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A SOPR S

25TH ANNIVERSARY BOOK

The First Twenty-Five Years 1969–1994 History of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery 2500 bc – ad 1994


Editor’s Note Acknowledgements: The digitization and website posting of this 1996 publication was undertaken at the suggestion of the ASOPRS Foundation Board whose financial support is gratefully acknowledged. ASOPRS Fellow John Nguyen was of great help in investigating digitization options which have been nicely accomplished by the creative and management staff of Sexton Printing in St. Paul, Minnesota. Digitization Features and Limitations: The flipbook pages before you were created from PDF scans of the original printed edition. Linkages to pages have been embedded in the Table of Contents – a simple addition which allows the reader to hover over items in the Table of Contents and click to quickly move to a given chapter. With the exception of the front matter (paginated with Roman numerals), the reader can navigate to page numbers throughout the references found in the two indexes (Names and Subjects) at the back of the book. In addition, the text of the flipbook is fully searchable, so the reader can easily find any names or terms mentioned in the book.

The ASOPRS is looking forward to its fiftieth anniversary in 2019. Work has begun on the publication of a new a digitized flipbook in honor of this milestone.


THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY (ASOPRS) The First Twenty-FiveYears:1969-1994 History of OphthalmicPlasticSurgery:2500 BC-AD 1994


CONTRIBUTORS

CROWELL BEARD, MD Emeritus ClinicalProfessorof Ophthalmology,Universityof California,San Francisco CharterFellow, Past Advisor and Vice-President , ASOPRS A. JAN BERLIN, MD, FACS ClinicalAssociateProfessor,Vermont Collegeof Medicine; ClinicalInstructorin Ophthalmology,HarvardMedicalSchool CharterFellowand Past President,ASOPRS CHARLES K. BEYER-MACHULE, MD, FACS ClinicalAssociateProfessor,HarvardMedicalSchool Professorof Ophthalmology,Ludwig-Maximilian Universityof Munich, Germany Founding Fellowand Past President,ASOPRS

BERNICE Z. BROWN, MD, FACS ClinicalProfessor , Universityof Southern CaliforniaSchoolof Medicine, Doheny Eye Institute and Children's Hospital Los Angeles Past President,ASOPRS

GEORGE F. BUERGER, JR. , MD, FACS ClinicalProfessorof Ophthalmology, Universityof PittsburghSchoolof Medicine FoundingFellow and Past President, ASOPRS

JOHN A. BURNS , MD , FACS ClinicalProfessorof Ophthalmology, Ohio State University Past President,ASOPRS

ALSTON CALLAHAN, MD, FACS Directorof Developmentand Research, Eye FoundationHospital, Birmingham,Alabama CharterFellowand Past Advisor, ASOPRS RICHARD P. CARROLL, MD, FACS Clinical Professorof Ophthalmology,Universityof Minnesota Past President,ASOPRS

ROBERT M. DRYDEN, MD, FACS Clinical Professorof Ophthalmology, Universityof Arizona CharterFellowand Past President, ASOPRS

BARBARA FITZGERALD-BEATTY Executive Director, ASOPRS


JOSEPH C. FLANAGAN, MD, FACS Professorof Ophthalmology, ThomasJefferson University, JeffersonMedicalSchool CharterFellowand Past President, ASOPRS

JAMES C. FLEMING , MD, FACS ClinicalAssociatePrefessorof Ophthalmologyand Chief of Service, Trauma and Emergency/Op hthalmology,Universityof Tennessee,Memphis Program Chaim1an,ASOPRS

BARTLEY R. FRUEH, MD, FACS Prefessorof Ophthalmology, Eye Plasticand Orbital Surgery, UniversityefMichiganM edical School, W.K. KelloggEye Center Past President, ASOPRS

PERRY F. GARBER, MD, FACS ClinicalAssociatePrefessor of Ophthalmology,Albert Einstein Collegeof Medicine Executive Secretaryand Past Secretaryof Education,ASOPR S

ARTHURS.

GROVE.JR., MD, FACS

Assistant Professorof Ophthalmology,HarvardMedical School Past President, ASOPRS

JAMES L. HARGISS , MD , FACS ClinicalInstructor of Ophthalmology, UniversityefWashington M edicalSchool CharterFellowand Past ProgramChairman, ASOPRS

ALBERT HORNBLASS , MD , FACS Clinical ProfessorefOphthalmology, State UniversityefNew York, Health ScienceCenter ImmediatePast President and Advisory Board Chairman, ASOPRS

WENDELL L. HUGHES , MD, DSC (HON) , FACS (Deceased) Past President, AmericanAcademy of Ophthalmologyand Otolaryngology CharterFellowand Past President, ASOPRS MARK R. LEVINE, MD , FACS

Clinical Prefessor efOphthalmology,Case WesternReserveUniversity Past President, ASOPRS

CLINTON D. MCCORD , JR., MD , FACS ClinicalPrefessor efOphthalmology, Emory University CharterFellowand Past President, ASOPRS

MARGARET F. OBEAR, MD , FACS Founding Fellow and Past President, ASOPRS

).JUSTIN OLDER, MD, FACS ClinicalProfessor of Ophthalmology,Universityof South FloridaCollegeefMedicine Past President, ASOPRS iv


GEORGE L. PARI S, MD, FACS Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Stanford University President, ASOPRS

ALLEN M . PUTTERMAN , MD, FACS Professorof ClinicalOphthalmology,Universityof fllinois at ChicagoCollegeof Medicine Past President, ASOPRS

J. EARL

RATHBUN, MD, FACS ClinicalProfessor of Ophthalmology,Universityof CaliforniaSan Francisco Past President, ASOPRS

DAVID M. REIFLER , MD , FACS A ssociate Clinical Professorof Surgery/ Ophthalmology MichiganState University Collegeof Human M edicine Grand Rapids Area Medical Educational Center (GRAMEC) Treasurer , ASOPRS

ARTHUR]. SCHAEFER, MD, FACS Clinical Professor of Ophthalmologyand Assistant ClinicalProfessor of ENT , Head & Neck Surgery,State Universityof New York, Buffalo Past President, ASOPRS BYRON CAPLEESE SMITH, MD, FACS (Deceased) CharterFellow, Past Advisor and Vice-President , ASOPRS DAVID B. SOLL, MD , FACS Clinical Professorof Surgery(Ophthalmology) Universityof M edicineand Dentistry of New Jersey R obert WoodJohnson MedicalSchoolat Camden Charter Fellow and Past President, ASOPRS

ORKAN GEORGE STASIOR, MD , FACS ClinicalProfessor of Ophthalmology,Albany Medical Collegeof Union University CharterFellowand Past President, ASO PRS RICHARD R . TENZEL, MD Emeritus Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology,Universityof Miami Schoolof Medicine Charter Fellowand Past President, ASOPRS ROBERT

B. WILKINS, MD , FACS

ClinicalProfessor, Universityof Texas MedicalBranch, Galveston Founding Fellowand Past President, ASOPRS

JOHN L. WOBIG, MD , FACS A ssociateProfessor,OregonHealth Sciences University, Lester T. Jones Chair of Ophthalmic Plastic and R econslructive Surgery Past President, ASO PRS V


THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY (ASOPRS) The FirstTwenty-FiveYears:1 96g-1994 History of Ophthalmic PlasticSurgery:2500 BC-AD 1994

Edited by

DAVID

M.

REIFLER,

MD,

FACS

Associate ClinicalProfessorof SurgeryI Ophthalmology MichiganState UniversityCollegeof Human Medicine Grand Rapids Area MedicalEducationalCenter (GRAMEC) Attending Surgeon,BlodgettMemorialMedical Center and ButtenvorthH ospital; ConsultingSurgeon, MetropolitanHospital and Saint Mary's Hospital,Grand Rapids, Michigan

With forewordsby

Daniel M. Albert, MD, FAGS F. A. Davis Professorand Chairman, Departmentof Ophthalmology

Universityof Wisconsin-MadisonMedicalSchool and

Joseph G. McCarthy, MD, FAGS l..AwrenceD. Bell Professorof PlasticSurgery and Directorof the Institute of Reconstructive Surgery,New York UniversityMedical Center

AMERI CAN SOC IETY Of OP HTHALMI C PLASTIC AND R.ECONSTR.UCTIVE SUR.GER.Y, INC. W INTER. PARK , FLOR.IDA IN ASSOCIATION WITH NOR.MAN PUBLISH ING SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA

1994


Co pyright Š 1994 by The Ameri can Society of Op hthalnu c Plastic and Rc construca vc Surgery , Inc.

AJJrights reserved . N o part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or tnrumined , in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanic•!, photoco pying, recording, or otherwise , without the prior written approval of the publishers, excep t in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articlc-sand reviews. Library of Co ngress Cataloging-in-Pub lication Data The American Society of Op hthalmi c Plastic and Re conscructivc Surgery (ASO PR S) : the lint twenty-fiv e years 1969-1994 : history of ophthalmi c plastic surgery: 2500 BC- AD 1994 I edited by David M . Reifler; with forewo rds by Daniel M. Albert and J oseph G. McCarth y. cm.

p.

Includes indexes.

ISBN 0-930405 - 64-1 I.

Op hthalm ic plastic surgery-United

States-H istory- 20th century . 2. American

Society o fOphth :tlmic Plastic and R cconscructivc Surgery. I. Reifler , David M., 1952- . [DNLM : 1. Ame rican Society of O phthalmic Plastic and Rcc onscructive SurgeryHistory . 2. Societies, Medic al- history- United Sta1es. J . Op hthalmology-h istory. 4. Surgery, Plastic-history . WW

I

A5125 1994)

RE87 .A44 1994 6 17.7' 1'06073-<l c20 DNLM / DLC for Library of Co ngress

94-7 908 ClP

This book was typeset in Monotype Bcmbo and Bemb o Expert and printed on acid-fre e paper. Manuf.tctur ed in the United States of America. Co pies may be order ed from : ASO PR S 1133 West Morse Boulevard, Suite 201 Winter Park , Florida 32789 Phone: (407) 647-8 839 FAX: (407) 629-2502


Dedicatedto the memory of Dr. Wendell L. Hughes, the first Presidentof the ASOPRS, whose scholarship, teaching,and organizationalleadershipinspiredand guided the establishmentof the modernsubspecialtyof ophthalmicplasticand reconstructive surgery.


CONTENTS

Contributors

ill

Forewords

xv

Daniel M . Albert Joseph G. McCarthy

Preface

xix

Acknowledgments

CHAPTER 1

xxi

HISTORY OF OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY PRIOR TO THE FOUNDING OF THE ASOPRS

David M. Reifler CHAPTER 2

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ASOPRS AND OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY DURING THE LAST QUARTER CENTURY

David M . Reifler CHAPTER 3

1

105

PERSONAL REMEMBRANCES REGARDING PLASTIC SURGERY IN OPHTHALMOLOGY

Wendell L. Hughes (Deceased) 139 CHAPTER 4

ASOPRS-IN

THE BEGINNING

GeorgeF. Buerger,Jr.

143


CHAPTER 5

THE FOUNDING OF THE ASOPRS

Charles K. Beyer-Machule CHAPTER 6

149

REFLECTIONS IN OCULOPLASTIC SURGERY

Byron Capleese Smith (Deceased) CHAPTER 7

151

IN MEMORIAM: BYRON CAPLEESE SMITH, MD

Richard Tenzel

153

CHAPTER 8 MY INVOLVEMENT WITH OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC SURGERY

Al.ston Callahan CHAPTER 9

155

AS I SAW IT

Crowell Beard

159

CHAPTER 10 IN MEMORIAM : LESTER T . JONES , MD

John L. Wob~

163

CHAPTER 11 TRIBUTE TO MERRILL]. REEH , MD

James L. Hargiss

165

CHAPTER 12 REMEMBRANCES AND COMMENTARY BY THE PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASOPRS 167

Wendell L. Hughes (1969-1970) (Deceased) Orkan GeorgeStasior (1971) MargaretF. Obear (1972) Charles K. Beyer-Machule (1973) Robert R. Wilkins (1974) Richard R. Tenzel (1975) Bartley R. Frueh (1976) GeorgeF. Buerger,Jr. (1977) David B. Soll (1978) Robert M . Dryden (1979) John L. Wob~ (1980) All en M. Futterman (1981}

xii


A. Jan Berlin (1982) ]. Earl Rathbun (1983) RichardP. Carroll(1984) Joseph C. Flanagan(1985) Mark R. Levine (1986) ]. Justin Older (1987) Arthur]. Schaefer(1988} Clinton D. McCord, Jr. (1989) BerniceZ. Brown (1990) Arthur S. Grove,Jr. (1991) John A. Bums (1992) Albert H ornblass(1993) CHAPTER 13 THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE OF THE ASOPRS

PerryGarberandJohn Burns

201

CHAPTER 14 THE PRESENT STATE AND FUTURE OF THE ASOPRS

GeorgeL. Paris

207

APPENDIX 1 1994 ASOPRS MEMBERSHIP AND COMM ITTEE ROSTERS

David M. Reifler and BarbaraFitzGerald-Beatty

211

APPENDIX 2 CHRONOLOG ICAL LISTING OF OFFICER S, ADVISORS , AND MEMBERSHIP TRANSITIONS

David M. ReiflerandJames C. Fleming

233

APPENDIX 3 FELLOWSHIP PROGRAMS: A LISTING OF PRECEPTORS AND THEIR FELLOWS

PerryF. GarberandJ ohn A . Burns

245

APPENDlX 4 ANNUAL FALL SClENTIFIC SYMPOSIA

David M . Reifler

255

APPENDIX 5 ANNUAL SPRING MEETINGS

David M . Reifler

365

xiii


APPENDIX 6 THE WENDELL L. HUGHES LECTURES

David M . Reifler

369

APPENDIX 7 SYMPOSIA , COURSES AND EXHIBITS SPONSORED BY THE ASOPRS AT THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF OPHTHALMOLOGY ANNUAL MEETINGS

David M. Reifler

377

APPENDIX 8 ASOPRS AWARDS

David M . Reifler

401

APPENDIX 9 BYLAWS, RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY , INC. 409 INDEX OF PERSONAL NAMES INDEX OF SUBJECTS

xiv

475

441


FOREWORD Daniel M. Albert Sir Winston Churchill noted: "The longer yo u can look back, the further yo u can look forward." We are pre sently at a time of profound change in medicine and particularly in ophthalmology. Economic, politi cal, social, and technological factors are combining to change the practice of our specialty in ways few of our predeces sors would have believed possible. What the future will be like is hard to tell . At such a time it is particularly important to be able to look back and to know what our roots and our tradition s are. Ophthalmologists have for centuries had a curiosity and enthusiasm for the history of their field. Various generations have contributed detailed histories and interpretations of our specialty . The most thorough and comprehensive of these is the multi-volume history by Julius Hirs chberg which has recently been translated into English by Professor Frederick C. Blodi . While this is a rich source of information with regard to such things as cataract extraction, strabismus, glaucoma, and the development of spectacles and the ophthalmoscope, it does not have the same degree of detail or perspective with regard to ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. In fact, to the best of my knowledge, there are few single comprehensive sources of information available concerning the history of this important field. In 1986, Drs. Byron C. Smith and Stephen L. Bo sniak edited a useful and informative volume entitled Advances in Ophthalmic Plasticand Reconstructive Surgery dealing with this discipline's history and tradition. This is now readdressed by David M. Reifler, M.D. , in his most scholarly and well-written history . With precision and judgment, Dr. Reifler traces the developments in this field from its origins in the beginnings of medicine to the present. The work is well referenced and will certainly provide future medical historians with a good starting place to further pursue this fascinating field . On a personal note, it has been a great pleasure to make Dr. Reifler 's acquaintance and to recognize the dedication and enthusiasm with which he approaches the historical study of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery . Too often in modem times , medical history seems to have become the province of angry social scientists and anecdote-laden senior clinicians. With regard to the latter, Tre acher Collins wrote tongue-in-cheek : "When a medical man begins to write on the history ofhis subject it is a sure sign of senility." It is therefore reassuring to find someone of Dr. Reifler' s yo uthful appearance and vigor laboring in the vineyards of medical history. I hope this will be a continuing effort because he has much to offer. In conclu sion , I congratulate the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) and Dr. David M. Reifler for this splendid publication marking the 25th anniversary of their society.


FOREWORD Joseph G. McCarthy I well remember my first exposure to ophthalmic plastic surgery. Fresh from a general surgery residency in I 97 r , I arrived at the Institute ofReconstructive Plastic Surgery of the NYU Medi cal Center to begin my plastic surgery training. My first rotation was on John Converse's service and , of course, that meant joint consultations and operations with Byron Smith. It was my first exposure to truly interdisciplinary collaboration . They were both intensely interested in the surgical problems of the orbital region , yet from somewhat different perspectives. Converse had devoted his surgical career to the bony skeleton, osteotomies and bone grafts. Smith brought the soft tissue perspective of his ophthalmology background : pto sis correction, 1acrimal apparatus reconstruction and the coverage of periorbital soft tissue defects. Different in personality and demeanor , they , nevertheless , had been working together since W odd War II and it was a fruitful professional relation ship that lasted for thre e and a half decades. Their accomplishments were many: the development of an ophthalmic plastic surgery clinic at the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Ho spital, the definition and treatment of orbital floor and naso-o rbital fractures, the correction of telecanthus and the first surgical attempts at the correction of orbital hypertelorisim. This professional relationship also resulted in a series of superb interdisciplinary symposia which were held at the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital in I 96 I , I 966, and I 98 I. Published in monograp h form, they were indispensable to the education of the surgeons of my generation. Converse and Smith, who had had NYU faculty appointments, albeit in different departments, had built their careers on the shoulders of earlier New York surgeons also interested in ophthalmic and orbital problems . J. M . Wheeler , often regarded as the "father" or ophthalmic plastic surgery, was a profes sor of ophthalmology at NYU. Sydney Fox had also spent most of his professional career at Bellevue Hospital. E.B. Spaeth wrote the first textbook of ophthalmic plastic surgery, Newer Methods of OphthalmicPlasticSurgery(I 925), gaining preceden ce over J.E. Sheehan whose PlasticSurgeryofthe Orbitwas published in I 927. W endellHughes, a student of Wheeler at Bellevue Hospital, was the teacher of Byron Smith and according to Reifler, they founded the "first purely oculoplastic clinic in the United States" at Bellevue Hospital. These men had, thus, established an environment for the Smith-Converse achievements. Again looking back at my own career, I met Paul Tessier also in 1971. Tessier was the Kazanjian Visiting Professor at NYU that year and I was fortunate to scrub with him on cases of orbital hypertelorism correction and Le Fort III midface advancement. It is of note that Reifler's first chapter concerning the history of ophthalmic plastic surgery in this text ends in r 969, a year which, in man y ways, corresponds with the beginning of the Tessier Era.


Tessier's roots were in ophthalmology and he had been trained by Hervouet in Nantes. His background in ophthalmology and orthopedics led him to be one of the pioneers of orbital bone grafting in his quest to solve the problems of posttraumatic orbital deformities. His landmark paper on craniofacial surgery followed in 1967 and, at the request of the French Society of Ophthalmology, he participated in editing a superb interdisciplinary monograph , ChirurgiePlastiqueOrbito-Palpebrale , published in 1977. For my generation of plastic surgeons, a seminal event in our professional evolution was the symposium on plastic surgery of the orbital region held in Dallas in 1974 under the sponsorship of Paul Tessier , Alston Callahan,John Mustarde and Kenneth Salyer. It represented the ultimate in surgicalscholarship and interdisciplinary collaboration and, in many ways, defined the parameters of this discipline. In this text the history written by Reifler comprehensively details the surgeons' struggle with the correction of orbital and ophthalmic problems. Progress was first made only after the pathology was defined, a task immeasurably aided by the development of vastly superior imaging techniques. Only then could surgical procedures be designed to correct the pathology. In most clinical situations it meant restoration of the anatomy or reconstruction of a functional facsimile. I am convinced that our surgical forebears would also agree that these goals are best attained by continued interdisciplinary collaboration that directs the optimal technology and surgical talent to the solution of the individual patient's problem. This is our heritage--it is also our future.

xviii


PREFACE This festschrift commemorates the first twenty-five years of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. (ASOPRS). The project was first proposed in 1990 by Dr. Richard Carroll, who established a general outline, and gained the enthusiastic approval of the Executive Committee. In the spring of 1991, the general membership voted in favor of a special assessment of 7 5 dollars per member to cover the costs of production. Dr. Carroll began by gathering essays and photographs from founders and past presidents of our Society. Advice and quotations of estimated costs were obtained from several potential publishers. At Dr. Carroll's initiative, and following the subsequent persuasion of Dr. Albert Homblass, the project was transferred to new co-chairpersons, Dr. Bernice Brown and the current editor, in the spring of 1993. The collected materials were transferred at a meeting on June 15, 1993, during the Annual Spring Meeting of the ASOPRS at the Sagamore Resort in upstate New York . Although the publication deadline was fast approaching, it was felt that an expansion of the scope of the festschrift was appropriate and feasible. By the end of that fall, a draft of the manuscript was substantially completed while the Committee explored various publishing arrangements. In November, 1993, the ASOPRS Executive Committee approved a contract with Norman Publishing to assist in expediting the publication of this work. Coincidentally, the date of this writing is the anniversary of the first meeting of 25th Anniversary Book Committee at the Sagamore. I am very pleased that this book is set to go to press on schedule, after approximately twelve months of rather concentrated, personal effort. During the preparation of this festschrift, two of the contributors passed away: Dr. Wendell Hughes who died earlier this year, and Dr. Byron Smith who died in 1990. As outlined in this book, the legacy of these two great men is strongly felt in our subspecialty and their influence upon the ASOPRS has been profound. The appearance of forewords to this volume by two very distinguished academicians is a most gratifying embellishment to this festschrift. Within their separate, respective specialties of ophthalmology and plastic surgery, Dr. Daniel M. Albert and Dr.Joseph G. McCarthy have each authored numerous papers, edited definitive textbooks, and have come to be known as authorities on specialized areas of medical history. Drs. Albert and McCarthy each direct major departments and institutes in centers of academic excellence . Here, ophthalmic plastic surgeons and their patients have greatly benefited through countless interactions and collaborations with these two talented physicians: Dr. Albert in the area of ophthalmic pathology; Dr. McCarthy in the area of craniofacial surgery. The specialized fields of ophthalmologyand plasticsurgeryintersect in the relatively new subspecialty that is termed ophthalmicplasticsurgery.The members of the ASOPRS are privileged to have Drs. Albert and McCarthy as valued consultants and friends of this Society.


It is my sincere hope that the histories and remembrances in this volume will be a source of enjoyment and enligh tenment for the members of our Society and oth er interested readers. Th e appe ndi ces should be a useful reference with regard to membership rosters, the extens ively indexed scientific papers and awards (from Society-sponsored symposia) , and Society bylaws. The collation of the historical chapters with the appendices should provide useful information for future researchers and historians . Throughout the following pages, an atte mpt has been made to emphasize the chain of tradition, the cumulative nature of scientific kn owledge, and the collegia l spirit ch at has characterized this professional organization since its inception. By placing the current status of our subspecialty into a historical perspective, we will hopefully gain a greater apprec iation of our current and future scientific and organizational endeavors. David M. Reifler, MD June 15, 1994

xx


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to thank all of the individuals who have contributed to the chapters and appendices in this volume. Grateful acknowledgment is also extended to the following individuals: Dr. Richard Carroll for getting the project started; Dr. Albert Hornblass for trusting me with its completion; Martha N. Steele, Managing Editor of Norman Publishing, for coordinating the technical design, editing and production of this volume; Heather Austin of Norman Publishing who assisted us greatly in making our deadlines; Steve Renick of Anselm Desi gn, San Anselmo, CA, for designing the layout of the text; Paul Benkman of Tiki Bob Publishing & Design of San Francisco for his speedy yet meticulous work in typesetting; and Karen Hollister of Sebastopol, CA, for her work in preparing the Index of Personal Names. In rega rd to chapters and appendices that I personally authored, the assistance of the following individuals is also gratefully acknowledged: Barbie Ritsema of Butterworth Hospital Media Productions, Mary Lynn Rathbun ofJenison Printing Company,Jenison, MI, and the staff of Corporate Color, Inc., Grand Rapids, MI, for preparing several of the photographic plates, camera-ready photostats, etc.; medical librarians Sandy Swanson and Char DeVlieger of Butterworth Hospital, Brian Simmons and Lois Huisman of Blodgett Memorial Medical Center, Doria Reid of the University of Michigan Information Transfer Service, and Lois Black of the New York Academy of Medicine, for their assistance in obtaining numerous references from the medical literature. Many colleagues who graciously responded to a wide variety of personal requests for biographical and historical information and/ or photographic material include the following individuals: Ors. Edwin Augustat, Crowell Beard, Bernice Brown, Alston Callahan, Thomas Cherubini, Richard Collin, Ira Eliasoph, Perry Garber, John Harrington, Gerald Harris, Michael Hawes, Charles Iliff and Helen Johns Ossofsky, James Katowitz, Martin Leib, Cornelius McCole, Orkan George Stasior, Robert Wilkins, and John Wobig. Several departmental secretaries and administrators who also kindly responded to various personal requests for biographical and historical information, and/or photographic material include the following: Eve Posen (Department of Ophthalmology, NYU), Elizabeth Sette!, (Department of Ophthalmology, UCSF), and Sandy Gallagher (Boston Eye Institute and Center, Waltham, Massachusetts); Dinah Hazell (AAO staff, San Francisco); and Lynn Fyfe Moose (managing editorial staff of Ophthalmology, Ann Arbor). Throughout this project, my own secretaries,Jan Kirkland,Julie Stroh, Nancy DeLands, and Terri Myers, faithfully assisted in the word processing, faxes and correspondence. The preparation of Chapter 2 and many of the appendices would not have been possible without the collation of archived minutes and reports of the Society by our Executive Director, Barbara FitzGerald-Beatty. Preservation of these archives is a tribute to the initial efforts of Founding Fellow Charles Beyer-Machule and the subsequent efforts of successive Archives Committees under the chairmanships of


Drs. Jack Chalfin and Paul Gavaris. Thanks to very freely shared personal discussions and correspondence with the five Founding Fellows of the Society, I believe that the details of the founding of the ASOPRS have been accurately represented. I wish to thank the Founding Fellow s individually and collectively for their help in publishing this work and for their momentous and visionary efforts beginning some twenty-five years ago. The collation of original copies of past Society Meeting program s was made possible through the efforts and donations of Drs. Bartley Frueh, Richard Carroll, and James Karesh. These original programs will be stored in the Society's archives. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the personal support and contributions of my family. My wife, Cathy Hoffman Reifler, proofed several drafts of chap ters that I personally authored. My sons, Aaron and Jonathan, helped me to switch to the word-processing software that was being utilized in the final editing of the book , and further gave me assistance with indexing. My daughter, Elizabeth always gave me enco uragement and moral support. I cannot overstate how much the understanding and forbearance of my wife and children meant to the suc cessful completion of the writing of the various sections and editing the work on schedule.

xxii


Chapter 1 H1STORY OF OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY PRIOR TO THE FOUNDING OF THE ASOPRS David M. Reifler

The threads of the history of ophthalmic plastic surgery are woven into a rich tapestry of personalities and the many surgical advances that have been achieved through their efforts. Major portions of this tapestry were completed before the era ofmodern specialties and far before our current age ofsubspecialization. Paraphrasing the aphorism of Sir Isaac Newton, honest physicians recognize that the ability to see further is achieved only by "standing on the shoulders of giants." The following historical overview will present highlights of the development of ophthalmic plastic surgery in an approximately chronological sequence. A truly comprehensive review of the history of ophthalmic plastic surgery is well beyond the scope of this chapter and the linguistic and bibliographic abilities of the author. Admittedly, a reliance upon numerous English translations and seconda ry sources poses obstacles to objectivity and accuracy. An accessible starting point to study the histo ry of ophthalmic plastic surgery is a relatively short review that was published by Montandon in 1982 (1). A more expansive, recent work is in the form of a single volume edited by Bosniak and Smith (2) published in 1986 that includes several historical reviews, some in a reprinted format (3-5) but most as original contributions. These essays included analyses of evolving surgical techniques as segregated into categories (3-10), and reviews of the contributions to ophthalmic plastic surgery that originated in various regions of the world (r r-r 8) and at specific institutions (19-25). The textbooks by Spaeth (26), Duke-Elder (27), Fox (28), and Beard (29,30) contain detailed, referenced historical summaries on certain topics such as flaps, grafts, ectropion, entropion, ptosis, enucleation, and/or lac­ rimal diseases. In this chapter, limitation of space forces the ommission of several surgical techniques of historical interest. Although limiting this review to a subspecialized field of surgery, this history would find even greater meaning within the context ofother relevant and accessible histories ofophthalmology (31-35), plastic surgery (36-41), general surgery (42,43), and medicine (44,45). In other chapters and appendices that follow in this commemorative publication, important historical information is added to this body of literature, through the reminiscences of the founders, charter members, and leaders of our Society through its first quarter-century. These individuals, who established the subspecialty

REIFLER:

OPHTHALMIC

PLASTIC

SURGERV

PRIOR

TO

ASOPRS


of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery in North America, make frequent reference to their mentors and predecessors, thus again emphasizing the chain of tradition and the cumulative nature of scientific knowledge. A description of important personalities, writings, and accomplishments chat have presaged the founding of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) are meant to provide perspective. While the tapestry ofhistory presents a rich backdrop for us, future generations will hopefully also find our contributions visible within its fabric.

DEFINITIONS

In its most basic sense, ophthalmicplasticsurgerymay be defined as any surgery that changes the form of adnexal tissues associated with the eye (from the Greek: ophthalmos,meaning eye, and plastos, meaning formed). Thus, ophthalmic plastic surgery includes repair of eyelid malpositions, eyelid and orbital reconstruction, conjunctivoplasty, cosmetic blepharoplasty, lacrimal surgery, orbitotomy procedures, and the treatment of anophthalmic socket deformities. At one point, training in corneal and ophthalmic plastic surgery, cameo-plasticsurgery, were combined and textbooks encompassing these related subjects appeared (46). (The divergence of these fields as related to advancements in microsurgery and corneal transplantation will not be examined in detail.) The concise term, oculoplastic surgery, is frequently used in place of ophthalmic plastic surgery, and should not be misconstrued as meaning a surgical rearrangement of ocular tissues. From a bibliographical standpoint , it is interesting to note the varying preferences of authors and editors of various English language textbooks dealing with this subject, for either of the terms, ophthalmic plastic surgery (28,47-56) or oculoplastic surgery (57-62). It is important to emphasize that the definitions of plastic surgery have evolved since the term was introduced by German surgeons of the early nineteenth century. More will be said later about this group of pioneering surgeons, bringing out some interesting parallels with twentieth century Americans who have founded our subspecialty. As defined by these "founders of modern plastic surgery", reconstruction of missing or mutilated anatomy was the sine qua non for any procedure to be considered "plastic surgery". In that era, the definition of the term, blepharoplasty (blepharoplastik),as introduced by J.C.G. Fricke (63) in 1829, followed, by analogy, the convention of C.F. von Graefe (64,6 5). In 1818, von Graefe had coined the term, rhinoplasty(rhinoplastik),in his treatise on nasal reconsruction ; he had incidentally included a case of eyelid reconstruction performed in l 809. In the first comprehensive textbook of plastic surgery published in 183 8, E. Zeis (41) stated that total reconstruction of an eyelid, as accomplished by Dieffenbach and von Ammon, represented the only true blepharoplasty. He noted that a broader definition of the term was sometimes used by his contemporaries. Still, his

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chapter on blepharoplasty included methods of partial reconstruction of the eyelid surface using a pedicle flap from the temple as popularized by Fricke (6 3), and several methods devised to repair entropion, ectropion and lagophthalmos. Other contemporaries of Zeis such as E.O. Peters (66) and A.A.L.M. Vel­ peau (67) preferred the term blepharopoeisis (from the Greek, blepharon, eyelid, and poiesis, a making or creation) to denote the creation of the entire thickness of the eyelid. This latter term was rediscovered by Hughes in his monograph, Recon­ stmctive Surgery ofthe Eyelids (3). But as reflected in the the title of Hughes' thesis, the term, eyelid reconstruction, is more commonly used for complete or partial blepharopoeisis. As exemplified by Tessier (68), the term, blepharopoi·ese, has been retained by modern French writers. In modern American usage, blepharoplasty has come to be defined as an operation in which redundant tissues (skin, muscle, or fat) are excised from an eyelid, whether performed for functional or cosmetic purposes (69). Whatever definitions are used, the modern subspecialist's practice of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery encompasses all of the numerous procedures involving true reconstruction, correction of eyelid malposition and dysfunction (ptosis, retraction, lagophthalmos, entropion, and ectropion), cosmetic facial surgery, nasolacrimal procedures, deeper orbital procedures, and other areas of facial and orbital-cranial reconstruction. PREHISTORY

Deformities in the orbital region resulting from congenital defects, trauma, neoplasms and/or infectious diseases have afflicted men and women throughout the ages. Discoveries of prehistoric skeletal remains have occasionally revealed deformities that apparently did not result in death. One famous example is from the excavations at Shanidar Cave in Iraqi Kurdistan. From the extensive deformities and bone scar, Ralph Solecki and his team of anthropologists concluded that a congenitally deformed Neanderthal known as Shanidar I had suffered a blinding injury of his left eye and crush injuries of the right side of his skull. Yet there was strong evidence that the victim was "accepted and supported by his people up to the day he died (70)." It is therefore evident that the care of the deformed and the injured predates recorded history. It is a characteristic that is shared by "primitive" cultures in modem times. ANTIQUITY

The oldest surviving example of a reference to oculoplastic surgery is probably a passage from the Code ofHammurabi that apparently refers to the treatment of an infected lacrirnal sac. This collection of laws of a King ofBabylon dates from about 2250 BC:

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FIG. 1. Sliding flaps (Celsus). (a) Straight sliding flap for square defect. (b) Circular sliding flap for triangular defect.

If a physician performs on a patient a deep cue with the operating knife or if he opens with a knife an [abscess or cavity) and the eye is lost, the physician's hands

(? fingers] shall be cut [off] (71)."

The Ebers papyrus (ca 1500 BC), includes descriptions of ectropion, entropion and trichiasis, but treatment was limited to the application of medicines derived from a variety of substances such as caustics, oils, resins , and animal blood (72). Montandon (1) cited a reference to a suture repair of entropion advocated by Hippocrates (460-3 80 BC). According to Lagrange (5), ancient Greek writers such as Hippocrates and Homer paid special attention to the subject of orbital traumatism. Lubkin (73) has reviewed archeological evidence regarding a destructive but nonfatal arrow wound to the right eye and orbit ofPhilip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great. He sustained this injury at about the age of 28, some 18 years before his death. It is probable that some surgical attention was necessary for his recovery. Even earlier references to facial plastic surgery in general are from ancient India where mutilations of the eyelid were carried out as a form of punishment (3). The first-century Roman philosopher , Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC to 50 AD)believed that reconstruction of mutilated eyelids was hopeless : "Si nimiumpalpebrae deest nu/la id curatio restuerepotest" (74). (If the least portion of an eyelid is gone no treatment can restore it.) Except for the description of the repair of congenital coloboma in the sixteenth century by Jacques Guillemeau (see below), this adage remained true until the nineteenth century when the disciplines of modem ophthalmic and plastic surgery were founded. Although he was an encyclopedist rather than an innovator, Celsus described several surgical techniques, including sliding advancement skin flaps ("Celsus flaps") to cover square or triangular defects (Fig. 1). Converse (40) could not determine whether the flaps, as described , were raised prior to advancement, as was done in the nineteenth century, but he felt more certain that Celsus described the island flap with a subcutaneous pedicle . Since the time of Celsus , descriptions of many types offlaps forophthalmic plastic reconstuction have been introduced into the literature (Table 1). Celsus also described the treatment of a lacrimal sac fistula with excision and "burning to the bone," and he

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TABLE I. DESCRIPTIONS OF FLAPS IN OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC SURGERY

Advancement {applied to eyelids) Upper Extremity {publication) (applied to eyelids) Pedicle transposition Transposition/ rotation Z-plasty Pedicle transposition Tarsoconjunctival Bipedicle skin Skin island orbicularis (brow to lower lid) Vascularized island pedicle Cervical (not tubed) Tubed pedicle from neck Composite eyelid transposition (upper to lower) Tarsoconjunctival Nasojugal flap Composite bridge Cheek rotation with or without eyelid transposition Semicircular myocutaneous Tarsoconjunctival Oaterally based)

Celsus c25 AD Dzondi 1818 C 1460 A. Branca 1597 Tagliacozzi 1834 Sichel 1829 Fricke de Argumosa y Obregon 1833 1834 Hysem y Molleras 1835 Dieffenbach 1837 Homer Denonvilliers 1854 Von Langenbeck 1874 1881 Landolt 1885 Landolt 1889 Tripier Tripier Monks Snydacker Morax Filatov Gillies

1889 1898 1907 1908 1917 1918

Esser Dupuy-Dutemps Hughes Spaeth Cutler & Beard

1919 1921 1937 1925 1955

Mustarde Tenzel

1966 1975

Hewes-Sullivan-Beard

1976

was probably the first to comment on the excision of skin of the upper eyelids in describing the treatment ofa "relaxed eyelid" (palpebrae laxioris) (74). It is likely that ancient surgeons did not distinguish between ptosis and dermatochalasis and that the operation was applied in either condition. Indeed the operation described by Celsus contains many of the key elements of modern blepharoplasty in rather striking detail:

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" ... seize a fold of skin between a finger and thumb, and so to raise it; then consider how much must be removed for the lid to be in a natural position for the future ... Next where it is seen that the incision is to be made , a mark must be made by two lines of ink ... the incision nearer the eyelashes themselves is to be made first in the case of the upper lid, but second for the lower one ... the edges of the wo und are to be brought into apposition by one stitch . . . A sponge squeezed out of cold is bandaged on ... on the fourth day the sutures are taken out and a salve for repre ssing inflammation is smeared on (74)."

