the course is Vincent Peeters, who officially took over as CEO from Harm Nijlunsing on 1 December 2016: “We’ve been too modest: we are more versatile than most people, also internally, realise”.
Vincent Peeters previously had been Managing Director of the Group’s Dutch business. He is keen to meet the challenges of his new role. Joining us for the interview was Robbert van Muyden, International Sales and Marketing Director.
Can you give us a quick overview of your fleet's scope and geographic spread? RvM “We manage over 44,000 vehicles, of which 17,000 in the Netherlands, 11,500 in the Czech Republic, 5,600 in Poland, 4,300 in Slovakia, 3,600 in Hungary and 2,900 in Romania. We're in the Top 3 in the Czech and Slovak markets, and a local hero everywhere else. We're true Eastern Europe specialists. Our strength is the fact that we work with the same systems, processes and solutions throughout our markets. Add our local expertise, and we are more than averagely attractive for corporate clients”.
Is your strategy in Eastern Europe different from the one in the Netherlands? VP: “There is common ground on recruitment, values and systems. But the markets are different, so we do need different strategies. In 2017, we will focus on scaling up in Eastern Europe, especially in Operational Leasing, Renting and Fleet Management. In the Netherlands, our focus will be more transformative: slight growth in B2B, strong growth in B2C via Private Leasing and Uber, and growth of our consultancy”. Vincent Peeters and Robbert van Muydden of Business Lease are convinced new services like Private Lease and Telematics linked to managed maintenance will grow exponentially in the upcoming years.
RvM: “Operating two different strategies doesn’t mean we can’t share knowledge and tools. The Telematics solution now being rolled out in the Netherlands could come to Eastern Europe soon, as the basic need is the same”.
VP: “The Dutch market is our testing ground for new products.”
What are your targets for this year? VP: “We have a well-oiled sales engine for our local and international clients in Central and Eastern Europe. If we further improve on that, I see us moving beyond 50,000 vehicles this year. We also want our Dutch organisation to take the final steps to becoming a mobility consultancy”.
Mobility is a highly competitive space. How will you turn a profit? VP: “By providing a broad range of mobility services to solve the issue of employee mobility for our clients. This will make us less interchangeable with other lease companies, and lead to more stability in our customer portfolio”. “We also benefit from our close cooperation with other parts of the AutoBinck Group. Last year, the AutoBinck Group acquired Radiuz, a provider of corporate multimodal mobility cards. That allows us to extend our mobility offer, giving our customers one less thing to worry about”.
What’s your relationship with Uber? VP: “For some years already, we’ve been leasing cars to Uber drivers in a number of countries. We initiated this via our Private Lease offer, allowing the lessee to reduce cost by participating in a car-sharing scheme or by driving for Uber. Which is how that relationship started. It’s been an interesting learning curve for us. Uber is great at keeping the time between plans and their execution short. That challenged and stimulated us to do the same”.
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Official fuel consumption for the new Volvo V90 Cross Country range in l/100km: Urban 10.4 – 6.1, Extra Urban 6.5 – 4.6, Combined 7.9 – 5.1. CO2 emissions 241 – 120g/km. Fuel consumption figures are obtained from laboratory testing intended for comparisons between vehicles and may not reflect real driving results. Models may vary depending on market.
Free2Move makes mobility and business simpler and cheaper Steven Schoefs @StevenSchoefs
When PSA Group presented its Push to Pass strategy for 2021 last April, the manufacturer also announced its ambition to become the preferred mobility solution for its customers. In September, that ambition crystallised with the launch of Free2Move. What is it, and how can it benefit corporate customers? We talked to Brigitte Courtehoux, who heads Free2Move, and Philippe Belorgey, CEO of Free2Move Lease, before the announcement of the Opel/Vauxhall acquisition in March 2017.
Brigitte Courtehoux has been with PSA Group since 1998, as Project Manager at Citroën, Technical Secretary of the PSA Quality Director, Manager of the global Car Defects Detection team and Project Director at Peugeot. As Senior Vice President of PSA's Connected Services and Mobility Business Unit, she is in charge of Free2Move and all its B2B and B2C offerings – except Free2Move Lease.
Free2Move is the umbrella brand under which customers can find all of PSA Group mobility initiatives – both B2B and B2C. On the business side, it contains Free2Move Connect Fleet, Free2Move Fleet Sharing and Free2Move Lease. “The Free2Move brand makes things easy for our existing customers, and aims to attract new ones”, says Brigitte Courtehoux. “Free2Move is the fourth brand in the group, but we sell mobility services rather than cars – services ranging from leasing to car-sharing to connected services and much more, both captive and multibrand”.
Where does Free2Move Lease fit into the picture? PHILIPPE BELORGEY “Within the Free2Move brand, Brigitte will develop mobility services, some of which we will offer via Free2Move Lease business unit. You could say we are the leasing toolbox within Free2Move”. “Basically, Free2Move Lease joins together all of PSA Group's ressources dedicated to leasing activities. The new name reflects our ambition to become a multibrand leasing company. We are operational under the new name since the start of the year, in France and the UK. By the end of 2018, we will cover all of Europe – and we'll be expanding into the rest of the world after that”.
Why did PSA Group expand its leasing offer from captive to multibrand? P.B. “B2B customers would rather not have to deal with the financers of each car brand, and increasingly prefer to speak with one interlocutor. If PSA Group can keep or gain lease customers by offering other brands than our own, we will do it”.
Why did you choose to launch Free2Move Lease in the UK and France? P.B. “To be practical. Banque PSA Finance, which in Europe operates on a 50/50 basis with Santander, already has 400,000 vehicles under captive leasing. That is all around the world, but 80% of that total is concentrated in France, the UK and Germany. That is why we are converting those markets to Free2Move Lease first”.
FLEET EUROPE #89
Free2Move is the fourth brand of PSA Group, it’s the umbrella brand under which customers can find all of PSA Group's mobility initiatives – both B2B and B2C.
Will PSA's captive leasing offers disappear? P.B. “No. Free2Move Lease is a new business unit, but not a new company as such. The Banque PSA Finance / Santander CF JVs continue to carry the leasing book. Whilst adding the processes and offers that other leasing companies proposed and we did not yet, Free2Move Lease keeps all the advantages of a captive finance company, especially for our dealer networks”. BRIGITTE COURTEHOUX “The idea is to be client-centred. Customers want just one company offering all solutions, not a multitude of companies each offering a part of the puzzle. In a B2B context, the range of solutions we offer via Free2Move Lease must make doing business simpler, and cheaper. Our three guidelines are: we are a one-stop shop, offering multibrand solutions, via an interface that unites all aspects of leasing”.