The greatest physician of the Roman era was Claudius Galenus (Galen) (r 29199 AD) who wrote a sixteen volume treatise, On AnatomicalProcedure.According to Galen , Herophilus of Chalcedon (344-280 BC) was the first person to dissect

both humans and animals in public for scientific purposes . Although numerous ancient Greek surgeons, appear to have written about ophthalmic plastic operations, many of their descriptions have been lost. Included among these writings are probably those of Leonidas, who may have lived during the apogee of Alexandrian medicine in the second century BC (200 years before Celsus ), andAntyllus, a Greek physician and surgeon in the second or third century AD. Only fragments of some of their books have been preserved through the writings of ancient authors-Aetius of Amida (sixth century), the Greek eclectic compiler, Paulus of Aegina (625 AD-?), Rhazes (860--932AD), and others. According to Montandon (r), Aetius of Amida attributed his technique of entropion repair to Leonidas . Montandon summarized the technique as follows:

"A drawing of the cutaneo us excision should be made by pinching the skin of the eyelid; fine instruments such as a compass, skin hook, forceps, and knife with a mobile or fixed blade should be used ... ; the lower incision is made first (to avoid the bleeding from erasing the drawing). A full-thi ckness incision is performed through the eyelid. The palpebral edge can then be everted using two running sutur es (women's hair) which can be attached together and pulled at the end of the operation (1)".

It is likely that Antyllus also was an early pioneer of oculoplastic operations, perhaps originating a technique of ectropion repair consisting of a central posterior eyelid resection. Paulus of Aegina used this technique to correct cicat ricial ectropion, incising through the scar and packing the wound with cotton (3 rv5). The treatment of dacryocystitis by Archigenes in the second century AD, is said to have consisted of destruction of the lacrimal sac with caustics and boring of hole s into the nose for drainage (28).

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Fie. 2. Elimination of excess eyelid skin by tissue necrosis. Method of Ali ibn Isa (9401010 AD.).

According to most historians, the greatest of the ancient Indian surgeons was Susruta. His writings, including descriptions of pedicle flap reconstructions of the nose, have been preserved in the Hindu literature :

"If somebody has had his nose cut off, then the physician should take off a leaf of identi cal size from a tree and put it on the patient' s cheek. Then a pie ce of skin and flesh is cut from the cheek , but remains attached to it by a stalk. The wound of the che ek is closed with needle and thread . The stump of the nose is scraped clean and the flap is then quickl y but cautiously put on the defe ct (3 1vs) ... "

The dates and details of Susruta's life have been open to conjecture--Fox (28) placed him in the seventh century BC, while Hirschberg (3rv5) assigned him to the second century AD. A quotation attributed to Susruta reveals a remark.able appreciation of the process by which progress in surgery is made : "The science of surgery is as vast as the oceans: it is a growing science ... " Yet, in India , canonization of the Hindu writings and a fore sakingof surgery by the Brahman elite limited further progress. In Europe, the canon of Galen and church dogma likewise delayed progress in surgery during the Middle Ages.

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MIDDLE AGES, RENAISSANCE, AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

With few notable exceptions, the Middle Ages was not a period of great advancement in the field of ophthalmic plastic surgery. While Europe slept, great Arabian physicians such as Ali ibn Isa of Baghdad (940-1010 AD)and Albucasis (963-1013) transmitted the surgical methods derived from the Alexandrian s, the Romans, and the Byzantines (7 5). 1 Relying upon controlled tissue necrosis, Ali ibn Isa recorded this interesting surgical technique that was used in the treatment of trichiasis, ptosis, and/ or dermatochalasis (Fig. 2):

"Gather a fold oflid skin between a couple of fingers, or raise it up with a hook and lay the fold between two small wooden bars or rods as long as the lid and as broad as a lancet. Bind their ends very tight together. The skin between these small pieces of wood, deprived of nutrient, dies in about ten days, the enclosed

fallsoff, leaving no scar(75) ."

The method of cauterization given by Albucasis was even more drastic:

"When an eyelid droops either from disease or humidity , then burn the lid with a single cauterization with this crescent shaped cautery . And if you wish bum him also a little above the eyebrows . .. but keep clear of the temples ; and let each caute rization be of the length of the eyebrow . Nor let your hand apply the cautery longer than to burn a third of the way through the skin (39)."

Medieval Europe lagged behind in the acceptance of surgical innovation and scholarship. But eventually, the great advances in surgery were to be made on this continent. A few medical schools emerged, yet surgery in general was held in less esteem. Bonavolonta (11) remarks that the twelfth century physician of Salerno, Davide Armeno, produced what he regards as the first "documented" descriptions for the treatment of entropion, ectropion, and lacrimal fistulae. 2 Anatomical and surgical scholarship achieved a true renaissance in sixteenth century Italy. The Belgian- born Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) brought his

1. In a prefatory chapter to his translation of Ali ibn Isa (75), Casey Wood reviewed the conttib utions of numerous Arabic authors (800-1300 AD) who wrote treatises on the eye and its diseases. 2. Davide Armeno's book, one of th e first to be devoted to ocular diseases was entitled Uber pro Sanitate Oculorum, better known as TraaatusDe Oculi Canamosali. Hirschberg (3 1 vz) probably described the same work as an annotated poem that grew through several editions to be called the Regimen Sanitatis Salemitanum.

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F1G. J. Georg Bartisch (c. 1535-c.16o6).

F1G. 4. The first step in the operation of extirpation of the eye. Method of Georg Bartisch.

passion for anatomy to Padua. Although he freed scientific anatomy from Galenic limitations, his descriptions of the eye in the seventh book of his De CorporisHumani Fabrica(r 543) included several erroneous descriptions and he further failed to discuss the ocular adnexal structures in detail. He copied Galen in describing a retractor bulbi muscle that does not occur in the human orbit (31v2). In the sixteenth century, methods of illustrating orbital anatomy included composite overleaf figures that simulated layers of dissection. One such example appeared in the famous book, Der Augendienst(76), written by the barber-surgeon , Georg Bartisch (c. 1535-c. 1606) (Fig. 3). In this book, a variety ofblepharostatic clamps were illustrated that were used to perform blepharoplasty by the skin necrosis technique of Ali ibn Isa. Also, Bartisch gave the first detailed description of enucleation or partial exenteration by the method known as extirpation (77). This brutal method survived well into the nineteenth century when it was replaced by enucleation within Tenon 's capsule. Bartisch's technique of extirpation was advocated in cases of egressiooculi.His first step in the technique was to pass a strong needle and thread through the eyeball for traction (Fig. 4). He then took a sharp spoonlike instrument far posteriorly beneath the upper lid. This was followed by repeated slashes through the eye until it was free of its attachments. In the fifteenth century, members of the Branca family (Branca the Elder and his son, Antonius Branca) of Catania, Sicily and the Vianeo (corrupted asBojano) family of Tropea (in the region of Calabria) developed methods of flap reconstruction of the nose but kept the information secret (3,41,78). Their methods

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included the "Indian" method oflocal facial flaps and a method offlap reconstruction from the arm, requiring a harness to hold the arm in place (the so-called "Italian" method). Their methods probably did not include the so-called" Ancient Indian" method of free skin or composite grafts. The secrecy of the art of flap reconstruction , and its unpredictability, resulted in a reluctance by surgeons of the Renaissance to adopt these techniques. One of the greatest surgeons of the sixteenth century, Ambro1se Pare (1509---1590)(Fig. 5), well understood the horror of his contemporaries for facial mutilation s sustained in battle, having observed euthanasia in the field of military battle (79). Pare warned of the extreme technical difficulty and patient discomfort of the operation for the repair of a mutilated nose (40), but he revealed his misunderstanding of the "Italian" method, by incorrectly identifying the bicep s muscle as the donor site. Pare, however, made numerou s and varied contributions to the development of surgery and medical science, including the treatment of dermato chalasis. He is considered to be the "Father of Surgery" as we know it today and to be the "Father of Facial Prostheses" (80,81). Pare's treatment ofche "relaxed eyelid" is prominently featured in Rogers' review of the history of cosmetic blepharoplasty (39). Yet Pare's technique can be seen to have been directly taken from the writings of Celsus (see above).

"It is fit before you do anything for the cure, that you mark with ink the portion thereof which is superfluous and therefore to be cut away, lest if you should cut off more than is requisite .. . Then the eye being covered, take and lift up with your fingers the middle part of the skin of the eye-lid, not taking hold of the gristle beneath it, and then cut it athwart, taking away just so much as shall be necessary to make it, as it were, natural; lastly, joyn the lips of the wound together with a simple suture of three or four stitches (39)."

The favorite pupil of Pare was Jacques Guillemeau (1560-1613). Gillemeau's book , Des Maladiesde l'Oeil qui son en Nombre de Cent Treize Auxquelles ii est Subject(Eye Diseasesof Which There are One Hundred and Thirteen)first appeared in Paris in 1585. Richard Banister in England publi shed it as his own book in 1622 although it is only an English translation. Although l:!irschberg maintained that this book did not contribute much to ophthalmology that was new, he conceded that Guillemeau described the repair of a congenital eyelid coloboma here for the first time "by freshening the edges and suturing their margins (31v2)." Although the secretive " Italian" flap reconstruction s of the previous fifteenth cen tury were misunderstood or ignored by the French (and others), this method was brought to the light of day by the sixteenth century anatomist and surgeon of Bologna , Gaspare Tagliacozzi (1545-1599) (Fig. 6). Tagliacozzi published his techniques and observations of the "Italian" method in great detail (78, 82) (Fig. 7).

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Fig. 6. Gaspare Taglia cozzi ( 1545-1599 ) . The Father of Plastic Surgery. Courtesy of the lstituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna.

Fig. 5. Ambro'ise Pare (1509-1590). The Father of Facial Prostheses.

In retrospect, this scholarly and unselfish approach to his achievements further elevated surgery beyond the less esteemed level of the itinerant barber-surgeon (78). It has justifiably earned him the title, the "Father of Plastic Surgery" (44). Tagliacozzi's scientific studies seem to have been motivated by a true desire to help unhappy, deformed patients, for he stated:

" . .. we are not the sort to wish our art to remain with us, as if enchained, but rather we wish to extend even to foreign nations, for which reason we have given everyone the opportunity to watch while we are operating (41)."

According to Zeis (41), there were very few reports ofTagliacozzi 's technique in the seventeenth century. By the eighteenth century, considerable doubt was cast upon whether he had actually accomplished his remarkable reconstructions.

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CENTURY

l.AcrimalSurgery Although the Tagli acotian methods of plastic surgery came to be neglected for many years, the eighteenth century marked a new era in the treatment

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FJG. 7. The "Italian" method of nasal reconstru ction .

F1G. 8. Georg Ernst Stahl ( 1660-1734) who

first described nasolacrirnal duct stenosis as a pathogenetic mechanism of dacryocystitis (fis tula lad1ry111a/1) .

oflacrimal diseases, consisting of probing and/ or stenting the lacrimal passages (9). In 1702, Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734) (Fig. 8), a professor of anatomy in Halle , described the pathology of dacryocystitis as being dependent upon obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct, rather than spontaneou s inflammation of local tissues. He categorized inflammation into acute, chronic, and hydrops or ulcer . Treatment consisted of incision , drainage and placement of stents-gut violin string from the upper punctum to the sac and a second stent placed directly into the sac incision for two weeks (31v3,83). However, it appears that Stahl later retre ated from the mechanistic physiology of Rene Descartes . He maintained that all disease is caused by misdirected activities of the immortal soul that perme ates a passive machine-like body-a concept that was part of Stahl's philosophy of"animism". Garrison summarized Stahl's negative and positive contributions to the history of medicine:

"Apart from his treatise on plethora as a cause of disease (1698) which has won even the commendation ofV irchow, and his original account oflacrimal fistula (1702), he left little of value ... And Stahl was a well-meaning reactionary in still

another direction-in

his false theory of combu stion which threw back the

progre ss of chemistry for a century (44)."

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9. Original lacrimaJ irrigating system of Dominique Anel (c. 1679c. 1730). Courtesy of the Wellcome Institute . FI G.

In 1713, Dominique Anel (c. 1679-c. 1730) revolutionized the treatment of lacrimal diseases when he described probing and irrigation of the lacrimal system (84). He inserted fine blunt silver probes and cannulas through the upper punctum into the sac and from there into the lower end of the nasolacrimal duct (Fig. 9). Anel's fame was achieved during his travels in Italy and his treatment of the Duchess of Savoy in Torino. Following his relocation to Paris, his tendency for selfaggrandisement was criticized by his fellow surgeons (31v3), but the pro cedure of probing and irrigation endures to this day . In 1722, Charles de Saint-Yves (1667-1736) described treatment oflacrirnal pyocele by burning through to the nose with a branding iron and placement of a stent (31v3). In 1726, Johannes Zacharias Platner (1694-1747) described a systematic extirpation of the lacrimal sac (dacryocystectomy) that he claimed to have learned from his mentor, Thomas Woolhouse (c. 1650-c. 1730) (85). After removing the sac, a hole was also bored through the lacrirnal bone and a golden cannula was introduced into the nose (31v3). Although Anel may have been guilty of self-aggrandizement, Hirschberg found the character of Woolhouse even more difficult to interpret and questioned his capacity for surgical innovation:

"He had the brains of a scholar, the hand of a gifted surgeon, but otherwise he is one of the worst charlacans who has ever seen th e light of the day (31v3)."

Among the most fascinating references to lacrimal surgery is Blodi's recounting of observations made by the famous poet and philosopher ,Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832). This is a description of an attempted (unsuccessful)

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dacryocystorhinostomy in 1775 upon his friend , Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1 802). Th e surgeon was Johann Friedrich Lobstein (1736--r784), a professor of anatomy and surgery at Strasbourg:

"Goethe watched the operation and noted that a horse hair was used as a scent and placed through the lacrimal pun ctum , the opened lacrimal sac, the anastomosis and out thro ugh the nose. This hair was moved every day in order to insure a free comm uni cation . Goethe stayed with H erder for a while in Strasbou rg and took care of his postoperative needs. However, after a long and expensive treatment by the "fat surgeon" the anastomosis scarred down and the operation was a failure (31vllpt2)."

The state of knowledge about lacrimal diseases and treatment at the end of the eighteenth century was summarized by Johann Adam Schmidt (1759-1809) of Vienna in his monograph of I 803. Like his colleague and successor, Georg Josef Beer (see below) , Schmidt was a protege of the Maltese surgeon ,Joseph Barth, who was appointed by Emperor Joseph II to permanently establish ophthalmol ogy in Vienna. Schmidt's monograph was the mo st extensive to that time , but Hirschberg (31v5), who reco unted the contents in detail, noted omissions of then existing information and considered the work "a step backward. "

SurgicalTreatment ofEyelid Carcinoma In the Middle Ages, th e term , noli-me-tangere ("tou ch-me-not" ) was th e term applied to any slowly spreading lesion of the skin such as carcinoma s, lupu s vulgaris, and syphilis (86). It was mostly deemed to be incurable , un suitable for the knife and worsened by caustics. Althou gh Bartisch had attacked some lid tumors surgically (76), later ophthalmologists such as SaintYves still advised against treating these lesions (31v3). In an address to the Royal Society of London in 1755,Jacques Daviel (16931762) (Fig. 10) described the first known account of a series of patie nts wit h nolime-tangere(including eight cases invo lving the eyelids or cant hu s), whom he had successfully treat ed by surgical excision (87). H e believed that "the seat of the cancers of the eyelids, no se and other n eighb ourin g parts is absolu tely in the peri osteum , perichondrium and fat" and that "there can be no hopes of a cure without taking off the se membranes, th e fat or even any parts of the very cartilages that are contaminat ed. " Just three years earlier , Daviel had given his first report of the first tru e cataract ext ractions in history to th e Royal Academy of Surgery in Paris (3 1v3). From the standpoint of his contem poraries and subsequent medical histori ans, Daviel's revo lution ary innov ation of cataract extraction completely overshadowed his oth er important contrib uti ons. Ju st as Tagliacozzi's demonstratio n of recons tru ctive surgery came to be negle cted, Daviel's plea for definitive surgical extirpa tion of facial cancers was likewise ignored during the remai nd er of the eighteenth century.

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FIG. 10.Jacques Davie! (1693-1762), author of the first known account of surgical extirpation of noli-111e-tangere in a series of patients.

FIG. 11. GeorgJosefBeer (1763-1821), the Father of the Vienna School of Ophthalmology.

Orbital Surgeryand Trauma Thomas Hope of Scotland was a contemporary of Davi el and an important witness to the latter's cataract extractions in I 7 52. In I 7 44, Hope described the removal of an orbital tumor through the lower eyelid with preservation of the globe in an I 8-year-old girl (87a). Hope reported having performed another similar operation previously and credited his mentor, Saint Yves, as having first successfully performed such an operation. Georg Josef Beer (1763-1821), considered the "Founder of the Vienna School" of ophthalmology (Fig. I 1), helped lay the foundation of a "canon of ophthalmology" (31v4) at the end of the eighteenth century through his textbooks (31v4,88,89). He led the fight for recognition of ophthalmology as an independent specialty, and was appointed as the first full professor of ophthalmology at the University of Vienna in 1 8 I 2 or I 8 1 5 .3Beer recognized surgical indications for ptosis, eyelid cancer, and dacryocystitis. In his later text , he illustrated redundant folds of dermatochalasis (ashad Bartisch two centuries earlier) (89v2). He preferred dacryocystotomy and emplacement of gut sutures but rejected Anet's irrigations of the canaliculus. Access to a most interesting passage on surgery following orbital trauma is provided through a translation ofHirschberg's History:

3. Beer was the teacher and father-in-law of Friedrich Jaeger (1784- 1871) and the grandfather of Edward Jaeger ( 1818-1884). Other students of Beer that will be prominently featured in this history include P.F. von Walther, C.F. von Graefe, F.A. von Ammon , and W. Mackenzie.

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"According to the ophthalmic textbooks one shou ld imm ediate ly rep lace a prolapsed eyeball. This is often impossible and even dangerous . If parts of the injuring foreign body or if bone fragn1ents push the eye forward, these obstacles have to be rem oved first. Then the eyeball may return by itself to its nonna l position . If there is a considerab le loss of blood then the wo und has to be wid ened and the blood has to be drained . If ther e is alr eady a secondary inflammation th en one should wait and o nly patch th e eye. If the eye lies on the cheek , is blind and badly injur ed, it shou ld be inun ediately cut off. If th e eyeball , however, was not damaged it may lie outsi d e the orbit for a conside rable period of time and still re tain vision (31 v4)."

N INETEENT H CENTURY

Early Nineteenth Century Prosis Surgery In 1801, Antonio Scarpa (1756-1832) (Fig . 12), a pr ofessor of anatomy and pr actical surgery at the Uni versity of Pavia, Italy, publi shed th e first Italian textbook of ophthalmology (90). In 1806, James Briggs published an English translation (91). In a chapt er of thi s book, "Of th e relaxation of th e upper eye- lid ," Scarpa described the co rr ec tion of blepharoptosis by simple excision of skin th at is simil ar to techniqu es of Celsus , the Arabs, and Pare .

" ...

in the case of simp le relaxation of the upp er eye -lid, . . . it is more advanta-

geo us to make the fold and excision in the proximity and direction of th e superior arch of the orb it, th an near the tarsus . . . The lips of the wound should then be placed in con tact , and ret ained by means of strips of adhesive plaster (91)."

In 1823, George James Guthrie (1785-1856) , a renowned military surgeon and founder of the Royal W estminster O phthalmi c Infim1ary, published one of the first truly English textbooks on eye surgery (92) (Fig. 13), but eyelid recons tructi on was not mentioned. In following Arabian surgeons and Scarpa , Guthrie also included a section entitled, "On the relaxat ion of the upper lid ." H erein, Guthrie reported his own cases of pto sis rep air with som e refinem ents in tec hniqu e (Fig. I 4); but he recognize d the limit ations of skin resection .

" If the atony of the levato r palpebcae shou ld depend on mere debility from inaction, the suspension of the lid will be sufficien t with the attempts at morion of the patient . .. ; bu t if, on the contrary, there be a real paralysis of this muscle , I do not see how the operation can do more than raise the eyelid to a certain extent , so as to remove a part of the defonnity, and the cure of the paralysis must be attempted according to th e nature of the i1ru11ediatecause (92) ."

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Fie. 12. Antonio Scarpa (1756- 1832).

Guthrie's surgically orien ted text also featured extensive chapt ers on entrop ion, ectropion, repair of traumatic wounds, pterygium, orbital tumors, dacryoade necto my , and "ex tirpation " of th e eyeb all. In the section on the surgical treatment of eyelid tumors , definite distinction s are made between hordeolum , chalazion, variou s type s of encysted tumors, and verrucae. Yet Guthrie's text preceded the recognitio n of the distinguishing charac teristics of the most of common eyelid malignancy, basal cell carcinoma.

R ecognition of BasalCell CarcinomaIn a paper in th e Dublin Hospita[Reportsfor I 827, Arthur Jacob (1789- 1874) (Fig. I 5) drew atten tion to the clinical characte ristics of basal cell carcinoma, "an ulcer of peculiar character which attacks the eyelids and other parts of the face" (93) (Fig. 16). H e noted "th e ext raordin ary slowness of its progre ss, the pe culiar co nditi on of the edges and surface of the ulcer, the comp aratively inconsider able suffering produced by it, its incurable nature unless by exti rpation , and its not con taminating lymphati c glands." Others soon recognized the predil ecti on of the peculiar ulceration for the eyelids and the wisdom of surgi cal intervention. In I 83o, William Mackenzie ( 1791-1 868) (Fig. I 7), a former pupil ofBeer and the founder of th e Glasgow Eye Infirmary (1829), publi shed his classic textbook, A Practical Treatiseon the Diseasesof the Eye (94). Hirschberg described it as th e first Engli sh textbook that was a valuable contributi on to the world literature (31v8a). In this compr ehe nsive, well-referen ced and beautifully organized text, Mackenzie mak es the following statem en t of the surgical treatment of eyelid cancer which he noted was "vulgarly called Eating Cancerof the Face:"

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"That when the disease existS in a situation which admits of extirpatio n, the sooner this is done the better, and that this can be effected best by the knife, admits ofno doubc(94)."

The imp ortance of anatomy of the eye and the ocular adnexa was stressed by John Dalrymple (1804-1852) who, in 1834, produced the finest textbook on this

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F1G.14. Method of pcosis repair by skin excision described by George James Guthrie in 1823. From Fox SA: Oplitl,a/micPlastic Surgery,ed 4. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1970, with permission. F1G. 15. Arthur Jacob (1789-1874), who, in 1827, described an "ulcer of peculiar character which attacks the eyelids and other parts of the face." From Bennett JP: BrJ Plasl Surg 1974;27:144-54, with permission.

subject by an English author to that time. Providing one of the foundations for sound surgical technique, many important con tributions to anatomy in the orbital region are highlighted elsewhere in this chapter (Table 2). In America, the first descriptions of facial cancer and its surgical treatment included that ofJohn Collins Warren (1778-1856). In his greatest work, Surgical Observationson Tumorspublished in 1837, he described the roughened surface of an eyelid/facial cancer as lepoides (derived from the Greek word for bark) (95) (Fig. r 8). Approaching his seventieth birthday ,J.C . Warren later removed a vascular tumor of the neck during the first highly publicized yet scientific demonstration of anesthesia on October r6, 1846 (see below) . During the early nineteenth century, the surgical profession was gaining increasing acceptance in mainstream medical thought. The concept of surgical treatment offacial cancer was a great advance, but of equal importance was the concurrent early development of modern plastic and reconstru ctive surgery.

Rhinoplasty and the Birth of ModernPlasticSurgery We turn now to a group of early nineteenth century surgeons whose efforts directly led to the "rebirth" of plastic surgery. In r 816, Joseph Constantine Carpue (1764-1846) (Fig. 19), a surgeon of the York Hospital in Chelsea, England, reported the first two modern cases of

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Fie. 16. Jaco b' s first patient , a 50-year-old woman whose ulcer had been present for at least 4 years .

Fie. 17. William Mackenzi e ( 1791- 1868).

20

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TABLE 2. MODERN CONTRIBUT IONS TO ANATOMY OF THE OCULAR ADNEXA AND ORBIT 180~1969

Periocular tunic (modern discovery) Orbicularis oculi, pars lacrimalis Eyelid cilia and associated glands

Topograph y of palpebral conjunctiva Accessory lacrimal glands Smooth muscles of the lids Senile prolapse of orbital fat Eyelid extension of brow fat pad Suspensory ligament of upper lid Tubercle on the malar bone Lacrirnal fossa, nasola~rimalcanal Anatomy of the caruncle Anatomy of the levator Anterior orbital fat distribution Lower eyelid and lacrimal anatomy Arteries of the orbit Palpebral fissure measurements

Tenon Homer Zeis Moll Donders Henle Krause Wolfring Miiller Schmidt-Rimpler Charpy Whitnall Whitnall Whitnall Popoff Berke Castanares Jones Hayreh Fox

1806 1822 & 1824 1835 1857 1858 1857 1854 1872 1858 1899 1907 1910 1911 1911-1914 1912 1945 1951 1960 & 196 1 1962 & 1964 1966

flap reconstruction by the "Indian method," performed in 1814 and 1815, respectively (96). Prior to performing this operation, Carpue had devoted much time and energy to verifying accounts of British soldiers and surgeons who had witnessed an example of this surgery by Indian practitioners (40,96), and who had received accounts ofits performance by an English surgeon in Madras, Colley Lyon Lucas (1730- 1797) (40,97,98) (Fig. 20). The era of modern plastic surgery began with Carpue's report in England, though he wrote nothing on plastic surgery after 18 I 6 (41). But others followed throughout Europe (and even in America), describing a wide range of innovations in reconstructive surgery. The most active group of surgeons who devised and wrote about plastic surgery were in Germany; and many of them gave equal attention to ophthalmic surgery. Although these were still generalists in many ways, their specialized interests furthered the process of establishing specialties of both ophthalmology and plastic surgery.

GermanSurgeonsof the EarlyNineteenthCentury Although Tagliacozzi may retain the title, "Father of Plastic Surgery," it is Carl Ferdinand von Graefe (17871840) who is cons idered by many to be the "Founder of Modern Plastic Surgery"

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FIG. I 8. "Lepo ides". From Warren JC: SurgicalObservations on Tumors wit/, Casesand Operations,1 8 J 7.

-

FIG. I9.Joseph Constantine Carpue (1764-1846), who initiated the nineteenth century renaissance in plastic surgery with his report of nasal reconstru ction.

22

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'•M

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The first modem account of flap reconstruction of the nose in the Gentleman's Magazine of Calcutta, October, I 794. This article received the attention of Joseph C. Carpue (1764-1846) who revived European interest in the "_Indian" methods of reconstruction . FIG. 20.

(41,99) (Fig. 21). In the year 1818, two articles were published by von Graefe (64,65) whose titles included respectively the words "Rhinoplastik" in German and "De rhinoplastice"in Latin. Converse (40) stated that Desavit had first used the term, plastiql4e,in 1798, but von Graefe was the first to introduce this meaning of the word, plastic, into the surgical lexicon. One of the cases described in his extensive work on rhinoplasty was a case of eyelid reconstruction which was later called blepharoplastik. This was the case of a young girl with destruction of the eyelid by gangrene following erysipelas. However, all that was said of the operation was that he turned up a piece of skin of the adjoining cheek, with a very satisfactory result. According to Zeis (41), other early attempts at blepharoplasty included that of Carl Heinrich Dzondi (1770-183 5) who, also in 1818, reported a case of eyelid reconstruction (100). This was a case of a military officer who had lost the greater part of one lower eyelid from infection following a wound. Here the surgical technique and postoperative course were described in more detail. The following year, Dzondi reported on the reconstruction of the ala nasi, using skin from the hand of one of his students(101).4

4. Rather than demand such sacrifices, current ASOPRS preceptors require fellows co assist in the care of patients, assist and perform ophthalmi c plastic operations in specified categories , and produce an orderly thesis on some topic.

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FIG. 21. Carl Ferdinand von Graefe (1787-18 40), described by Garrison as the Founder of Modem Plastic Surgery.

In 1820, together with Philipp Franz von Walther (1782-1849), the "dean of German ophthalmologists in his generation" (35), von Graefe founded the ground-breaking J ournal der Chirurgieund Augenheilkunde. In 1821, in the second volum e of thi s journal, von Graefe repo rt ed the successful reconstruction of a defect of the chee k, lowe r eyelid, and adjacent nasal region by the Indian forehead flap method (102) (Fig. 22). Von Walther also maintai ned a keen interest in facial plastic surgery, reporting on the reattachm ent of the nose of a young man who had suffered a saber cut , importantly commenting on the desquamation of the o uter layer of skin post-operatively ( r 03). Such activities by German surgeons in that era were not unu sual as they we re often called upon to serve as a paukdoctor(surgeon to stud ent duellists). Other imp ortant cont ributions byv on Walther to facial plastic surgery included the first report of tarsorrhaphy in 1826, which was performed in a case of partial ectropion (104). Von Walther's contributions extended beyond op hthalm ology and plastic surgery. H e has been describ ed as the founder of modern surgery in Bavaria, publishing his System der Chirurgiein six volumes in I 843 (42). Another very important event in the history of plastic surgery was the first verified clinically successful free skin aut ograft. In 182 3, Heinrich Christian Bunger (1782- 1842), a professor of anatomy at Marburg, reported a case of nasal reco nstru ction in a 33-year-old woman, using th e "Ancient Indian M etho d" of rhinoplasty (105). A 3 by 4 in ch oval, full-thi ckne ss skin graft was harvested from th e sup erio r lateral sur face of the upp er thigh. Rogers (37) later noted, his suc cess may have been "inadvertently guarenteed by his cutting away excess fatty tissue from the middle portion of th e graft, thereby permitting a more rapid and easily facilitated nouri shmen t of th e full-thickness skin graft by und erlying host-bed

24

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Fie. 22. Von Graefe's original illustratio n of the " Indian" method for reconstruction of a defect of the cheek, eyelid, and nasal region (1821).

vessels." Biinger's contemporaries, including von Graefe , von Walther , Dieffenbach , and von Ammon , all failed in their attempts at free skin grafting in humans . 5 Skin grafting did not achieve widespread application until the introduction of th e "pinch" graft by Reverdin almost half a century later. Though Reverdin's nam e is the more famous and he is sometim es consid ered th e " Fath er of Skin Grafting," Rogers makes thi s strong co mment of historical fact:

"Wi th all due respect to Docteur Reverdin , th erefore, let it be stated here in unequivocal terms that the infant history of free skin grafting did not have Reverclin as either its father or mother (37)."

In 1829, Johann Karl Georg Fricke (1790-1841) of Hamburg w rote and illustra ted the first orderly treatis e on the use of pedicle flaps from th e temple and che ek for eyelid reconstruction (63) (Fig. 23). He used the term blepharoplasty (blephroplastik) in analogy to von Graefe's rhinoplasty. In spite of von Graefe's many inno vations and achievemen ts, Hughes (3) considere dJohann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) (Fig. 24) to m erit the appellation, "Fa th er of Plastic Surgery," by virtue of the latter 's tireless, systematic re search and range of publications. Man y of his methods and principles have not been improved upon and are still cons tantly employed (106). While still a yout h , Dieffenbach experimen ted in transplantation while prosector in ana tom y in his

5. The American.Jonathan Mason Warren ( 1811-1867 ) clid report successful full-thi ckness skin grafting, first for nasal reconstru ction (Boston Med Surg] 1840;22:261-<19) and later for eyelid reconstruc tion (36).

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FIG .2

FIG .3

FIG .5 Fig. 23. Original illustrations of pedical flap reconstructions of the upper and lower eyelids by Johann Carl Georg Fricke (17901841).

native city ofKonigsberg, Prussia. He studied with von Walther and subsequently travelled extensively in France, attending many surgical clinics there. He returned to Germany, receiving his degree in W i.irzbergwith a thesis, NonnulladeRegeneratione et Transplantatione,and settled in Berlin. He soon came to be recognized as the greatest authority in Germany on plastic surgery. His plastic reconstructive techniques were published in his book, SurgicalExperiences,Especiallyin Regard to theRestorationoJDestroyedPortionsof theHuman BodyAccordingto New Methods,Berlin I 829-1834/English edition, I 83 3 (42). Throughou t his life, Dieffenbach remained very interested in the grafting of tissues without a pedicle. He continued with animal experimentation and his I 8 34 report of his attempts in human patients were among the earliest in clinical history (107). When Dieffenbach returned to Paris, all of the hospitals were thro wn open to him so that he could demonstrate his methods of reconstructive surgery (108). In England, the reconstructive genius of

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Fig. 24. Johann Friedrich Dieffenba ch (1792-1847 ) described by W .L. Hughe s as the Father of (Modem ) Plastic Surgery .

the German school of surgeons was met with some resentment. The leading London surgeon of that era, Sir Astley Pas ton Cooper (1768-1841) recorded the following in his notebook on October 8, 1834:

"Pro( Dieffenba ch called without an introdu ction to ask me to go to the Hopital de St. Louis with him to see him make two new noses, which I declined as I did not wish to be mentioned in the papers (36)."

In 183 5, Dieffenbach reported the first account of flap transposition for total lower eyelid reconstruction (108) (Fig. 25) . Among his many achievements, Dieffenbach was also the first to popularize strabismus surgery , designing instruments and describing large numbers of cases, and for this, Gorin (35) similarly recognized him as the "Father ofStrabismus Surgery" . Dieffenbach 's recognition of Tenon's capsule, facilitated the popularization of other surgical procedure s including enucleation and the later development of retinal reattachment procedures. Shortly before his death, Dieffenbach published th e first volume of his classic textbook on surgery, Die operativeChirurgie(109). The second volume was published postumously by his nephew, J. Buring. Among his many innovati ve facial and ophthalmic plastic procedures, Dieffenbach included his method of skin triangle excision laterally beyond the canthus for repair of involutiona1 ectropion (Fig. 26). This was later modified by Julius von Szymanowski (1829----1868)who placed the skin resection both laterally and superiorly (28, I IO, II 1) (see below ).

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Fie. 25. Method oflower eyelid reconstruction by flap transposition described by Dieffenbach in 183 5.

Fie. 26. Dieffenbach's method of ectropion repair.

Among the German group of founders of modern plastic surgery, the name of Friedrich August von Ammon (1799-1861) (Fig. 27) must be prominently featured. Like von Graefe and Dieffenbach, von Ammon was a general physician and surgeon whose interests and remarkable achievements reflected true specialization in both plastic surgery and ophthalmology. Among his numerous contributions to eyelid surgery, von Ammon described procedures for entropion and ectropion: ln 1839, von Ammon described cantholysis for entropion, an innovation that is used forforother purposes by modem surgeons (112). For ectropion, von Ammon excised a full-thicknes s triangle at first centrally and later close to the lateral can thus, closing either wound location with an insect pin (113). This closure produced a less conspicuous scar than the central granulating wound suggested earlier by the Englishman, William Adams (1783-1823) in his monograph of 1812 ( 114). A comparison of these procedures and their modern redi scovery we re reviewed by M. Bick in 1966(II5) . In 1842, with Moritz Baumgarten (18131849), von Ammon coauthored a critical overview of all of areas of plastic surgery (116). Thi s was the second comprehensive, critical work on plastic surgery, preceded only by the Handbuch of his famous protege, Zeis (41) (Fig. 28). Von Ammon's accomplishments within the field of ophthalmology are no less impressive. In 1830 or 1831, von Ammon founded the periodical, Zeitschrififi.ir die Ophthalmologie.6 This was one of the first strictly ophthalmologic periodicals in history (35).7 In the first volume of his Zeitschrift,von Ammon reported his at-

28

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F1G.27. Friedrich August von Ammon (1799-1861), general surgeon, master ophthalmologist, and one of the Founders of Modem Plastic Surgery.

tempt at the surgical correction of epicanthus by excision of a diamond-piece of skin from the dorsum of the nose (117). In 183 8, von Ammon 's 2:eitschrift became Monatsschrifi far Medizin, Augenheilkunde und Chirurgie.8 In the inaugural volume ofvon Amman's Monatsschrift,Karl Josef Beck (1794-1838) of Freiburg published a historical review of blepharoplasty (II 8); Carl August Burow (180~ 1874) of the University ofKonigsberg reported his technique of excising triangles of excess skin at the base oflarger sliding flaps(r I 9). 6. The word, Zeitsd,rifl (periodical , from the German: zeit, time ; sdir!ft, publication) connotes a journal published for a small groups of professionals treating profound scholarly problems . For example, the great composer, Robert Schumann , (1810-1856) founded a journal of music criticism in 18J 5 entitled, Neue Zeitsd,riflfur Musik. Exactly 150 years later, Henry I. Baylis founded the journal of Opl,tl,al111ic Plastic and Recons/ructiveSurgery,which, at this point in time, has become the Zeitsd,r!ftof the ASOPRS (Chapter 2). Baylis, a student of history and humor, has facetiously presented his family tree of illustrious ophthalmi c plastic surgeons (Appendix 4), but as yet he has not located Freid.rich August von Baylis. 7. The only predecessors to von Arnmon's Zeitsclir!ftwere Opl,t/1a/1110/ogisc/,c Bibliotl,ekfounded in Germany by Karl Himly (1772-1832) andJohan n Adam Schmidt (1759-1809) ofVienna, Himly's Bibliot/,ckfur Op/11/,a/1110/ogie, and the Biblioteque Op/1tal111ologique founded by Sebastian Guillie (1780- 1865) in France. 8. The word , Monatsscl,rifi(from the German: 111011at s, monthly; sd,r!ft,publication) emphasizes the frequency of the publication . Upon von Graefe's death in 1840, von Ammon gave up his Mo11atssd1rift to assume editorship of the J ournalder Cl,irurgie,md Augenheilkunde,that von Graefe and von Walther had founded 20 years earlier.

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PLASTISOHE OBIRU-RGIB IDBEN BISHEBIGElW LEIS'.l'IJNGElW KRITlSOH DABGESTELLT.

'EINE VON DER lllEDICINISCHEN GESl!LLSCBAFT Z1l GEM' GEKR0NTE PREISSCIDUFT

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Bofratb, Lclbarzt s. !\1. detc K,)1111,;t, \'On. SH�h51m, Ritcur dl!S Ji(. Sitcih:i. Ch·lh-enUm.1111t,. orden.s. dt!ll Kurht:.S:tlacbtn Orde1U1 ,·om goldn�n L6wc.o. ,,ks Dcnoi;Hcb Luccht.sllchen Verdlenstordt:.os ,·om JI. i�udwig: fl. eta ,-e, Ant de:r OIIJ1deoerzlehun�sans1aJl und du AugeukTRJlkc11bcll\1t!rtinR tu Dre:-dcn, l'llllglietl lhsr KVnlgl. �-\eadiemit:n de.r ,tt:dlcln zu P1rfs 1 SlockbolnL und Jioreubageu w1d dut Krd�erJ. '" 3lotlk.au, du llufc:lsuut;cheo um! des Vettlns ru.r Beltluude Ju Preusst!n � t,ll)'Jtlkall!icber und me.diclnl8cl1u CttttU­ isabaften za. BerHn 1 Bonn, In Baden, :z.u Urdggt, UrU.8.it:1 1 Oreti:der11 Erlangt.n, Florenx, Frankfu.rl L M-, Grelfswalde, 11:matt, llt!it.lelber�, HentttJutu. JU.�')-. Lelpttg, Lyon, 1'l&rbarg 1 )lctz • AJlinclum. St:\\'• Orlean.,, Pari,i I Ro.!1otk J SaJ:z.u.f'etn.. Str8$S.burg, \Vfl!U I Ziiricb

Dll. MORITZ B&1JJIG.�TEN, Ptar,tlsc.beni Ante zu Drc:!!den, Arzle am Au�cttkr.utJ:c11bciJn�reJn, dt'f' Gttr.11.sch&ntn. !tlr Natu.r• und Hcllkundt: .zu Dn::oldc:n. J,eipzfg, U11wbur� 1 Gc11l I Oru,,sel, IUoncpr.llicr und der Schl�•CIIWl Go•ullscba(t '"' \'Alcrhu,�isc:11• CUIIIU" MIU;liede.

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Fie. 28. Title page of one of the fuse comprehensive overviews of plastic surgery by Friedrich August von Ammon (1799-1861) and Moritz Baumgarten (1813-1849) published in 1842.

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Burow, a native of Germanic Elbing (now Elblag, Poland) was a protege of Dieffenbach (I 20). Following the acceptance of his doctoral thesis in I 835, Burow studied with Dieffenbach in Berlin and then received a position at the U niverstity ofKonigsberg, Dieffenbach's native city and alma mater. Here Burow specialized in ophthalmology as well as in general surgery. He was well known for his treatment of open wounds, which he preferred to leave open and irrigate with an aqueous solution of aluminum acetate (Burow's solution) , his equivalent of Lister's carbolic acid (see below). As mentioned, von Ammon's protege, Eduard Zeis (1807-1868) (Fig. 29), is widely recognized as defining the terms and the scope of the new field of"plastic surgery" and as the author of the first comprehensive book on this subject, Handbuch der PlastischenChirurgie(41), published in 1838 (Fig. 30). In 1863, Zeis published a thorough summary of the literature and history of plastic surgery (l 2I) Zeis' Handbuchand subsequent bibliography contain a wealth of historical details on the early development of eyelid reconstructive surgery. Undervon Ammon's influence, Zeis devoted much of his practice to plastic operations, and diseases and surgery of the eye. The term, glands of Zeis, memorialize his classic studies of eyelid anatomy(r 22). Throughout Zeis' writings on plastic surgery , von Ammon's cases are liberally cited with great praise and admiration for his work. A corollary may be drawn between the mentor-student relationship of von Ammon and his younger assistant Zeis, and that of John Martin Wheeler and Wendell L. Hughes a century later (see below). Considering all of von Ammon's achievements and the mentor-student relationship with his fellow Dresdener , the title, "Father of Plastic Surgery," might be considered as applicable to him as his colleagues, von Graefe and Dieffenbach .

Britishand French Surgeonsof theEarlyNineteenth Century Of course the intertwined story of ophthalmology and plastic surgery in the early nineteenth century extends beyond Carpue and the great German surgeons of that era to include other significant contributions elsewhere in Europe . The noted ophthalmologist , Benjamin Travers (1783-1858) reported a case of rhinoplastic reconstruction in I 823. Travers is best remembered in ophthalmic history for assisting John Cunningham Saunders (1773-1810) in the founding the first eye specialty hospital in history, the London Dispensary Oater Moorfields), on March 25, 1805. Both Saunders and Travers produced textbooks of ophthalmology. In France, Jacques Mathieu Delpech (1777-1832) also published a case of nasal reconstruction in 1823. Preceding Zeis by two years, Philippe Frederic Blandin (1798-1849) wrote the first general work on plastic surgery in the modern period (122a). The work was originally submitted in competition for the Chair of Clinical Surgery at the Paris Faculty and contains a review of the history of plastic surgery. Despite Zeis' chauvenistic criticism of his French rival, his Handbuch contained numerous citations of Blandin's contributions to plastic surgery .

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Fie. 29. Eduard Zeis ( 1807-1868), author of the first comprehens ive book on plastic surgery published in 1838.

Ju st four years following Zeis' textbook, the first systematic textbook and atlas of plastic surgery of the face (122b) was publi shed by Delpech's student and successor, Michel Serre (1799-18 49). In his book , Serre advocated the sliding flap method of reconst ru ction , a method he insisted originated in France. The method was intended originally for eyelid reco nstruction, but was applied to reconstruction in other region s. Although not a native Frenchman,Jules Sichel (1802-1868) did much to initiate the renaissance of French ophthalmology. He was born in Frankfurt am Main, the son of aJewish merchant (31v7), and studied medicine in Wi.irzberg and Berlin. After serving as assistant to Friedrich Jaeger in Vienna, he emigrated to Paris in 1829. Although Sichel found at first "a most hospitable reception " (31v7), he ultimately was "doubtfully accepted by his new fatherland (35)." Alfred Armand Louis Marie Velpeau (1795-1867 ), one of the leading French surgeons (and "encyclopedists") of that era, deplored surgical specialization that Sichel represented; from a scientific standpoint, he considered Sichel to be "solely a representative of German conce pts (31v7) ." Sichel , in 1834, appears to have been the first to suggest the use of a flap from the arm to reconstruct an eyelid, the so-called " Italian" method (123) (Fig . 31) and the procedure was next performed by Paul Berger of Paris in 1879 (3 1v5). Adopti on of this technique by others has been summarized m several texts (3,26,31v7), but the procedur e was always more unreliable than local facial flaps. In 1844, Sichel was the first to accurately describe " herniated orbital fat" associated with blepharo chalasis (124).9 Dupuis and Rees rendered thi s translation of Sichel:

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Handbuch de r

plastischen Chirurgie 't'OD

Eduard

Zeis,

Doctor dtr M .. di cin t1nd Chi_rur gi~ , pn "t i1ch• m Ante zu Dres dta , &rmt u nt • t Ar_zte bt~ Aa o tnk.r a nkenh t1lYn t m 1 Jn K ind,.rhPi la nst 111t, z.w, itelQ A.ri. 1, dN BliAd tne. na t b.ungs M.StA.lt, dt r Gesel h,ct1.r 1 rur !\"""lur.. und lf eiUt.und t t.u Ore td • • ordmlliclatui, wtd de r Bu (eli11nd 1chtn 1nf>c.l. f"hi, . GtarU.ch&ft z 11 Bulla cor,u,p olldin1>dem ll1i1gliecu.

e

. 1 n er

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J. F. Dieffenbach, Ritt t r lnt ltrrre r O rJe n, Doctor d t r 1'-ltd .ic in nnd CLirurgil'!, P rn fi-uor 1111 11 drr Uni\'u ,it iit und di rl;lrrad tm Atz.l AD der Chari l4 zu l:lerli.D, l\lil g lit d em1ger Au de mien unc.l UenJl sch•h t n.

Mil 't'ielenHolucbnitten ond zwei Kupfertafeill .

Berl i o. Goclrucktond nrlegt bei G. ReiJMr.

1838. Fie. 30. T itle page of Zeis' classic and historic textbook .

9. Duke -Elder (27v13ptl) credited Her m ann Schmidt-Rimpler

(1838-1915) with the first description of Jette /iemien (fatty hernia) associated with senile eyelid atrophy (Zentralblattprakt 1899;23:297). Fox (112) no ted the co ntemporary (1899) introductio n of the term, Auge11/1eilk ptosisatonica(dermatoch alasis) by Ernst Fuchs (185 1-1930).

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Fie. 31. The "Italian" method of peclicle flap reconstruction of an eyelid defect, first suggested by Jules Sichel in 1834. Photograph chat appeared in Hirschberg 's History probably taken from De stice,one Vin centiis: Saggiodi bleplraropla of the first publications that included preand postoperative photographic docu mentation of eyelid reconstructions.

"The lid is smooth and swoUen, and presents a tumor sometimes even elastic on palpation . Mose often, this tumor is circumscribed between the adherent part of the lid and its transverse fold. Often it hangs in front of the inferior aspect of the lid as a bulge or a liccle transverse bag. Its weight , more considerable than the one of a simple skin fold, makes the movements of the lid more difficult ... It is a ra.re condition . . . most often found in children (125) ."

Throughout the nineteenth century, other centers in Eur ope and the New W odd produ ced surgeons who made landmark refinements in ophthalmic plastic, lacrimal, and orbital surgery. In 1 8 3o, William Mackenzie ( I 791- I 868) of Glasgow

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advocated excision of facial cancers and excision of excess dermatochalasis (89). Other authors from the first half of the nineteenth century began advocating excision of this excess skin including Hunt (126), Allbert (127), Graf(128), and Dupuytren (129). In America, Jonathan Mason Warren (18II-1867) described nasal reco nstructions by the "Indian" and modified-Tagliacotian or "Italian" methods; and full-thickness skin grafts for nasal and eyelid reconstructions (36, I 30).

Controversiesof Priority: Eyelid Reconstruction,Z-plasty, and Enucleation Several writers (3,12,131) have credited the Spanish surgeon, Diego de Argumosa y Obregon (1792-1865) with chronologic priority in the description of "Dieffenbach's" method oflower eyelid reconstruction. De Argumosa carried out his procedure in I 832, presented his technique to the Faculty of Medicine in Madrid in 1833, and published a paper in 1834(3). Another Spanish surgeon,Joaquin Hysern y Molleras (1804-1883), also published a thesis about this method in 1834 (132). Hysern referred to de Argumosa's contribution, but claimed (without documentation) to have already performed this operation in 1829 (3,12). Dieffenbach had performed his operation in 1834 in the clinic of J. Lisfranc (1790-1847) in Paris(31v5). The Z-plasty or switch flap, one of the basic techniques of plastic surgery, also has its origin in this era, and with equal if not greater bibliographic controversy. According to the scholarly research of Borges and Gibson (133), true priority can finally be given to William E. Homer (1793-1853) of Philadelphia (Fig. 32), 10 who published his historic description of transposed adjacent triangular flaps in 1837 (134). This was a case of severe cicatricial lower eyelid ectropion resulting from a bum four years before. Horner took a triangular flap of the check and upper lateral canthal area and transposed it into the lower eyelid (Fig. 33). The second Zplasty (also for ectropion) was described by Charles Pierre Denonvilliers (18081872) in 1854(135) but, although he was probably aware ofHomer's paper, he failed to give him credit(136). A subsequent case ofDenonvilliers, published in 1856 (137), involved only a single transposed flap brought up from the cheek. Borges and Gibson (13 3) showed that classic textbooks and articles-in ophthalmology, by C.H. Beard (1855-1916) (138,139), and in plastic surgery by John Staige Davis (140,141)-overlooked Homer's con tribution, misrepresented Denonvillier's 1856 paper as a Z-plasty, and lastly erroneously ascribed priority for the Z-plasty to Denonvilliers . In I 841, the first modem enucleations were almost simultaneously reported by Amedee Bonnet (1802-18 58) in France andJoseph Michael O'Ferrall (17901877) in Ireland (77,142). Both Bonnet and O'Ferrall independently had prero. Whitnall cited a 1749 (posthumously published?) monograph by Joseph G. Duvemy (1648-1730) of France as the first description of the 111usculus orbimlaris omli pars lacri111alis, preceding that of William Horner (Plri/J Med PlrysSci 1824; 8:70). Thus the term, "Duvemy 's muscle," is technically more correct than "Homer's muscle." William Horner is even less eponymi cally conne cted with"Horner's syndrome,' which was described by Johann Friedrich Homer (1831-1886) ofZurich.

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F1G. 32. William E. Horner (1793-

1853), who first described a method of transposition of adjacent triangular flaps (now called a Z-plasty) in 1837.

pared for this procedure by perfonning anatomical dissectio ns, and each "discovered" a fibrous tunic. O'Ferrall was unaware that this capsule had been previously first described in modern times in 1806 by Jacques Rene Tenon. O'Ferrall's paper appeared in the DublinJournal of MedicalSciencefor July I, 1841 (142), only weeks after Bonnet's article had appeared in the first issue of the 1841 volume of Anna/es d'Oculistique. According to Gorin (35), the oldest surviving record of a description of"Tenon's" capsule actually dates to about 98 AD in a book on ocular anatomy by Rufus of Ephesus. The first to extensively use enucleation in place of extirpation was George Critchett (1817-1882) ofMoorfields Hospital. He did so in several cases and reported them, apparently unaware that the procedure had been twice suggested ten years before his first report of l 8 5 1 (77).

The Royal umdon OphthalmicHospital (Moorfields)The most illustrious contemporary ofCritchett at Moorfields was Sir William Bowman (1816-1892) (Fig. 34). Bowman began his career as an anatomist and surgeon, deploring the appellation of"oculist" (143), yet he would become , "almost as if under compulsion," the dean of English ophthalmologists (34). In 1857, the Moorfields registrar and curator of the pathology museum, Charles Bader (1825-1899), reported Bowman's operations oflevator shortening for blepharoptosis (144). Thaller and Collin (14) commented that his two cases foreshadowed all the later developments of this form of operation. In the first case, Bowman tightened the levator by excising part of the tarsal plate and levator tendon by a conj unctiva! approach.

36

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,

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FIG. 33 . Z-plasty. Upper and lower left: Homer 's original figures 1 and 2 of his Z-plasty operation to correct ectropion. Upper

and lower right: Alleged original Z-plasty ofDenonvilliers published by C.H. Beard.

In the second case, a transcutaneous approach was used to achieve a similar levator shortening. Others, though must have also experimented with levator surgery for the correction of ptosis. In 1858, Bowman (145) reported a modification of Anel's procedure oflacrimal probing. Bowman's technique consisted of slitting the lower canaliculus with a slender knife and then dilating the nasolacrimal duct through this canaliculus (Fig. 35). Progressively larger probes were used over a protracted period of time. However, dacryocystectomy became the favored treatment for dacryocystitis, especially following refinements in the technique by Rudolf Berlin ( 1833-1 897) of the University of Rostock , who emphasized excision of the lacrimal sac only (146) . In 1857, another surgeon atMoorfields,John Fremlyn Streatfeild (1828-1886) 11 described grooving and section of the tarsus for cicatricial ectropion (tarsoplasty) ( 147). The young Streatfeild had been placed in charge of initiating the editing and publication of that hospital's journal, the Reportsof theRoyal London Ophthalmic Hospital(32). In 1862, the International Congress of Ophthalmology was held in Paris. At that meeting, a young assistant of Franciscus Comelis Donders (1818-1889) from the University of Utrecht in Holland, presented a method of

11. Although the spelling as "Streatfeild " appears in all of his articles, his obiturary in Lancet (April J, 1886, p 666) and elsewhere, E. Treacher Collins ( 1862-1919) mistakenly recorded the spelling of his name as " Streatfield" (32). J.R.O. Collin believes this resulted from misspellings in the Moorfields Hospital records (personal communication) .

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F1G. 34. Sir William Bowman ( 18161892), who first described levator

shortening procedures by either anterior or posterior approaches.

ectropion Herman upo n the technique

cor rectio n using full- thickness sutur es (148) (Fig. 36). The author was Snellen (1834-1908) (Fig. 37), who eventually succeeded Donders latter's retirement in 1884 (35). Silverstone summ arized Snellen's as follows:

"Two or three equally spaced (silk or silver wire) sutures were placed obliquely from the lower cul-de- sac out through the lower eyelid ju st inferior to the tarsus and o ut the skin just above the inferior orbital rim . Leaving the sutures in place over bolsters for

2

or J weeks was usually sufficient to create a fibrotic reaction,

thereby preventing outward movement of the lid (6)."

T he com bination of Streatfeild's grooving and section of the tarsus plus Snellen's sutu res for closu re has sometimes been tem1ed the Streatfeild-Snellen operation (28). Streatfeild subsequently con tribut ed several "Ophthalmi c Notelets " in th e LAncet, including ablation of the socket in some cases of enucleation (see below). Snellen went on to make numerous contributions to opht halmology including visual acuity testing and the fun ctional examination of the eye.

38

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-=~=<====~ 5

r~ae==;;;;;;;;~

Fie. 35. Instruments developed by Bowman for canalicular

slitting .

Fie. 36. Method of ectropion correction by full-thickness eyelid sutures described by Snellen in 1862.

The contributions of Albrecht von Graefe (r 828-r 870) were relatively minor in the area of ophthalmic plastic and recon structive surgery, but it is impossible to completely ignore this illustrious personality who is considered to be the "Father of Modern Ophthalmology(35)." A preco cious orphaned son of Carl Friedrich von Graefe (see above), Albrecht von Graefe's legendary tour of postgraduate medical studies took him to the major capitals of Europe and in intimate contact with the leading figures in ophthalmology, including Arlt in Prague, the Jaegers in Vienna, Sichel and Desmarres in Paris, Bowman and Critchett in London, and Mackenzie in Glasgow (35). Unlike his friend Bowman , von Graefe found all attempts to advance the levator to be "futile" (3 rvr 1), a fact that he attributed to the fan-like insertion of the levator tendon. Instead, von Graefe sought to improve upon the skin resections of Celsus , the Arabian surgeons, and Scarpa by means

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Fie. 37. Hennan Snellen (1834-1908)

of the University of Utrecht.

of orbicular muscle excision. His technique, published in 1863, consisted of undermining the skin of the upper eyelid and excising preseptal orbicularis muscle (149). This method did not result in much improvement over simple skin excision and never gained popularity (30). 12

Advancesin Anesthesiaand Antisepsis Hughes (150) commented that before the modem era of anesthesia, "surgery was only for the brave stoics who could stand extreme pain. If alcohol, opium, and the restraint of husky assistants failed, "a blow to the head sometimes did the trick temporarily, and ... occasionally permanently. But by a "fortunate confluence of events, simultaneous advances in ophthalmology and anesthesia allowed the development of more complex ophthalmic surgicalprocedures{r6). On March 30, 1842, Crawford W . Long (18151878) of Jefferson , Georgia, performed the first operation using ether anesthesia. With a towel soaked with sulfuric ether, he removed a tumor from a patient's neck. Although his feat was later well substantiated, he did not immediately publish his innovation. On December Ir , r 844, nitrous oxide, general anesthesia was introduced by Horace Wells of J-{artford, Connecticut. On October 16, 1846, a denti st, 11

11

11

12. To von Graefe's credit , he inspired and personally supp orted innovation and research in ophthalmology that had indirect effects upon ophthalmic plastic surgery. The studies of Heinrich Miiller (1820-1864) a Professor of Anatomy in Wiirzburg, is a case in point. Among other contributions, Miiller described the smooth muscles in the lower orbital fissure (orbital muscle) and the lids (supe.rior and inferior palpebral muscles) (3 1v11b).

40

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William Thomas Green Morton (1819-1868), administered general anesthesia by ether inhalation w hile John Collins Warren (1778-1856) performed surgery at the M assachusetts General Hospital (44) . The term, anesthesia, was actually suggested to Morton by Oliver Wendell Holmes . In I 847, chloroform, general ane sthe sia was introduced by Sir James Young Simpson (18II-1870) in Edinburgh (44). Sir Francis Darwin stated, "I n science, the credit goes to the man who convi nces the wo rld , not to the man to whom the idea first occ urs ." Yet the search for historic truth may prevail when spu rred by financial considerations or simply by our natural curio sity. In 1847, Congress offered $roo,ooo to the discoverer of ether anesthesia but after sixteen years of cont roversy the offer was withdrawn without resoluti on. While Ether Day is celebra ted on October I 6 at Massachusetts General Hospital, th e American Society of An esthesiologists promotes March 30 as Do ctor 's Day to commemorate Long's first use of ether as an anesthetic. 1 3 In 1855, the German chemi st, Friedrich Gaedcke , identified cocaine as the active alkaloid of the coca leaf (Erythroxylan coca).Physicians, and various surgeons had sporadi cally not ed its properties and mu sed over its potential in surgery. But th e cre dit for popul arizing cocaine as an anesthetic belongs to the oph thal mologist, Carl Koller (1857-1 944). As a yo un g house physician in the neurology section of the Allgemeinen Krankenhaus in Vienna, Koller was befriended by Sigmund Freud w ho introduced him to the properties of cocai ne. While still an intern Koller's paper and demons trati on of the topical appli cation of cocaine to the eye was presented in abstenti a in H eidelb erg on September 15, 1 884:

"I c was an event of historical significance, as his discovery opened the door not only co a new era in ophthalmic surgery, but co surgery in general (15oa)."

T he in trod uction of antiseptic procedures by Joseph Lister (r 827-1912 ), also had a tremendous impact up on op hthalmic plastic surgery, especially eyelid re constructio n and skin grafting. In l 865, Lister first repo rted the use of carb olic acid in th e treatment of a compound fracture, followin g th e general idea of August Burow (see above). Ho weve r , in 1867, Lister expanded his concepts in two historic articl es that he publi shed in the 1.Ancet-the results of two yea rs' workthe second of w hi ch entitled, On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practiceof Surgery(44). Hi s technique came to include anti septic cleansing of the surgeon's hands, in strume nt s, and operative fields. Post- operative infections of skin grafts that plagued Dieffenbach and Zeis , were more effective ly avoided by the next generation of ophthalmologists and plastic surgeons.

13. A 24-minuce documentary video on the "ether controversy," Ya11k ee Dodge,is available from the Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology, 520 N . Northwest Highway, ParleRidge, IL 6oo68-2573.

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SurgicalHistopathology The development of surgical histopathology was a further part of the "fortunate confluence of events" in the clinical sciences that laid the foundation for rational treatment of facial malignancy. In 1860, Jonathan Hutchinson (1823-1913) (Fig. 38) of London first described the microscopic appearances of rodent ulcer (basal cell carcinoma) (151). His specimens were fixed in chromic acid and teased with fine needles to break them up in an attempt to reveal the malignant cells (86). In 1865, Carl Thiersch (1822-1895) (Fig. 39) of Munich used thin sections to study epithelioma which he divided into superficial and deep types:

"Superficial epithelial cancer or rodent ulcer is always characterized by a superficially situated epithelial neoplasm a few milimeters in thickness, which, in a vertica l section , is seen to be always demarcated from the connective tissue stroma ( 152)."

Concurrently in America, during the Civil War, pioneering work in clinical photography and then photomicroscopy was begun by two surgeons in the Union Army . In 1864, William Thomson (1833-1907) and William F. Norris (18391901), demonstrated practical use of high-power photomicrographs from wet collodion preparations ( 152a). Both Thomson and Norris later had distinguished careers in ophthalmology and both became members of the Wills Eye Hospital staff in Philadelphia.

Skin and Mucous MembraneGrafting In 1869, Jacques-Louis Reverdin (18421929) demonstrated conclusively that a completely detached piece of human epidermis would continue to live and grow if placed on a proper bed, protected, and kept firmly in contact until tissue union had taken place (153). In the 187o's, the techniques of free full-thickness skin grafts for cicarricial ecrropion were described by George Lawson (1831-1902) (154), Leon C. Le Fort (1829-1893) (155,156), and A.W. Sichel (157-159). In 1875,John Reissberg Wolfe (18241904) of Glasgow, reported the successful plastic repair of a defect about the lower eyelid with a free full-thickness graft 2.5x5 cm from the arm (160) (Fig. 40). Although the contributions of others such as Biinger andJ. Mason Warren were earlier, Le Forte and Wolfe did much to popularize the full-thickness skin graft. Subsequently successful full-thickness skin grafts were recorded in the American literature by D.F. Wadsworth (1838-19u) (161) of Boston in 1876, and in 1880 by Henry D. Noyes (1832-1900) (162) of New York who cited other cases from the literature . Also stimulated by Reverdin 's work , Leopold X. E. Oilier (183er- I 900), chief surgeon at the Hotel Dieu de Lyon (163) in 1872, and Carl Thiersch of Munich (164) in 1874, reported the use of thin but relatively large sheets of dermo-

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FIG. 39. Carl Thiersch (18221895) who gave the first accurate histologic description of basal cell carcinoma using thin sections.

FIG. 38.Jonathan Hutchinson (18231913), ophthalmologist and syphilologist who first described the microscopic appearance of basal cell carcinoma in 1860.

epidermis ("split-thickness") skin grafts. Widespread use of split-thickness skin grafts awaited the invention of a workable dermatome by Earl C. Padgett in 1939 ( l 6 5). According to Montandon (1), Houze ~e l'Aulnoit (166) recorded the first successful mu co us membrane auto grafts in l 872 and IDing (I 67) described the first graft of buccal mucous membrane to correct symblepharon.

Repair ofInvolutionalEctropionIn a discussion of mid-nineteenth century plasti c and opthalmic plastic surgery, the contributions ofJulius von Szymanowski (18291 868) will next be considered, concluding with his technical modifications of ectropion repair. Szymanowski's family origins and ethnic identity refle ct the many political changes that had occurred in Eastern Europe: He was a native of Latvia, but of noble Polish descent; a Russian citizen in the czarist empire, yet thorougly Germanifi.ed (110). His admiration of Dieffenbach was reflected by his keen interest in plastic surgery. Szymanowski became the leading surgeon of his day in Eastern Europe, but died at an early age from testicular cancer. Two years after Szymanowski's death, his celebrate d Handbuch der OperationenChirurgiewas published in German in 1870, translated and annotated by C.W.F. Uhde of

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FtG. 40. Free full-thickness graft fi:om th e arm for lower eyelid re construction as described in , 875 by John Reissberg Wolfe (1824-1904) .

Braun schwe ig (111). According to Rogers (110), the work contained more about plastic surgery than almost any other nineteenth cen tury text. In this text, Szymanowski illustrated his modification of Dieffenbach's method of ectropion repair. He changed the position of Dieffenbach 's triangle excision, pulling the sagging eyelid up as we ll as laterally(28 ,111) (Fig. 41). In 1883, Hermann Kuhnt (185er1925) (Fig. 42), the first Profe ssor of Oph thalmology at the University of Jena , modified Adams' tarsal wedge resection for involutional ectropion (168). H e split th e lid at the gray line and excised only th e post erio r lamella (Fig. 43). Fox (112) traced the history of lid splitting, citing un certai n referen ces to Antyllus through Aetius and Paulus (see above). Fox also described the unfavorab le con temp orary criticisms of Kuhnt's procedure that were especially pithy : Alfred Terson (1838-1925) termed th e swelling of redu ndan t skin and muscle as a bourreletcutanedesgracieux(an un sightly swelling on a horse 's leg). Other deficiencies that were criticized included lid no tching, damage to the eyelashes, and frequent ineffectiveness in correcting medial ectropion. However , JosefMeller (1874- ?) ofVienna later adopte d Kuhnt's method and combined it with Szymanowski' s lateral suspension. The Kuhnt - Szymanowski pro cedur e has linked ¡the se two authors name s together, surviving a succession of modifications that com bine po sterior /cen tral (Kuhnt) and anterior / late ral (Szymanowski) approaches, yet totally avoid one of the key original features, i.e., Kuhnt's lid splitting (57) (Fig. 44).

44

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Frc. 41. Modification ofDieffenbach 's ecttopion repair by Juliu s von Szymanowski ( 1829-1868) as published posthumously in 1870.

F,c . 42 . Hermann Kuhne (1850-1925). From Gorin G: History of Ophthalmology. Wilmington, Publish or Perish, 1982.

Orbital Surgery Advances in general anesthesia made it possible for surgeons to attempt refinements in techniques of orbitotomy for removal of tumors and in exenteration and enucleation surgery. According to Duke-Elder (27) (citing de Wecker ), the first lateral orbito tom y was described by Passavant in th e 186o's. Passavant performed this operation to remove an orbital aneurysm. In I 841, Willard Parker (1800-1884) ofNew York City performed a transconjunctival orbit otomy without anesth esia on a cystic lesion of the lateral orbit (perhaps a large dermoid cyst) (168a). The patient developed intractable conjunctiva! adhesio ns.

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FIG.43. Kuhnt's method for repair of involutional ectropion that consisted of lid-margin splitting and central posterior lamella excision.

FIG. 44. A modified KuhntSzymanowski method of involutional ectropion repair. From Fox SA: Op/Itl1a/111ic PlasticSurgery,ed 4. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1970, with penrussion.

11

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A later instance of transconj u nctival orbitotomy was reported by Herman Jacob Knapp (r 832-191 r) in 1874, a case of an optic nerve sheath tumor that was excised while conserving the eye. This feat was reported in one of about two dozen articles concerning eyelid and orbital diseases that Knapp authored during his career (31v9). Transconjunctival orbitotomy for optic disc edema was first reported by Louis de Wecker (1832-1906) in 1872 and by Robert Brudenell Carter ofSt.

46

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George's Hospital , London in 1887. 14 De Wecker attempted to incise the optic nerve sheath, without bringing it into view, by means of a special bistouricache which he designed for the purpo se. Brudenell Carter, incised the sheath under direct visualization achieved by detaching the lateral rectus muscle . In 1888, Rudolf Wrich Kronlein (1847-1910) (Fig. 45) introduced a lateral orbitotomy approach that could provide access to the retrobulbar area (169) (Fig. 46). Other early orbital surgeons such as Theodor Kocher of Switzerland used angulated incisions sweeping over the lateral eyelid and canthus. Although the original method is seldom used currently, the term , Kronlein procedure (or modified Kronlein procedure) has become synonymous with orbitotomy by a lateral approach. Anterior and transcranial approaches to orbitotomy apparently were first introduced in the twentieth century. 1s [n r 864, M.H. Collis, described the first modem technique of orbital exenteration asit is performed today ( I 70). In 1872,J ohn Fremlyn Streatfeild suggested ablation of the socket (removal of the tarsi, conjunctival sac and lid margins) in some cases of enucleation (171). Another early advocate of this procedure was John Green (1835-1913) ofSt. Louis (172) who had travelled to Europe to study with Donders but was apparently unaware of Streatfeild's earlier contribution . Adolph Alt (1851-1920), a disciple of Hermann Knapp and founder of Series II of the AmericanJ ournal of Ophthalmology,also perfomed this operation (173), referring to it as "Green's operation." An almost simultaneous attempt to revive this old operation was initiated by Howard Naquin (174) and Sir Benjamin Rycroft (175) in the early 1960s. The first orbital implant is attributed to Philip Henry Mules (1843-1905) of Manchester, England, who, in 1884, placed a glass ball in an eviscerated scleral shell to redu ce the volume loss(176). In 1886, William Adams Frost (1853-1935 ) (177) placed a glass ball within Tenon's capsule following enucleation, suturing the horizontal and vertical recti separately over it. Shortly thereafter , William Lang

14. When de Wecker report ed two cases of transconjunctival opti c nerve sheath decompression at the Fourth International Ophthalmological Congress held in London (FourthIntemational CongressReport, London, 1872, pp 11-16), Brudenell Carter had just preceded him with a commentary on ether anesthesia. Carter later presented his technique of optic nerve decompression at the Medical Society of London (ProcMed Soc London 1887; 10:290-301) and he reported three cases at the Section of Ophthalmology Annual Meeting of the British Medical Association in Glasgow where Wolfe discussed his paper (Br MedJI 889;1:399-401). Leopold Millier (r862-1936) of Vienna first used Kron]ein 's orbitotomy approach to remove a rectangular portion of the optic nerve sheath ( Wein klin Wsd1r1916;29: 1oo 1). 15. For lateral orbitotomy, Guiseppi Cirincione used an S-shaped incision in 1901, fifty years prior co its popularization by Henry Stallard (10). According co Duke-Elder (27), the first anterior "subapon euroti c" (sic)orbicocomy was described by Etienne Rollet ofLyon in 1907 (Lyon Cl,ir 1923;19:760). Spaeth (26) termed Rollet's procedure as an "exploratory extraaponeurotic external orbitotomy", the key elements consisting of a long incision below the eyebrow and dissection in the relatively avascular subperiosteal plane . T he first transcranial orb itotom y was attrib uted to Wa]ter E. Dandy ( 1886-1946) in 1922 (27).

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F1G.45. Rudolf Ulrich Kronlein (18471910) who described his lateral orbitotomy operation in 1888.

(1863- 1937) prop osed an almost ide ntical procedure but included Tenon's capsule in the closing suture s (28). 16 Implan tation into Tenon's capsule is sometimes called the Frost-Lang technique. Experimentation with a variety of implant materials has been a feature of th e twentieth centu ry that is co ntinuin g to this day.

Arterialized PedicleFlaps The eyelid reconstruction with a vascularized pedicle flap was first described by George H. Monks of Boston in r 898, using a technique that had been suggested by Theodore Dunham of New York six years earlier(r6). An in tact branch of the temporal artery and piece of tempo ral skin was dissected ou t and transposed throug h a tunn el to reco nstru ct the lower lid. A similar technique of a "bio logic flap" with arterial supply was reported by the Dut ch surgeon , Johannes F.S. Esser (1877-1946), in 1918 (3). ' 7

16. The contrib ution of William Lang (Trm,s Oplrtlra/1110I Soc UK 1887;7:286-91 ) has been the 's subject of several innacurate citations and misspellings in the subsequent literature . Sted111a11 MedicalDictio11ary, 25th ed, mistakenly credited anoth er Moorfields ophthalmologist , Basil T. Lang (1880- 1928). In a recent review (OplrtlralmicPlast Reco11strSurg 1986;2:163-'7 1), Lang's name is misspelled as W . Lane. In another recent misspelling, (Op/1tlia/111i c Plast Reconstr S11rg 1993;9:90---95)reference is made to the "Frost-Lange" techniq ue, perhaps confusing William Lang (1863-1937) with Johannes Lange (1485-1 565) who is said to have performed extirpa tions of the eye before Bartisch. 17. Spaeth (26) mistakenly attributed priority to Esser, and even misspelled Monks' name as "Monk ." Bosniak. (16), perhaps overlooked Hom er's Z-plasty (see above) , stating that Monks was the author of the first original American article of a new eyelid reconstru ction technique . He reprinted Monks' entire article in facscimile (16).

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FIG.46. Kronlein 's lateral orbitotom y. Left: Drawing by Kronlein showing amount of exposure procured by his lateral orbitotomy approach. Right: Unsightly scar whic h sometimes results from the classic Kronlein operation. From Berke RN : Complications of O rbital Surgery, in Fasanella RM (ed) Ma,1ageme11t of Complicationsin Eye S11 rgery.Philadelphia, WB Saunders , 1957, with penn isssion .

Repair of BlepharoptosisThe historic importance of Bowman's levator resections has already been noted. Although John Green of St. Lo uis did not originate the modern procedure of socket ablation (see above), he was perhaps the first to perform a late exploration of the levator in a case of traum atic ptosis. This was presented before the American Ophthalmological Society in r 871. Durin'g th e late nineteenth century , many o ther significant contributi ons were made in the field of blepharopto sis repair. In r 880, H.N. Dransart (r7 8) reporte d a method for using absorbable subcutaneou s sutur es to attach the ptotic eyelid to th e brow (Fig. 47). Numerous o thers who soo n applied their own modifications: Arnold Pagenstecher (I 8 37-1 9 I 3) of the University ofWiesbaden (179), Philip Mules (28), William Hamlin Wilder (1869- 1935) of the Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary (r8o), and Carl von Hess (1863-1923 ) of the University of Muni ch (181). A contemporary of von Hess in Muni ch who took great interest in plastic surgery was Oscar Eversbusch (1853-r912). 18 Eversbusch revived interest in Bowman's idea of directly strength ening the action of th e levator in cases of ptosis . In I 8 83, he recommended advancement and folding of the levator muscle by a cutaneous approach (182) (Fig. 48). Eversbusch also performed many free skin grafts for eyelid reconstruction. In 1896, Hugo Wolff (155) described an aponeurosis sho rtening procedure that is similar to modern techniques (7). 18. Eversbusch's name has often been misspelled as "Everbusch" in the past, e.g., by Fox (28) and Gorin (35). The author is indebted to Dr. Crowell Beard for correcting this mistake and to Dr . Charles Beyer-Machule , who has scrutin ized the inscription beneath the bust of Eversbusch in the halls of the University of Munich . Everbusch's character and contribution s were highly praised by Hirschberg , who knew him personally and who included his portrait in his History(31v11).

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Frc. 47. Dransart 's method of froncalis suspension with absorbable sutu res. Plastic From Fox SA: Opl,1/,al111ic Surgery, ed 4. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1970, with permission.