What is the USP of your offer over that of other multibrand lessors? P.B. “By going from captive to multibrand, we lifted our offer to the level of these other independent operating lease companies. But we are also keeping the advantages of our captive setup: we have an extensive dealer network, the profitability of which we will increase. So we are helping our network, but also our customers, who will benefit from that network – and from our offers outside our own network”.
Does Free2Move Lease offer more than standard long-term leases? P.B. “We sure do. In fact, we have just responded to a call for tenders by tailoring an offer that contains leasing and carsharing”. B.C. “The customer can have any option they choose. If they want fleet management, FLEET EUROPE #89
we offer Free2Move Connect Fleet, which is a multibrand platform. If they want carsharing, they can get Free2Move Fleetsharing. And we are working on other offers, including mileage-only solutions”.
Free2Move Lease is mainly B2B. Will you also do private lease? P.B. “We already do, in France and the UK. Those B2C offers are still labelled asPSA Finance offers”.
So what are your targets for Free2Move and Free2Move Lease? P.B. “We aim to see double-digit growth on our 400,000-strong fleet, within the Push to Pass horizon of 2021”.
Free2Move Connect Fleet and Free2Move Fleet Sharing are the other two B2B solutions within Free2Move. Which will take off first? B.C. “Free2Move Connect Fleet. Fleet management today constitutes 15% of the B2B market, but that share is predicted to grow rapidly to 50% because of the acute need to cut costs. Our solution demonstrably reduces cost by 5 to 10%”.
As more players and services crowd the market, how will you remain both innovative and profitable? B.C. “We have a duty to be profitable. Right now, we are already at break-even. We have a lot of practical experience. With Multicity Car Sharing in Berlin, and now also in Madrid. We will learn by doing”.
Have your services already been translated into handy-to-use apps? B.C. “We already have a fleet-sharing app, but under a different name. But apps for both Free2Move and Free2Move Lease will follow shortly, in the beginning of this year”.
Prior to becoming CEO of Free2Move Lease in July 2016, Philippe Belorgey had a long and distinguished executive career for Banque PSA Finance in Brazil, Poland, the UK and at HQ in France, and most recently as CEO for the Asia/Pacific region.
4 questions to Jörg Löffler
The OEM business model, on the way to mobility
Steven Schoefs @StevenSchoefs
each country, we are running a risk of mistakes and increasing the learning curve.”
Which are the most important regions for future business for you?
Jörg Löffler, CEO Fleet Logistics Group.
Mr Löffler, tell us about the immediate strategy of Fleet Logistics? JÖRG LÖFFLER “Looking at the Fleet Logistics structure and approach, I can admit that our organisation was too local, too country-oriented, while our customers are becoming more international, and even global. So, they are looking for one and the same global partner capable of addressing their global fleet requirements. To be able to serve them correctly, we need better cooperation in this direction. Therefore, we will change our organisation, to have more standardized processes among all our countries. We will increase and standardise our quality levels, our speed of response, and we will accelerate the exchange of resources between countries.”
Would this mean Fleet Logistics will become a leaner structure? J.L. “Yes of course, and it should be possible to group some activities together into hubs, which will increase both efficiency and quality. By doing everything individually in
J.L. “Europe is and will stay very important for us, because we have operations in all European countries, we have a solid customer base, and so we will further strengthen our European activities and capabilities. And although we don’t want to close any European office, we may bundle certain activities for four or five countries into a more cost competitive country. We have already started with an invoice control centre in the Czech Republic. At the moment, we want to focus our efforts on Europe, achieve efficiencies here, before we will make new important steps in other regions, like Asia or Latin America where we operate with hubs. In the future, the North American market seems appealing as it is a big market, with a large number of international customers and a fleet management model in which we can enter and play an added value role even if the leasing rules and tax incentives are different compared to Europe.”
What do you see as the future of diesel in Europe? J.L. “The automotive industry is not generally disruptive, it tends to change gradually – things are grey rather than black and white. I don’t think we are going to see diesel suddenly disappear. But technological trends are making petrol engines cleaner too with fundamentally less NOx - problems, and this will make petrol more popular again. So no doubt that the diesel share of the market will decrease.”
ROBERT BOSCARI, Global Automotive and Fleet
On March 6, the acquisition by the PSA Group of GM’s European business (the Opel/ Vauxhall brands) was officially announced. With increasingly important global Groups, the vehicle manufacturers’ business model is changing and transforming from being an automobile manufacturer into becoming a provider of mobility services.
EVEN MORE GLOBAL AND SIGNIFICANT PLAYERS The purchase of Opel/Vauxhall by PSA Group is the talk of town in car manufacturers’ land. Logical, as the new group will be the second largest automotive manufacturer in Europe, behind the Volkswagen Group. Whether by acquisition or alliance (with cross-shareholdings), is an ongoing issue. The recent examples of Toyota and Suzuki’s discussions about an alliance, the Mitsubishi acquisition by Nissan, reflect a willingness by car manufacturers to increase volumes and know-how, to develop economies of scale and to become more competitive in the global automotive market. Multi-brand players, with a wider range of products (cars, commercial vehicles, FLEET EUROPE #89
even trucks, buses and other mobility modes) are the future. Along with this business development aspect, it will be interesting to follow-up on the Chinese manufacturers’ global approach. Yes, leading global automotive groups are and need to be multi-brand, multirange to serve changing client demands. FROM AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURER TO PROVIDER OF MOBILITY SERVICES But the automotive manufacturers’ fundamental evolution is their business model, from automotive manufacturer and seller into a provider of mobility services, this is the great move. The consumer, who wants to go from point A to point B wants to be managed by an easy-to-use platform linked to his smartphone to provide him with the safest, most comfortable and suitable trip, according to his needs and budget, including seamless payment and invoice control. For the manufacturers, the management of the use of vehicles is a source of additional earnings but it is in fact mostly a brand support tool. PROVIDER OF MOBILITY SERVICES, WHY? Fleet management or operational lease services are, for company vehicles, mobility cost elements. In my opinion, seeing these as such represents a key step for the achievement of this new business model into mobility. Premium car manufacturers (BMW with Alphabet and Daimler with the Athlon acquisition) are already fully engaged in this process, just like others (Renault-Nissan and PSA for example). Electric vehicles, which incorporate charging infrastructure and battery cost solutions, are also a catalyst in FLEET EUROPE #89
this mobility integration (Tesla for example). The move towards connected and autonomous vehicles is the aim of the new technology, to the benefit of greater mobility and playing a part in sustainable development. The auto industry is mobility’s focal point but mobility as a consumer service is becoming the key issue in vehicle marketing. PROVIDER OF MOBILITY SERVICES, HOW? • By becoming a key player, with a dedicated organisation where the financial subsidiary can be the ‘armed wing’. • By delivering mobile services managed by software platforms and mobiles apps. • Through internal developments, company acquisitions or stakes, support for start-ups. PROVIDER OF MOBILITY SERVICES, BUT IN ORDER TO DO WHAT? Some development areas already initiated today: • In B-to-B Fleet management, a mature domain in mobility costs and payment management. This is, for a provider, the most direct link to the B-to-B market, a high user of mobility. • In short and mid term rental. • In car sharing, for vehicles and shuttles services, within companies or in cities. • Multi-modal transport, including boo-king and payments. • Taxis. • Remote vehicle diagnostics and parts deliveries. • Commercial Vehicles adaptations, deliveries management and robotized mobile warehouses. • Smart service for drivers • Electric car services.