Fie. 48. Method of Oscar Eversbusch (1853-1912) for tucking the levator by an external approach, described in 1883. From Fox SA: Opl,tl,almic Plastic S11rgery, ed 4. New York, Grune & Stratto n, 1970, with permisssion.

A major co ncep tual advance in th e correction of severe ptosis was the transpositio n of biologic material to transmit the force of the frontali s to the eyelid. A technique using this approa ch was first proposed by Photinas Panas (I 83 2-1903) of Paris, in I 894 ( I 84). Panas dissected a wide skin flap from the lower half of the eyelid which was buried benea th the upp er half and fastened to the frontalis muscle. In 1895, the American,J.O. Tansley, in corporated elements of Panas' technique and the skin resection of Celsus and the Medieval Arab s: Medial and lateral skin triangles were excised, while ce ntr ally a singl e centr al skin flap ("strap") was raised and passed through a tunnel to the brow (28). After Panas retired, his student and successor, de Lapersonne, continu ed to develop pioneering approaches to blepharoptosis (see below ).

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Other techniques of ptosis corre ction have gone in and out of vogue . In I 897, two Frenchmen, Ernst Motais (1846--1913) of Angers and Henry Parinaud (1844-19 05) of Paris, separately describ ed the suspension of the eyelid from the superio r rectus muscle as a form ofptosis repair (185,186). The major drawbacks of this procedure were adhesions between the globe at the superior rectus in sertion and th e eyelid at its upper tarsal bord er. Eyelid closure , and globe supradu ction were usually poor , resulting in corneal exposure and diplopia, respectively (6). Th e first ptosis corr ectio ns achieve d specifically by partial resection of the upp er tarsus were presented as a series of five cases by Anatole-Pierre-Louis Gillet de Grandmont (1837-1894) at the Fren ch Congress of Ophthalmology on M ay 4, I 891 and published that same year ( 187). Using an extern al, cuta neou s app roach, a 2 cm horizontal incision was made across the eyelid parallel and 2 to 4 mm above the lashes. From the sup erior edge of the wound, resectio n of as mu ch of th e upp er tarsus and Miill er's muscle was done as to achieve equality of the lids. Th e wo unds were closed with thre e deeply placed oo gut suture s. In America, a variation of the operation was adopted by George Cuvier Harlan (1835- 1909) of Philadelphia (188) who describ ed it in Norris and Oliver's System of Diseasesof the Eye. The indications for tarsal resection were expa nded to cases of acquired ptosis after the tum of the cent ury by Emil C. Gruening (1843-1 914) and Wilbur B. Marple (1855-?) ofNew York City (see below). Anderson has viewed the late twentieth century as an age of "aponeurotic awareness" (189). One could easily maintain that the nineteenth century was the age of "pt osis awa rene ss,"-a time when th ere was an awak eni ng to the possiblitie s of pto sis co rrection. Some of the nineteenth-century methods may seem primitive, yet other surgi cal approac hes were remar kably similar to cont empor ary methods (Table 3). TABLE

3. NINETEENTH CENTURY CONTR IBUT IONS TO PTOSIS SURGERY

Skin excisio n

O rbicularis excision Levator (or aponeu rosis) advancement Frontalis suspension

Tarsal resection Superior rectus transposition

R E I FLE R :

Scarpa Guthri e Mackenzie Hunt Von Graefe

1801 1823 1830 1831 1863

Eversbusch Wolff Dransart Panas Tansley Wilder Gillet de Gra ndm ont Motais Parinaud

1883 1896 1880 1894 1895 1898 1891 1897 1897

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TWENTIETH CENTURY

Some of the most significant innovations in the field of ophthalmic plastic surgery during the early twentieth century were refinements in blepharoptosis repair and in dacryocystorhinostomy, and the establishment of the principles and practice of cosmetic surgery. The early development of autologous fascia implants and refinements of sling procedures for ptosis were also achieved during this time. In the basic and clinical sciences, further discoveries of gross anatomy and the surgical histopathology of ocular adnexal neoplasms can be mentioned only in passing. The vast array of activities in Europe, Asia, and the New W odd, make the task of a chronologic history increasingly difficult. This narrative will continue with a review of ptosis correction, the topic that closed the discussion of the late nineteenth century.

RepairofBlepharoptosis In 1903, Panasâ&#x20AC;˘ student and successor, F. de Lapersonne (1853-1937) described a true external levator resection (190). He first mobilized the levator, resected it and advanced it onto the tarsus (Fig. 49). But Panas' idea of connecting the ptotic eyelid to the frontalis did not disappear. In 1901, Freeland Fergus of Glasgow reported using long strips of frontalis muscle sutured to the tarsus (191). But, for all the effort, the results were no better than with simpler techniques. However, a true advance was made in frontalis surgery in 1909 when E. Payr introduced the use of fascia lata as a workable and durable sling material (192) (Fig. 50A). He used a relatively narrow, single sling in the central eyelid from theupperborderofthe tarsus to the brow(28). In 1922, WalterW. Wright (18821967) of the University of Toronto also reported using fascia with two relatively narrow slings, one medial and one lateral (193) (Fig. 50B). Wright's first student, John S. Crawford (1913-1990), later went on to further refine instrumentation and techniques of fascia placement (49,194): A stripper for harvesting; a needle enabling passage of fascia through epitarsus; a double triangular configuration of fascia placement; and methods of banking fascia. Another early modification in the configuration of fasciaplacement was described by George S. Derby (1875-193 r) of Harvard University. In 1928, he described a single sling that extended as a hammock from the medial and lateral upper border of the eyebrow down across the central tarsus (195) (Fig. 50c). In 1936, C .A . Dickey of the University of California, San Francisco used a fascia sling from the superior rectus to correct ptosis (196). In 1948, interest in sutures to achieve a frontalis sling was revived by Jonas S. Friedenwald (1897-1955) and Jack S. Guyton (1914-1987) of the Wilmer Institute (197). 19 As mentioned above, Gillet de Grandmont's idea of ptosis correction by partial resection of the tarsus via an external skin approach was further developed by Emil 19. Guyton also made several contributions to enucleation and evisceration procedures. His hairline incision for lateral orbital decompression (Surgery1946;19:790-809) foreshadowed future craniofacial approaches to the orbital region . Guyton went on to chair the Department of Ophthalmology at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit.

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F1G.49. Method of true levator resection and advancement by an external approach as described by F. de Lapersonne (1853-1937) in 1903 . From Fox SA: Opl,tl,almic Plastic Surgery,ed 4. New York, Grune & Stratton, I 970, with permission.

A

(B) Double sling of Walter W. Wright (1882- 1967).

FIG. 50. Eady fascia slings. (A) single sling ofE. Payr.

(C) Hammo ck sling of George S. Derby (1875-1931). From Fox SA: OphthalmicPlastic Surgery,ed 4. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1970, with

penrumon.

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C. Gruening and Wilbur B. Marple, including cases of traumatic and other acquired cases of ptosis (188,198.199). Gruening's first case was a young man with congenital ptosis whom Gruening had failed to cure I 3 years earlier with a combined Eversbusch and von Graefe approach. In modifying Gillet de Grandmont's technique, Gruening confined excision of tissue to the tarsus (medially and laterally tapered); wound closure was done with a double-armed silk suture, brought out through the lid margin in the fashion of Eversbusch's operation. The skin was also sutured with silk. Gruening appropriately gave Gillet de Grandmont credit for the procedure: "He does the operation somewhat differently, but the principle is the same, and to Grandmont belongs the priority in the use of this method." After hearing this paperread at the American Ophthalmological Society, Marple asked his fellow New Yorker for his assistance to attempt a cure of a traumatic ptosis. In this successful case, Marple and Gruening discovered that they could achieve a correction of relatively greater amount of ptosis in the medial portion of the lid by simply excising a wider strip of tarsus in that quadrant. The following year, in the New York Eye and Ear InfirmaryReports,Gruening reported his results of the technique in a series of patients representing a variety of etiologies: "traumatic, myopathic and paralytic (199)." In recent years, the contributions of Gillet de Grandmont, Gruening, and Marple have been rather forgotten. Reifler has recently written a historical review of tarsectomy. 20 In 1956, Fran~ois Hervouet and Paul Tessier combined a posterior tarsectomy with an anterior resection of skin and muscle (200), but they did not cite the contribution of their countryman, Gillet de Grandmont. But the use of tarsal resection for ptosis correction did not gain popularity in the United States until a simplified posterior tarsoconjunctival resection was published by Fasanella and Servat in 1961 (see below), who likewise were apparently unaware of the French contributions, both recent and remote. In 1923, Laszlo de Blaskovics (1869-1938), professor of ophthalmology in Budapest, repopularized Bowman's conjunctiva! approach to the levator (201). In addition to Blaskovics, another famous Hungarian ophthalmologist who contributed greatly to ophthalmic plastic surgery was Joseph Imre, Jr. (1884-1945). In addition to operations for ptosis, he described circular pedicle flaps (Celsus-de Argumosa) with triangular resections (Burow) for eyelid reconstruction (3). Although levator surgery became popular in the United States somewhat after its popularization in Europe, some American surgeons were early in adopting this approach for the cure of ptosis. Apparently, Frederick Verhoeff, in the 192o's, and Jack Guyton in the 194o's, were among the ophthalmologists in the United States that adopted a conjunctival approach to the levator but neither published

20. Reifler OM: The tarsectomy operation of A. P.L. Gillet de Grandmont (1837-1894) and its periodic rediscovery. Doc Ophtlia/1110/ (in press).

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1-

.M.eairu horn ch eck ligament

Sutures

insertea.

and.. incis ed...

S u.t u :res thro~h to1.rsus atnol lia:: .

FIG. 51. Intermediate steps in a Berk e's modification ofleva tor resection by a conjunctiva! approach as had been previously described by Laszlo de Blaskovics (1861r1938) in r923. From King JH Jr, Wadsworth JAC: A11Atlas of Op/1t/1a/111ic Surgery, ed 3. Philadelphia , JBLippincott , 198 1, with permission .

th eir methods or results (202). Subsequently, certain American surgeo ns gained widespread recognition for their expertise in levator surgery. A posterior approac h to the levator was later ado pt ed in the 1940s and 1950s by Raynold N. Berke (1901- 1986) (Fig. 51). Raynold N. Berke was born in Grand y, Minnesota in 1901. He received his M.D. degree from th e University of Minnesota in 1929. His post-graduate trainin g included a fellowship at the Mayo Clinic (1929-1930) and residency at the Wills Eye Hospital (1930- 193 1). H e joined th e staff of Col umbi a Presbyterian in 193 I. In 1944, his Ameri can Ophthalmological Society thesis was entitl ed "R esectio n of the levator palpebrae for ptosis with anatomi c studie s." Together with Art Chandler, Berke gave many courses on ptosis surgery at the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Annual Meetings . With Algernon B. Reese (1896- 1981), Berke also refined and repopularized the lateral orbitotomy procedure of K.ronlein. In 1962, Berke moved to California and j oined th e faculty of Stanford University M edical School. Berke maintained that true assessment of the long-t erm results of ptosis surgery requires at least a two-yea r follow-up. He wo uld emp hasize this to his colleagues in the American Pto sis Society. In his later years Berke developed macular degeneration, but even into his retir eme nt he wo uld still attend the national meetings includin g th ose of the ASOPRS of which he was a C hart er and Life Fellow (App endic es I and 2).

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Charles E. Iliff is another rek.nowned American oculoplastic surgeon who has had a great interest in ptosis. Born in Cincinnati, Ohio in I 91 1, Iliff attended Williams College. He received his M.D. degree from the John s Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1936. He took his residency at the Wilmer Ophthalmologic Institute and served as ChiefResident. Iliff was denied service in W odd War II due to a history of tuberculosis. Upon graduating from his residency, he therefore went into private practice, but retained his academic interests and affiliation with the Johns Hopkins Medical School. Here he achieved the rank of Professor of Ophthalmology. In the 19sos and 1960s, Iliff further popularized the posterior approach to the levato r. Like Berke , Iliff sought refinements in surgical techniques that would produce a "simplified ptosis operation (204,205)." Ilifi's many contributions have included included a book on ptosis(205), a monograph on eyelid and adnexal tumors in childhood (206), and a textbook ofoculoplastic surgery (58), written with his two sons, W. Jackson Iliff and Nicholas T. Iliff. Both his sons later assumed his practice following their father's retirement in 1981. Iliff was one of the Charter Members of the American Ptosis Society and he was also a Charter Fellow of the ASOPRS, serving as one of the original senior advisors ( 1970 through 1977). The support and guidance that Iliff gave to the ASOPRS was of great importance in establishing recognition for this Society and thereby furthering the establishment of the emergi ng subspe cialty of op hthalmi c plastic surgery. DcuryocystorhinostomyIn 1904, Addeo Toti (1861-? ), an otolaryngologist from Florence, provided the first modem description of dacryocystorhinostomy by an external approach (207). Toti's technique involved resecting the inner wall of the lacrimal sac, punching out contiguou s bone with a hamm er and chisel, and resectinga corresponding area of the nasal mucosa. According to William George Sym of Edinburgh, a reviewer ofToti's later monograph of 1909, the operation was a "radical treatment" and not much better than dacryocystectomy that was the standard treaonent of that time (208). Toti sought to preserve the drainage of the conjunctiva "as nature originally intended it, even if the new passage does not exactly correspond to the old in situation." Sym further noted Toti 's view oflacrimal drainage physiology:

"The author devotes a good deal of attention to the distribution and function of the muscular fibres of the walls of the canaliculi ... he believes that tbe effect of their contraction is co enhance by aspiration the action of capillary attraction in inducing the secretions to enter tbe canaliculi and the sac. This is one of the argumenrs which he brings forward in support ofhis method ofoperating(208)."

Toti's subsequent modifications were aimed at eliminating failures that resulted from obstruction of the turbinate or granulation tissue (9), and additional modification s by others followed. In 1914, (209) Kuhnt sutured flaps of nasal mucosa to the periosteum to limit the formation of granulation tissue, and in 1920, Ohm (21o) 56

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F1G. 52. Louis Dupuy-Dutemps (18711946) who popularized external dacryocystorhinostomy with mucosa! flap anastomosis. From Duke-Elder and MacFaul PA: The Ocular Adnexa. Pt 2 . Lacrimal, Orbital and Para-orbital Diseases. In Duke Elder S: System of Opl,tl,a/1110/ogy, v 13. St Louis, CV Mosby, 1974, with permission.

further improved the technique by suturing the margins of the nasal muco sa to the sac. The popularity of external dacryocystorhino stomy was finnly established by Louis Dupuy-Dutemps (r87r-r946) (Fig. 52). Together with (M .?) Bourguet in 1921, he described incision of the posterior wall of the sac without sacrifice of tissue, and anastomosis of th e lacrimal and nasal mucosa (211) (Fig . 53), and in r933 reviewed the results of r ,ooo cases thus treated (27). According to Duke-Elder (27), his son, Pierre Louis Dupuy-Dutemps (1905-r964), was also an accompli shed lacrimal surgeon. The endonasal approach to dacryocystorhinostomy was also being refined during this time. In 191o, an otolaryngologist from th eJ ohn s Hopkin s Medical School , J.M. West (212) was invited by Robert L. Randolph to report his improveme nts in an endonasal techniqu e of dacryocystorhinostomy to the Ameri can Ophthalmological Society . West described makin g a generous osteotomy in the middle meatus at the level of the lacrimal sac (Fig. 54). He noted that an endonasal app roach with a resection beginning farther inferiorl y, had first been proposed by G .W. Caldwell of New York in r893 (213). Throughout the twentieth centu ry, otolaryngologist s and ophthalmologists includin g Lester T. Jones (214) have occasionally advocated an endonasal approac h for dacryocysto rhino stom y; but the success rates have generally been lower in comparison to th e external approach . With the recent development of en dosco pi c and laser technology, the re has been a renewed interest by ophthalmologists in endonasal dacryocystorhi no stomy.

CosmeticBlepharoplasty The developm ent of modern approac hes to ptosis sur gery by ophthalmologists in the late eighteenth century and the intr od uction of cocain e as a topical and local infiltration anesthetic co mbined to set th e stage for the devel opm ent of cosmeti c bleph aroplasty. In contra st to the accepted surgical REIFLER.:

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FIG. 53. Suturing of mucosa! flaps in

exte rnal dacryocystorhino stomy as first

proposed by Dupu y-Ducemps and Bourguet in 1921.

FIG. 54 . Endonasal dacryo cystorhinoscomy as described by J.M. West in 1914 .

concepts of the previou s two milleni a, correction of pt osis and skin resection for dermatochalasi s came co be appreciated as related yet distinctly separate procedures . In 1906, Charles Conrad Miller (1881-1950) of Chicago wrote the first exclusively cosmetic surgery article on the excision of "bag-like folds of eyelid skin" (21 5). He used infiltr ation of a cocaine solution for anesthesia. In anothe r article in 1907, he published the first photograph illustrating lower eyelid incisions required for removal of a crescent of wrinkled skin (216). In this same year, 1907, the first book in medical history wri tten on cosmetic surgery ; was published by Miller (217) (Fig. 55), and a second , slightly enlarged edition appeared in 1908. Blair Rogers described Miller as "a udaciously bold, undisciplined, and imaginative , but ... also reckless and quite unbelievable, ... something of a quack and at th e same time some thin g of a surgical visionary years ahead of his more academic colleagues (38)." The second author in medical history to describe cosmetic surgery, was Frederick Strange Kolle (1871-1929) (Fig. 56), a Germa n- born American, practicing plastic and cosmetic surgery in New York City . In 1911, Kolle published an extensive book entitled , Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery(218). Hi s most interesting con tribution was his treatment of "wri nkled eyelids," including illustrations describing his methods for their correctio n . After World W ar I, cosmetic facial surgery was furth er advanced by Eur opean surgeo ns. In 1924, Julien Bourguet (1876--1952) of Paris described a technique for the excisional correctio n of po ckets of herniate d intra-orbital fat ("bags" of the eyelid region ). Hi s surgical approach was made through the mucosa of the conjun ctival cul-d e-sac of th e lower eyelid (219). In 1925, he was also probably the first in medical history to publish befor e-and-after photographs of patients who had underg one cosmetic blepharoplasty (220). In 1926, A. Suzanne Noel published

58

C H APT E 11 0 NE


The Correction OP

Feat u r a I I mp er f e ct ions BY

CHARLES C. MILLER, M. D.

l'UBL l 8 HB D BY TB B AUT HO R 10 8 TA TB 8 T ., C HI C AG O O alt P riat l n& C o .,

t Wn,dcl l 81.

F1G. 55. Ti tle page of the first boo k o n cosmetic surgery published by C harles C. M iller ( 188 1- 1950) in 1907.

F1G. 56. Frederick Strange Kolle ( 187 11929), the secon d author in medi cal

history to describe cosmeti c surgery of the eyelids. From Rogers BO : Surg Clin N A m 197 1; 51:265-88.

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her famous book . LA Chirurgie Esthetique: Son Role Social (221) which served to do cument years of pioneering surgery. In later years, the prominent German surgeons, Eugen Hollander and Erich Lexer, used "surgical hindsight" to claim chronologic priority in performing cosmetic facial surgery (38). But from the standpoint of medical history, the earliest descriptions must be credited first to the publications of Miller (1906-1909) and secondly to Kolle (1911), both of them American s. Anatomy of the Orbital Region From both chronological .and philo sophical standpoints, it is appropriate here to mention Samuel Ernest Whitnall (1876-1950), who further contributed greatly to the field of anatomy, laying foundations for future subspecialists in ophthalmic plastic surgery. Ju st before World War I, Whitnall, then a prosector at Oxford, published a numb er of important papers on the topographic anatomy of the orbit: In 1910, the "superior transverse ligament" (222); in 1911, the insertion of the lateral canthal tendon into the lateral orbital tubercle (223); and the relationship between the lacrimal fossa an d the ethmoidal air cells (224) (Fig. 57). From 1912-1914, he published analyses of the osteology and caliber of the nasolacrimal canal (22 5), its relation to the maxillary antrum (226), and the attachment and relations of the levator aponeurosis (227). Following service in W odd War I as a surgeon in France, Whitnall was appointed Professor of Anatom y at McGill University and spent the next 15 years in Canada. Here he continue d his studies on ophthalmic anatomy, and in 1921, his Anatomy ojthe Orbit was published (228). 21 Early twentieth ce ntury advances in the classification and treatment of orbital fractures have been summarized by Montandon (1). In 1901, Rene Le Fort (1869-1951) of Lille, France published his classic experimental studies on the lines of greatest weakness in the mid-face region (229). In 1916, Hippolyte Morestin introduced cartilage and bone grafts for fracture repairs (230,231). In 1917, Felix Lagrange (1852-1927), published a classic monograph based upon his experience with 600 cases of orbital fractures seen among war casualtie s (5). Knowledge of orbital anatomy has been applied in the surgical treatment of optic nerve compression associated with Graves' disease (Fig. 58). In 1911 ,J. Dollinger published the first report of an orbital decompression for Graves' eye disease, using the lateral orbitotomy approach ofKronlein (232). Kronlein is often credited for this contribution, although he described the lateral orbitotomy for other purposes. Over subsequent years, every wall of the orbit has been resected for the purpose of decompression: In 1931,Howard Christian Naffziger (1884-1961) reported the transcranial removal of the orbital roof(233); In 1936, E.C . Sewell removed the medial orbital wall for decompression into the ethrnoid sinus (234); in 1950, 0. Hirsch suggested removal of the orbital floor and decompre ssion into the maxillary

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FtG. 57. Illustration of the relationship between the lacrimal fossa and the ethmoidal air cells as described by Samuel E. Whitnall in 191 1.

58. Surgical approaches to orbital deco mpres sion . Every wall has been used. From Anderson RL, LinbergJV: Ard, Ophthalmol 198 1;99, 120-4 . Copyright I 98 I , American Medical Association . F1G .

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sinus (235); and in 1957, Theodore E . Walsh and Joseph H. Ogura (b. 1915) developed the combined removal of the orbital floor and medial wall through a Caldwell-Luc approach (236).

EarlyFoundersofthe SubspecialtyofOphthalmicPlasticSurgery The remaind er of this hi story is devoted to ophthalmologists who developed within their field, the subspecialty of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive sur gery. Recurring themes in this history will be the influence of the succession of this century's wars upon these ophthalmologists, and their many academic, educational, and organizational achievements. It should be recogni zed that ophthalmologists throughout the world have made contributions to ophthalmic plastic surgery in thi s century. For exam ple , the great ophthalmologist of Odessa, Vladimir Petrovich Filatov (1875-1 956) described the first tubed pedicle flap in 1917, which he used in lower eyelid reconstruction (237). But as the trend for full sub spec ialization by ophthalmologists in ophthalmi c plastic surgery developed first in the United States, this history is increasingly devoted to American contributions. Th e hi story will then continue with the founding and the first twenty-five years of the ASOPRS (Chapter 2). As mentioned earlier, students of history have proposed seve ral candidates for the "Father of Plastic Surgery" including C.F. von Graefe , Dieffenbach, and von Ammon . But with virtual unanimity , John Martin Wheeler (1879-1938) (Fig. 59) is considered to be the "Fat herofOp hthalmi cP lasticSu rgery " (19,150). Wheeler comp leted a residency in ophthalmology at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary in 1908. During World War I, as a captain in the medical corp s, he obtained considerable experience in reconstructive surgery (238). Following the war, Wheeler returned to the staffs of the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary and Bellevue Hospital. Stimulated by his war-time experiences, he authored several articles on the treatment of war injuries of the eyelids (239) and the use of skin grafts in eyelid reconstruction (240-242). He described enucleation of the eye with implantation of autologous fat (243) modifying the method first proposed by Barraquer in 1901 (244); sub sequently he developed a hollow glass post-enucleation implant with grooves for the four rectus muscles (245) (Fig. 60). He also described a technique of socket recon stru ction with an epidermic graft placed ove r a syn th etic form (246). Later, Wheeler popularized his halving incision (lid-splitting) for eyelid reconstruction, a wound configuration adopted from carpentry methods (247) (Fig . 61). Wheeler served as Professor of Ophthalmology at New York University from 192 r to 1928 and visiting surgeon in charge of the Ophthalmic Service at Bellevue Hospital from 1924 to 1928 (23). One of his residents at Bellevue Hospital was Wendell L. Hughes (see below). In 1928, Wheeler went to Columbia University to establish the Eye Institute of Presbyterian Hospital. Beginning in 193 I, he gave

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FIG. 59. John Martin Wheeler ( 18791938), the Father of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery. Courtesy of the New York Academy of Medicine.

FIG.60. Wheeler's hollow glass ocular implant with grooves for reception of the reccus muscles. From Bosniak SL: Adv Op/,t/,a/111ic Plast Recomtr S14rg1986;5:241-81. Reprinted with permission of Dr. Stephen L. Bosniak, MD, FACS.

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Fie. 61. Halving incision for upper eyelid reconstruction as popularized by Wheeler . From Bosniak SL: Adv Oplrt/1a/111i c Plast Reconstr Surg 1986;5:241 -8 1. Reprinted with permission of Dr . Stephen L. Bosniak, MD , FACS.

an annual one-hour instructional course on ophthalmic plastic surgery at the American Academy of Ophthalmology scientific meetings. Wheeler described new techniques for repair of entropion using transposition of a strip of orbi cularis muscle (248) (Fig. 62). In addition to Hughes, Wheeler's students included Webb Weeks and Isadore Goldstein. Goldstein authored an important paper on recession of the levator muscle for eyelid retraction associated with Graves' eye disease (249). In 1939, Wheeler's papers were collected by the staff of the Harknes s Eye Institute and published by the Columbia University Press (250). Like Wheeler , Edmund B. Spaeth (1890-1976) (Fig. 63) was another pioneering founder of modern opthalmic plastic surgery who was a veteran of the Army Medical Corps in World War I. In 1917, following an internship and further study in the Army Medi cal School, Spaeth served in France as a medical officer with the Sixth Army Division . Upon his return to the United States in 1918, he was assigned to Walter Re ed Army Medical Center, where he spent the next seven years treating traumatic injuries and devising variou s operations and prosthe ses (20,251) . In 1919, he be came the first chief of ophthalmology at Walter Re ed Hospital . In 1922 or 1924, he obtained a six-month leave of absence to return to Europe for further study in ophthalmology with Lindner, Fuchs , Worth , and

Axenfeld. Spaeth returned to Washington , and in 1925, he published his textbook , Newer Methods of OphthalmicPlasticSurgery(47). General and facial plastic surgery text-

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Fie . 62. Wheeler 's techniques of entropion repair by orbicularis muscle cransposition. From Bosniak SL: Adv Oplrt/ral111ic Pia.st Recomtr Surg 1986;5:24181. Reprinted with permission of Dr . Stephen L. Bosniak, MD , FACS.

Fie. 63. Edmund Benjamin Spaeth (1890- 1976), author of the first book devoced to ophthalmic plastic surgery, published in r925. From Bedrossian EH et al: Adv Opl1tl1al111ic Plast RccomtrSurg 1986;5:301-12. Reprinted with pe.rmission of Dr. Stephen L. Bosniak, MD , FACS .

books that appe ared in the wake ofWorld War I, included those published by J. Staige Davis in 1919, (140), Sir Harold Gillies (252) in 1920, and H .L. Hunt in 1926 (253). But Spaeth's textbook was the first that co ncentrated on ophthalmic plastic surgery (Fig. 64) , preceding the monograph of J. Eastman Sheehan , PlasticSurgeryofthe Orbit, by two years (254). In his text, Spaeth illustrated his adaptations and applications of skin grafting and pedicle flaps, the use of mechanical pressure devices to attempt socket dilation and techniques of orbital implantation with skin-covered Mules' spheres and cartilage homografts. In 1927, following two years as the chief medical officer at Camp Gaillard in the Panama Canal Zone, he retired from the Army Medical Corps and moved to Philadelphia. In 1939, Spaeth became an attending surgeon at Wills Eye Hospital and published his second book, Principlesand PracticeofOphthalmology(26). Even following his retirement, Spaeth

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Frc. 64. Spaeth's technique oflower eyelid reconstruction. (A) Dissection of forehead and nasojugal flaps.

(B) Flaps transposed and sutured.

maintained a keen inte rest in th e history of oph thalmi c plastic surgery. 22 During his yea rs in Philadelphia, hi s main academic appointments were wi th the University of Pennsylvania, servin g as chairman of op hth almology from 1945 to 1960. In 1969, Spaeth was invited to become a chart er member of the ASOPRS. Thus hi s care er spanned an era that began with individual pioneering efforts and reached fulfillment in the establishm ent of a national society of op hthalmi c sub specialists he had in spired . Am ong the fellows that Spaeth acce pted for postgraduate trainin g was Rocko M. Fasanella (b. August 4, 1916) (Fig. 65). In 1951, Fasanella was appointed chairman of the Section of Ophthalmology at Yale . Within his department in 1955, Frederick A. Wies reported his full-thi ckn essblepharotomy for cicatricial entropion

22. A brief paper by Spaeth (Trans Pct111 A cad Oplit/10/1110/ Otolaryt1gol1973;36:95--97) included some controversial assignments of priority: The first use of sutures; the first lid coloboma repair; and the nature ofv on Graefe's ptosis repair. Inter esting subjects of historical commentary included the original idea of a compos ite flap for eyelid reconstruction by Edmund Landolt (1846- 1926) in 1881; and the delayed pedicle flap includin g transplanted mucosa by the Czech ophthalmol ogist, Anton Elschnig ( 1856-1906).

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FtG. 65. Ra cko M . Fasanella when be assumed the chairmanship of the Ophthalmology Section at Yale in 195r. From Bosniak SL, Smith BC (eds): Adv Ophtl,a/micPlast R econstr Surg 1986; 5:335-43. Reprinted with pennission of Dr. Steph en L. Bosniak, MD , FACS .

of the lower lid (255). Fox (28) later summarized the history of horizontal tarsal section ("fra ctur e") for upper lid cicatri cial entropion beginning with Burow (1873) and cited several modifi cations. In I 9 57, Fasanella edited a textbook entitled, Management of Complicationsin Eye Surgery(256). This included several fine chap ters on eyelid and orbital surg ery by Spaeth and others. In 1961, Fasanella and one of his residents , a Peruvian.Javier Servat , described the repair of ptosis by a posterior resectio n of tarsus, conjunctiva and Mull er's muscle (257) (Fig. 66). Prior methods of tarsectomy have previo usly been mentioned in detail, including the anterior approa ch of Gillet de Grandmont and the po sterior approach of Hervouet and Tessier. Fasanella and Servat's technique was embrace d by virtue of its simplicity. Their original technique utiliz ed two fine curv ed mosquito clamps to fixate the eve rted upp er eyelid. The margins of the resectio n we re closed with chromic catgut sutur es-four suture s knotted in the superior fornix. As evidence d by th e title of their paper, Fasanella and Servat initiall y believed that the levator aponeurosis was included in the block resection of tissue. Crowell Beard later discovered the absence oflevator apone urosis in pathologic specim ens (29), yet he did much to further popularize the operation. Since th e original description of their technique, many related procedures have been described that involve vertical eyelid and / or Mull er's muscle short eni ng (8,29). Returning to Wheeler's stude nts, th e most renowned was certainly Wendell L. Hughes (b. February 26, 1900 -d. February ro, 1994) (Fig. 67). A native Canadian and a graduate of the University of Western Ontario Medical School, Hughes comp leted a residency in ophthalmology at Bellevue Hospital in 1925.

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Hughes practiced in New York City and Hempstead, Long Island from 1930 to 1968. In addition to his pioneering work in ophthalmic plastic surgery, he pioneered the development of micro-needles and sutures, and combined proce dures for cataract and glaucoma. Among his many contributions, Hughes considered his most significant to be his technique oflower eyelid reconstruction, first reported in 1937 (258) (Fig. 68). He later discovered that this type of operation had been previously done by Dupuy-Dutemps in France (259), though the concept had been introduced as early as 1881 by Landolt. 2 3

2,3.Montandon (1) cited the article as M . [Monsieur?] Landolt. The article, in the inaugural volume co-founded by Edmund Landolt (1846-192.6), was likely written by him, rather than by one of his sons, Marc L. Landolt who also Qater) was an ophthalmologist with a practice in Paris.

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Fie . 67. Wendell L. Hughes ( 19001994) in 1967, President ofche American Academy of Ophthalmology.

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Hughes' scholarly book, ReconstructiveSurgeryof the Eyelids, was initially prepared as a thesis for the American Ophthalmological Society and published in I 943 (3) (Fig. 69). Hughes' monograph contains a wealth of historical and technical details about ophthalmic plastic and reconstuctive surgery , including his own methods of lid reconstruction. Among many cited contributions that laid the foundation for Hughes' contribution, the concepts of Pietro Gradenigo (1831-1904), of the University of Padua were especially emphasized. In substituting the lower eyelid for a missing upper eyelid, Gradenigo stated that "nothing excels a lid to replace another lid." Throughout his career, Hughes followed Wheeler's example in his emphasis upon education, both in the personalized training of residents and fellows, and in the educational activities of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology (AAOO). In postwar years, Hughes was appointed the first chairman of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery Committee of AAOO . He organized the ophthalmic plastic surgery presentations and courses at the annual meeting . In 1961, under Hughes' direction, a manual entitled, OphthalmicPlastic Surgery, was published by the AAOO (Fig. 70),2 4 and a second edition appeared in I 964 (48). Following Hughes' retirement in 1969, the Academy continued a multiauthored format in subsequent editions of the manual, published in 1977 and 1984, respectively (52,55). Among the students of Hughes were Byron C. Smith (1908-1990), J. Gordon Cole (1908-1984),Joseph C. Hill, Virginia Lubkin, Orkan George Stasior , and Marvin H . Quickert (1929-1974). Upon his retirement, Hughes' practice was assumed by Charles S.G. Maris. A more complete list of his fellows is included elsew here in this book (Appendix 3). Another associate ofHughes was Peter H. Ballen (b. August 26, 192 5). Ballen spent three years with Hughes from 1953 to 1956. In 1964, Ballen applied Wies' full-thickness blepharotomy and lid margin rotation, for cicatricial entropion of the upper lid (261). Although Hughes did not hold a full-time academic position, his influence was greatly felt in all areas of organized ophthalmology. In 1967 he served as president of the AAOO . In his presidential address, entitled, This AJJluentAge, Hughes placed the accomplishments of modern technology into a broader societal context. When the ASOPRS was formed, the founders turned to "more established physicians who were the teachers of ophthalmic plastic surgery under Dr. Wendell Hughes . .. Hughes was appointed as the first pre sident [of the ASOPRS] and held that office until the society was established (262)."

24. In addition co Hughes, contributors to this manual were: Peter H. Ballen, Crowell Beard , Raynold N. Berke, Alston Callahan,] . Gordon Cole, Arthur G. DeVoe , Carl Fasano, Sidney A. Fox , Deane C . Hartman , Joseph C. Hill , Charles E. Diff, Ira S. Jones, Lester T . Jones , Jacob Ladenbeim, George R. Merriam, Howard Naquin , Merrill J. Reeb, Harold G. Scbeie , Robert Scott , Byron Smith , Edmund B. Spaeth , M. Noel Stow , and Richard Troutman .

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RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY OF THE EYELIDS BY

WENDELL L. HUGHES, M.D., F.A.C.S. H ~mpacud,

New York

F1G.69. Title page of the first edition of Hughes' classic monograph on eyelid reconstruction published in 1943. From Hughes WL: ReconstructiveSurgeryof the Eyelids. St. Louis, CV Mosby Co., 1943. ILLUSTRATED

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After Hughes' retirement, the AAOO established a named lecture in his honor . In later years, a share of the credit for establishing the Wendell L. Hughes Lecture were claimed by both Byron Smith (Chapter 6) and Alston Callahan (Chapter 8). There are no direct contradictions between the two accounts: An informal r 967 conversation between Smith andJ. Gordon Cole and their subsequent gift at the Lecture's inauguration ceremony; and the diplomatic / political efforts of Alston Callahan in assuring action by the AAOO. The importance that Smith and Callahan attached to this honored lecture and the reverence that each held for Dr . Hughes, is evident in their writings (and personal communications). Callahan gave the first Wendell L. Hughes Lecture in Las Vegas, Nevada on October 6, 1970 and Smith gave the second annual lecture in the same city on September 2 I , I 97 r. A listing of all Wendell L. Hughes lecturers to date and their topics of presentation appears elsewhere in this volume (Appendix 6). Although Wheeler , Spaeth and Hughes devoted much of their individual attention to ophthalmic plastic surgery, pra ctice in this area by most general ophthalmologists was limited. As mentioned, the first instru ctional courses insti-

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tuted by Wheeler at the AAOO meetings (beginning in 193 1) were only one hour in length . Jelks beli eved that in the United States, prior to World War II, most oculop lastic procedures were performed by general plastic surgeons (263). An opposing viewpoint might be suggested by a thorough literature review, including many references cited in this essay. The roster of invited founders of the Am erican Board of Plastic Surgery (1939) included Wheeler , Spaeth , and Hughes .2 5 Commenting on the re-emergence of op hthalmologists in plastic surgery, Hughes (150) noted that specialized training and knowledge of fundamental detail s in certain regions promotes better results with fewer complications.

25. The American Board of Plastic Surgery was originally organized as a subsidiary ofche Ameri can Board of Surgery in 1939. Two types of certificates were issued by the Board : (1) T hos e covering plastic surgery of the general sur gical field ; and (2) those covering single surgical fields. In 1941, the American Board of Plastic Surgery achieved the status of an independent board (36).

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Just as World War I had stimula ted the activities of Wheeler , Spaeth and others to master and refine techniques of ophthalmic plastic surgery , World War II had a profound effect upon a remarkab le cadre of oph thalm ologists who came to define the modern subspecialty of ophthalmic plastic surgery. On the Allied side, op hthalm ologists in the forefront of military medicine included Byron Smith (264), Harold Glendon Scheie (b. 1909), and Hyla (Henry) Bristow Stallard (1901-1973) (Fig. 71). During World War II, Stallard developed an interest in plastic and orbital sur gery that carried into his later civilian practice (Fig. 72). 26 Stallard's assistant in Egypt was John Clark Mustarde (Fig. 73) who was captured as a prisoner of war by R ommel's forces (265). After his repatriation, Mustarde received many of Stallard's patients from the European theate r for treatment in England. Mustarde developed several ingenious met hods of eyelid reconstruction {Figs. 74 and 75). Also back in England, it was found that many patients suffered from combined ocular and adnexal injuries. The subsequent work of Sir Benjamin Rycroft in cornea-plasticsurgeryand eye-banking in Great Britain was of great importance in fully rehabilitating patients with combined corneal and ophthalmic plastic problems. Like their British allies during World War II, many American ophthalmologists we re stationed in milita ry facilities in their home country and were extremely busy in treating eyelid and orbit al injuries. Beard summarized the orga nization of op hthalm ologic and plastic reconstructive care in this period and its effect on an eme rging subspecialty :

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about the time of the conclusion of Wo rld War II. During this conflict, most of the US Anny casualties with serious injuries to the eyelids and orbit were funnelled for definitive care into one of nine general hospitals in the Zone of the Interior that had been designated as eye and plastic surgery . .. Largely from these nuclei, interest in this new field developed in areas throughout the nation (266)."

Early DevelopmentofMotility Implants As in every war, o ne of th e serious problems tha t faced ophthalmic surgeons was the loss of an eye and the reconstruction of the ano phthalmi c socket. In the post-war era, the first attempts were made to develop implants that wo uld impart better motility to the ocular prosthesis (267-268). One ophthalmologist with a keen interes t in anophthalmic socket problems was Albert Darwin Ruedemann Sr. {1897-1971) (Fig. 76). In 1924, R uedemann organized

26. In 1973, Stallard delivered a Presidential Address to the 93rd Annual Congre ss of the Ophthalmological Societies of the United Kingdom entitled, 11,e Evolution efl..AteralOrbitoto111y (Trans Op/1t/,al1110I Soc UK 1973;93:1-17) . It is an important paper to read for all those interested in the history of this surgical approach co the orbit .

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FIG. 71. Hyla (Henry) Bristow Stallard (1901-1973). From Bosniak SL, Smith BC (eds): Adv OplitlialmicPlast Reco11str Surg 1986; n 59--'76.Reprinted with permission of Dr. Stephen L. Bosniak , MD, FACS.

FIG. 72. Stallard's orbitotomy incision further developed and popularized by J ohn Wright. From Callahan MA, Callahan A: Opl,tl,a/micPlasticand Orbital Surgery.Birmingham, AL, Aesculapius, 1979, with permission.

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F1G. 73. John Gack) C. Mustarde. From Frueh BR , Wilkins RB: Opl1tl,al111ic PlastReconstrSurg 198s;i:163-7, with permission.

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the department of ophthalmology for the Cleveland Clinic. During W odd War II , Derrick T. Vail,Jr., Ophthalmic Consultant to the Surgeon General chose the Crile General Hospital in Cleveland for a seminar for military ophthalmologists. As a civilian consultant , Ruedemann was "the most vigorous ophthalmologist at this meeting (269)." In 1945, Ruedemann described an "integrated orbital implant" that consisted of a finished artificial eye anteriorly and tantalum mesh posteriorly , to which the rectus muscles were attached at the time of enucleation (270) . Complications of socket infection, migration and degradation of the anterior surface forced its abandonment . In 1947, Ruedemann became Chairman of Ophthalmology at the Wayne State University College of Medicine, and the following year organized the Kresge Eye Institute . Ruedemann was active in the AAOO, serving as secretary for instruction 1938-1961; as president in 1963. During his years in Detroit, Ruedemann formed a close association with ocularist and chemist, Fritz Jardon -probably the first example of such close collaboration between an opht halmol ogist and an ocularist (271). Under Ruedemann's aegis, a meeting of eyemakers , fitters, and ophthalmologists was held in Detroit at the Kresge Eye Institute in March, 1957, and another meeting was held that fall in conjunction with the AAOO annual meeting. With Ruedemann's support, a smaller group of eyemakers formally established the American Society ofOcularists (ASO) in December, 1958 which held its first one -day symposium at the Palmer House in October, 1959. Annual meetings in conjunction with those of the AAO have continued to the present day. The ASO established an annual journal entitled, Today's Ocularistwhich was changed to the JournaloftheAmericanSocietyofOcularists

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in 1981. The ASO established the A.D. Ruedemann Lecture, first given in 1974 by Byron Smith. Other prominent members of the ASOPRS have had the honor of presenting Ruedemann Lectures in subsequent years. Another innovator and pioneer ofintegrated implants was N onnan L. Cutler . Before World War 11,Cutler had emphasized oculoplastic surgery in his practice in Wilmington, Delaware. During the war , he spent I 5 months at Dibble General Ho spital in Menlo Park, California , where he worked with Crowell Beard (see below). In 1946, Cutler described a semi-buried integrated implant that had a ball and ring made of methylmethacrylate and had a flat anterior surface that contained a square hole. The final artificial eye had a square stem or sprue, the shape of the recess in the face of the implant. Cutler later made a new ("universal" ) implant of tantalum mesh that could be used in either evisceration or enucleation procedures (272). Subsequently, numerous versions of semi-buried or integrated orbital implants were devised by other surgeons. But, when in situ, communication between the exposed and buried portions of the implant usually would lead to infection and extrusion. (Other surgical solutions to anophthalmic associated deformities that Cutler proposed included the implantation of fascia lata to correct supratarsal sulcus depression ). In 1949, Richard C. Troutman (b. May 16, 1922) designed a buried, integrated, magnetic implant but frequent slippage eventually resulted in conjunctival erosion (273). Troutman's interest in ophthalmic plastic surgery continued . With Byron Smith , he originated and outlined the First International Symposium for the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, and then coedited its proceedings (240). He later devoted more of his attention to the development of anterior segment microsurgery. Others such as Lee Allen and coworkers advanced the development of quasi-integrated implants that were completely buried (275,276) (Fig. 77) . The great variety of implants that were developed during this era attests to the shortcomings and complication s of anophthalmic implants in general.

FOUNDER S OF THE MODERN SUBPECIALTY OF OPHTHALMIC PLASTI C SURGERY

Following World War II, the expanding number of experienced ophthalmic plastic surgeon s continued to advance subspecialization in this field through innovation and extensive publication . One ophthalmologist who achieved considerable stature in ophthalmic plastic surgery was Sidney A. Fox (1898-1983). In the 193o's, Fox took his residency training in ophthalmology at Bellevue Hospital, which, as described, was one of the cradles of American ophthalmic plastic surgery. After servinghismilitarydutyin the army from 1943 to 1946,Fox returned to New York and built a private practice in ophthalmi c plastic surgery . In 1951, he published his modification of a triangular tarsal excision for lower eyelid entropion that gained widespread acceptance (277). Fox's textbook, Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery (five editions published from 1952 to 1976), further popularized his various oculoplastic

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Fie. 77. Variou s buried orbital implants. From KingJHJr , Wadsworth JAC : A11Atlas of OphthalmicSurgery,ed J. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott , 198 t, with permission.

surgical techniques (28), e.g, his variations of lid halving in eyelid reconstruction (278) and the laissez-faire approac h to medial canthal defects that he described with Crowell Beard (279). 2 7

27. In 1952, Fox introduced the term, dennachalasis(or dem1atocl1ala sis as currently used), leading

to a better classification of what Salvador Castaiiares called the baggy eyelid deformity ( Plast Reconstr Surg;1977; 59:629- 3J)

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Fox's interest in the history of ophthalmic plastic surgery has been mentioned , a subject that he emphasized in his textbooks and in his 1959 Walter R. Parker Lecture at the U niverstity of Michigan ( 1 1 2). He recognized that ophthalmic plastic surgery was "slowly but surely becoming a specialty within a specialty" but lamented that lid surgery was becoming neglected by the average ophthalmologist. Although Fox's academic appointments included a clinical professorship at the New York University School of Medicine, he did not develop a fellowship training program and limited his activities in organized ophthalmology and his subspecialty. At the time of hi s retirement in l 978, Fox listed his membership in the ASOPRS , but his participati on in the Society was rather peripheral; he did not maintain membership in the AAO following its split from otolaryngology. There were, however, other great ophthalmic plastic surgeons who established fellowship training programs and remained active in organized ophthalmology and eventually, the ASOPRS . Among the many personalities that will yet be mentioned, the accomplishments off our individuals will be highlighted: Byron Smith, Alston Callahan , Lester Jones, and Crowell Beard. While providing the inspirational force for the founding of the ASOPRS , none of these men ever held the office of president in the Society-each rather preferring to serve in active advisory capacities while concentrating on teaching and academic pursuits. The founding of the ASOPRS in 1969 will serve as an approximate closing point for thi s chapter. But as will be apparent from additional material in this commemorative volume, their achievements and legacy extend well beyond that point.

Byron CapleeseSmith (1908-1990) Byron C. Smith (Fig. 78) was one of the major figures of ophthalmic plastic surgery in the World War II and post-war era (Chapters 6 and 7). Smith train ed in general surgery at Yale-New Haven Medical Center, where he was exposed to ophthalmic plastic surgery by Clement Clark who had trained with Wheeler (19). Following his residency at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, Smith worked with Wendell Hughes and then became clinic chief on the Hughes service. Together they formed an oculoplastics clinic at Bellevue Hospital, probably the first purely oculoplastics clinic in the United States. During that time, Earl C. Padgett, Smith 's former chief of plastic surgery at the University of Kansa s, designed and perfected the drum dermatome. Smith described the use of the Padgett dermatome for ophthalmic plastic surgery (280). During World War II , Smith served as Chairman of the Departments of Oph thalmology and Plastic Surgery for the First General American Army Hospital (affiliated with the Bellevue Hospital Unit). He succeeded Derrick T. Vail, Jr. (1898-1973) as Senior Consultant in Ophthalmology for the U.S. Military Forces . Following World War II, Smith established the first ophthalmic plastic surgical clinic at the Manhattan Eye , Ear, and Throat Hospital . This was done together with his colleague and plastic surgeon,John Marquis Converse (1909-1981), whom he had first met in Paris during the war in 1944. Collaboration between Smith and Converse continued for many years, especially in documenting the manifestations and tr eatment of orbital fractures . Together, in 1950, they de scribed the use ofbone

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Fie. 78. Byron Capleese Smith (19081990). From Bosniak SL, Smith BC (eds): Adv OplitlialmicPlast Reconstr Surg 1986; 5:334-43. Reprinted with permission of Dr. Stephen L. Bosniak, MD , FACS.

grafts in the reconstruction of the orbital floor (281). In 1952, they described complex naso-orbital fractures that were managed by combined medial canthoplasty and dacryocystorhinostomy (282). In 1944, Converse had described transnasal fixation of the medial canthal tendons in cases of traumatic telecanthus (283), a technique that Alston Callahan had also developed (49). Also in 1944, E.F. King and E. Samuel (284) described the basic features of orbital floor fractures that had been noted by William Lang overfiftyyearsearlier(285). In 1957, Smith and his resident, William Regan, coined the term, "b lowout fractur e (286)." Through a large series of publications and experimental work, Smith and his coworkers brought more widespread attention to this syndrome (286-290) (Fig. 79). The close friendship and collaborations of Smith and Converse bore many fruits. They continued the "long and historic association " of ophthalmology and plastic surgery with the Second Int ernational Symposium on Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Eye and Adnexa , and coec.'..:tedthe proceedings (291). Wen dell Hughes served as the Honorary President of the Symposium which was held in New York City in 1966. 28

28. The Third International Symposium of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Eye and Adnexa took place under the auspices of the Manhattan Eye , Ear and Throat Hospital in I 980, chaired by Thomas D. Rees,Jack V. Lisman, and Blair 0. Rogers . The Program Directors were Sherrell J. Aston, Albert Homblass and Murray A. Meltzer . The proceedings, edited by Aston, Homblass , Meltzer and Rees , were published in 1982 by Williams & Wilkins and dedicated to the memory of John Marquis Converse .

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FIG. 79. Mechanism of orbital "blowout" fracture, a term coined in 1957 by Smith and Regan. From Smith BC, Nesi FA: Practical Techniques in Opl,tl,a/micPlastic Surgery.St Louis, CV Mosby, 198 1, with permission.

Beginning in the 196o's, evide nce of the vitality of Smith's fellowships in ophthalmi c plastic sur gery could be found in the numerous publications that were coautho red with his students. In 1966 Smith's form er fellows organized the Byron Smith Study Club whic h has had annual gatherings coinciding with the American Academy of Ophthalmology Meeting(292). In 1969, a group of Smith's former fellows conceived the idea offormulating and charte rin g the ASOPRS-Charles Beyer , George Buerger, Thomas Cherubini , Margaret Obear , and Robert Wilkins, wit h additional input from a contemporary trainee, William Pidde (Chapters 2, 4 1 and 5). Cherubini coauthored Smith's first ophthalmi c plastic surgery manual in 1970 (57). Eleven years later, another fellow, Frank Nesi , coauth ored an upd ated manual (54) (Fig. 80). Both of these texts clearly illustrated surgi cal maneuvers in a stepwise fashion. In 1982, Smith was the founding editor of Advances in OphthalmicPlasticand ReconstructiveSu,;gerywhich has app eared almo st annuall y under the editorship of a form er fellow, Stephen Bosniak. Byron Smith's fellows (and the fellows of these fellows) have gone on to establish their own programs and assume leadership roles in the field of op hthalmic plastic surgery. Albert Homblass , the Imm ediate Past President of the ASOPRS , succeeded Smith as the Director of the Oc uloplastics Clinic at the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital in 1979. Fifteen of the first twenty-five president s of the ASOPRS have had a substantial portion of their fellowship training with Smith in New York City. Considering the chain of mentor-student relationships, the quali ty and vo lum e of Smith's fellowships have provided a link to Wheeler and Hughes for scores if not hu ndreds of highl y skilled op hthalmi c plastic surgeons. 1

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Fie. So. Byron Smith's "lazy-T " procedure for repair of ectropio n. A full-thickness lid margin excision is contiguous to a more medial posterior excision, resembling a (lazy) letter "T" on its side. From Smith BC, Nesi FA: PracticalTedmiques in Opl,1/,a/111ic Plastic Surgery. St Louis, CV Mosby , 198 1, with permission.

Alston Callahan (b. Marci, 16, 1911) Alston Callahan (Fig. 81) has had a remarkable, multi-faceted career: Innovator in and teacher of ophthalmology and ophthalmic plastic surgery; film-maker; founder of a great eye hospital; and founder of a medical publishing co mpany{269,293 ) (Chapter 8). During World War II, he was assigned to the officers training program at Carlisle Barracks in Pennsylvania (as was Crowell Beard) . He was appointed chief of the ophthalmology service at Northington General Hospital in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, one of the several United States Hospitals that were designated as eye centers. His first book, Surgery ofthe Ey~Injuries (294), in 1950, was based on his war experiences, and Surgeryof the Ey~Diseases (295), was published in 1956. During his time of practi ce, Callahan has written over 165 journal articles, has written or edited seven books, and has contributed chapters to thirteen other books (personal communication). In the era before the founding of the ASOPRS, important articles included the repair of eyelid, canthal and socket deformities (296-299). His more recent con tributions include the application of transnasal wiring in the management ofblepharophimosis (300) and the use of stainless steel screws in medial canthal reconstruction (30 I). In 1966, Callahan published a textbook entitled, ReconstructiveSurgeryofthe Eyelids and OcularAdnexa (302). Many of his personal innovations were included in this text including the wiring of a conformer to the orbital rim in the treatment of the contracted socket (Fig. 82). Thi s was the first of many important oculoplastic

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Fie . 81. Alston Callahan . From Bosniak SL, Smith BC (eds): Adv Opl,tl,almic Plast ReconslrSurg 1986;5:442. Reprinted with permission of Dr. Stephen L. Bosniak , MD, FACS .

Fie. 82. Callahan 's method of wiring an orbital conformer to the orbital rim for reconstruction of a contra cted socket. From Callahan A: Reconstructive Surgery of the Eyelids and Omlar Adnexa. Birmingham, AL, Aesculapius, 1966, with permi ssion.

------- -textbooks publish ed by the Aesculapius Publishing Co. , which he founded. In that same year, a close friend and colleague of Callahan , John C. Mustarde of Scotland also published his textbook , Repair and Reconstructionin the Orbital Region(303) . Callahan's surgical teaching films pre sented at the annual meetings of the AAOO (1945-1969) and later at the ASOPRS meetings drew large audiences. The films always included an unexpected visual or auditory joke. In I 950, Callahan began a preceptorship program, and between I 960 and I 977 the preceptorship was primarily limited to ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. Upon Hughes'

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retirement in 1969, Callahan replaced him as the second chairman of the Ophthalmic Reconstructive Plastic Surgery Committee of the AAOO. He therefore played a key role in determining the future direction of organization for ophthalmologists specializing in ophthalmic plastic surgery. In response to overtures from plastic surgeons and otolaryngologists, Callahan instead supported the establishment of an autonomous ASOPRS, and served as a key member of the Advisory Board for the first years of the Society's existence (1970-1973). In 1977, one of Callahan's last fellows, his son, Michael A. Callahan (b. December 24, 1946), completed his oculoplastics fellowship and joined him in practice. Together, in 1979, they published a book, Ophthalmic Plasticand Orbital Surgery(53).

Lester T.Jones (1894-1983) Lester T. Jones (Fig. 83) was one of the great innovators and anatomists of ophthalmic plastic surgery (Chapter IO). During World War 11,Jones served as a captain in the US Navy. He was board certified in both ophthalmology and otolaryngology and had also once been a professor of anatomy. Jones was a moving force in the reemphasis of anatomy in modem ophthalmic training. He was interested in lacrimal problems and made numerous advances in this and in other areas of oculoplastic surgery (304-306) . In 1961,Jones (307) fust reported his technique of conjunctivorhinostomy using Pyrex tubes to establish a conduit between the lacrimal lake and the nose, and he later published follow-up reports on technique and results (308) (Fig. 84). In 1970, Jones collaborated with Mustarde and Callahan in publishing a "timely" monograph , OphthalmicPlastic SurgeryUp-To-Date(49). In that same year,Jones tookJohn L. Wobig as a fellow and their collaboration continued untilJones' death in 1983. Together, in 1976, they published a textbook entitled, Surgeryof the Eyelids and l.AcrimalSystem (309). Wobig has continued the work of his mentor in anatomy and lacrimology . He currently holds the LesterT. Jones Chair of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, Oregon. Jones' depth of understanding of orbital anatomy was apparent in many important papers that featured innovative surgical techniques (3I 0,3 l I). In I 970,Jones co-authored the AAOO manual on ophthalmic anatomy with Merrill] . Reeh, (b. September 9, 1906) and Jonathan Wirtschafter (312). Reeh also contributed greatly to the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Committee of the AAOO with popular courses and presentations (Chapter I 1). In 1975, Jones and co-workers published a modern approach to ptosis correction by an aponeurotic repair(313). In recognition of Jones' contributions to surgical anatomy and ophthalmic plastic surgery, the ASOPRS has established the Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award. Also, the ASOPRS has established the Merrill]. Reeh Pathology Award for papers that especially represent a significant contribution to ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. In addition to his many surgical innovations.Jones' intense interest in lacrimology is reflected in several important articles on lacrimal physiology (314,3 I 5). Other prominent lacrimologists of the early post-war era deserve mention at this point. In 1955, Everett R. Veirs (b. September 5, 1908) of the Scott and White Clinic

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Fie. 83. Lester T. Jones (1894- 1983). Photograph courtesy of Dr. John L. Wobig.

Fie. 84. Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy with emplacement of a Pyrex tube, first described by Jones in 1961. From Jone s LT, Wobig: Surgeryof t/ie Eyelids and l..AcrimalSystem. Birmingham, AL, Aesculapius, 1976, with pennission.

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in Temple, Texas, published his monograph, The LAcrimalSystem, ClinicalApplication(3 16). In 1962, Veirs described a malleable steel rod with a swaged -on silk suture for stentin g a lacerated canaliculus after repair(317). Since Wagenmann's description of 1913, a variety of materials have been emp loyed in the stenti ng of a repaired canalicul us, including metal rods and tubing of polyethelene or silicone (3 18). In 1963, Veirs summarized the basic concepts and techniques oflac rimol ogy in a manual prepared for the AAOO (319). In 1970, Veirs chaired the First International Symposium on the Lacrimal System in collaboration with the TwentyFirst Int ernational Congress of Ophthalmology held in M exico City (320), and he subsequently published yet another textbook on lacrimal disorders (321).

CrowellBeard(b. May 23, 1912) During a notab le career, Crowell Beard (Fig. 85) has been a great innovator, author, and teacher in the field of ophthalmic plastic surgery (Chapt er 9). Beard's curricul um vitae includes authorship or co-authorship of several books, 42 book chapters, and 39 original journal articles (personal communication). He has served on the editorial board of several jo urnal s including the Amen¡canJournal of Ophthalmology,Archivesof Ophthalmology,and Anna ls ofPlastic Surgery(322). Beard trained in ophthalm ology at the Mayo Foundation between 1940 and 1942. During World War II, he served as a captain in th e United States Army. He was assigned to the officer's training program at Carlisle Barracks in Pennsylvania (as was Alston Callahan), and then served at Dibble General Hospital in M enlo Park, California (322). H ere he worked wit h Norman L. Cutler , whose pioneering efforts in the area of integrated in1plants have already been mentioned. In 1955, Cutler and Beard described a technique of upper eyelid reconstruction invo lving a temporary blepharorrhaphy by a pedicle off ull-th ickness lowe r eyelid tissue advanced beneath a bridge of the lower eyelid margin (the Cutle r-B eard bridge-flap) (323) (Fig. 86). Anoilier important collaborator with Beard was Marvin H . Quickert (19291974) (Fig. 87). Quickert had trained with Hughes in New York and returned to the San Jose-San Francisco area to join Crowell Beard as a member of the clinical faculty of the University of California. In 1969, Beard and Quickert instit ut ed a fellowship training program and collaborated on an important dissection manual that has been wide ly used and has gone thr oug h three edi tions (324) (Fig. 88). With one of their fellows, Robert M. Dryden , Quickert described closed bicanalicular-nasal stenting the lacrimal drainage system using silicone tubing swaged onto introducing probes (325). With Lester Jones and John Wobig , Quickert helped develop the modem aponeurotic approach to ptosis correction (Fig. 89). Their methods were first presented at a postgraduate meeting in 1970, and in 1973 by Quickert at a meeting of the American Ptosis Society. Their studies were not published until 1975, after Quickert's death (3I 3). Beard described Quickert's tragic death in 1974 as "a severe blow to the program and to the subspecialty" of ophthalmi c plastic surgery (266). In 1973, Quickert received the

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F1G. 85. Crowell Beard. From Brown Plast Reco11 str Surg BZ: Opl,tl,a/111ic 1985; 1 :223-4, with permission.

Fie. 86. Technique of reconstruction of major defects of the upper lid with a bridge flap from the lower eye as described by Cutler and Beard in 1955. (A & B) First scage reconstru ction . (C & D) Second stage with lysis of the blepharorrhaphy. From Fox SA: Oplithal111ic Plastic Surgery,ed 4. New York, Grune & Statton, 1970, with perrrnss100.

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first ASOPRS Lester T . Jones Surgical Anatomy Award . After Quickert's death, Beard co ntinued to train fellow s in collaboration with others in the San Francisco area . Since I 969, over three dozen fellows were trained by Beard and his associates (Appendix 2). Beard has made several important co ntributions in the field of ptosi s surgery. In 1965, he advocated bilateral fascia lata brow suspension for the sake of symmetry in some cases of severe unilat eral ptosis and Marcus Gunn Gaw winking) ptosis (326) . In 1966, be outlined a quantitative approach to ptosis surgery that included his modification of the Fasanella-Servat procedure (327); he did much to subsequently popularize this operation (328). Beard's classic textbook, Ptosis, was first

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F1G.87. Marvin H. Quicken (19291974) . From Jones LT , WobigJL : Surgeryof the Eyelidsand LacrimalSystem. Bimungham, AL, Aesculapius, 1976, with permission.

F1G. 88. Beard and Quicken 's skin incision plan for anterior orbital and facial dissection, th e first illustration (in black and white ) of their dissection manual . The rest of the excellent illustrations were color photographs . From Beard C , Quicken MH : Anatomy of the Orbit, ed I . Birmingham, AL, Aesculapius, 1969, with permission .

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FIG. 89. Ptosis correction by aponeurotic repair as described Jones et al in 1975. From Jones LT, Quickert MH , WobigJL: Ard, Oplrtlralmol 1975;93:629-34.Copyright 1975, American Medical Association .

published by C.V. Mosby & Co. in 1969 with subsequent editions in 1976 and 1981 (29). Michael Callahan coauthored a fourth edition that was recently published by Aesculapius Publishing Company (30). In addition to important works on the subjects of anatomy and ptosis, Beard also published early papers on the subject of cryotherapy for eyelid tumors and trichiasis (329,330). He also coauthored Sidney Fox's well-known report on spontaneous granulation of medial canthal defects (279). Beard has received many awards including th e ASOPRS Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy award in 1978. He has given hundereds of guest lectures and several named lectures. Beard has always demonstrated a keen appreciation of the history of ophthalmic plastic surgery. But in his inimitable humble style, Beard, a great teacher and contributor ofinnovative techniques, has expressed his concern about the complications arising from surgical techniques that have come to be abandonned. In May, 1990, Beard gave the Eighteenth Annual Bruc e M. Fralick Lecture at the University of Michigan. The title ofhis lecture was, "Are Ther e Any New Mistakes or Have We Made Them All?"

NEW DIRECTIONS

On the eve of the establishment of the ASOPRS, the foundations for the subspecialty of ophthalmic plastic surgery were well established. Through the efforts of Smith, Callahan,Jones, Beard, and others, an expanding number fulltime ophthalmic plastic surgeons h eld appointments in ophthalmology departments throughout the United States and abroad. As in the past, the interchange between plastic surgery and ophthalmology continued. Sir Harold Gillies had been among the first to apply methods of treating traumatic deformities to major congenital deformites. In I 967, the first case of modern cra niofa cial surgery was presented by Paul Tessier at the Meeting of the French Society of Plastic Surgery (331). He demonstrated that the exposure provided by a combined cranial and facial

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approach allowed en bloc mobilization of craniofacial skeletal segments with or without onlay / interposition autogenous bone grafts. Originally, the techniques were employed to correct the orbital deformities associated wit h hypertelorism, craniofacial dysostosis and Treacher Collins syndrome . They have also been applied to the correction of post-traumatic craniofacial deformities and the resection of previously untreatable neoplasms. Also on the eve of the establishment of the ASOPRS , the United States and her allies were engaged in Viet Nam-yet another active military conflict. At that time, the aut hor was still in high school, watching scenes of war's havoc on television. As in other generations , the challenges of treating the horrible injuries that occur during war were met by ophthalmic plastic surgeons who were destined to apply their skills and innovations in a non-military setting as well. Three of the members of the current ASOPRS Executive Committee, Albert Hornblass (the author 's mentor) , George Paris , and John Harrington, were among the ranks of American military ophthalmo logists in Viet Nam.

CONCLUSION

[n this history of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery, many personalities and their contributions have been discussed. The various stages in the development of this surgical subspecialty are reflected in these contrib ution s: Establishment of surgery as a respected profession; establishment of ophthalmology and plastic surgery as separate but related surgical specialties; and the establishment of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery as a distinct subspecialty within opht halm ology. The accomplishments of many of the personalities presented in the latter part of this history span the eras before , during, and after the establishment of the ASOPRS . The next chapter will continue the history of opthalmic plastic surgery during the first 25 years of the ASOPRS . In the foreward to his monumental HistoryefOphthalmology,Julius Hirschberg quoted Goethe's view of the importance of history :

" History is for the ambitious youth more of a burden than a joy becau se youth w ants to create a new, perhaps original history . Tho se, however, who have matured in wisdom and in age recognize gratefully how much good, useful and helpful infonnation their prede cessors have left them (J I vi)."

For ophthalmic plastic surgeons that study the history of their subspecialty , this "good , useful and helpful information" finds direct application in alleviating the suffering of patients. Beyond the many great technical accomplishments revealed in this history, the benefits to mankind should therefore be a source of great pride for those who have chosen this field.

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REFERENCES I â&#x20AC;˘ Montandon D : History of plastic surgery of the orbital region . In Aston SJ (ed): 11,irdllltemational SymposiumofPlasticand ReconstrnctiveSurgeryofthe Eye and Adnexa. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins,

1982, pp 2-10.

Bosniak SL, Smith BC (eds): Advancesi11 OphthalmicPlastic and Reconstrnctive Surgery.Vol 5. History and Tradition.New York, Pergamon Press, 1986. 2.

3. Hughes WL: R econstructiveSurgeryoftl,e Eyelids. St. Lo uis, CV Mosb y, 1943. Reprinted , in part, in Adv Opl,thalmicPlastReconstrSurg 1986;5:25-87.

4. Katzen LB : The history of cos meti c blepharoplasty. In Putterman A (ed): CosmeticOculoplastic Surgery, New York, Grune & Stratton, 1982. Reprinted , in part, in Adv OphthalmicPlastReconstrSurg 1986;5:8~6.

5. Lagrange F: Les Fracturesde l'O rbitepar Projectiles de Guerre.Paris, Masso n S.A ., 1917. Translated by H . Child and edited by H.J. Parsons as Fractures ofthe Orbit by Felix LAgrange . London, University of London Press, Ltd, 1918. Translation reprinted, in part , as Fractur es of th e orbit and injurie s to the eye in war. Adv Op/,thalmicPlast Recot1str Surg 1986;5:169-76. 6. Silverstone P: History of surgery for involutional ectropion. Adv Op/,thalmicPlast R econs tr Surg 1986:5:97 -123 .

7. Beard C: History of ptosis surgery . Adv OphthalmicPlast Reconstr Surg 1986;5: 125-3 I. 8. ServatJ, Mantilla M : The history ofptosis surgery . Adv OphthalmicPlast Reco11Str Surg 1986;5:13 337. 9. Hughes SM: The history oflacrimal system . Adv Opht/,almicPlastRcco11St r Surg 1986;5:13!,-68.

1o. Hughes WL: The evolution of ophthalmi c sutures . Adv Opht/,almicPlast ReconstrSurg 1986;5: 17783. 1 1. Bonavolonta G: History and development of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery in Italy . Adv Opl,tl,almicPlast R econstr Surg 1986;5:185-87.

12. Sanz LF, Sanchez JA, Sanz AF: A history of oculoplastic surgery in Spain. Adv Opl,t/,almicPlast

Reco11S tr Surg 1986;5:189-218 . 13. Riedel KG, Beyer CK: History and development of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery in Germany and Austria. Adv OphthalmicPlast Reco11st r Surg 1986;5:2 19-21 . 14. Thaller VT , Collin JR 0: History of ophthalmic plastic surge.ry in Europe . Adv Op/,thalmicPlast

ReconstrSurg 1986;5:223-3 1. I 5. Werb

A : The history and development oflacrimal surgery in England and Europe . Adv Ophthalmic

Plast Reconstr Surg 1986;5:233-4 0. 16. Bosniak SL: Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery in the United State s: 1893-1970. Adv

OphthalmicPlast Reconstr Surg 1986; 5 :241-81. 17. Crawford JS : The history and developm ent of ophthalmic plastic and reconstru ctive surgery in Canada. Adv Plast Reco11s tr Surg 1986;5:409-16. 18. Rogers PA: Development 1986;5:417-20 .

of oculoplastic surgery in Australia . Adv OphthalmicPlastReconstrSurg

19. Garber PF, SirnontonJT: The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary . Oculoplastic Surgery: Where 1t all began. Adv Opl,tl,almicPlast ReconstrSurg 1986;5:283-300. 20. Bedrossian EH, Flanagan JC, Moore MB : The history of the oculoplastic department ofWills Eye Hospital. Adv OphthalmicPlastR econstr Surg 1986;5:301-12. 21.

Smith BC : The history and development ofophthalmic

plastic surgery at MEETH. Adv Op/,-

tha/111ic Plast Reconstr Surg r 986;s:3 13-18 .

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172. Green J: An operation for the removal of the eyeball together with the entire conjunctival sac and the lid margins. Am} Opl,tl,a/1110/ 1884;1 :65. 173. Alt A: Removal of the eyeball together with the tarsi, conjunctival sac and lid margins . Am} Oplitlialmol1903;20:69. 174. Naquin H : Extirpation of conjun ctiva, tarsi, and lid margins following enucleation of the eye. Am} Opl,tl,a/1110/ 1961;5 1:227 . 17 5. R ycroft, BW : An operation for the treatment of severe contraction of the socket. BrJ Opl,d,almol 1962;46;21. 176. Mul es PH : Evisceration of the globe, w ith artificial vitreous. Trans Opl,t/,almolSocUK 1885;5:200-6. (Reprint ed in Adv Opl,tl,a/micPlast R econstrS11r g 1990;8:69-72.) 177. Frost WA: What is the best meth od of dealing with a lose eye? Br MedJ I 887; I : I I 53-1 I 54. 178. Dran sarc HN : Un cas de blepharoptose ope re par un procede special 1880;84:88.

a !'auteur . An11 Omlist

179. Pagenstecher A: C ited by Fuchs E, Textbook of Op/11/,a/1110/ogy. Philadelphia , J.B . Lippin cott, 1917, p 964 . 180. Wilder WH : Operation for ptosis. A1111 Opl,t/1a/1110/ Otolary11gol 1898;T39. 181. von He ss C: Eine operation mechode gege n ptosis. Arel, A11ge11/,ei/kd I 893- 1894;28:22 . 182. Eversbusch 0: Zur op eration der co ngenitalen blepharopto sis. Kli,, Monatsbl Augenlieilkd 1883; 21:100. 183. WolifH : Di e vorlagerung des mu se. levator palp . superiori s rnic dur chtrennung der insertion . Zwei neue methoden gegen ptostS congenita . Arel, A11ge11liei/kd 1896;33: 125. 184. Pan as P : Traite des Maladiesdes Ye11x . Paris, 1894. 185. Mot ais M : Operation du pto sis par la greffe tarsienne d'une languette du tendon du muscle droit superieur. Ann Oc11/is11897;118:5. 186. Parinaud H : Nouveau pro cede operation du ptosis. Ann Oailist 1897; 118: 13. 187. Gillet de Grandmont: Nouvelle o peration du ptosis congen ital. R ee11eil d'Oplitalmologie(Paris) 189 I ; 13:267-'70 . 188. Gru enin g E: The value of partial resection of the can al cartilage in the operativ e treatment of congenital pto sis. Trans Am Opl,1/1almolSoc 1902;9:574-<S. 189. Anderson RL : Th e age of aponeuroti c aware ness. OplrtlralmicPlast R econslr S11rg1985;1 :77-9. 190. de Laperso nn e F: Sur quelque s modificatio ns dan Jes operations du ptosi s. Arch d'Oplita/1110/ 1903; I :497. 191. Fergus F: An easy operation for congen ital ptosis. Br Med} 1901; 1:762. 192. Payr E: Plastik Mitt els frier Faszien Tran splant ation bei Ptosis. De11 tsel1Med Wel111 sclir1909;35 :822. 193. Wright WW : Use ofliving sutures in the treatment of ptosis. Arel, Opl,tl,a/mol1922; 5 1:99-102. 194. Crawford JS: Repair of pto sis using frontalis muscle and fascia lata. Trans Am er A cad Opl,tl,a/1110/ Otolaryngol 1956;60:67 2-8. 195. Derby GS: Co rrection ofpto sis by fascia lata hanun ock. Am] Op/11/,a/1110/ 1928; 11:352- 4.

196. Dickey CA: A superior rectus fascialata sling in correc tion of pt osis. Am} Op/11/,a/1110/ 1936; 19:660-4.

197. Friedenwald JS, Guy ton JS: Simpl e pto sis operatio n : U tifu ation of the frontalis by means of a single rhomboid -sh aped suture . Am J Oplithalmol1948;3 1:4 11- 4.

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198. Marple WB : Case of traumatic ptosis of the left eye operated upon with most satisfactory result according to the method of Dr . Gruening or Gillet de Grandmont . Tram Am Opl,tl,a/mol Soc 1903; 10: 169-72. 199. Gruening E : Treatment of various forms of ptosis by partial resection of the tarsal cartilage. New York Eye and Ear I,if,n11Rep 1904; 11 : 1-3 . 200. Hervouet F, Tessier P: Nouvelle technique operatoire du ptosis. 8111/Mem Soc Fr Ophtalmol 1956;69:239-42 . 201. de Blaskovics L: New operation forptosis with shortening of the levatorand tarsus. Ard, Opl,t/1almol 1923;52:563-73. 202. Schimek RA, Cusick PL: Evaluation of a modified Blaskovics operation (Iliff technique) for blepharoptosis . Am] Opl,1/,almol1958;46:819-30 . 203. Berke RN : Simplified Blaskovics operation for blepharoptosis . Ard, Op/1tlialmol1952;48:46095.

204. Iliff CE: A simplified ptosis operation. Am] Ophtlialmo/1954;37=529-33. 205. Iliff CE: S11rgical Managementof Ptosis.Somerville,

NJ,Ethi con , 1963.