These developments – global multibrands car groups turning into mobility service providers – will impact on the relationship with corporate fleet managers. The PSA – Opel/Vauxhall deal practically eliminates General Motors from European tenders and sharply reduces GM’s player position in global RFP’s. On the other hand it reinforces PSA’s position in European RFP’s, thanks to the strong Opel/Vauxhall position in the fleet market in Germany and UK, but also in Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Poland and Austria. In order to establish the right mid-term and longer-term strategy, corporate fleet managers should include elements involving mobility service offerings in their RFI’s and RFP’s, which can and will make a difference in the selection of car manufacturers. This brief analysis shows that we have still a long way to go. Car manufacturers which have begun this shift, are the pioneers of sustainable mobility. For corporate fleet managers, it is an opportunity, and an opportunity not to be missed.
INNOVATION Opel Insignia Grand Sport Opel’s new 5 door saloon weighs up to 175 kg less than the previous model, while the wheelbase has been stretched by 92 mm. New are a 1.5 turbo petrol and an 8-speed automatic.
A preview of tomorrow’s car policy
Porsche Panamera Sport Turismo This new five-door ‘shooting brake’ derivative of the Panamera adds a bit of practicality to the brand’s GT limousine, with five seats and an added 20 litres of cargo space.
Dieter Quartier @DieterQuartier
Mazda CX-5 Mazda enhanced the practicality, NVH performance, connectivity and safety of its CX-5 to make it a strong competitor for the Peugeot 3008, Hyundai Tucson and VW Tiguan.
From city car to hypercar, from readily available to near-science fiction: the Geneva Motor Show hosted yet again an intriguing patchwork of automotive novelties. Common denominators? Lightweighting and proactive safety features.
Hyundai i30 Wagon Up to 1,650 litres of load capacity, a generous safety and connectivity equipment, high build quality and efficient engines: Hyundai strikes hard in the compact estate segment.
BMW 5 Series Touring Advanced streamlining, lightweight construction and engine enhancements make the new estate version of the recently introduced 5 Series an efficiency champion.
DS 7 Crossback This midsized premium SUV model, which is based on the Peugeot 3008, wants to be a ‘haute couture’ alternative to the usual German suspects such as the BMW X1, Audi Q3, and Mercedes GLA.
Jaguar I-Pace Concept This concept shows what we can expect from the 2018 production version of Jaguar’s first all-electric vehicle. It has a bespoke platform which hosts a 90 kWh battery pack offering 500 km of range.
Ford Fiesta The Fiesta has become a mini-Focus, offering advanced driver assistance and connectivity systems. It will be available with a multitude of engines. An LCV version should follow.
Alfa Romeo Stelvio Alfa’s first SUV shares most of its technology with the Giulia. The fuel-efficient 110 kW 2.2 JTD diesel is available with rear wheel drive and a manual or automatic gearbox.
SEAT Ibiza The “Spanish VW Polo” offers a bigger boot and more interior space. The new Ibiza is one of the few cars to offer full connectivity, supporting Apple Car Play, Android Auto and MirrorLink.
Volvo XC60 The second generation of Volvo’s successful SUV takes a further step towards autonomous driving. Its advanced driver aid systems actively steer the car away from potential dangers.
MINI Cooper S E Countryman ALL4 The first MINI plug-in hybrid model combines a 3-cylinder petrol engine and a synchronous electric motor for a combined output of 165 kW and CO2 emissions of just 49 g/km.
Range Rover Velar This Jaguar F-Pacebased Porsche Macan rival fills the gap between the Evoque and Range Rover Sport. The Touch Pro Duo infotainment system boasts two 10” hi-res touch screens.
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Volkswagen Tiguan Allspace Customers who find the standard Tiguan a bit too small or require two extra seats can now order the stretched version of Volkswagens C-segment SUV.
FLEET EUROPE #89
Volkswagen Arteon The successor to the (Passat) CC goes upmarket and is longer than the current Passat, with which it shares much of its technology, including a plug-in hybrid powertrain.
CONCEDED EDITORIAL SPACE
Alfa Romeo Stelvio:
Peak fleet performance After the acclaimed Giulia, the Stelvio is Alfa Romeo’s second model of the new generation that marks the remarkable renaissance of FCA’s premium brand. Taking the toughest competitors as a benchmark, this midsized SUV sets a new standard on many levels – both emotionally and rationally.
Alfa Romeo has always been a car maker that speaks to the heart, something that is perfectly represented by the brand’s baseline: la macchina delle emozioni. Today more than ever, passionate design, inspiring driving dynamics and Italian craftsmanship go hand in hand with convincing numbers and features that matter to the fleet manager: those that determine functionality, safety, connectivity and Total Cost of Ownership. With handling and fuel efficiency in mind, Alfa Romeo’s engineers have focused on keeping the Stelvio as light as possible. One of the many examples is the fact that the prop shaft is made from carbon fibre – saving an impressive 15 kilos. At the same time, the chassis and body structure consist of ultra-rigid steel, which pays dividends in the shape of road holding and of course passive safety. A WELL-BEHAVED SUV, AN AUTHENTIC ALFA ROMEO The Stelvio’s kerb weight of 1,604 kilos is the lowest in its category. Add to that an equally class-leading drag coefficient of just 0.30 plus state-of-the art Euro 6 compliant diesel and petrol engines with the latest in
The Alfa Romeo Stelvio, the first SUV of the Italian brand.