206. Iliff CE. Ossofsky HJ: Tumors of the Eye and Adnexa in lrifimcyand Childhood.Springfield , IL, Charles C Thomas, 1962. 207. Tori MA: Nuovo metodo conservatoire de cure radicale delle suppurazioni croniche de) sacco lacrimale (dacryocistorhinostoma) . C/inica Modema (Firenze) 1904;1o:38 5-7 . 208. Toti A: The treatment of dacryocystiti s by the formation of a fresh passage from sac to nasal cavity (dacryocystorhinostomy) . Oplit/1almolRev 1909;28:287. 209. Kuhne H: Notizzurte chnik derdacryocystorhino stomie von Tori . ZtsdirAuge11heikd 1914;3 1:379. 21o. Ohm J: Geschichtliche Bennerkung zur Verbesserung den Torishen Operacion. Kli11Monatsbl Auge11heilkd1926;77:825. 211. Dupuy-Dutemps , Bourguet: Cure de la dacryocystite cronique commune et du larrnoiement par la dacryocysto-rhinostomie plastique . Bull Acad de Med (Paris) 1921;86:293- 5. 212. WestJM : A window resection of the nasal duct in cases ofstenosis. TrallSAm Ophtl,a/molSoc 1914;12:654-8. 2 I 3. Caldwell GW : Two new operations for obstruction of the nasal duct, with preservation of the canaliculi and an incidental description ofa new lacrymal probe . NY Medj,1893;57=581-2 . 214.Jones LT, Boyden GL: New mucous membrane flap fordacryocystorhinostomy. Ard, Otolary11gol 1952;56:405-8 . 215. Miller CC: The excision of bag-like folds of skin from the region about the eyes. Med Brief 1906;34:648. 216. Miller CC and Miller F: Folds, bags and wrinkles of the skin aboutthe eyes and their eradication by simple surgical methods . Med Brief 1907;35:540. 217. Miller CC: Cosmetic Surgery:11icCorrectio11 of Fea111ral Jmpeifcctions. Chicago, Oak Printing Co, 1907. 218. Kolle FS: Plastic and CosmeticSurgery.New York , D Appleton & Co, 1911. 219. BourguetJ: V. Les hernie s graisseuses de l'o rbite . Notre rraitemcnt chirurgical. Bull Acad Med (Paris) 1924;92(ser 3): 1270-2. 220. Bourguec J: Chirurgie esthetique de la face. Les nez concaves, !cs rides ct Jes"pochcs" sous les yeux. Ard1 Provde Cl,ir 1925;28:293. 221. Noel AS: La CliinirgieEs1/1etiq11e: Son R8/e Social.Paris, Masson, 1926.

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222. Whimall SE: On a ligament acting as a check to the action of the palpebrae superioris muscle.

J Anal P/1ysio/1910;45: 131. 223. Whimall SE: On a tubercle on the malar bone and on the lateral attachments . J Anal Pl,ysiol 191I ;45:426-32 . 224. Whimall SE : The relations of the lacrirnal fossa to the ethmoidal cells. Oplitl, Rev 1911;30:321. 225. Whitnall SE: The naso-lacrimal canal. The extent to which it is formed by the maxilla and the influence of this upon its calibre. Oplitlialmoscopc1912;1o:557. 226. Whitnall SE: The relation of the naso-lacrimal canal to the maxillary antrum . Formation of the lacrimal recess. Op/,tl, Rev 1913;32:33. 227. Whitnall SE: The levator palpebrae superioris. The attachment and relations of its aponeurosis. Op/11/,a/moscope 1914;12:258. 228. Whimall SE: TI,eAnatomy eft/,e H,m,an Orbitand AccessoryOrgans <ifVision,ed 1, London , Oxford University Press Inc, 1921. 229. Le Fort R : Etude experimentale sur Jesfractures de la machoire superieur e. Rev de Cliir (Paris) 1901;23:208-27,3 6<>-79,479-507. 230. Morestin H : Deux cas de reconstitution de l'os malaire et du contour orbitaire transplants cartilagineux . Bull Mem Soc C/,ir, Paris 1916;42:1700--1707.

a l'aide de

23 1. Morestin H : Plaie de la face par balle de schrapnell . Destruction du rebord orbitaire inf Large perforation palatine. Reconstitution du rebord orbitaire par une greff osseuse. Palatoplastie aux depens de la muqueuse de lajoue . B111/ Mem Soc C/,ir, (Paris) 1916;42: 1707-1711. 232. Dollinger) : Die Drickentlastung der Augenhoble durch Entfemung der ausseren Orbitalwand bei hochgradigem Exophthamus und konsekuter Homhauterkrankung. Deutsd1Med Wod,ensd,r 1911;37:1888--90. 233. Naffziger H : Progressive exophthalmos follwoing thyroidectomy : its pathology and treatment. Ann Surg 1931;94:582-6. 234. Sewell EC : Operative control of progressive exophthalmos . Arc/, Otolaryngol1936;24:621- 4. 235. Hirsch 0 : Surgical decompression for malignant exoophthalmos . Ard1Otolaryngol1950;51:3253 l. 236. Walsh TE , Ogura JH : Transantral orbital decompression for malignant exophthalmos . LAry11goscope 1957;67:544--g. 237. Filatov VP: Plastika na kruglom stebl. Vestnik Oflalmologii1917;34(4-5);149-158 . 238. DunningtonJH :John Martin Wheeler, MD (1879-1938). Ard, Ophtl,almo/ 1938;20:885--g. 239. WheelerJM : War injuries of the eyelids. TransAm Oplitl,a/1110/ Soc 1919;17:263--71. 240. Wheeler JM: Free dennic grafts for the correction of cicatricial ectropion . Am J Op/11/,a/m ol 1920;3:251- 5. 241. Wheeler JM : Corre ction of cicatricial ectropion by use of true skin of upper lid. JAMA 1921;77: 1618-3 I . 242. Wheeler JM : The use of the epidennic graft in plastic eye surgery . Int Clin 1922;3:292-302 . 243. Wheeler JM : Enucleation of the eye with implantation of the patient's fat into the cavity. Am

J Surg 1917;3I : 167--g. (Reprinted in Adv Op/,t/,a/micPlastReconstrSurg 1990;8:151-2 .)

244. Barraquer J: Enucleation with placement of fat graft in Tenon's Capsule. Adv Op/,t/,a/mic Plast RecomtrSurg1990;8:149-50. (Translated by Rodriguez -Sains RS. Originally published as:Enucleaci6n con ingerto de tejido adiposo en la d.psu la de Tenon . Ard,ivos de Ofla/111 0/ogiaHispano-America11a 1901; 1:82-4.)

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245. Wheeler JM : Implantation of hollow groo ved body into orbit for filling. Arel, Oplrtlralm ol 1938;20:709- 12. 246. Wheeler JM . Restoration of the obliterated eye socke t. Am J Oplrtlralmol1921;4:481-8. 247. WheelerJM : Halving wounds in facial plastic surgery. Proceedings oft/re 211 d CongressPan-Pacific SurgeryAssodation, 1936, pp 289--95. 248. Wheeler JM: Spastic entropion corrected by orbicularis transplantation . Am 1939;22:477-83.

J Ophthalmol

249. Goldstein I: Re cession of the levator muscle for lagophthalmos in exophthalmic goiter . Arel, Op/1tlralmol1934;11:389-93 . 250. Wheeler JM: Colleded Papers. Stqff of Institute ofOphthalmology,ColumbiaPresbyterianMedical Center, Columbia University Press, New York, 1939. 251. Spaeth GL: Edmund Benjamin Spaeth. Adv OplrtlralmicPlast Reconstr Surg 1986;5:345- 53. 252. Gillies HD : Plastic SurgeryoftireFace.London , H Frowde , 1920. 253. Hunt HL : Plastic Surgeryof tl1eHead, Faceand Neck. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1926. 254. SheehanJE: Plastic Surgeryof tire Orbit, N ew York , MacMillan , 1927. 255. Wies FA: Cicatricial entropion. TransAm Acad OplrtlralmolOtolaryngol 1955;59:503-6 . 256. Fasanella RM (ed): Management ofComplicationsin Eye Surgery. AvoidanceofPiifalls and Treatment ofDifficult Situationsin Oplrtlralmologic Operations. W .B. Saunders, Philadelphia , 1957.

257. Fasanella RM , ServatJ: Levator resection for min imal ptosi s: Anoth er simplified operation. Arch Oplrtlralmol1961;65:493--6. 258. Hughe s WL : A new method for rebuilding a lower lid. Ard, Oplrtlralmol 1937;17:1008-17 . 259. Dupuy-Dutemp s L: Autoplastie palpebro-palpebrale int egrale. R eflection d'une paupiere detruite dans toute son epaisseur par greffe cutanee et tarso-conjonctivale prise al'aucre paupiere. Bull Acad Natl Med 1921;86:293. 260. Landolt: Un nouveau cas de blepharoplastie suivanc notre pro cede . Arel, Oplrtalmol1880- 1881 January , 188 1; 1:1J1- JI 3.

261. Ballen PH : A simple procedure for the relief of trichiasis and entropion of the upper lid. Arel, Oplrtlralmo/1964;72:239- 40. 262. Obear MF : History of the founding of th e ASOPR S. Adv Plast R econstr Surg 1986;5:431-2. 263.Jelks GW : Oculoplastic Surgery (Preface). C lin Plast Surg 1988;15(2). 264. Lisman RD: Byron Smith, M.D ., F.A.C.S. OplrtlralmicPlastReconstrSurg 1985; I: 157-<ir . 26 5. Mustarde JC : The development of oculoplasti c surgery : A view from the wings. Ad v Oplrtlralmi c

Plast Surg 1986;5:359--76. 266. Beard C: The development of oculoplastic surgery in the west. Adv Oplrtlralmi c Plast Surg

1986;5:355-8 . 267. Gouglemann HP : Evolution of the o cular motility implant. In Shannon GM, Connelly FJ (eds): OculoplasticS11rgery and Prosthetics. Boston , Little & Bro wn, Int Oplrtl,a/1110I Clin 1970; 10(4):689--71 1. 268. Dranz W Sr: Mobility implants: A review. Adv OplrtlralmicPlast Reconstr Surg 1990;8:46-52 . 269. Callahan A: Fifty years of ophthalmi c plastic and reconstru ctive surgery und er the auspices of

the American Academy of Ophthalmology and the development of A.S.O. P.R .S. Ophtlralmic Plast ReconstrSurg 1985; 1: 169--74 . 270. Ruedemann AD : Plastic eye implant. Am] Oplrtl,almo/ 29:947, 1946. 271. Callahan A: The partnership of ophthalmologists and ocularists. The Ruedemann Lectur e. Today's Ocularist 1977;7=18-2 5.

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272. Cutler NL: A universal type integrated implant . Am] Op/11/,a/1110/ 1949;32:253-8. 273. Troutman RC: A magnetic implant. Ard, Op/1t/1a/1110/ 1950:43: 1123-4 . 274. Troutman RC, Converse JM, Smith B (eds): Plasticand ReconstructiveSurgeryof tl,e Eye and Adnexa. Washington, Butterwonhs, 1962. 27 5. Allen JH , Allen L: Buried muscle cone implant . Development of a tunneled hemispheri cal type . Ard, Opl,tl,a/1110/ 1950;43:87!r90. 276. Allen L, Gerguson EC III, Braley AE: A quasi-integrated buried muscle cone implant with good motitlity and advantages for prosthetic fitting. Trans Am Acad Opl,tl,a/1110/ Otolary11go/ 1960;64 :27286. 277. Fox SA: Relief of senile entropion. Ard, Op/,1/,a/1110/ 1951;46:424-31. 278. Fox SA: Lid halving with variations . Arel, Opl,tl,a/1110/ 1961;65:672-9. 279. Fox SA, Beard C: Spontaneous lid repair . Am] Op/,1/,a/1110/ 1964;58:947-52. 280. Smith B: Use ofPadgett dermatome in ophthalmic plastic surgery. Ard, Op/1t/1a/111ol 1942;28:4849. 281. Converse JM , Smith B: Reconstruction of the floor of the orbit by bone grafts. Ard, Op/11/,a/1110/ 1950;44:1-2 I. 282. ConverseJM, Smith B: Canthoplasty and dacryocystorhinostomy in malunited fractures of the medial wall of the orbit . Am] Opl,tl,a/1110/ 1952;35:103-114. 283. Converse JM : Two plastic operations for repair of orbit following severe trauma and extensive comm.inured fracture. Ard, Op/11/,a/1110/ 1944;31 :323- 5. 284. King EF, Ford E : Fractures of the orbit. Tram Opl,tl,a/1110/ Soc UK 1947;64: 134. 28 5. Lang W: Traumatic enophthalmos with retention of perfect acuity of vision. Trans Opl,tl,a/mol Soc UK 1889;9:4 1-5. 286. Smith B, Regan WF: Blowout fracture of the orbit. Mechanism and correction ofintemal orbital fracture. Am] Op/11/,a/1110/ 1957;44:733--9. 287. Smith B, Converse JM: Early treatment of orbital floor fractures. Trans Am Acad Opl,tl,a/1110/ Otolaryngol1957;61 :602-8. 288. Converse JM , Smith B: Enophthalmos and diplopia in fractures of the orbital floor. BrJ Plast Surg 1957;9:265-74 . 289. Smith B, ConverseJM: Diplopia in depressed orbital fractures. PlastR ecomtr Surg 1957;20:31820. 290. Converse JM, Smith B, Obear MF , et al: Orbital blowout fractures. A ten-year survey . Plast Recomtr Surg 1967;39:2er-36. 291. Smith B, Converse JM (ed): Proceedi11gsof tl,e Seco11dlntematio11alSy111posii1111 on Plastic and Reco11structive Surgeryof t/1e Eye and Adnexa. St Louis, CV Mosby, 1967. 292. Nesi FA: The Byron Smith Study Club . Adv Op/11/,a/mic Plast R eco11slr Surg 1986;5 :437---9. 293. Frueh BR, Wilkins RB: Alston Callahan: The man behind the legend . Opl,tl,a/111ic Plast Siirg 1985; 1:163-'7. 294 . Callahan A : Surgeryof tl,e Eye. Injuries. Springfield, IL, Charles C Thomas, 1950.

295. Callahan A: Surgeryof tire Eye. Diseases.Springfield, IL, Charles C Thomas , 1956. 296. Callahan A: Severe lid deformities. Plast ReconstrSur~ 1948;3:456-63. 297. Callahan A: Free composite lid graft. Ard, Opl,t/1almol1951;45 :539-45. 298. Callahan A: Loss oflower fomix of the anophthalmic socket. Am] Op/11/,a/1110/ 1954;38:75-8.

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299. Callahan A: Secondary reanachmemofthe medialcanthal ligament. Ard, Op/,tl,a/1110/ 1963;70:2401.

300. Callahan A: Surgical correction of the blepharophimosis syndrome . TransAm Acad Op/,tl,a/1110/ Otolarvngol1973;77:687-95. 301. Callahan A, Callahan MA: Fixation of the medial canthal sttuctures. Evolution of the best method. Ann Plast S11rg1983;11:242-5. 302. Callahan A: Reco11 stnidive Surgery eftl,e Eyelidsand OC11lar Adnexa. Bianingham, AL, Aesculapius, 1966. 303. Mustarde JC : R epair and Recotistmctionin tlie OrbitalRegion.Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins , ed r /J 966; Edinbu rgh, Chu rchill Livingstone, ed 2/ 1980, ed 3/ 1991. 304. Jones LT, Boyden G: The rhinologist's rhole in Otolaryngol1951;55:654-61.

tear

sac surgery . Trans A111Acad Opl,tl,a/1110/

305. Jones LT : Epiphora: Its causes and new surgical procedures for its cure . A111J Opl,1/,a/1110/ 1954;38:825-3 I . 306. Jones LT : Epiphora II: Its relation to the anatomic sttuctures and surgery of the medial canthal region. A111]Opl,tl,a/111011957 ;43:203-12 . 307. Jones LT: An anatomical approach to the problems of the eyelids and lacrimal apparatus . Arda Opl,tl,a/1110/ 1961:66:111-24. 308. Jones LT : Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy . A111 J Opl,tl,almol 1965;59:773-8 3. 309. Jones LT, WobigJL: Surgery eftl,e Eyelidsand LAcn'mal System. Birmingham, AL, Aesculapius, 1976. 3 1o. Jones LT , Wilson WA : Transplantation of the corruga tor supercilii muscle for the cure of ptosis. Tratis Am Acad Opl,tl,al111ol Otolary11gol 1967;71:889-96 . 3 11. Jones LT: A new concept of the orbital fascia and rectus muscle sheath and its surgical implications. Trans Am Acad Opl,tl,a/11101 Otolaryngol1968;72:755-64 . 312.Jones LT, Reeh MJ, WirtschafterJD: Op/1t/1almi cA11atomy.Rochester, MN, Ameri can Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, 1970. 313.Jones LT, Quickert MH, WobigJL : The cure ofptosis by aponeurotic repair. Arc!, Opl,t/1almol 1975;93:629-34 , 3 I 4.Jones LT, Linn M : Rate oflacrimal excretion ofophthalmic vehicles. Am] Opl,1/,a/mol1968;65:76B.

3 15. Jones LT, Linn M : The diagnosis of the causes of epiphora. Am J Opl,tl,a/mol1969;67:751-4. 316. Veirs ER: TI1eLAcrimalSystem. Cli11i cal App/icatio11. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1955. 3 17. Veirs ER: Malleable metal rods for immediate repair of the traumatically severed lacrimal canaliculus. Trans Am Acad Opl,tli/amolOtolary11go/ 1962;66:263-4. 3 I 8. Reifler DM : Management of canalicular laceration . Surv Opl,t/,almol 1991;36:113- 32. 319. Veirs ER : 77,e LAcrimalSystem in Clinical Practice . Rochester, MN, America n Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology , 1963. 320. Veirs ER (ed): 771cLAcrimalSystem. Proceedi11gs eftlie FirstIntemationalSymposium. St Louis, CV Mosby , 1971. 32 I . Veirs ER : LAcrimalDisorders. Diag11osis and Treat111ent . St Louis, CV Mosby , 1976. 322. Brown BZ: Crowell Beard, M.D. Opl,tl,almicPlast ReconstrSurg 1985;1:223-4. 323. Cutler N, Beard C: A method for partial and total upper lid reconsttuction . Am] Ophthalmol 1955;39:J-'7.

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J 24. Beard C, Quicken MH: Anatomy of the Orbit. Birmingham, AL, Aesculapius, ed 1/ 1969, ed 2/

1977, ed 3/ 1988.

325. QuickenMH, Dryden RM : Probes for intubation in lacrimal drainage. TransAm Acad Opl,t/,a/mol Olo/aryngo/1970;74:431-3 . 326. Beard C : A new treatment for severe unilateral congenital pcosisand for ptosis with jaw-winking. Am] Op/,t/,a/1110/ 1965;59:252- 8. 327. Beard C: The surgical treatment ofblepharopco sis: A quantitative approach. Trans Am Op/11/,a/1110/ Soc 1966;64:401. 328. Beard C : Blepharoptosis repair by modified Fasanella-Servat operation. Am 1970;69:85C>-7. 329 . Sullivan JH, Beard C, Bullock 1976;82:117 - 21.

JD: Cryosurgery

J Op/,1/,a/1110/

for treatment of trichiasis. Am J Op/,t/,a/1110/

330 . Bullock JD,Beard C, SullivanJH : Cryotherapy ofbasal cell carcinoma in oculoplasric surgery . Am] Op/,1/,a/1110/ 1976;82:8,p--7 .

331. Tessier P: Osceotomies cotales de la face. Syndrome de Crouzon . Syndrome d'Apen . Oxycephalis . Scapbocephalis . Turricephalis . Ann C/,ir Plast 1967;12 :273-85 .

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Chapter

2

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ASOPRS AND OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC AND RE CO NSTRUCTIVE SURGERY DURING THE LAST QUARTER-CENTURY David M. Reifler

The intertwined histories of th e American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) , and the subspe cialty it represents , may be viewed both chronologically and topically. The organizational development of the ASOPRS over its first quarter-century may be divided into three stages: (1) Founding and early development (1969-1977); (2) expansion of educational activities through its Education Committee and liaisons with the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) (1978-1985); and (3) expansion of socio-economic activism and addition of a professional man agem ent staff (l 986--1994). In addition to the summary provided in this chapter, the remembrances and co mments of the Society's founders and leaders elsewhere (Chapters 3-13) provide a wealth of details about the various stages of the development of the ASOPRS. Throughout its history, the Society has enjoyed the leaders hip and support of leading personalities in the field who have been equally well recognized for their surgi cal and lit erary co ntributions. Society-sponsored symposia and publications have showcased these contributions and are referenced elsewhere in this book (Appendices 4-8). Th e goals of the founders and early leader s of Society-to establish an organizational forum to pr esen t oculoplastic problems and their solutions - have been well achie ved. With great foresight, the Society 's leaders emphasized the quality of sponsored preceptorships and the requirement for theses produced by candidates for membership. Through the se theses and ot h er contribution s, ASOPRS fellows have significa ntly advanced the art and science of ophthalmic plastic and reco nstru ctive sur gery. The literature of ophthalmic plasti c surgery and rel ated topics th at has been produced during this twenty-five-year period is substantially covered in a bibliography comp iled byRichardK. Dortzbach andMichaelJ. Hawes (1) (see below) . This chapter and the Dortzbach-Hawes bibliography both com plement the history of ophthalmic plastic surg ery that has been pre sented in the previous chapt er. Taken together , th ey provide a means of approa ching th e full history of ophthalmic plasti c surgery. Certai nly, an assessment of the historical importan ce of various contributions to ophthalmic pla stic surgery surgery made over the past twenty-five years will ultimately benefit from the broader perspective of future generations.

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However, the important role of the ASOPRS in these contributions should be recognized by future historians--sponsorship of high-quality physician education and training, provision of forums for advanced scientific interchange, sponsorship of a periodical for scientific publications , and socio-economic activism-in summary, the definitionof a new surgicalsubspecialty. PART I. THE ASOPRS

The Foundingand Early Developmentof the ASOPRS , 1969-1977 1969 The idea of formulating and chartering the ASOPRS was conceived and fulfilled by five of Byron Smith's fom1er fellows-Charles Beyer , George Buerger , Thomas Cherubini , Margaret Obear , and Robert Wilkins-with additional input from a colleague and fellow Smith-trainee , William Pidde (Chapters 4 and 5). Cherubini recalls the camaraderie that spawned the idea for the ASOPRS and the subsequent hard work that followed :

"The actual idea of the ASOPRS was hatched in a Third Avenue bar where we would assemble, more or fewer of us, once in a while after work for refreshment. Out of thos e (sometimes hilarious ) meetings the idea became a reality ... We all [five] worked like hell on the founding [of the Society)."

In describing the efforts of the five founders, Buerger has emphasized the enthusiasm and organizing talents of Margaret Ob ear during this period (Chapter 4). 1 These founders received encouragement from Smith, but sought suppo rt for their idea from other senior oculoplastic surgeons, especially Alston Callahan . At that time, oto laryngo logists had just recently formed the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) and were urging senior oculoplastics instructors to join them. Prior to the initiatives of the you ng ASOPRS founders , Wendell Hughes had urged Orkan George Stasior to serve as a liaison to the AAFPRS, and for a short time Stasior served on their Board of Directors (Stasior, personal communication). Through the close collaboration of ophthalmologists and plastic surgeons in New York City (exemplified by Byron Smith and John Converse , and perhaps even more so by Margaret Obear and Donald Wood-Smith ), there were also some forces that sought to align oculoplastic surgeons with plastic surgery. As a group, the founders of the ASOPRS noted r. The name Obear, has unfortunately been misspelled as "O' Bear " in various past programs of the ASOPRS . Margaret Obear's father, William Obear passed away in 1988. But according to Dr . Obear's mother whose name is also Margaret, the family name origina ted in France, where it was spelled Aubert . Through the migrations of the Obears' ancestors through Tennessee and then back to Virginia, the spelling of the family name became "Americanized" with an identical pronunciation .

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alternative routes of organization and potential alliances with these existing group s outside ophthalmology. Yet they shared a desire for a new and independent society and sought a wider co nsensus through personal contacts and questionn aires (Ch apter 4). Th e initial respon ses wer e overw helmingl y favorable. At that time , within the Ameri can Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, both the ophthalmologists and otolary ngologists had a Committee on Re constru ctive Plastic Surgery; Callahan was the chairm an of the Ophthalmology Section's Committee, having succeeded Wendell L. Hughes (Chapter r). Rej ecting separate overtures from the general plastic surgeon s and the otolaryngologists / facial plastic surgeons , Callahan thr ew his full support behind the establishment of a separat e ophthalmi c plastic surgery society by and for ophthalmologists (Chapter 8). Robert Wilkins , who divided his fellowship traini ng year (r968 -r 969) between Smith and Callahan, recalls his role as liaison:

"My job was to en cou rage Callah an to supp ort the movement we had for the Plastic Society and to get any information I cou ld get back to th e gro up in New York regarding overture s by the Ear , Nose and Throat Society (AAFPRS) . We gat here d together the names of everyone who we knew to be interested in oc uloplastic sur gery and invited them to the first meeting of the ASOPRS to be hel d at th e Palmer House Ho tel in Chicago in co njun ction wi th the 1969 meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology ."

At this meeting, Charles Beyer read th e propo sed bylaws that he and George Buerger had drafted during the days of their fellow ships in New York City (Chapt er 5). Wendell Hughes was invited to preside at this meeting. Tho se who attend ed the first meeting were invited to become charter members of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery for a fee of approximately fifty dollars. Approximatel y 60 persons signed up for charter memb ership . The first slate of officers for the Society was elected and Advisors were selected and annou nced (App endix 2). 1970 With the proceeds of this meeting , a scientific session was planned for th e followin g year in Las Vegas, to be held the Saturday before th e AAOO meeting on October 2, 1970 , with Wendell Hughes again presiding . Robert Wilkins served as the Program C hairma n for this highly successful full-day meeting, which was attended by about 60 peopl e {App endix 4). T he program brochure included the Society's first logo (Fig. 90) .2 Seve ral features of this first program have been 2 . A second logo was later designed by graphic artist Sharon Poggenpohl of Pittsford , New York . This second logo first appeared on Society stationery in 1986, and it has since been featured in Annual Scientific Symposia Programs of the Society that were also designed by Poggenpohl . (Poggenpohl has just recently relocated and is currently Associate Professor at the Illinois Institute of T echnology School ofDesign.) In this twenty-fifth anniversary year, the Society has adopte d a new logo that was designed by Bruce Wesson , of Little Rock, Ark ansas (Fig. 90).

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Fie. 90. Three different logos of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Top: Original logo (1970); Center: Second logo (1986); Bottom : Current Logo ( 1994).

asoprs -AMERICAN SOClfIYOF& UPHTHALMICPLASTIC RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY

continued by the Society and its subsequen t program chairpers ons: A mixture of submitted papers, case presentations, and invited papers on special topics; invited guest lecturer(s); thesis presentation (Appendix 4); and a closing business meeting including election of new officers and members (Appendix 2). In 1971, the Annual Meeting was again held in conj un ction with th e AAOO Fall Meeting. The Executive Committee met on Sep tember 16, 1971 and the Scientific Symposium (Appendix 4) took place the following day with Orkan George Stasior presiding. At this time, it was decided to continue concurrent meetings with the Academy for only three more years and separat e after that. However , as a result of subsequent overtures by the AAOO, this plan was never implemented. Crowell Beard was appointed Chai rman of a combined Thesis and 1971

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Credentials Committee (Chapter 9), the Society's first standing committee.3 Definitions of membership categories further evolved: Candidates; approved applicants with certain yet unfulfilled requirements (e.g., thesis approval and board certification); and International Fellows, who fulfilled all membership requirements yet practiced outside of North America. The Annual Business Meeting of September 17, 1971, was run by PresidentElect Margaret Obear--unfortunately , one of her last official functions in the Society . Charles Beyer was elected as President-Elect for the following year, to serve as President in 1973 (Appendix 2). 1972 The Third Annual Scientific Symposium was scheduled to take place at the Fairmont Hotel in Dallas on September 22, 1972. The leadership of the AAOO felt that the ASOPRS had gained enough independent stature and decided not to allow the ASOPRS to meet before the Academy Fall Meeting again. However, for 1972, President Margaret Obear had obtained special dispensation to do so. Unfortunately, President Margaret Obear was stricken with Guillain-Barre's syndrome and was complete ly incapacitated for several months . After visiting Obear at the New York University Medical Cente r, Buerger and Wilkins located Obear's files on the Society and the meeting information . Together they finalized the program and contin ued the work of building the Society. The importance of Margaret Obear to the founding of the ASOPRS and the tragedy of her severe illness are reviewed by Buerger (Chapter 4). At the Executive Commit tee Meeting of September 21, 1972, Advisory Board Chairman, Orkan G. Stasior presided with the following actions taken : Expansion of the Executive Commit tee to include an honorary Vice-President and an Exec utive Secretary (Appendix 2); establishment of the Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award and awarding of its first recipient, Marvin H. Quickert (Appendix 8); and approval of five new members, including four who had prepared theses (Appendix 2). The program of the Third Annual Scientific Symposi um (App endix 4) includ ed an entire section devoted to the presentation of theses, two mini-symposia, and four featured guest speakers. The General Business Meeting was run by President-Elect, Charles K. Beyer . The expanded slate of officers was elected (Appendix 2). As the AAOO had refused to allow the ASOPRS to meet in conjunction with the Academy Fall Meeting, the Executive Committee had made tentative plans to meet in Birmingham, Alabama the following spring. However the AAOO reversed its decision and invited the ASOPRS to meet in Dallas on the Friday before (i.e., three days before) the Academy Meeting. 3. A partial listing of Thesis Committee Chairpersons was obtained from past Society's minutes: Crowell Beard (1971-1974); Gordon R. Miller (1975); Richard K. Dortzbach (1976); Fay Millett ( 1977); Eugene 0. Wiggs (1978); William B . Stewart (1983); Michael A. Callahan (1984); Francis C. Sutula (1986); Thomas E. Campbell (1987); John W . Shore (1988); William L. Walter (199o); John H. Sullivan ( 1991); Alfred C. Marrone (1992); Robert G. Small (1993); Kenneth V. Cahill (1994).

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1973 On February 12, 197 3, a special meeting of incorporation was held in Wellesley Hill s, Massachusetts attended by most of the Executive Committee. The legal formalities were arranged by attorney Leslie Marcus of Quincy, Massachusetts. The Articles of Incorporation and revised Bylaws of the Society were adopted and the non-profit corporation was now officially the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc . Those who scrutinize ASOPRS certificates of fellowship or continuing medical education will notice that the official seal of the corportion bears the date of 1973. On May 26, 1973, the first Annual Spring Meeting was held in Houston , Texas, hosted by President-Elect Robert B. Wilkins (Chapter I 2). 4 Wilkins noted that the ASOPRS had reached a significant turning point in terms of recognition: the AAOO now was seeking to have the ASOPRS meet within the body of the Academy's Fall Meeting. The Executive Committee approved a counte r- offer of the sponsorship of a half-day symposium within the Academy program and a separate one- or two-day meeting . Also, the process of establishing an Education Committee to oversee fellowship training programs commenced with the appointment of Richard R. Tenzel to chair a committee to study quality contro l of fellowship requirements. At the fall 1973 Executive Committee Meeting, the Board decided to enlarge its size yet again to include a separate office of Program Chairman. 1974-1977 On March 23, 1974, the ASOPRS President-Elect , Marvin H. Quickert , died while scuba diving near Santa Cruz (2) . As Quickert had a close association with Crowell Beard and the program at the University of California in San Francisco , many of his contributions were described in the previous chapter. The Society again met the challenge of the loss of one of its leading officers. High standards of quality were maintained under Beard's chairmanship of the Credentials and Thesis Committee . Under the presidency of Robert B. Wilkins, the success and popularity of the Society continued to increase. In 1975, under the presidency of Richard R . Tenzel, increasing attention was directed toward standards of Society-sponsored fellowship programs with greater coordination of the fellowship training and thesis requirements. The Society no longer approved some new members without the requirement of a thesis (Appendix 2). From 1974 to I 976, the character of the Annual Spring Meeting further evolved . ln addition to the Spring Executive Committee Business Meeting , discussion of interesting and complex cases was instituted. In 1976, under the presidency of Bartley R. Frueh, the Annual Spring Meeting first included an open scientific session for the general membership (Chapter 12).

4. Prior to 1976, the Spring Meetings were attended only by the Executive Committ ee (Chapter 12 and Appendix 5).

I 10

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In 1977, George F. Buerger ,Jr. served as president of the ASOPRS. Buerger was the last of the group of four Society Founding Fellows/ early officers to serve in this capacity. As co-author of the original Society bylaws and serving successively as Assistant Secretary, Secretary, and Executive Secretary (Appendix 2), Buerger was intimately involved in all of the organizational innovations of the preceding years. During these years, the Sections of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology had begun to function separately from one another within the AAOO, eventually producing the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) as a separate corporate entity (3). In 1977, the Academy's Committee on Reconstructive Plastic Surgery sponsored its last Combined Scientific Symposium at its Annual Meeting (Appendices 6 and 7). In summary, the first stage of the Society's organizational development was drawing to a close: internally insofar as ASOPRS leadership was concerned; externally with regard to the structure of its much larger "parent" organization, the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Expanded Liaison and Educational Activities (1978-1985) 1978 Under the presidency of David Soll, a higher profile was achieved for the ASOPRS within the Annual Meeting of the Academy. In 1978, the ASOPRS established its first informational exhibit that was presented at the Academy meeting. Of even greater importance at this meeting, the ASOPRS formally replaced the Academy's Committee on Reconstructive Plastic Surgery in cosponsoring the Combined Symposium on oculoplastics within the body of the Academy (Appendix 7). 1979-1981 During these years, new efforts in promoting educational standards were featured. In the fall of 1979, the first oral examination was given under the direction of Joseph Flanagan. By 1981, the sets of questions were standardized (Chapter 13). In an effort to promote itself and its members the Society published its first patient informational brochure in 1981, developed by Richard Carroll (Fig. 91). Subsequently, new brochures that were published by the Society were developed by James Katowitz and Arthur Perry in 1987 (Fig. 92) and by T . David I. Wilkes and Bernice Brown in 1992 (Fig. 93). The purpose of these brochures has been to inform patients about the subspecialty of ophthalmic plastic surgery including various types of oculoplastic problems and their surgical cures. They have identified the patient's surgeon as an ASOPRS Fellow and described the Society's activities and high standards. 1982-1983 The high level of organization and standards of the ASOPRS resulted in very effective liaison activities with the AAO, especially as the Academy itself became more organized and representational.Under the leadership of A. Jan Berlin andJ. Earl Rathbun, the ASOPRS achieved much progress in this area includ-

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ASOPRS Informational Brochure (1981, excerpts)

American Society of

OphthalmicPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery,Inc. ..,..a:

a

A New Outlook

FIG. 91. I. F1Gs. 91. 1-9 1.4. Excerpts of the first ASOPRS informational brochure (1981), developed by Ri chard P . Carroll with the Executive Committee and Advisory Board (approved November S, 1980).

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ASOPRS Informational Brochure (1981, cont.)

A New Outlook Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgeons concern themselves with diseases and conditions affecting the eyelids, the lacrimal (tear) system, the orbit (bone cavity around the eye), and the adjacent face.

Fie. 9

1.2 .

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ASOPRS Informational Brochure (1981, cont) Problems affecting the eyelids. the tear system. the orbit and adjacent face can arise as a result of birth defe'cts. aging changes. tumors, trauma or generalized disease such as thyroid disease. Depending on the reason for your ope ration, surgery may be described as eithe r cosmetic or reconstructive. The most co mm on procedures performed by ophtha lmi c plastic surgeons are described below:

eyelid deformities Eyelid deformities (entrop ion. ectropion) are often caused by aging changes and can be painful. unattractive. and even dangerous to the eye itself. These deformities can usually be corrected by surgery.

baggy eyelids ;/

ÂŁ..

l[df~

--

~'

~t

\ I

.\1

Baggy eyelids (dermatochalasis) develop as a result of hereditary tendencies and aging changes in the eyelids. Blepharoplasty is the operation designed to imp rove the appea rance of baggy eyelids. This operation is often performed for cosmetic purposes. but is also frequently requested by older individuals to resolve visual problems caused by the excess tissue. An eyebrow lift or eyelid lift (prosis repair) may be don e in conj un ction with blepharoplasry when drooping has occurred in these structures.

FIG. 9 1.3.

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ASOPRS Informational Brochure (1981, co nt.)

,.~ ' If I I

~

~ -c1r,rr-,; . ~..

\

-,

'

'

Scarsin che eyelids and face can often be made less noticeable . The sketch depicts an eyelid scar interfering with dov.mward movement of the right upper eyelid. Such a scar may require a skin graft . The oph t halmic plastic surgeon is trained to choose the most appropriate scar revision technique for each patient.

I\FTERTRE....rMENT

trauma Trauma may result in injury to the soft tissue and/or the bones of the face. Preciseevaluation and repair of these injuries is necessary to insure the best possible appearance and function. This Is especially true o f the eyel ids and bones around the eye.

eyelid cancer Eyelid cancer (malignancy) must be treated early and correctly In order to avoid complications of delayed or imprope r treatment. Proper surgical removal of the tumor usually offers the best chance of permanently elim1nat1ng the tumor. Once the tumor 1sremoved. the ophthalmic plastic surgeon then surgically rebui lds the affected eyelids.

Fie. 91.4.

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ASOPRS Informational Brochure (1987, excerpts)

OPHTHALMIC

(of thal ' mik, op - ), adj. of or pertaining to the eye; ocular.

PLASTIC

(plas' tik). adj. 7. Surg. concerned with or pertaining to the remedying or restoring of malformed , injured , or lost parts.

SURGERY

(sur' je re), n. the art, practice, or work of treating diseases, injuries, or deformities by manual operation or instrumental appl iances.