fuel injection and turbo technology and you get performance figures that speak for themselves. A 0-to-100 kph time of only 6.6 seconds, an average fuel consumption of 4.8 l/10 km, a CO2 figure of only 127 g/km: the Stelvio 2.2 diesel’s 210 horses are as enthusiastic as they are efficient. These figures are even more impressive if you know that the Stelvio comes standard with an 8-speed automatic transmission and Alfa Romeo’s intelligent on demand 4x4 system, called Q4. Under standard operation conditions, 100 per cent of the engine’s power is transmitted to the rear wheels. When more grip is needed, up to 50% of power goes to the front wheels, so that the Stelvio lives up to its SUV expectations. At the same time, it does not feel like an SUV: its roll gradient while cornering is the lowest amongst all its rivals. GENEROUS EQUIPMENT, CONVINCING TCO Because it boasts the longest wheelbase in its class (2.82 metres) it can offer its passengers plenty of legroom and space for their luggage. The tailgate opens and closes at the push of a button, by the way. Indeed, the Stelvio’s standard equipment is very rich, not least in terms of convenience and safety. Autonomous Emergency Brake, Forward Collision Warning and Lane Departure Warning all come as standard, and so do cruise control and rear parking sensors. If you are wondering about residual value performance – the main cost element in the calculation of a lease rate – independent forecast studies in five key European markets show that the Alfa Romeo Stelvio is the best or second best performer in its segment, demonstrating that the experts are convinced of the attractiveness and substance of the product. But why not find out yourself and book a test drive? FLEET EUROPE #89
With the Stelvio, we are going to be very accessible and competitive in the marketplace thanks to a very high residual value, says Gianluca Italia.
What makes the Stelvio an interesting SUV for fleet customers?
well received, and before the summer, the Jeep range will welcome the brand-new Compass.
First of all, the product itself. It brings something completely new to the D SUV segment. On top of what everybody else offers, it has Italian design, an incredible attention to detail, driving pleasure, handling and of course performance. The second element is that we are going to be very accessible and competitive in the marketplace thanks to a very high residual value. Regarding this aspect, we are working out a new European quality label for our used cars.
Besides the products, what else will convince the fleet customer?
What is your strategy for FCA in Europe? Gianluca Italia,
Fleet manager EMEA at FCA
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We have invested heavily in the professionalization of our dealer network, so that our products are backed by the qualitative services that the B2B market requires. We also selected the 250 best dealers across Europe to become business centres – or rather: centres of excellence, not only as far as corporate sales are concerned, but also in terms of ownership experience. Apart from that, we will be expanding our Leasys LTR services to new European markets.
In less than 24 months, we have been launching several new models within our different brands, forming a strong product offensive which allows us to cover 75 per cent of the market – something we have never accomplished before. Fiat has the successful 500X and Tipo, Fiat Professional launched the popular Talento and Fullback, the Jeep Renegade is doing great in de C SUV segment, the Alfa Romeo Giulia is very
Calculating the Mobility Allowance Jonathan Manning
1 If the fleet manager of the future is to become a mobility architect, he or she will have to calculate how much to offer an employee as a travel allowance as an alternative to the company car. How to do that as efficient and seamless as possible?
On the assumption that a mobility allowance is to replace a company car, it’s vital to have a clear vision of how much each company car currently costs. This is not simply the monthly lease rate, but also insurance premiums; breakdown cover; service, maintenance and repair costs; replacement car hire fees; and any fuel for which the employer pays. In addition, it’s important to take into account any corporation taxes or national insurance contributions due on the provision of company cars. The combination of these costs will differ from driver to driver, and calculating them is a laborious process.
Establish additional business travel costs that company car drivers are incurring when not driving their cars, such as train fares, taxis and car hire.
Decide as a company how generous the mobility allowance is going to be. Is the allowance intended to save the organisation money, be revenue neutral, or are you prepared to increase costs to support the uptake of the scheme? Lukas Neckermann managing director of Neckermann Strategic Advisors, said, “The key to this is not necessarily whittling it down to the last euro or cent, but communicating it well – that it’s a good idea and a good decision for the environment.”
Examine the national tax system. A mobility allowance that makes financial sense to an employee in one country may be insufficient in another. Company car tax varies significantly from country to country, and so does the income tax or benefit in kind tax on a mobility allowance.
The allowance has to leave the employee no worse off financially. “You cannot force it on staff, you have to make people want it. You have to make it so enticing and attractive that they are willing to give up their company car,” said Neckermann.
Determine whether the mobility allowance is available to all company car drivers or only ‘perk’ drivers, who don’t need a car for business journeys. Business use complicates the issue because public transport may be less appropriate for the number of sales calls staff are expected to make. Work journeys are also less predictable, so the allowance may need to be higher at peak times of year to cover exceptional business travel costs. Bristol-Myers Squibb has introduced a mobility allowance only for its perk drivers, who are free to spend the money on their commute to the Paris office and for private travel.
Employees need to work out the cost of their personal travel needs by alternative means of transport in order to assess the financial viability of the allowance. This will become easier when products like Whim, a Mobility as a Service (MaaS) app, become more widely available. During its trial in Helsinki, Whim offered customers unlimited public transport within the city, 10 taxis trips of up to 10km and five days of car rental every month for a monthly rental of €389 – well below the cost of many car leases. Such start-up services are still rare and very localised.
Your employees need to work out the cost of their travel needs by alternative means of transport in order to assess the financial viability of the allowance.
out of their company cars. Equally, review the allowance regularly - an increase in the taxation of a company car might start to make allowances more attractive.
THE BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB CASE
Accept that a mobility allowance is a fledgling concept whose value will differ from employee to employee. In broadbrush strokes, a younger, urban, ‘millennial’ with nowhere to park a car at home might place more value on a mobility allowance than an older employee infused in the culture of the company car and with a private drive or garage.
The pharmaceutical firm Bristol-Myers Squibb is one of the pioneers of the mobility allowance concept, introducing it at its Paris office. The option is available as an alternative to the company for perk drivers who do not need their cars for work. They can choose to accept a monthly travel allowance, which is very similar to the maximum sum they could spend on a company car lease. They can then use all of that allowance on a company car; use part of it on a cheaper company car and spend the rest on other means of travel for commuting and private journeys; or use all of the allowance to fund personal and family transport. Bristol-Myers Squibb is now exploring the possibility of an outsourcing partner to provide this administratively-complex service.
Ross Harris, BMS associate director global fleet, said, “We are having discussions with companies who would deliver the whole package. They would negotiate the car rental deals, negotiate the train fares and manage the bookings, to allocate those funds. That is where we are going for the perk users and over the next two years that programme is going to be extended to most European countries in one form or another to give those drivers that option.”
Be flexible in the size of the allowance offered. If employee uptake is low, you may need to raise it in order to prise drivers FLEET EUROPE #89
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SMART MOBILITY Sheer Driving Pleasure
Smart ways to save journeys and costs Jonathan Manning
A mobility revolution is transforming travel to work and for work, and itâ€™s challenging the status of car ownership.
EASYCARCLUB An Airbnb for vehicle travel, easyCarClub is a peer-to-peer car and van share scheme operating nationwide in the UK. EasyCarClub allows owners to profit from the dead time when their vehicle would otherwise be parked. Could it work for fleet cars? Owners can set when their car is available to hire and determine the rental rates. Customers search online for the right car and the right price and then arrange to collect the keys from the owner. They rent cars directly from their owners. All cars come with breakdown cover and comprehensive insurance. At the end of the hire, drivers drop the keys back with the owner. Web: carclub.easycar.com
WAYZUP This new app links commuters who could share a car journey to work without going out of their way. WayzUp has already won the support of more than 30 major companies in France, including Renault and
Credit Agricole, which have introduced it to their staff. Users can input the time of their commute, even if this varies from day to day, and WayzUp identifies potential partners and automatically calculates the cost of the journey so expenses can be shared. According to WayzUP, 80% of corporate users find a convenient car share colleague. Web: wayzup.com
KDS NEO TRAVEL Focused on business travel and expense claims, KDS Neo Travel starts with three basic questions; where does your journey start, where does it end, and when do you need to be there? It then delivers a recommended door-to-door journey plan, which might include driving maps, train times, flight numbers, hotel photos and even a street view of your final destination. Users can fine tune the itinerary to their own preferences, and the service shows the total cost of a trip and ensures that it complies with the corporate travel policy. Web: kds.com
EVERY FLEET NEEDS A LEADER. HEREâ€™S YOURS. THE ALL-NEW BMW 5 SERIES. Find out more at www.bmw.com
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The largest electric fleet in the world Eric Gibory
A pioneer in electric vehicles, the French postal group – La Poste - now owns 35,000 electric vehicles and is already preparing for the next stage in fleet greenification by testing hydrogen models.
The Ligier Quadéo is replacing traditionally powered two-wheel and some four-wheel vehicles.
La Poste did not wait for the recent enthusiasm in this domain to take an interest in electric vehicles. As early as 1901, its first mail distribution vehicle was electric powered. Since then, the postal group has continued to test this technology and with increasing speed in the 80’s and 90’s, with the arrival of the electric Citroën Berlingo and Renault Kangoo models, fitted out by Cléanova (Dassault group). Having put a halt to this latest experience due to problems of battery recycling, La Poste set up a purchasing unit in 2010 under the leadership of its president Jean-Paul Bailly. The objective was to define the needs of the major French corporations and administrations and generate a sufficiently large volume to make the development of an electric vehicle viable. With its Kangoo Z.E., Renault won the call for tenders and has delivered thousands of its clean light utility vehicles to the members of the purchasing group. Today, La Poste has 35,000 electric vehicles out of a total fleet of 75,000.
The development of sustainable mobility fits in with an overall reflection on the evolution of the postal model. While volumes of mail to be distributed are falling by 6% per year, parcel volumes are increasing by 6 to 10% over the same period. “We are looking at a decrease in the value of what we distribute, but an increase in volume and weight”, explains Frédéric Delaval, group eco-mobility director. The strategic reflection has involved adapting the company’s means to this market evolution, and to ever increasing sensitivity where protection of the environment is concerned.
The 7,000 Renault Kangoo electric models offer a driving range of up to 70 km in optimal postal use, with a payload of 3 to 4 m³. In parallel with this, La Poste is replacing its traditionally powered two-wheel vehicles and some of its four-wheel vehicles by Quadéoe, electric quads made by Ligier. These 1,000 vehicles have a range of 25 km and can carry up to 150 kg of mail and parcels. The postal operator has 3,000 Staby’s, a three-wheel electric vehicle also manufactured by Ligier, and 24,000 electrically assisted bicycles made by Cycleurope and Arcade. With these volumes, La Poste possesses the largest fleet of electric vehicles in the world.
While the arrival of electric vehicles enables the service to adapt to these new regulations, it also engenders a change in working habits. The organization of the delivery rounds has to reconcile an increase in the distances to be driven with the limited range of the batteries. As an example, if La Poste wishes to use an electric vehicle in the morning and the afternoon, it has to manage the recharging and adapt the rounds. It has to be realised, additionally, that from 50 km per day, the TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) of the electric vehicle is lower than that of an internal combustion engine.
A GREEN FLEET TO PREPARE FOR THE FUTURE La Poste has also developed a fleet of electric vehicles to get ready for anticipated changes in regulations, and especially to enable it to continue to drive in cities, which are beginning to ban some internal combustion engines, as is the case with Paris.
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With the electrification of its fleet, La Poste is pursuing a triple objective: become the operator of choice in terms of responsible urban logistics, reduce CO2 emissions by 20% per household served between 2008 and 2020 and improve working conditions for its delivery staff. Between 2014 and 2015, La Poste reduced its CO2-emissions on transport by 3.4% or 20,000 tonnes CO2.
Today, La Poste is already preparing for the next stage by testing vehicles with a hydrogen powered range extender. While their increased range extends their usage possibilities, La Poste estimates that hydrogen technology will require more than 20 years before it is in common use. “In the meantime, between now and 2020”, details Frédéric Delaval, “the autonomy of the batteries is going to increase by 30 to 50%”.
An important element in the success of electric vehicle lies in training the drivers. “When La Poste uses electric vehicles, it does this within a change management mode”, emphasizes Frédéric Delaval. Drivers are trained, receive specific guidance and are made aware of eco-driving. Thanks to gentler driving, the range of the batteries increases and the number of accidents decreases. During a delivery round, postmen and women cover 400 to 420 distribution points, and stop and start an average of 800 times. With an electric vehicle, all this is done without changing gear and in silence. “It is for these reasons that the postal workers adore electric vehicles” Frédéric Delaval is delighted to state.
La Poste in France has a 35,000 electric vehicle fleet, of which 7,000 Renault Kangoo electric models.
THREE OF A KIND 1
‘Grand Paris Aménagement’ reorganises its mobility
Respect for the environment does not equate to exclusively attacking large companies. Within the framework of its socially responsible and environmental policy, ‘Grand Paris Aménagement’ has installed a car-sharing service. In existence since 2015, this is operated by Ubeeqo and has 19 vehicles, to which a further 15 are about to be added. Car-sharing covers both professional and private use. In 2017, ‘Grand Paris Aménagement’ is going to develop remote working and set up a ‘Company Mobility Plan’ in its new offices.