FIG. 92.1 . FIGS.92. 1--92.4. Excerpts of the second ASOPRS informational brochure ( 1987), developed by James Katowicz and Arthur Perry (approved November 7, 1986). The broch ure design was developed with Sharon Helmer Poggenpohl who also handled the design of brochures and abstract books for several ASOPRS Annual Scientific Programs (1984-1993 ). I 16

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ASOPRS Informational Brochure (1987, cont.) What is Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery?

Ophthalmic plastic surgery ls a specialized ere.a of Ophthalmology that deals with cosmetic. pl as tic and reconstructive probâ&#x20AC;˘ lems related to ihe eyeBds, the lacrlmat (tear! system and the orbit lthe bony cavity around the eyeball). These structures can be affected by normal aging changes as well as by in1ur1es. birth defects. inflammatory or inherited abnormalities, Ophthalmic plastic surgeons are ophthalmologists who have had et least one year of specialized training In plastic and recons-tructive surgery around the eye In addh1on to board certincatlon in ophthalmology.

Who does Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery?

Plastic and reconsuuctive surgery around the eyes has an important role in the preser­ vation of sight. Cosmetic eyelid surgery may be requested for maintaining a more desfrable appearance al the face. Because these operations can affect one's abillty 10 see. careful evaluation and follow up by an ophthalmologist is advisable. An ophthalmic plastic surgeon is an ophthalmologist who 1s a medical doctor and surgeon. In addition to training and licensing for the provision of routine eye care, the ophthalmic plastic surgeon has had specialized training ln plastic surgery as i1 relates to the ayes and their surrounding structures.

'"There's language In her eye. her cheek, her lip .. ," ShttkASp6Bra

FIG. 92.2.

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ASOPRS Informational Brochure (1987, cont.) LACRIMAL (TEAR)

problems

S1last1cu.1b1ng 1ssomeumes threaded into a clogged system.

Repair of an abnormal tear dra1n3ge system may requ ire a new drainage pathway through bone

,'f\ If the tear channels

Ill the l1dsarc scarred, a pyrex tube mav also be reGU!rc1

FIG. 92 .3.

11 8

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ASOPRS Informational Brochure (1987, cont.) LACRIMAL (TEAR)

problems

solution s The lacrima l system provides fluid t o keep the surface of the eye moist Tears are pro duced by spec ialized glands and are camed Into the nose 1hrough a drainage system assis t ed by blin king. If this system Is blocked . tears may spill over rhe eyel id and cause chronic infections

S1las11ctubing 1s some11meslhreaded into

a clogg ed sys tem

Repair of an abnormal tear drainage system

mav reau1re a new drarnagepathway through bone

If the tear channe ls 1n the hds are scarred a pvrex tube may also be required

FIG. 92-4.

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ASOPRS Informational Brochure (1992, excerpts)

SURGERY OF THE EYELIDS, LACRIMAL SYSTEM, AND ORBIT

PRESE TED BY

THE AMERICAN

SOCIETY OF OPHTHALMJC PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY

FIG. 93.1. FIGS. 93.1-93.4. Excerpts of the third ASOPRS infonnational brochure (1992}, developed by T. David Wilkes and Bernice Z. Brown (approved March 29, 1992).

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ASOPRS Informational Brochure (1992, cont.)

OphthalmicPlasticand Reconstmctive Surgeryis a specializedarea of ophthalmologythatdealswiththe managementof deformitiesand abnormalities of the eyelids, the lacrimal(tear)system,the orbit (the bonycavitysurrounding the eye), and the adjacentface. An ophthalmic plasticand recoostmctivesurgeonis an ophthalmologist (medicaldoctorand eyesurgeon) who hascompleted additionaltrainingin plastic surgeryas it relatesto theeyesand their surroundingstmctures. Membership in theAmericanSociety ofOphthalmic Plasticand Reconstmctive Surgeryis restricted to ophthalmo logists whohave beencertified bytheAmerican Boardof Ophthalmology and whohave alsopassedrigoroustestsin this specialize d field. Thewordplasticis derivedfrom a Greekwordthatmeansto moldor to giveform.Plasticsurgeryis surgerythat moldsor reconstmctspartsofthe human body.Ophthalmic plasticsurgeryis plastic surgerythatis limitedto thestructures surrounding the eye.Sincesuchsurgery canaffectone's abilityto see,ophthalmic plastic surgeons are bestqualifiedto perform this delicatesurgeryand also provideanycarethatthe eyeitself mayneed.

F1G. 93.2.

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ASOPRS Informational Brochure (1992, cont.)

THYROID EYEOtSEASE

Thyroideyediseaseis a medical problemthat causesenlargementof the musclesthatmove the eyeand opensthe eyelidstoowide.As these musclesslowly enlarge, the eyeis pushed forwardand its movement is restricted. This causes thepatient to havebulgingeyesthatmove poorlyand to havea widestare. Theswellingof the musclescan becomeso severe thatthe blood flowto the opticnerveis strangled resultingin a slowlossof vision.The appearance and functionof the eyes can usually be improved\vitheyelid and orbitalsurgery.

FIG.

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ASOPRS Informational Brochure (1992, cont.)

ORBIT ALTUMOR S

Tumors mayaffectthe structures withinthe orbit. As these tumors slowly enlarge, the eyebulges fonvard andits movement maybe limited. Management of these tumors usually requires a sophisticated diagnostic evaluation andsurgical exploration. Fortunately, most orbital tumors are not malignantandcan be treated surgically. ORBIT AL INJURIES ANDFRACT URES

Trauma to the orbitmaycause fractures of the bone surrounding the eye. Such fractures may resultin deformities of the face, poor movement of the eyeandcause the eyeto sink back into the orbit. Precise evaluation and repair of orbital fractures are necessaryto

insure the best possible protection andfunction of the eye.

FIG. 93 .4 .

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ing: obtaining a seat on the newly organized AAO Council; 5 establishing the first formally sponsored instructional courses at the Academy Meeting (Appendix 7); and establishing a formal liaison for directing the program of the annual combined meeting of the ASOPRS and the AAO (Appendix 7).

1984-1985 In 1984, new methods were introduced to better monitor the education of Society candidates: the first written examinations were given under the direction of Francis Sutula; and the first fellowship evaluation questionnaires were circulated to graduating fellows by Richard Carroll (Chapter I 3). In I 98 5, an Ad Hoc Committee on Fellowship Training Programs , chaired by Arthur Grove, Jr. made numerous recommendations that were adopted by the Executive Committee (Chapter 13). Ophthalmic plastic surgery has developed as a subspecialty within ophthalmology. During the reoganizational years of the AA O, outstanding efforts of ASOPRS members succeeded in establishing recognition and respect for the Society within organized ophthalmology. In virtually all spheres ofinternal organization and interorganizational activities, the ASOPRS has served as a model for other subspecialty societies-fellowship training and thesis criteria, and scientific educational programs within and outside of the Academy . Expanded Socio-EconomicActivism and Organization (1986-1994) Society activities during the last part of its quarter-century history have been increasingly devoted to socio-economic advocacy. Effective advocacy has been possible only by virtue of Society accomplishments during the preceding stages as described above: I.

2.

Establishment and external recognition of the ASOPRS as an organization with authoritative credentials of the highest academic standards; and The establishment of advisory and liaison roles for the Society viz a viz the AAO (and therefore the rest of organized medicine).

Yet even with these new roles and responsibilities, the ASOPRS continued to reach for ever higher levels of academic excellence through a continued review process for fellowship training programs. Attention to these basic prerequisites has

5. The ASOPRS has been well represented on the AAO Council by J. Earl Rathbun (198284), Mark R. Levine (1985-87), J. Justin Older ( 1988--90, 1994- ), and John N. Harrington (1991--93). In recent years, the opening sessions of the Council have coincided with the

ASOPRS Scientific Symposium. The burdens of this scheduling conflict have been shared by Alternate Councillors representing the ASOPRS (including the author for 1992 and 1993).

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assured the growth of the Society with new members who are highly motivated, well trained, and technically skilled oculoplastic surgeons-the future leaders in the subspecialty of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. 1986 During the mid-198o's, the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) coding system developed by the American Medical Association (AMA) (4) assumed greater importance in the area of reimbursements .6 Historically , the origins of this descriptive coding system, and the reimbursements that were based upon them, predated organized input from subspecialty ophthalmology societies such as the ASOPRS . Yet the ASOPRS recognized the importance of gaining access to the process of formulating and revising the CPT system, and educating its members about practical applications. During this time, J. Justin Older was appointed to chair an Ad Hoc Commit tee on Third Party Reimbursement that made consid erable progress in communicating with the AAO and the AMA regarding CPT coding and relative value designations.

In organizing the Spring Meeting as President in 1987, Older made CPT coding the featured meeting topic (Chapter 12). Also in 1987, another area of ASOPRS socio-economic activity included the establishment of a Practice Clearing House Committee, chaired by Gerald]. Harris. The committee (later called the Placement Committee or Practice Opportunity Committee) has matched practice opportunities with trained oculoplastic surgeons in a confidential manner. Subsequent chairp ersons have been James C. Fleming (1991-1992) and James Karesh (1993). The service has been advertised in the AmericanJournal of Ophthalmology,Ophthalmology, and OphthalmologyTimes. 1987-1989

199e>-1991 With the AAO, Paul T . Gavaris began liaison activities for the Society in the area of governmental relations . This area of Society activity has become increasingly importan t as the CPT coding system has served as a framework for Medicare reimbursement policies . One such policy initiative has invo lved assigning measures of physician wo rk through the Resource-Based Relative Value System (RBR VS) (5).7 Represented by Bernice Z . Brown , John Bullock , Arthur S. Grove,Jr. , and John A. Bums , the ASOPRS had at least

6. In 1983, the Ameri can Medi cal Association (AMA) granted the use of its CPT coding system to the United States government for use by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) and the Medicare Program . The ramifications to the provision of health care in this country have been far-reaching: CPT coding increasingly emerged from the ivory towers and into the practical world of health care delivery. 7. As mandated by Congress, the Physician Payment Review Commission (PPR C), an AMAHarvard co-sponsored Relati ve Value Re source Based Study (RBR VS) chaired by William C. Hsiao, PhD , used the CPT system to assign relative values of physician work (and remuneration) to almost the entire spectrum of medical and surgical procedures . Technical Advisory Panels with relatively little interest in oculoplastic and orbital surgery, were subject to the prejudices of flawed historical profiles and relative ignorance of the techni cal complexities this subspecialty.

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F1G.94. The Executive Committee , 1992. Front row , left to right : Arthur S. Grove, Jr.; John A. Bums; and Albert Hornblass. Back row, left to right: Michael). Hawes (Assistant Program Chairman , non-voting); Perry F. Garber; George L. Paris; Gerald J. Harris; Michael A. Callahan; John W . Shore; John N . Harrington; and IUchard K . Dortzbach (incoming Vice President, non-voting). A full listing of voting members and positions is given in Appendix 2. Photo courtesy of Dr . John Bums .

indirect input into the RBR VS process through the AAO. In terms of reimbursement, other key issues have included restrictions on sites of service, definitions of postoperative care period included in the coding system, and how multiple codes may or may not be bundled. During this time, David M. Reifler represented the ASOPRS in coding and governmental relations, serving on an AAO CPT Task Force and subsequently on a Diagnostic and Procedural Terminology (DPT) Committee that directly advises the AMA's CPT Editorial Panel. 1992-1993 The major areas of organizational development during the past two years have included the establishment of the Secretariat for Education and the hiring of a professional management firm for the Society. During these two years, Perry Garber served as the first Secretary of Education, a position that had emerged from the Education Committee (Chapter 13). Thus, the Executive Committee reached its current size of nine voting members (Appendix 2) (Fig. 94). The Committee continued its many activities, including examination of candidates, evaluation of fellowship standards , and certification of continuing medical education for scientific symposia. Bradley Lemke and Daniel Schaefer have most recently headed the subcommittee dealing with continuing medical education (CME) certification. A comprehensive process of recertification is required by the Accreditation Review Committee of the ACCME (not to be confused with the

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FtG. 95. The Education Co mmittee, 1993. Left to right : Martin L Leib; Scott R . Hobson; Robert A. Goldberg; Kathleen F. Archer; Bradley N. Lemke; Charles Stephenson; Perry F. Garber, Secretary of Education; Daniel P. Schaefer; Janet L. R oen; Gary S. Weinstein ; William P. Chen; Joseph A. Mauriello; Murray A. M eltzer; James C. Orcutt; Michael J . Hawes, Assistant Chainnan ; Russell S. Gonneri.ng; John V. Linberg; David R. Segrest; John A. Burns ; Russell W . Neuhaus; and Jemshed A. Khan. Not pictured: Kenneth V. Cahill; Dwight R. Kulwin; Lawrence B. Katzen; Jan W. Kronish ; and I. Rand Rodgers .

ABMS -associated ACGME) . By 1993, the size of the Education Committee require d to handl e all of th ese respon sibilities had grown to 26 members (Fig. 95). As described by Past-Presidents John A. Bums and Albert Homblass (Chap ter 12), th e latest phase in the stru ctural development of the ASOPRS has involv ed the hiring of a professional management furn to provide a cen tralized office (in Winter Park, Florida ) with correspo nd en ce and reco rd ke epin g capabilities. The identi ty and purpose of th e ASOPRS have remained un chan ged. Yet the 1993 Exec utive Commi ttee (Fig. 96) experie nced th e first "quantum-leap " involved in the transition in the Society's structur e from a fully volunteer organization to one w ith a cent ralized, professional staff. Within this centralize d office in Winter Park, Florida, the admini strative activiti es of the Society are managed by Barbara FitzGerald-Beatty , who very ably assumed the duties of a n ew ASOPRS positi on, that of Executive Director. Under the presidencies of John A. Burns and Albert Homblass , David M. Reifler develop ed a very active standing CPT /T hird Party Relations Committee, organizing an ASOPRS- spon sored study of relative wor k values for oculopl astics co des, producing formal co mm ents to HCFA on Medi care Fee Schedules, and represe ntin g ASOPRS in conference w ith HCFA officials and a national panel of Medi care Carrier Medical Dir ecto rs (T echni cal Advisory Committee) on the subject of ptosis and bleph arop lasty pro cedur es (criteria for documentation of fun ctional need and criteria for reimbursem ent).

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Fie. 96 . The Executive Committee , 1993 (Advisory Board Dinner , November 12, 1993, at the Everest, Chicago , IL). Left to right : Ralph E . Wesley; George L. Paris; Perry F. Garber; David M. Reifler ; Michael). Hawes ; Albert Homblass ; Mi chael A. Callahan; Richard K. Dort2ba ch; and John A. Bums . A full listing of positions is given in Appendix 2.

Through a well- organized set of committees, the many recent and ongoing activities of the ASOPRS have proceeded in a smooth fashion, always fueled by the spirit of volunteerism and rewarded by the many benefits that are gained by the Society and its members. These activities are too numerous to fully describe in this chapter. A full listing of the 1994 Committee Roster appears in Appendix 1, Part 2. In the future, the ASOPRS will likely continue to expand its socio-economic and educational activities that extend beyond the ophthalmologic community. Within the context of the general surgical comm unity, the size of the ASOPRS membership roster is approaching the requisite numbers required for subspecialty recognition by the American Co llege of Surgeons (ACS).The current criteria of the ACS for such recognition requires that the ASOPRS achieve a total membership of 400 active members, of which at least 200 members must be Fellows of the ACS. (Similarly, the ASOPRS will likely meet criteria established by the American Medical Association [AMA] that would lead to representation in that organization's House of Delegates.) Throughout its history, the leaders of the ASOPRS realized that this minimum number could be achieved more quickly through a relaxation of ASOPRS membership criteria. However, as evidenced by previous experience within organized op hthalm ology, a commitment to quality will assure recognition of the ASOPRS as uniquely qualified to serve as an auth oritative advocate for the subspecialty of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery within the family of surgi cal subspecialties as it has within ophthalmology.

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As the ASOPRS has achieved increasing recognition and stature, liaison and socio-economic initiatives have expanded beyond internal Society activities and beyond its original parent/umbrella organization, the AAO. However, because of the relatively small size of the Society, liaison activities within the AAO remains one of the most effective means of achieving the educational and socio-economic goals of the Society (Chapter 14). Increased influence and representation of subspecialties has been reflected in the 1993 reorganization of the AAO Council that was ratified at the 1992 Academy Annual Meeting. This action divided the Council into a State Section and the Subspecialty and Specialized Interest Section, although ultimate consensus is as yet deferred to combined plenary sessions. The many subspecialties that have evolved within ophthalmology are reflected in the list of voting members in the latter section . 8 In recent years, ASOPRS Presidents and Councillors have regularly participated in Academy Leadership Forums. The agenda of the 1994 Mid-Year Forum includes further organizational issues for the Subspecialty and Specialized Interest Section of the Council . On an organizational level, issues relating to formal, internal and external recognition of subspecialization within ophthalmology have received much attention: For example, a Forum on Subspecialization in Ophthalmology, held by the AAO in September, 1991; and a Symposium on Subspecialty Education, Accreditation and Certification held by the Association ofUniversity Professors in Ophthalmology (AUPO) in February, 1992. In this country, the external organizations that are involved in accrediting residency and fellowship programs are the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the "subsidiary" Residency Review Committee (RRC) for Ophthalmology . Likewise the generally recognized certifying boards for the graduates of training programs are the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) (which is on e of the five sponsors of the ACGME) and the affiliated American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) . Although the ABO was th e first medical specialty board (1916) , it has opposed subspecialty certification . This is in contrast to other specialties (e.g., internal medicine, pathology, and pediatrics) which each offer ten to fourteen subspecialty certificates. According to the ABMS, accreditation of subspecialty training programs can occur without a corresponding subspecialty certification program by the specialty board, but there must be acquiescence and

8. The Subspecialty and Specialized Interests Section of the AAO Coun cil is comprised of the following voting members : American Association of Ophthalmic Pathologists; Americ an Association for Pediatri c Ophthalmology and Scrabismus (AAPOS); American Glaucoma Society; American Osteopathi c Colleges of Ophthalmology ; American Society of Cataract and Refra ctive Surgery (ASCRS ); American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) ; Association of Veterans Affairs Ophthalmologists ; Castroviejo Society; Conta ct Lens Association of Ophthalmologists (CLAO ); International Society of Refra ctive Keratoplas ty; Macula Society; North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society; Outpatient Ophthalmi c Surgery Society; Pan American Association of Ophthalmology ; Retin a Society; Society of Military Ophthalmologists; Vitreous Society; and Women in Ophthalmology .

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close cooperation with the specialty board. Furthermore , ACGME requires administrative attachment of the fellowship program with accredited general specialty programs. As compared to other subspecialties within ophthalmology, the ASOPRS has maintained relative independence from general ophthalmology programs through an emphasis upon preceptors rather than just institutions. If American ophthalmology moves in the direction of formal accreditation and certification, some changes in the structuring of ASOPRS-sponsored preceptorships may also occur. The ASOPRS has never functioned and does not function as a certifying board. The Society sponsors fellowship preceptors and their programs but allows mechanisms for entry of all ophthalmic plastic surgeons who have distinguished themselves in this field and meet the other requirements for membership (Appendix 9). The future of ASOPRS-sponsored fellowships has continued to be a topic of discussion within all levels of the Society. Formal discussion by the general membership began at the Annual General Business Meeting ofNovember r 3, r993 and is scheduled on the agenda to be revisited at the next Business Meeting in May, 1994. The next phase of Society growth may well see an expansion of interactions with governmental agencies, medical societies, and certifying boards both within and outside of organized ophthalmology (Chapter 14). Yet the purpose of the ASOPRS, as stated in the bylaws (Appendix 9) will remain unchanged:" .. . to advance education , research, and the quality of clinical practice in the fieldsof of plastic and reconstructive surgery involving the eyelids, orbits, and lacrimal system."

Membership Growth Applications for membership have been handled by the Society's Secretary (1970-1972) or Executive Secretary (1973-present), in accordance with criteria defined in the existing bylaws of the Society . After 1974, all Fellows (and International Fellows from I 97 4 to 199 I) fulfilled the requirements of the Thesis and Education Committees (Chapter 13). The growth of the Society's membership can be traced through a chronological listing of membership transitions (Appendix 2). On June 17, 1991, the general membership approved extensively revised bylaws that were developed by the Bylaws Committee, co-chaired by George Buerger, Jr. and James Hargiss (Appendix 9). The revised bylaws eliminate the membership category of International Fellow. Former International Fellows (living outside of North or South America) became full Fellows of the Society. The different categories of membership currently consist of the following: Fellows (dues-paying category); Honorary Fellows and Life Fellows (non-dues-paying categories) (Appendices 2 and 9). Five Founding Fellows and fifty Charter Fellows have been given special recognition while still complying with one of the above membership categories (Appendices 2 and 9). Milestones of ASOPRS membership growth can be tracked through the minutes of the Society as follows: about 80 members by the end of r 973; 100 by the end of 1975; 200 by the end of 1985; and about 300 by the end of r 992. As of

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January 1, 1994, the membership roster listed 333 members: 300 Fellows; 27 Life Fellows; and 6 Honorary Fellows (Appendix 1). Over the years, the Society has lost only a few members through resignation and the Society has recorded and mourned the passing of fourteen of its members (Appendices 1 and 2). The most recent passing ofWendell L. Hughes on February IO, 1994-during the Society's silver anniversary year-truly brings to a close an era in the history of the Society and the subspecialty of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery.

PART II- FURTHER NOTES ON THE HISTORY OF OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC SURGERY

Societiesand PublicationsOutside of Ophthalmology The SpecialtyofPlasticSurgery Before discussing other societies and periodicals completely devoted to ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive and/ or orbital surgery, note should be made of such organizations and publications that have represented the specialty of plastic surgery in general. These have been reviewed in some detail by McCarthy (6), including several foreign national and international organizations. Major societies representing plastic surgery have included the American Association of Oral and Plastic Surgeons (1921) which later changed its name to the American Association of Plastic Surgeons (1941). The founding of the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (ASPRS) (1931) included ophthalmologists such as John Martin Wheeler (7) (Chapter 1). Initially, the ASPRS published its proceedings in a European periodical , Revue de ChirurgiePlastiqi,e Oater named, R evue de ChirurgieStructive),from 193 I through 1940. After this time , the ASPRS published its own proceedings (6). World War II and the founding of the Ameri can Board of Plastic Surgery (footnoted in Chapter I) gave impetus to the founding of the Ameri can Journal ofPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery(8) and the Britishjournal ofPlasticSurgery. Other societies and publications arising out of the specialty of plastic surgery have focused on aesthetic (or cosmetic ) surgery which naturally includes the regions of the eyes and face. For example, the journal, Aesthetic Plastic Surgery,is the official journal of the International Society of Aestheti c Plastic Surgery. FacialPlasticSurgery The American Academy ofFacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) was founded in 1966 by a group of otorhinolaryngologists , but has also included some ophthalmologists, dermatologists, and others with an interest in facial plastic surgery. Publication s arising from proceedings of the AAFPRS have generally appeared in the otolaryngologic literature. Beginning in 1973, Archives of Otolaryngologypublished by th e AMA has been the official publication of the AAFPRS. (In 1986, this journal was renamed Archives of Otolaryngology--Headand Neck Surgery,reflecting co-sponsorship by the American Society of Head and Ne ck Surgery). As m entioned elsewhere, overtures in the late

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196o's suggesting total amalgamation of organized ophthalmic plastic surgery into the AAFPRS were politely declined (Chapter 8). However, arising from a shared emergence from the AA 00, relationships between the AAFPRS and the ASOPRS have remained cordial .

ASOPRS-Sponsored Publication Over the past quarter-century, members of the ASOPRS have published many hundreds of articles, scores of textbooks, and made other important contributions to the medical literature (1). Presentations at the Annual Scientific Symposia have showcased seminal observations on ocular adnexal anatomy / physiology and the latest advances in ophthalmic plastic surgery (Appendices 4-8). Many outstanding presentations of ASOPRS members to the Society have resulted in significant contributions to the medical literature. As mentioned above and in the previous chapter, the ASOPRS has recognized such contributions in the form of various named awards: The Wendell L. Hughes Lecture Award; The Lester T.Jones Surgical Anatomy Award; the Marvin H. Quickert Award for Best Thesis; the Merrill J. Reeh Pathology Award (Appendices 6-8) . The Honorary Fellowship Award has also recognized individuals who have made outstanding contributions to ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery (Appendix 2). In 1974, the ASOPRS established a Publications Committee, which served as a liaison to promote the publication of papers presented at its meetings and summaries of the meeting contents. The first chairman of this committee was Allen Putterman . According to the minutes, the first meeting summaries or abstracts were published in Eye, Ear, Nose and 111roatMonthly in 1973 and 1974, and later in DatelinesofOphthalmology,the Amen¡canJournal ofOphthalmology,and Archivesof Ophthalmology. Under the subsequent chairmanships of Jay Older , Joseph Flanagan , andJ ohn Sullivan , a good relationship was established with Ophthalmic Surgery and Ophthalmology, where many of the papers were published. In the Society's minutes of April 20, 1983, the Secretary's summary of the new Publication Committee Chairman's report simply stated, "There will be no Journal of Ophthalmic Plasticand ReconstructiveSurgery." However, the following year the Executive Committee changed its course and supported Henry I. Baylis in his efforts to establish the journal , OphthalmicPlasticand ReconstructiveSurgery. A qu arte rly publication of the journal was arranged with Masson Publishing and the first issue was published in the spring of 1985. All subsequent issues have been published by Raven Press, also ofNew York City .9 As the Editor-in-Chief, Baylis wrote the inaugural editorial that included the following comments:

9. See Chapter I regarding von Ammon 's Zeitsd,rift (periodical) and Monatssd1rift (monthly periodical) . A journal devoted to ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery (and hopefully ASOPRS- sponsored) may yet achieve a monthly publication schedule .

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" ... The specialty of ophthalmology is at least

100

years old, but the subspecialty

of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery is probably only

10-20

years old

and expanding ... It must be that this specialty is of great interest today in ophthalmology, but it still has not taken its place alongside the more established aspects of ophthalmology ... Here is a journal that, if read diligently, will keep the general ophthalmologist up-to-date on this subspecialty, will keep the subspecialist curren t with what his colleagues are doing, and will keep the plastic surgery community up-to-date on what ophthalmic plastic surgeons are thinking on this subject (9)."

The Journal rapidly achieved a financial break-even point for the publisher with about 7 50 subscriptions. In 1987, Bernice Z. Brown joined Baylis as a Co-Editorin-Chief of the Journal which continued to be officially sponsored by the Society. Members were encouraged to submit papers and the Society required that all accepted theses be submitted preferentially to the Journal for possible publication. Baylis stepped down after 1988 and was succeeded by Richard K. Dortzbach in 1989. The circulation of the journal reached about 1,ooo subscriptions. In I 99 I, after much effort and anticipation, OphthalmicPlasticand ReconstrudiveSurgerywas officially listed in Index Medicus,including listings of all articles from the first issue fotward.

Other Societiesand Publicationswithin Ophthalmology The Byron Smith Study Club As mentioned in the previous chapter, th e Byron Smith Study Club (renamed the Society of Byron Smith Fellows) was founded by a group of Smith's former fellows in 1966, with gatherings coinciding with the AAO Annual Meeting (10). 10 As also mentioned in the previous chapter, Byron Smith founded Advances in Ophthalmic Plasticand Reconstructiv e Surgeryin 1982. Most recently published by McGraw-Hill, the first eight volumes (I 98 2-1990) were originally published by Pergamon Press. The publication has appeared on almost an annual basis, edited by Stephen Bosniak. The PtosisSociety Th e Ptosis Society (often listed as the Ptosis Research Society) was also founded around the same time as the ASOPRS . Like the Byron Smith Study Club, the Ptosis Society has met annually during the time of the AAO Annual Meeting . The ten founding members of the Ptosis Society were very prominent oculoplastic surgeons who were especially interested in the mechanisms of ptosis 10. A review of the 1993 AAO Meeting Program reveals several additional societies with interests in, or impact upon, the practice of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. These include the American Society ofOcularists (Chapte r 1) (President Walter J. Johnson , President -Elect Daniel T. Acosta ), and the Blepharoplasty Society (Mark R. Levine) .

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and results of treatment (Chapter r). Presentations by Lester T. Jones included his early findings of aponeurotic deficits findings that were depicted the following year in a movie by Marvin H. Quickert . The Ptosis Society has always remained a small intimate group with a limitation on membership which currently numbers twelve.11

The American Societyof Ocularists The ASOPRS has had a very close relationship with the American Society of Ocularists (ASO) which was established in 1958 (Chapter I). Currently, the vast majority of the Medical Advisory Boa rd of the ASO are leading members of the ASOPRS. 12 The Annual Meetings of the ASO have continued to remain within the body of the AAO Annual Meeting. Since first given in 1974 by Byron Smith , the ASO has alternated the annual A.D. Ruedemann Lecture between an oculoplastic surgeon and an ocularist. 1J The ISOD During the Third International Symposium on Orbital Disorders , September 5-7, 1977, the participants unanimously agreed to establish the International Society for Orbital Disorders (ISOD) . Th e ISOD was officially registered in February 1978 and the activities of the association started during the Fourth International Symposium on Orbital Disorders on August JI , 1981. 14 The quarterly journal, Orbit, was founded in I 982 under the auspices of ISOD . 1 5 Th e scheduled meeting of the ISOD in 1994 will take place at the Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto in association with the Twenty-s eventh International Congress of Ophthalmol ogy on June 25, 1994. The InternationalLAcrirnalSocietyand the EuropeanSocietyof Dacriology Apparentl y, the International Lacrimal Society (ILS) appears to have been organized sometime 11. The following indi viduals are current memb ers of the Ptosis Society: Henry I. Baylis; Bernice Z. Brown ;John A. Burns ; Richard P . Carroll ; Robert M. Dryden ; Bartley R. Frueh ; Bradley N. Lemke ; Robert G. Small ; David B. Soll ; Orkan George Stasior ; Robert B. Wilkins; and John L. Wobig. Past and emeritu s members include the following individuals: Crowell Beard ; Charles K. Beyer-Machule ; Raynold N . Berke (deceased); Alston Callahan ; Wendell L. Hughes (deceased); Charles E. Iliff ; Carl C. Johnson ; Lester T. Jones (deceased); Marvin H. Quickert ; Merrill J. Reeh ; Byron C. Smith (deceased); and Richard R. Tenzel. (Ors. John Wobig and Orkan Stasior, personal communicati ons.) 12. The current Medi cal Advisory Board of the ASO is as follows: Howard L. Beale ; Richard Bensinger ; Michael A. Callahan ; Richard P. Carroll ; Joseph C . Flanagan ; Russell S. Gonnering; Michael J. Hawes ; Albert Homblass ; Peter Levin ; James H .. Merritt ; Jeffrey A. Nerad; William R. Nunery ;James R . Patrinely ; Arthur C. Perry ; Arthur J. Schaefer ; David R. Segrest; David B. Soll ; Orkan George Stasior ; and William B. Stewart . 13. A list of past A.D. Ru edemann Lecturers is as follows: Byron Smith, MD (1974); Lee Allen, BCO, FASO (1975); Alston Callahan, MD (1976);JobnJ. Kelley, Sr., BCO, FASO (1977); Richard R. Tenzel, MD (1978); Charles Workman, BCO, FASO ; Bruce Spivey MD (1980); Ray Jahrling BCO, FASO (198 1); Crowell Beard, MD (1982); David Bulgarelli, BCO, FASO (1983); David B. Soll, MD (1984); Hugh W. Laubheimer, BCO (1985); Joseph C. Flanagan, MD (1986); William A. Danz, BCO, FASO (1987); William B. Stewart, MD (1988); Joseph W. Soper, BCO (1989); Orkan George Stasior, MD (1990); Robert A. Thomas, BCO, FASO (1991); Albert Homblass, MD (1992); and Daniel C. Yaeger, BSO (11193).

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subsequent to the First International Symposium on the Lacrimal System held in Mexico City in 1970 (Chapter r). In 1982, in conjunction with the 24th International Congress of Ophthalmology, an International Symposium on Eyelid , Orbital and Lacrimal Surgery was co-sponsored by the ASOPRS , the ISOD , and the ILS (Appendix 4). Founded in 1988, the European Society ofDacriology (ESD ) has succeeded the ILS in sponsoring International Symposia on the Lacrimal System , and publishing proceedings (Ghendini Editor e, Milan). Meetings have continued to coincide with larger congr esses including the International Congress of Ophthalmology (Singapor e, 1990; Toronto 1994). Continuing the traditions first established in the mid nineteenth century , various international and regional sympo sia have resulted in valuable additions to the medical literature (r r-13) . Th e Orbital Society Also founded during the early r98o' s, the Orbital Society has limited itself to 25 active members representing the subspecialty fields of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery , ophthalmic pathology, and neuro-ophthalmology . 16 Mter ro years, Orbital Society members achieve an emeritus status of Advisor and nominate a replacement candidate that keep s the active, voting membership numb er unchanged . Th e ESOPRS Th e European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstru ctive Surgery (ESOPRS ) was founded along the principl es of the ASOPRS, but with a distinct represent ational structure . 17 In conjunction with the Fourth Intern ational Symposium on Orbital Disorders, a small, preliminary meeting took place on August 29, 1981 outside of Amsterdam at the home of Leo and Marijn Koornneef( r4). In 1982, the ESOPRS was officially founded, coi nciding with an inaugural meeting held in London .John C. Mustarde presided over the second meeting that was organized by Serge Morax in Paris at the Fondation Ophthalmologique A. de Roth schild . The ESOPRS has established a named 14. The original Provisional Board of the !SOD consisted of Gabe M. Bleeker , Chairman ; H.J.F. Peeters, Vice-Chairman ;Jan P.A . Gillissen , Secretary; T.H. Oei , Tre asurer ; and Leo Koomneef, Member . When the quarterly jou rnal, Orbit, was founded in 1982, Bleeker served as Editor-in-Chief and Gillissen served as Managing Editor. 15. The ASO's annual publication Today's Ocularist (1971 ), later named the ] 01m1a l eftlie Ameriam Societyof Ocularists ( 198 I), and the series, Advancesin OplitlialmicPlastic and ReconstructiveSurgery (1982) , com e closer co being true periodi cals. But, to the author 's knowledge, Orbit (1982) and Op/it/Jaimie Plastic and ReconslructiveSurgery (1985) are the first truly refereed periodicals entirely devoted to ophthalmi c plastic reconstructive / orbital disorders and surgery. 16. The Orbital Society's annual fall meeting has not been listed in the Annual AAO Meeting Program and is less well known . ASOPRS fellows that are currently active members are as follows: Ric.bard Anderson ;John Bullock; Richard Dortzbach ; Gerald Harris; Joseph Flanagan ; Bartley Frueh; Arthur Grove, Jr.; Charles Leone, Jr.;Jefli-ey Nerad; Allen Putterman ; James Orcutt, and Mary Stefanyszyn . Emeritus Advisors who are also ASOPRS members include the follow ing: William Stewart ; Robert Waller ; and John Wright (Gerald Harris , personal communication). 17. Ther e are, in theory, up to two members of the ESOPRS Commi ttee from each Eur opean member co untry . Annu al open meetings are rotated betwee n different Eur opean countries each year 0.R .O. Collin, personal communicatio n).

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lecture in honor of John C. Mustarde . In 1984, this lect ure was given in T rier, W est Germany by Prof. Dr. J. Rougier of Lyon, France. In 1987, the journal Orbit modified its masthead to read, "An international jou rnal on o rbital disorders andfacial reconstructive surgery." In I 989, the ESOPRS joined the ISOD in having Orbit as its officially sponso red jo urnal . The ASOPRS and ESOPRS maintain a very cordial and interactive relationship . ESOPRS members are invited to the "members-only" Annual Spring Me eting and to the ASOPRS Annual Fall Banquet. Likewise , many ASOPRS members have enjoyed the hospitality of their Europ ean colleagues at the Annu al Meetings of the ESO PRS. 18 The Canadian Societyof OculoplasticSurgery The Canadian Society of Ocu loplastic Surgery developed during the same period as the ESOPRS. It developed from a breakfast meeting at the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal during the annual meeting of the Canadia n Ophthalmological Society in June , 1991. Present at the meeting were William] . Pidde ofEdmonton,Joseph C. Hill of Toronto, and Murray Christianson of T oronto (now practicing in Detroit). Further details regarding the early history of this society were recorded by Crawford (1 5). The Canadian Society of Oculop lastic Surgery has announced sponsorship of a Symposium on the Eyelids on June 25, 1994, in association with the Twenty seventh International Congress of Ophthalmology and symposia of the ISOD and the ESD (see above).

Final Note on OculoplasticSurgical Literature The history of advances in medicine and surgery are best documented in the medical literature . For the period covering the past twenty -five years, specific areas of advancement in oculop lastic surgery are reflected in the organization of the Dortzbach-Hawes bibliography and in th e numer o us referen ces cited ther ein (1). Dortzbach and Hawes recognize d that the compilation of their list was selective and certainly incom plete . For examp le, ease of access by researchers to the indices of the two American periodicals devoted to oculoplastic surgery, Ophthalmic Plasticand ReconstructiveSurgeryand Advances in Ophthalmic Plasticand ReconstructiveSurgery, led these bibliographers to exclude several articles from the se sou rces.

CONCLUS ION

In the writing of any medical history, one must acknowledge the interaction of individuals who introduced or popularized new ideas and the societies in whic h th ey functioned. Thus, the first histori cal reference to ophthalmic plastic surgery (in the Code of Hammurabi) is count erbalance d by the reality of societal and 18. Recent and future planned ESOPRS meeting locations include the following : Antibes, France (1993); Glasgow, Scotland (1994); and Rostock, Germany (1995) .