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Carrefour repaints its mobility green
A pioneer in car-sharing, Carrefour set up a new service of this type in 2015. Developed by Arval, this solution deploys ten electric vehicles. The use of electric vehicles in car-sharing is now twice as high as for traditionally powered vehicles. In parallel with this, since 2014 the retailer has been using a car-sharing internet site developed by WayzUp. This is used by 500 persons, and car-sharing 800 persons, out of a total of 4,300. Carrefour is considering adding to its car-sharing fleet, setting up a company mobility plan before 2018 and adopting a mobility credit system.
ERDF electrifies its fleet
Among large French electric vehicle fleets, ERDF claims second place, just behind La Poste. Its fleet includes 2,000 zero emissions vehicles. And while theRenault Kangoo Z.E. dominates, ERDF has also included Smart ForTwo Electric Drive, Renault Zoe, Citroën C-Zero and Berlingo Electric along with Electron, the electric utility vehicle of bodymaker Gruau. The limited range of the batteries does not constitute a handicap for ERDF. Where recharging is concerned, this has necessitated the installation of 1,450 charging points at a cost of 5,000 Euros each. Despite this investment, ERDF believes that the TCO of electric vehicles remains competitive. 57
CARA delivers, for industry and consumers
What has been decided, is that CARA members will gather and pool a dataset for vehicles returning to them, to be specific: the vehicle's VIN number, the mileage and the date the mileage was recorded. TEST CASE “The data will be provided by most of our members, and managed by Car-Pass in Belgium. We will do this for a trial period of six months, during which we will identify bottlenecks, and eliminate mistakes. And then after the summer, we will have a test case in which we will go live with the data”.
Frank Jacobs @FrankJacobs
When we get Wolfgang Reinhold on the line, the CARA president has just gotten off the phone with Michel Peelman, CEO of CarPass in Belgium. They've finalised the deal to extend that fraudbusting scheme throughout Europe. An even bigger achievement is the win on import-export regulations. “The Car Remarketing Association is delivering in key areas, for the benefit of our members, the whole remarketing industry, and the consumer”, says Wolfgang. Mileage fraud and the complexity of cross-border remarketing are two of the five key 'deliverables', targeted by CARA at their second General Assembly in Barcelona last November. While progress has also been made on EU lobbying for the Remarketing sector, on Fair Wear and Tear guidelines and on pan-European transport solutions, it is in the first two areas that CARA can proudly state that the concrete results have been 'delivered'.
on two concrete wins for the Car Remarketing Association
204 VAT TREATMENTS “Our solution for the import-export problem is without doubt the greater achievement. Because this is a major issue: nobody had a full overview of all the rules and regulations governing the import and export of used vehicles between the countries of Europe”, says Wolfgang. Considering all of Europe, i.e. beyond the EU but except Russia and Belarus, there are 960 possible individual transactions and 204 different VAT treatments when buying and selling vehicles across national borders.
“If you only trade from country A to country B, you probably know all you need to know about the rules and regulations. But if your scope is the whole of Europe, then nobody knows, and nobody cares – as long as you do it right. But if something does go wrong, you face huge fines. A lease company received a fine of €6 million some years ago due to some irregularities, and that is no exception”. Clearly, the Remarketing industry would benefit from a complete, clear and up to date overview of all relevant requirements. But even large lease companies lacked the means or the scope to do the heavy lifting on their own. CARA, however, saw this as a core task. E-BOOK CARA worked with one of the big auditing firms to create a tool that would end the confusion: “We have created an e-book, listing all the rules and regulations across Europe relevant to cross-border remarketing of used vehicles. Of course, these rules
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CARA has formulated a solution to the regulatory chaos of cross-border remarketing. Image credit: Dennis Rosenfeldt, CC BY-SA 3.0.
are subject to change: we estimate about 30 to 40 changes per quarter. That is why we chose for the format of an e-book, because it can be updated easily. We will provide four updates per year”.
HORSE-TRADING Solving the import-export issue is of direct benefit to the industry. The other resolved issue presents a win for the consumer in the first place.
The e-book is the most up to date, most complete solution regarding cross-border rules and regulations ever, and a very useful tool: “Something like this did not exist before we created it. Up until now, if you traded with a different country, you had no standardised way of finding out which rules applied. You had to have your lawyers find out, which is costly and time-consuming. This tool provides a clear and complete answer to lease companies, manufacturers and any other company trading large volumes of used vehicles across national borders in Europe”.
“Vehicle remarketing for many people still is reminiscent of horse-trading, with all the negative associations that brings. Reducing the scope of mileage fraud will go a long way towards reversing that image, and restoring customer confidence in the sector”.
“We hope to have the tool out some time after the summer. I would like to present it at our next General Assembly at the end of the year, by which time I expect it to have been up and running for a couple of months already”. The e-book can be purchased by any interested company, but CARA members get preferential access.
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In Belgium, Car-Pass, a system that mandates regular registrations of vehicle mileage readings, has been instrumental in virtually eliminating mileage fraud over no more than 10 years. CARA is now working to bring a European dimension to that principle. “But not under the name Car-Pass”, says Wolfgang. “That name is appropriate for Belgium, because it is part of the official vehicle inspection. We would probably use a term like Mileage-Pass, but we haven’t decided on a name yet”.
The aim is to make the data available to the Remarketing community, for a small fee. As in Belgium, providing a mileage checkpoint will limit the scope for mileage fraud, and increase consumer confidence. Unlike Belgium, the data is not provided from the very beginning of the vehicle's life, but only from when it is returned to the relevant CARA member, typically after the conclusion of a lease period. “But there is no motive for mileage fraud to be committed during the lease period. Most mileage fraud takes place in the trades following the sale of an ex-lease car. If we can provide the correct mileage at the start sale, the room for mileage fraud diminishes”.
FAIR WEAR AND TEAR WEBINAR CARA is also making progress on its other deliverables. On 27 April, Wolfgang Reinhold will host a Fleet Europe webinar, providing an update on the establishment of universally valid Fair Wear and Tear guidelines for evaluating used vehicles. Mark your calendar!
Seven steps to smart sourcing Jonathan Manning
The classic procurement process still provides a benchmark for corporate fleet purchasing executives. Also Jens Werkheiser, Global Category Manager Fleet at SABMiller and runner-up International Fleet Manager of the Year Large Fleet 2016, has used a the Seven Step Strategic Sourcing model to create international fleet efficiency.
Jens Werkheiser of SABMiller has created fleet procurement efficiency following a structured and transparent strategic sourcing process.
For many procurement professionals, A. T. Kearney’s Seven Steps for Strategic Sourcing represents the blueprint for purchasing procedures. For buyers, it lays out a logical, transparent and objective framework for assessing internal requirements, evaluating potential suppliers, negotiating contracts, and reviewing supplier performance. For suppliers, an understanding of the Seven Steps process can give a priceless insight into the procedures and likely actions of potential customers. With fleet being a challenging mix of commodities (tyres, fuel) and critical services (leasing, fleet management), it’s fascinating to see how the Seven Steps can be applied. Brewing giant SABMiller has recently established a new global car policy for its 10,000-strong fleet, leveraging its worldwide purchasing volumes to drive the most cost effective agreements for the company. Fleet Europe spoke to Jens Werkheiser, SABMiller global category manager fleet, to explore the company’s purchasing stra-tegy, its initiatives to ensure local compliance, and to see where the Seven Steps came into play.
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“Procurement activities are centralised at a global level, with local level reporting into the region and regions reporting into the global hub,” he said. “Fleet management is usually operated locally under global and regional supervision.”
1. Internal assessment The first step is to profile the products and services required, to understand the business needs for them, and to establish how much the company currently spends in these area. The accounts payable department should be able to provide information on what a business is buying, how much it’s buying, which companies it’s buying from and how much it’s paying. These receipts require close scrutiny – purchasing departments frequently discover that internal divisions are buying the same products and services from the same supplier but on different terms. This is also the time to explore whether the volume of products and services being purchased could be reduced or consolidated, so it’s vital to involve the users of these products and services, and to gauge their satisfaction levels with current suppliers.
• SABMiller operates a global car policy with pages of local addendums. In terms of TCO, the brewer leverages its scale by restricting the number of manufacturers with which it works to three per region, and five in total. The company has also harmonised the safety equipment on its company cars. “Airbags, ABS, hands-free kit in all vehicles – for Latin America and Africa quite revolutionary,” said Jens Werkheiser.
forum • village • Awards • remarketing
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2. Develop the sourcing strategy Having measured the products and services the business is buying, it’s important to separate them into either strategic or non-critical categories. Non-critical tend to be commodities – for example, a litre of diesel is the same, regardless of filling station – and are ripe for consolidation. Fleet management and driver support, however, are services which can differ sharply from one supplier to the next. For this type of strategic purchase, it may be worthwhile to investigate service improvements with the existing supplier to enhance the quality of the offering. • For car leasing and fleet management, SABMiller has a dual supply agreement in three regions, but relies on local suppliers in other markets where its principal global suppliers don’t operate. The company divides the world into five regions, Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific and Americas.
3. Create the supplier portfolio Step three involves identifying potential new global and local suppliers. Which companies offer which products and services, and are they capable of meeting new trends? Keep an open mind when drawing up the criteria for supplier selection. • SABMiller evaluates its fleet suppliers on the basis of, “TCO, geographical
5 / 6 december 2017
A structured sourcing approach will lead to the best outcome.
presence, reporting capabilities, account management structure, quality of service, competence and level of consulting, level of innovation,” said Werkheiser.
4. Decide how to draw up a shortlist Traditional selection procedures involve a Request for Proposal (RfP), setting out requirements and asking potential suppliers to itemise their proposed offers, including prices. A formal, well constructed RfP will allow a buyer to compare competing offers directly against each other.
5. Negotiate and select suppliers The information in the RfP is just the starting point for more detailed negotiations to establish the best possible deal. During negotiations, it’s important to have a clear vision of the optimum outcome, and to be aware of alternatives if a supplier refuses to budge. Equally, it’s critical that all internal parties sign off on the decision and are aware of the grounds for supplier selection.
6. Appoint the supplier
At last, it’s time to draw up contracts with the nominated supplier(s) and work on a plan of implementation. This involves a communication plan and solutions for potential transition issues that are likely to arise.
7. Monitor the agreement The contract may be signed and sealed, but measuring key performance indicators from suppliers, as well as enforcing compliance from internal partners is essential for long term success. Regular feedback between supplier and customer will help both parties achieve their goals from the arrangement. • SABMiller’s fleet policy now has a highly impressive 95% local compliance with the company’s global strategy. “Sourcing and contracting requires global approval, hence compliance is controlled to a large extent,” said Jens Werkheiser. “Also, any relevant large supplier contracts will be signed via global procurement, and local addenda also need global sign off before becoming operational.”
Uncovering the DNA of the fleet & mobility professions of tomorrow We have chosen the Estoril Congress Center, 25 km away from Lisbon airport and right next to the famous Casino with its surrounding gardens and sea view, to host this year’s Fleet Europe Forum & Awards. A location that will capture your imagination and that fits our festive aspiration to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Fleet Europe. This festive edition of the Fleet Europe Forum & Awards will offer a number of events, 5 & 6 December, which bring added value to your fleet management profession.
INTERNATIONAL FLEET MANAGERS INSTITUTE (IFMI) > 5 December A full-day training session on several hot topics of crucial interest, exclusively for international fleet clients.
REMARKETING FORUM > 5 December
THE FLEET EUROPE FORUM & VILLAGE > 6 December
THE FLEET EUROPE AWARDS > 6 December
A convention which will zoom in on remarketing topics that make the sector tick. With the added benefit of previous experience, sector feedback and the guidance of an Advisory Board composed of industry experts.
A dedicated meeting place which will offer delegates a professional but informal setting in which to learn and interact with car fleet suppliers and fleet clients. Without a doubt, it’s a place that year in year out, is buzzing with chatter.
A fitting tribute to the finest best practices in our community that will attribute awards to fleet managers and fleet suppliers. This ceremony will be followed by an appetizing Gala dinner and a memorable Fleet Europe birthday celebration.
Learn, network and be inspired, be in Estoril ! For more information, please visit forum.fleeteurope.com
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Fleet Europe Awards 2017: Time to apply @CélineGilson
The Fleet Europe Awards offer to the international fleet professionals the acknowledgment they deserve for developing best practices generating benefits for their company and creating new and innovative solutions for the industry. AWARDS FOR INTERNATIONAL FLEET MANAGERS If you are a fleet manager, with international responsibilities, the jury, composed of international fleet managers, lessors, car manufacturers, fleet specialists and representatives of Fleet Europe, will examine your application in these 5 categories:
1 Fleet Europe International Fleet Manager of the Year: the award recognises the person or the team, with European responsibilities having most successfully developed an international fleet management strategy leading to an optimised TCO in line with corporate strategy. This Award category looks at the complete and overall vehicle fleet management approach.
Last year, 3 start-up companies, WeProov, Spiri and Assisto, won the Start-up Award and major media campaigns to raise their awareness among the international fleet community.
International Fleet Manager of the Year Award, presented by our sister platform Global Fleet.
Estoril, in Portugal, will this year be the European capital of fleet and mobility. On 6 December, the 2017 Fleet Europe Forum and Awards will take place. 2017, is also a vintage year for Fleet Europe, as we will celebrate our 20th anniversary. So, let nothing hold you back to benchmark your programme and developments and apply for the Fleet Europe Awards 2017.
> Previous winners: Tony Elliott (2010) – Gianluca Soma (2011) – Bruce MacLaren (2012) – Pascal Serres (2013) – Philippe Bismut (2014) – Mike Masterson (2015) – Jose Luis Criado (2016)
> Previous winners: Raphaëlle Jeanneret, Novartis (2007) - Claus-Peter Krüger, Shell (2008) - Werner Berger, Nestlé (2009) – Bruce MacLaren, Microsoft (2010) – Ivor Johnson, Pfizer (2011) - Joe Carreira & Robert Patrick, MSD (2012) – Luc Dendievel, Johnson & Johnson (2013) – Michael Dana, FedEx (2014) – Christian Lindskov Alsoe, ISS World & Monste Empez Vidal, Applus (2015) – Andy Leeden, AstraZeneca & Carlo Bertolini, Chiesi Farmaceutici (2016).
2 Global Fleet International Fleet Manager of the Year: new this year, is the dedicated award for fleet managers with global responsibilities. The implementation of a global strategy is complex and requires specific skills. It will be the very first time that excellence in Global Fleet Management will be accoladed. The person or the team, managing a fleet at global level and having most successfully developed a global fleet approach will be rewarded with a dedicated
Fleet Safety Project of the Year: the award is presented to a company that has successfully implemented a driver safety programme, within the framework of the CSR strategy and with a focus on driver behaviour. This Awards rewards a project or programme that improves the safety and limits incidents and accidents related to the vehicle fleet, whilst taking into account cost optimisation.
> Previous winners: Shell (2008) – BP (2009) – Coca-Cola Hellenic (2010) – Nalco Europe (2011) – Almirall (2012) – Nestlé (2013) – PMI (2014) – Vaillant Group (2015) – British American Tobacco (2016).
4 International Fleet Mobility Project of the Year: the award is presented to a company that has successfully implemented a green project and/ or initiative in efficient alternative mobility. The green and/or alternative mobility project combines eco-friendliness with employee productivity, customer satisfaction and cost optimisation. > Previous winners : Akzo Nobel (2007) - Hewlett-Packard (2008) – Bayer & Barilla (2009) – Nokia Siemens Network &Accenture (2010) – 3M Europe (2011) – Bayer & BNP Paribas Fortis (2012) – Luxottica (2013) – Carglass & Allianz Managed Operations & Services (AMOS) (2014) – Orange (2015) – Royal DSM (2016).
Fleet Innovation Award: rewarding an innovative project in a specific field of fleet management (car policy,
Don’t miss the opportunity to be recognized by your peers like last year in Barcelona.
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implementation, green, mobility or safety approach, driver satisfaction,…). A project can be rewarded if the jury decides that an initiative of the fleet managers applying for the Fleet Europe Awards 2017 stands out in the field of innovation and can be an inspiration for fleet management optimisation on a wider scale. > Previous winners: Vodafone (2010) – IBM (2011) - BNP Paribas Fortis (2012) – Capgemini (2013) – ThyssenKrupp (2014) – Orange (2015)
SMART MOBILITY START-UP AWARD After the success of the first edition of the Smart Mobility Start-up Award, with no less than 24 participants, we are looking forward meeting the next generation of fleet and mobility suppliers. The Smart Mobility Start-up Award is celebrating start-ups, based in Europe and developing innovative and/ or disruptive fleet and mobility services. > Previous winners: WeProov, winner; Spiri, first runner-up; Assisto, second runner-up (2016)
INTERNATIONAL FLEET INDUSTRY AWARD The achievements and innovative developments of the fleet suppliers will be celebrated in the category International Fleet Industry Award. A jury, composed exclusively of international Fleet Managers and representatives of Fleet Europe, will evaluate the tool, product or services from the Fleet Industry to help international fleet managers to improve their goals (TCO, sustainability, mobility, HR, fuel and CO2 reduction…). > Previous winners: Arval Analytics (2010) – Mobileye Safety Device C2-270 (2011) - TCOplus Greencube & Fleetcube (2012) – Mobileye 5-Series (2013) – Athlon Flexdrive (2014) - ARI (2015) – XXIMO (2016) INTERNATIONAL FLEET HALL OF FAME The International Fleet Hall of Fame Award celebrates industry leaders that have during their career contributed to the professionalism of the international fleet management profession. If you know someone with special merit in the fleet management profession, let us know. You can send your favorite nominee to Virginie Emonts (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Who will succeed Andy Leeden, AstraZeneca, as International Fleet Manager of the Year?
HOW TO APPLY To become a candidate for the Fleet Europe Awards 2017, please visit the Fleet Europe Forum and Awards website (forum.fleeteurope.com/awards) or directly contact Virginie Emonts: email@example.com.
COLOPHON EDITORS Steven Schoefs – Chief Editor firstname.lastname@example.org Céline Gilson – Project Coordinator email@example.com CONTRIBUTORS Eric Gibory, Tim Harrup, Frank Jacobs, Jonathan Manning, Dieter Quartier
SALES & MARKETING David Baudeweyns – International Key Account Manager firstname.lastname@example.org Sigrid Nauwelaerts – International Key Account Manager email@example.com Daniel Savigny – International Key Account Manager firstname.lastname@example.org
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Hereâ€™s an idea. A true Sports Wagon.
The all-new Kia Optima Sportswagon. Do it better. Do it with flair. The idea behind the new Kia Optima Sportswagon was simple. Take the wagon, and make it better. Much better. The results speak for themselves. The Optima Sportswagon boasts advanced technology, comfort and innovation. Itâ€™s full of fresh thinking - and plenty of space. The profile and performance are noticeably sporty, and the interior is all about maximising your enjoyment. Finally, class-leading features including the Around View Monitor, Wireless Phone Charger and Autonomous Emergency Braking make things all the more impressive. See? Because simple ideas are often the best. Discover more on kia.com/eu
The Kia 7-year/150,000 km new car warranty is valid in all EU member states (plus Norway, Switzerland, Iceland and Gibraltar), subject to local terms and conditions. Fuel consumption (l/100km)/CO 2 (g/km): urban from 5.2/135 to 11.8/275, extra-urban from 3.8/101 to 6.1/142, combined from 4.4/113 to 8.2/191.