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gov ernm ental control (Chapt er 1). For all of our wonderful advan ces in the field of plastic surgery, the ophthalmic plastic surgeon still lives and practi ces within th e real world and mu st deal with contemporary practical issues regarding health care delivery as well as the art and science of surgery . It is hoped that th e presentation of the history of the ASOPRS , a relatively small society of surgical subspe cialists, may provide connecting links between the technicalitie s of surgical refin ements and innovation, and the socio-political framework that shapes and influen ces our lives and the lives of our patien ts. Future historie s of ophthalmic plastic surgery will sort through the sources and referen ces that have been pre sented , co rre cting inaccuracies co ntained in this volume and adding new chapt ers with contents that can only be imagined. Th e authors of thes e histories will variably emphasize personalitie s, technological advances, health care deliv ery systems, and the stru cture and activities of organized professional societies. Hopefully , they will perceive a spirit of devoti on to service and intellectual striving that characterizes th e Fellows of th e American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

REFEREN CES 1. Dortzbach RK, Hawes MJ: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Bibliography , 1993 Edition. OphthalmicPlast R econstr Surg 1993;9(Suppl).

2. Dr . Marvin H . Quicken. Sanjo se MercuryNews, March 25, 1974, p 23. 3. Felch W C: D ecade of Decision. 11,e AmericanAcademyefOphthalmology.1979-1989.San Francisco, Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology . 1989. 4. CPT 1994. Physicians' Ciment ProceduralTenninology. Chicago, American Medical Association, 1993. 5. Medicare RBRVS : 11iePhysicians' Guidt. 1993. Chicago, American Medi cal Association, 1993.

6. M cCarthy J G: Intr oductio n to plastic surgery. In McCarthy JG (ed): PlasticSurgery.Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1990. v 1, pp 1-68. (Incorporates work of J.M . Converse: Intr oduction to plastic surgery, in Converse JM (ed): Reconstructive PlasticSurgery, ed 2. Philadelphia, WB Saund ers, 1977. V I , pp 3-68.) 7. Ivy R H: Some Circumstances leading to organization of the American Board of Plastic Surgery. Plast ReconstrSurg 1955; 16:77-8 5. (Includ es rwo relevant addresses by Vilray P. Blair.) Addendum (op cit) 1955;16:86. 8. Ivy RH : Notes on the conceptio n, birth, and growth of the journal Plasticand Reco11 strnctive Surgery-afte r 25 years of its existence. Plast Reconstr Surg 197 1;47=552-6.

9. Baylis HI : What, Another J ournal ? Ophthalmic PlastReconstrSurg 1985; 1: 1. 10. Nesi FA: The Byron Smith Study Club. Adv Ophthalmic Plast Recot1StrSurg 1986;5:437--9. 11. Veirs ER (ed): 77,eLAcrimalSystem. Proceedines efthe First lt1tematio11 al Symposium. St Louis, CV Mosby, 1971. 12. Beard C. et al: Symposium 0 11Surgeryefthe Orbitand Adnexa. Tra11sa ctiot1S oft/1e New OrleansAcadm1y

efOplitlialmology.St Louis, CV Mosby , 1974.

13. Aston SJ, H orn blass A, Meltzer MA, Rees TD (eds): 111irdlt,temational Symposium of Plastic and Reconstrnctive Surgeryefthe Eye and Adnexa. Baltimore, Williams & Wilk.ins, 1982.

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14. Bleeker GM : Editorial . The European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructivc Surgery .

Orbit 1984;3:1-2. 15. Crawford JS : Ophthalmic plastic surgery in Canada. Adv Oplrtlrnlmic P/astReco,istrS11rg 1986; 5:40616.

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Chapter3 PERSONAL REMEMBRANCES REGARDING PLASTIC SURGERY IN OPHTHALMOLOGY Wendell L. Hughest

[Editor'snote: This commemorative book has been dedicated to the memory ofWendell L. Hughes (Fig. 97) who passed away on February10, 1994 at the age of93. A s discussedin thefirst two chapters,Dr. Hughes played a pivotal, leadingrolein the developmentofthe subspedaltyofophthalmicplasticsurgeryand thefounding ofthe ASOPRS. As thefirst presidentofthe ASOPRS, additionalcommentsof Dr. Hughes may befound among the remembrance s ofthe past presidents(Chapter 12). A detailed listing of the Wendell Hughes Lecturesis alsoprovidedin this volume (Appendix 6).] My interest in opht halmi c surgery was stimulated by John Martin Wheeler. Wheeler became chief of th e Ophthalmology Service at Bellevue when I was starting my training. He assumed leadership w hen Dr. Charles H. May resigned in the fall of 1924. On completion of my one and a half years on the Ophthalmology Service at Bellevue, I received an appointment on the visiting service there and also at th e New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, whe re Dr. Wheeler had one of the eye services. In 1927, I believe , he was asked to organize the eye department of the newly established Presbyterian Hospital as part of Co lumbi a University. It was called the Eye Institute rather than the Wheeler Institute at his insistence . In 1921 , a three-day course in ophthalmic plastic surgery stimulated by Dr. William Wherry with the help of Dr. Harry Gradle and Dr . William H. Wilder, and Dr. Wh eeler as lectur er, to be given at the combined International Congress of Ophthalmology and th e American Academy of Ophthalmo logy and Oto laryngology, was established. In the early part of thi s century, prominent ophthalmological surgeon s limited their real interest strictly to eyeball problems , delegating lid, lacrimal and other extraorbital surgery to junior staff members or the house staff. Dr. Wheeler, who had had a great deal of experience in traum atic service while in the army overseas in 1917-1918, published many articles. These were later collected and published by the Columbia University Press as the Collected Papersof Dr.John Martin Wheeler. He was truly the Father of American Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery. t De ceased

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Fig. 97 . Wendell L. Hughe s (1900r994).

One of the earliest courses given by Wheeler was a one-hour lecture covering the entire subject of ophthalmic plastic surgery-entropion, ectropion, ptosis , etc . Because of the popularity of this subject, expansion was inevitable and larger rooms became necessary. Then an evening session devoted to eye and ENT subjects was instituted as a dinner meeting in the Grand Ballroom of the Palmer House. This became awkward, so regular evening sessions began and expanded to the present one of a full oculoplastics session within the regular program. Instruction periods were increased and eventually two full panels with three hours oflectures. I was in charge of one panel; Byron Smith and Alston Callahan the other. I also established an annual panel on needle and suture development, which I chaired for fourteen years. In addition to Drs . Smith and Callahan, some of the earliest participants on the faculty for the oculoplastics courses were Merrill Reeh, Crowell Beard, Noel Stow, Howard Naquin , Gordon Cole , Joseph Hill, and Charles Iliff. At various times I have , by invitation or proffered service, performed surgery and given medical services in the Northwest Territories of Canada, in Jaipur and Navsari, India, and with the Hope Ship in Tunisia. I pioneered the combined operation for cataract and glaucoma doing the first simultaneous operation for these conditions in 1928 at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary. I also produced some of the first descriptive movies of surgical eye procedures. My first use of the upper tarsoconjunctival flap in the repair of a defect in the lower lid wa s in the early 193o's. I finally found in the literature that this type of operation had been done by Dupu yDutemps in France earlier.

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During the active years of my professional career , practice in the area of ophthalmic plastic surgery by most gene ral ophthalmologists was limited , and only a few ophthalmologists devoted mu ch time and effort in this field. Over the years, attention to education and training in this field resulted in a greater interest in ophthalmic plastic surgery and the establishment of a true subspecialty. It was important that this subspecialty have a professional organization to further advance this field and thus I gave my unqualified support to the establishment of the Ameri can Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. It was an honor to serve as the first president of this organization, and it has been rewarding to see it grow into the large and vital society we now enjoy.

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Chapter 4 ASOPRS-IN THE BEGINNING George F. Buerger, Jr.

While October I, 1968, dawned as any other day in New York City, it was a special day for a number of people. That was the day that Charles Beyer and I, unknown to each other at that time, were about to start an oculoplastic fellowship with Byron Smith at the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. Byron had instructed us to report about 8:oo a.m. Like most people on the first day on the job, neither of us wanted to be late, so we had arrived early at the hospital and a little time had to be passed. We both had headed for the cafeteria for coffee and a doughnut. I believe we were the only two people there at that time. Looking like people who just might be ready to start a fellowship, we introduced ourselves. Shortly thereafter, we reported to the doctors' dressing room and met Byron. We were then introduced to Bob Wilkins, who had completed three months of his fellowship with Byron. Later that week we would meet Tom Cherubini. Tom was the silent, seldom seen one, hard at work on a secret, mysterious venture which we later discovered was the Smith-Cherubini classic on oculoplastic surgery. Later that week we also had the privilege of meeting Peg Obear, with whom we were to become very good friends. These were the principle personalities that would interact with each other over the next several months and whose chemistry brought together the ideas and ideals with which ASOPRS had its beginnings. One of the major reasons that Peg Obear became such a good friend of ours was that following completion of surgery with Byron every Wednesday afternoon, we would assemble at Peg's office. She would informally discuss with us the various problems seen in oculoplastic surgery and her thoughts on how they should be managed. To Peg, the three of us owe a tremendous debt of gratitude and thanks for her tremendous interest in us, though we were really fellows of Byron Smith. Peg had just returned from Palo Alto, having been in sunny California for a time after having worked previously with Byron in New York. Peg was married to Donald Wood-Smith, a plastic surgeon who practiced withJohn Converse in New York City. Byron shared an office with John Converse on Park Avenue at that time. Because of this, our paths crossed and crisscrossed as we occasionally saw mutual patients in the office. This allowed a cross-fertilization of thoughts and ideas among us all. One of the questions I asked Peg was how, after we finished this fellowship with Byron and the tutorial sessions with her could we receive help on difficult cases or

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questions th at might arise. Peg informed us of the various courses held at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (at that time the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto laryngo logy). Pursuing the questioning, we wanted to know how people interested in oculoplastic surgery could interact with each other, either on a formal or informal basis, since there was no organization as such where we could assemble and present papers, and most especially, get advice for those expected difficult cases. A bit of history is important to further understand how th e idea of ASOPRS came to be. Again , there was no organization of ocu loplastic people ; however, partly because of Don Wood-Smith and oth ers, the plastic surgeons were trying to woo many of th e people performing oculoplastic surg ery to align with them and were tempting various of our elder statesmen to become much more active with th em. On the other hand were the facial plastic surgeons of ENT origin, and particularly those members of the American Academy ofFacial Plastic Su rgery. They, too , were desirous that our elder statesmen join with them in an alliance so as to present a united front of regional plastic surgeons. Orkan Stasior was already a member of the American Academy of Facial Plastic Surgery so he had an interest in seeing people affiliate with that group. Peg, wi th Don Wood-Smith , likewise had an interest in seeing things develop along that line. Again, the young whippersnappers in New York asked of Peg, "Why don't we start our own organization of just ocu loplastic surg eons?" That, perhaps, was the one question that got things started. The time was now early December, 1968, and Bob Wilkins was about to leave New York for a continuation of his oculop lastic training wi th Alston Callahan in Birmingham. Tom Cherubini was still hard at work on his mysterious proje ct. C harles Beyer, though still having three more months with Byron, was planning to spend some time with Charles Iliffat Wilmer. Visiting with Byron in New York the month of Decem ber, from the wilds of Canada, was Bill Pidde, M.D. Pursuing our questioning wi th Byron, Peg and Don Wood-Smith , we decided to have a dinner before several of the people left New York and as a prelude to the holiday festivities. Accordingly, a dinner was planned at El Cid, a restaurant since torn down. (The site isn't even marked with a plaque stating that that was the birthplace of the ASOPRS!) At the dinner, among the many topic s discussed, was the aspect of an oculoplastic society and whether this ¡ â&#x20AC;˘,asdesirable or whether we should affiliate and ally ourselves wit h either the plastic surgeons or the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, or whet her we should just let everyone go their separate ways. Don Wood-Smith very much encouraged us to form our own organizatio n and yet remain friendly with members of each of the othe r separate organizations. That way we wou ld not create ene mi es of ourselves with either group. A plan was devised that Peg would write to the various elder statesmen inte rested in and performing oculop lastic surgery including Drs. Alston Callahan , Charle s

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Iliff, Crowell Beard, Merrill Reeh, Joe Hill, Carl Johnson, Orkan Stasior, Byron Smith, and of course, Wendell Hughes. Peg sent each of them a letter describing the tug-of-war between the plastic surgeons and the facial plastic surgeons and the question that we raised, "Should we form our own oculoplastic society?" In her questionnaire, she asked the various people which direction they preferred and would they be willing to support the formation of a separate organization. Very enthusiastic responses were returned to Peg encouraging her to proceed with plans to consider the formation of a separate society of oculoplastic surgeons. Likewise , with Bob Wilkins leaving for Birmingham, he was to fully discuss with Alston Callahan the advantages that we saw in forming our own organization. Likewise in April, Charles was to do the same with Charlie Iliff. In January, 1969, following our weekly tutorial sessions with Peg, we then set about putting in writing our various perceptions of such an organization and what we thought it should do and who should be allowed to become members. We had sent letters to many different organizations requesting a copy of their bylaws so as to formulate our bylaws with the best ideas that we could find. Throughout the next several months bylaws were written, rewritten, discarded , and brought back to life. We all were most enthusiastic in this venture of forming a new society and being involved in its very beginnings. We decided that at the Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Meeting that fall in Chicago, anyone that any of the elder statesmen had identified who had taken any training with them in oculoplastic surgery, or who were practicing oculoplastic surgery, would be invited to attend the I 969 organizational meeting. This would be the nucleus of the Charter Fellows. Letters of invitation were sent and the group met in Chicago. Unfortunately, I was not at that meeting, still recuperating at home from recent surgery. I received most enthusiastic reports from Peg, Bob, and Charles regarding the meeting and the fact that the ASOPRS was off and running. The first scientific meeting was held in Las Vegas in 1970 in conjunction with the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Meeting. A meeting was held preceding the ASOPRS Meeting and in attendance were Orkan Stasior, Wendell Hughes, Peg Obear, Bob Wilkins, and myself We further discussed membership, the purpose and the bylaws that were to be presented at the business meeting. All was in readiness. The first President would, of course, be Wendell Hughes. Wendell , while reluctantly, very enthusiastically agreed to accept this position. Most unfortunately for all concerned-for her family, for ophthalmology, and for the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery-Peg soon thereafter suffered a most disabling illness that swiftly and surely removed her from medicine and robbed us all of a most inquisitive mind and a most caring person. When Bob Wilkins and I separately received word of Peg's grave status, we were devastated. Bob and I accordingly made the trip to New York and a trip to the NYU Hospital and New York's East Side . There we had one of the saddest

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times of our lives in seeing Peg, once so vivacious and full of life, reduced to a breathing body with barely anything else left. Fortunately, Peg has had some recovery and we have had the good fortune to have her attend several ASOPRS Spring and Fall Meetings. With the information that was secured then, and subsequently forwarded to us by Don Wood-Smith, planning for the future of the ASOPRS continued. It was likewise decided that the Executive Committee would meet each spring in the city of the then President. This would allow members of the Executive Committee to be able to visit various areas of the country and to see different cities. This was initially carried out by Charles Beyer hosting the Spring Meeting of I 973 in Boston. 1 At that meeting in Boston, the Executive Committee not only took care of the business of the Society, meager as it was in those days, but the question was then being asked of whether we should have an organization of quantity or an organization of quality. Among the many people who took a stand, probably the strongest advocate of the quality recommendations was Alston Callahan. At that time, many people were requesting applications to join, some of which never paid any attention to the eyelids. With the backing of our elder statesmen , the quality issue won out and has remained a strong point of the ASOPRS. At these Spring Meetings, the Executive Committee also acted as a committee of the whole in formulating the program for the Scientific Meeting to be held in the Fall. The Executive Committee reviewed each and every paper and selected those people who had presented the best papers or abstracts to the committee. Can you imagine the Executive Committee still being able to do that today? We next moved to Houston, with Bob Wilkins hosting the 1974 Executive Committee Spring Meeting. A few people took a couple of slides to pass back and forth to see how certain problems might be handled. We didn't think too much of this at the time. The following year when Dick Tenzel hosted the Executive Committee in North Miami Beach, we sat around at his home one evening with all of the many slides that we brought, asking for help and suggestions. This was truly what was meant by our questioning in New York of"how could we secure help for problem cases." In our future planning discussions, we decided to initiate a Spring Meeting open to all members requesting them to bring slides of problem cases for discussion. Plans were then formulated by Bart Frueh for the Spring Meeting in I 976. Not only would the Executive Committee meet, but all members would be invited. Bart planned a delightful meeting at Lake of the Ozarks in Missouri. That was our first Spring Meeting at which all members and their families were invited and a delightful time was had by all. Thus, the story continues and will be told by individual Presidents. To those of my past Presidential colleagues on whose toe s

1. Editor's note : Ors. Beyer-Machule and Wilkins have both confirmed that the 1973 Spring Meeting took place in Houston when Wilkins was President-Elect ; the 1974 Spring Meeting took place in Boston when Beyer was the Immediate Past President .

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I stepped in recounting some of the history of ASOPRS, I am sorry. Hopefully, you will put in those missing details to highlight those things special to each spring meeting, particularly, Bart, the flights into foggy Lake of the Ozarks with out radar, dusting the trees on the way in-or Mt. St. Hel en's special ASOPRS eruption. Who would have thought that those people who had assembled in New York in October, I 968, to learn the art of ocu loplastic surgery from Byron Smith, would have asked the questions and posed th e thoughts and ideas from which the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery would originate. How cou ld we ever imagine that ASOPRS would grow into what it is today?- ln sight ?-Good luck?-Or the ent hu siastic and dedicated work by many people over these past 25 years? Though I mentioned it earlier , a particular debt of gratitude is acknowledged to Margaret "Peg" Obear, M .D., for her tremendous encouragement, support and help. Ifit hadn't been for Peg's enthusiasm and hard work, the ASOPRS wouldn't be. Peg, we are all eternally grateful for what you gave us in so many ways-and no matter how much we say it or how we say it, we can never adequate ly say "thank you ."

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Chapter5 THE FOUNDING OF THE ASOPRS CharlesK. Beyer-Machule

The concept of forming a society dedicated to the improvement of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive techniques was conceived at the time when I was in fellowship training with Dr. Byron Smith at the Manhattan Eye , Ear and Throat Hospital in New York in 1968. The individuals particularly involved in this endeavor were Drs. Peggy Obear, Thomas Cherubini, Robert Wilkins, George Buerger, and myse1ÂŁ It has to be emphasized that particularly Dr. Obear deserves a great deal of credit for having used her contact with the senior members in the field of op hthalmi c plastic and reconstructive surgery to further this planned new society. Needless to say, not all of these distinguished individuals were initially in favor of such a society. It was not po ssible to advance the development of ou r conceived principles until especially Dr. Wendell Hughes endorsed the proposed concept. His support was of critical importance and significance. These days passed primarily with Dr. Buerger and myself sitting in the lounge of the plastic clinic of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital where we outlined the suggested features of the constitution and bylaws for our society. We leaned heavily on existing concepts of similar associations, but singled out pertinent features that we felt important to our association in respect to the constitution and bylaws. In th e evenings we would then get together and all five of us woul_d discuss these features in great detail, making modifications, additions or subtractions. Here also Dr. Pidde from Edmonton, Canada, attended a number of these gatherings. These activities continued until the spring of 1969, when we had well delineated the required features for our new society. Here again I would like to emphasize the significant role of our brilliant and delightful young friend and colleague, Dr. Peggy Obear. It was indeed a great privilege for me to be the one to read the propo sed constitutio n and bylaws at the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Meeting at the Palmer House in Chicago in the fall of 1969. All known and distinguished contribu tors to the field of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery were in attendan ce of the session. It was a wonderful event to be part of and I am certain the founders of the society w ill cherish this event for the rest of th eir lives. The first hurdle had been taken and our esteemed colleague, Dr. Wendell Hughes, accepted the first presidency of our society. Drs. Stasior , Obear, and Wilk.ins subseq uently followed as presidents . I was very pleased when the officers of the society elected me president in 1972.

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Through the efforts of many individual s, I believe we have achieved the goals that we set forth for the Society : To further the knowledge in our subspecialty; to acquire new qualified members after completion of approved fellowships; and to gain the recognition of and intera ct with other organizations for the betterment of the medical profession .

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Chapter6 REFLECTIONS

IN OCULOPLASTIC SURGERY Byron CapleeseSmitht

I am delighted to have been asked to recall some of our history and reflect upon my chosen profession of ophthalmic plastic surgery. Much of my experience was gained prior to the evolution and organization of the ASOPRS by a group of my fellow s a quarter of a ce ntury ago. After my surgical training at Yale, I was inspired by Dr . John Wheeler and my subsequent fellowship under Dr . Wendell Hughes at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary . Following this training , I was placed in a position to become the senior consultant in ophthalmo logy for the European Theater of operations during World War II. The in surmountable experience of these assignments inspired me to establish one of the first strictly oculop lastic clinics known to our profes sion . Since its inception in 1947 1 it has been located at the Manhattan Eye , Ear and Throat Hospital in New York City . Due to the sparsity of centers for training in oculoplastics, it was my policy to employ seve ral fellows simultaneo usly . Most of them were citizens of our co untry and were well selected. How eve r, many of them were from foreign lands . M any of my fellows were subsequently inspired to head and develop some of o ur mo st enviable and productive centers of ophthalmic plastic surgery. It was in the spring of 1967 that a group of my fellows, Ors . Margaret Obear, Charles Beyer , Robert Wilkins, Charles Leone and Henry Baylis, co nfronted me with the thought of chartering a national society for the improvement of educational standards, encou ragement of research, stimulati on of publication s and the development of other aspects of ophthalmic plastic surgery. It was with my sanctio ns and delight that they were encouraged to undertake the ne cessary documentation for the origin of the ASOPRS . Their first socioscientific meeting was a nocturnal event at P.J. Moriarty Bar and Grill on Third Avenue ne ar our clinic. They were then urged to present our ambitions to Dr. Wendell Hughes and the oculoplastic faculty of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology. They met with congrat ulation s and emphatic encouragement to continue their skillful efforts. The remainder of the project is kno w n to all of us . Similar organization s and splinter group s have been stimulated elsewhere all over the world.

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The origi n of the Wen dell Hugh es Lectureship occurred during a conversation betwee n myself and Dr. J. Gordon Cole; we were in front of his fireplace one winter's evening in 1967. Immedi ately ther eafter, the oculoplastic faculty and executive directors of th e Academy approved our proposal of this lectu reship. I designed a golden key, which was appro ved by Dr. Co le and cast by Tiffany's in New Y ork. Up on present ation of th e key to Dr. Wend ell Hugh es, he congratulat ed Dr. Alston Callahan as our first Hugh es Lectur er at the Academy meeting in I 970. Sinc e then , many o utstanding surgeon s have been honored by the ann ual presentation of the Hughe s Lect ure. The original exec utiv e committee for the lectu reship has recently been replaced and is now under the auspices of the directorship of the ASOPRS. The lecture ship remain s one of the highli ghts of ou r ann ual AAO m eeting. In the early days, ophthalmi c plastic surgery enco mpassed post-traumatic recons tru ctive surgery, myology, conge nital malformation s, craniofacial surgery, o rbital surgery, neurovasc ular anomalic corr ection s, oncologi cal eradications and other facets. A tendency for subdi visional categorization has gradually occurred. On the oth er hand , sp ecialties such as pediatric ophthalmology have encouraged generali.zation rather than high er specialization. The int erests of most early oculoplastic surgeons reflected more of a concern for cosmeti c surgery than in oth er categori es of ophthalmology. It has been thr ough the cooperation between plastic surgeo ns and ophthalmi c plastic surgeons that th e management of cosmetic defects and th eir comp lication s hav e become better underst ood. I wish to exp ress my gratitude to all of my gurus and cooperative colleagues for their integrity , diligence , genero sity, intelligence and other worthy attri bute s in helping to preserve and exte nd the functions of our specialty. The ASOPR S has been a monum ent to all of our aspiration s.

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Chapter 7 IN MEMORIAM: BYRON CAPLEESE SMITH, M .D. Ri chard R . Tenzel

Byron Capleese Smith (Fig. 98) was born in Tonganoxie , Kansas, on Augu st 28, 1908. He attended the University of Kansas, receiving his B.A . and M.D. degr ees. For further training, he went to the Topeka State Hospital (Psychiatry); to New Haven Hospital (O bstetrics and Gynecology); and finally to the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary (Ophthalmology) where he completed his residency in 1940. Realizing that the U.S . involvement in the war was imminent, Byron worked under Dr. Wendell Hughes to gain experience in reconstructive surgery. As an army major, Byron was Chief of Ophthalmology and Plastic Surgery of the 1st General Hospital, England , France and Germany , from whenc e came many interesting stories of Gen eral George Patton. The treatment of war injuries greatly enhanced his knowledge in this field, and we have all benefitted from his sharing of this experience. After the war, Byron joined th e Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. H e became Chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology and the Director of the Department of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery . It was in this capacity that Byron made his great contributions in oculop lastic surgery not only with many original and modified procedures, but with his approach to problems . H e was ext remely generous with his knowledge and lectured around the world. This was recog- Fig. 98. Byron Capleese Smith (1908-199 0). nized in his many awards. His former fellows read as the Who's Who in ophthalmic plastic surgery. Some ofhis fellows along with his associate at that time Dr. Peggy Obear , started the Americ an Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructiv e Surgery. When his fellows started the Byron Smith Study Club, it was Byron 's idea that only problem cases were to be presented to the group to try to solve the se difficult problems. The ASOPRS Spring meeting utilizes this same format. I (and we) will sorely miss this kind, brilliant man.

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Chapter8 MY INVOLVEMENT WITH OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC SURGERY Alston Callahan

[Editor's note: Alston Callahan (Fig. 99) has had a profoundeffectupon the development of ophthalmicplasticsurgeryand the earlydevelopmentof the ASOPRS (Chapters 1 and 2). Referencesto his contributions tofellowship training,scientificsymposia, and the art of ophthalmicplasticsurgeryin generalmay befound throughoutthepages of this commemorativevolume.] PAST

From World War II surgical experiences at an Army Eye Center, I offered an Academy course on the repair of lid lacerations from 1948 through 1952. Only a few other ophthalmic plastic surgery courses were available. Two of these were by Wendell L. Hughes and Byron Smith. In 1953, Dr. Al Ruedemann, Sr. recommended to Wendell and to me that the ophthalmic plastic courses by organized into "Fundamental" and "Advanced." Crowell Beard was beginning his important work on th e correction of ptosis, and Lester Jon es was making new anatomical and physiological discoveries in the eyelids. Others who helped were Charles Beyer, George Buerger, Thomas Cherubini, Gordon Cole, Richard Dortzbach , Sidney Fox , Deane H artman,Joseph Hill, Cha rles Iliff, Virginia Lubkin, Howard Naquin, Maraget Obear, William Pidde , Merrill Reeh, Bernd Silver, David Soll, Edmund Spaeth, Orkan Stasior, Richard Tenzel, and Robert Wilkins. Wendell continued to lead the group, and he and I alternated holding the Fundamental and Advanced Courses until I 968 when Wen dell was 65. He th en retired from active practice, and in 1970, h e retired from the Chairmanship of the Academy's Committee of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery. He recommended to the Academy Cou ncil that I be appointed to succeed him in 1971, which I did. From 1953 to 1978, we instructors usually met for breakfast on the first day of the Academy meeting, and selected and were assigned our subjects for the following year. Thus, even while we were presenting our courses in one year, we were thinking of and beginning to plan for the courses that we wou ld give a year later.

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Fig. 99. Alston Callahan. The portrait is on permanent display in the Eye Foundation Hospira! that Dr. Callahan established in Birmingham , Alabama.

As this was proceeding, some of the ENT surgeons and their Academy instructors were interested in performing cosmetic surgery-blepharoplasty and rhytidectomy. They and other ENT surgeons organized the American Academy of Facial and Plastic Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) in 1966, and some ophthalmic surgeons, such as Byron Smith, gave courses to the ENT surgeons on blepharoplasty . The officers and the membership of the AAFPRS suggested to the ophthalmic plastic surgeons active in the American Academy that they form an eye section in their organization. In the second year of my Chairmanship of the Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Committee, the officers hosted the eye instructors to a gourmet luncheon (even with wine), and officially invited us to form a section of their Academy . Several well-known ophthalmologists indicated their enthusiasm for this, but it was obvious to me that we should have a separate organization. I kept quiet and let the others talk, but finally Dr. Jack Anderson (who was to later become the President of the American Academy of Otolaryngology and Head and N eek Surgery when the two organizations divided) asked me to respond . I rose and said, "Thank you, gentlemen, for a superb luncheon. It's now I :45 and all of us must start our courses punctually at 2:00 p.m. We will consider your kind offer, but l must reply that personally, though appreciating the honor, I believe that everyone would be better served if we ophthalmologists had a separate organization of our own." This met with general approval by the ophthalmic plastic surgeons.

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Fig. 100. Program Chairman Michael]. Hawes (left) and Alston Callahan (right) at the podium of the 1993 ASOPRS Scientific Symposium, Fairmont Hotel, Chicago, IL, November 13, 1993.

Margaret Obear and Robert Wilkins suggested that I be a founder of the new organization. I declined, believing that in my position as Chairman, a younger group should organize and develop the new organization, and let the older instructors be advisors for just the first few years. I've always thought that by my setting this examp le, a lot of "dead wood" would be kept out of the fledgling young organization , which would move forward with greater speed . The leaders of the American Academy of Ophthalmology had told me that they disliked the use of the word "Academy" by other organizations because of the confusion that might develop. As we wanted goodwill from those leaders, I suggested the word "Society" to Bob Wilkins, and that is how it came about that the organization was nam ed the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. The American Academy officials were pleased. We older men did advise for a few years, and then , as was proper, became emeriti of the Advisory Commi ttee. In I 978, I resigned from the position of Chairman and recommended that Orkan Stasior be appointed to succeed me , which th e Academy Council did.

PRESENT

Our patients have benefitted from and we ophthalmic plastic surgeons have enjoyed the development of ophthalmic plastic surgery as a major subspecialty in ophthalmology. Unfortunately , we were not represented properl y when Medicare, Medicaid , and the ot her insurance companies set the fee schedule. We've all suffered by receiving less than we should have. The present format for the program is many five-minute presentation s. Some of the surgical techniques that are offered in these presentations differ little, if at all, from well established techniques. Would it not be better to have fewer and longer ones of greater merit?

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Each year, the Program Chairman must be confronted with many applications because of the honor and prestige of being on our program. Arranging the program require s conside rable time and effort and considerable discretion. 1

FUTURE

Could it be arranged so that the Program Chairman could officially appoint a committee of previous Program Chairmen and Presidents to advise him/her, so that the same surgical pro cedures would not be presented over and over? Some Program Chairmen might like such a buffer to help him / her. 2

'Editor's note: Coincidentally, Dr. Callahan's career and achievements in field of ophthalmic plastic surgery were highlighted in a video-taped interview presented at the close of I 993 ASOPRS Scientific Symposium, Memories& Rejledions of an OphthalmicPlasticSurgeon,Alston Callahan, M.D., Bim1inglia111, AL (Appendix 4). This oral history was commissio ned by the ASOPRS und er the auspices of the Archives Committee and included an interview by one of Callahan' s former fellows, Thomas Naugle. Following the playing of the video , Program Chairman Michael Hawes presented Callahan with an award of special recognition and appreciation (Fig. 100). 2 Editor's note : Since Dr. Callahan wrote and submitted these comme nts in July, 1990, each succeeding Program Chairman has adopted the following method for selecting papers: All submitted abstracts are judged independently by a three-person panel consisting of the current Program Chairman, the immediate Past Program Chairman , and the Assistant Program Chai rman. The abstracts are individually graded by each of the adjudicators according to scientific merit, originality, and compatib ility with the program within each of its subsections. The relative rankings and grades from each of the panel members are tabulated and collated. Final decisions are assisted by a telephone confere nce call. The Assistant Program Chairman, who also is responsible for the scientific program of the annual spring meeting, succeeds as Program Chairman the following year. This rotation of the panel provides a measure of continuity in the selection process.

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Chapter9 AS I SAW IT

CrowellBeard

[Editor's note: Crowell Beard (Fig. 101) has made extensivecontributionsto ophthalmic plasticsurgeryand the establishment ofthe ASOPRS (ChaptersI and 2). He has servedas the preceptorand mentorof severalpast presidentsofthe Society, and of the currentpresident, GeorgeL. Paris (Chapter 14). Additional referencesto Dr. Beard may befound throughoutthe chaptersand appendicesofthis volume.] I considered myself an ophthalmic plastic surgeon long before the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Re construc tive Surgery was founded. Events concerned with this consideration are co ndens ed on the following pages. A native of Napa, California, following the completion of the required curriculum for the M .D. degree at the University of California Medical School in 1939, I was accepted into and completed a residen cy in ophthalmology at the Mayo Foundation and Mayo Clinic in Ro chester , Minnesota . I had been declared ineligible for military duty in 1942 becau se of a minor physical (not mental) defect; so, by 1943 I had returned to San Francisco to be an assistant in an established ophthalmological practice and also was appointed to a minor teaching position at my alma mater . Some four months later, the U .S. Army changed its mind and decided that my "disability" should not deny me the opportunity of serving in the armed forces. By O ctober, 1943 I had become a First Lieut enant in the 40th Officers' Training Battalion of the Medical Field Service School at Carlisle Barrack s, Pennsylvania. In this assignment, I met and became friends with two fellow ophthalmologists, John Bellows and Alston Callahan, who were also newcomers to the arme d serv1ces. Being on limited service, I was spared duty in the combat areas such as that some of my ophthalmologic friends experienced. I do not know whether this lack of hardship was good or bad for me as a person , but I do know that it was good for me professionall y. Those of us who were assigned to general hospitals in th e Zone of the Interior worked hard and provided needed specialized care. For me , World War II provided surgical experience comparable to a fellowship in oculoplastic surgery . In 1944, the Surgeon General of the Army designated nine general hospitals in the Zone of the Interior as being centers for the definitive treatment of plastic surgical and ophthalrnological patients . I was assigned to one of them , Dibble

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Fig.

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Crowell Beard.

General Hospital in Menlo Park, California. I spent over a year there as one of seven or eight officers on the ophthalmological service.We reached our peak patient load in about May of 1945 and worked at capacity for the next 8-9 months. All types of eye, eyelid, and orbital injuries requiring reconstructive surgery were seen. Plastic surgeons were in limited supply. Their specialty was still in its early stages of formal development. The plastic surgery service was overburdened and was happy to have the ophthalmic plastic surgery cases treated by the eye service. It was largely from this type of experience, obtained in the armed services, that modem oculoplastic surgery developed. A large volume of cases that differed from anything any of us (or anyone else) had previously seen and treated was encountered. New procedures had to be devised and perfected. A few ingenious ophthalmologists like Drs. Norman Cutler, Sidney Fox, Byron Smith, Alston Callahan, Arthur Sherman, and others (perhaps including me) devised new procedures or modified old ones in order to corre ct many of the defects that confronted them. Upon release from Army duty in 1946, I joined with one of my former army Chiefs, Dr. Phillips Thygeson, to open a part time office for the general practice of ophthalmology in Sanjose, California . We each spent about half of our time at the University of California Medical School where I was soon seeing all of the oculoplastic cases. My surgical practice became more and more plastic and reconstructive in type, but it was not until 1970 that I gave up other types of ophthalmic surgery.

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Going Ba ck: After the 1938 death of Dr. John Wheel er (one of the first American ophthalmologists to show a signifi cant intere st and ability in ophthalmic pl astic surgery , a talent developed during World War I), the two "heirs" to the subspecialty in thi s cou ntry were his student , Dr . Wendell L. Hughes ofHempstead , New York , and Dr. Edmund B. Spaeth of Philadelphia. The latter had remained in the U.S. Army after World War I and had studi ed plastic procedure s at European cent ers where ophthalm ologist s were doing the oculoplastic procedures . Dr. Spaeth had returned to private pra ctic e in 1927. After W o rld War II , Dr. Hughe s organized a group, including Dr. Spaeth and about a dozen of us who had had experience in oculoplastic surgery during World War II to tea ch co urses at the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology meetings , co urses that Dr. Hughes had taught, almo st single handedly , since Dr. Whe eler's death. There were two co urses (beginning and advanced oculoplastics) which were each divided into about six hours. Both were usually "so ld out " in advance. Each of us pre sented one hour on an oculoplastic topi c. The topi cs were rotated each year, so that we would not be in clined to "overspecialize". The faculty had a breakfast meeting yearly to discuss thi s course as we ll as oculoplastic surgery in general. New member s were invited and taken into this circle. Eventually (1969) several of th e members of the group organized the Ameri can Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Re const ru ctive Surgery with Dr. Hughes as president. M y part in the American Socie ty of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery has been largely passive. Being one of tho se who in sisted that an acce pt able the sis should be a requirement for membership eligibility , I was place d on the Thesis Committee, and also on th e Advisory Board. I served on the se for seve ral years. Before 1969, th ere we re but few oculopl astic pr ece ptorship s or fello wships available. Ours, at the Uni versity of Califo rnia Medi cal School, was one of th e first. It was in these preceptorships and fellowships th at th e next generation of oc ul oplastic su rgeo ns was trained. Th e Ameri can Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery has an approved list offellowships that is continu ously monitored. The present number of app ro ved fellowships is 26. The dem and for fello wship trainin g leading to eligibility to wri te a th esis and take the examination for membership in the Society has far exceede d the availabl e openings. Presentl y, the Society's membership is ove r 300. These m embers have pro ve n th emselves knowledgeable and skilled in the field of oc ulopl astic surgery . M y small part in the early development of oculoplastic surgery has bee n dire cted by a series of even ts starting during my first year of college when I prov ed my unusual ineptitude as a stud ent of eco nomi cs. For want of a better place to go, I shifted my major to "p re- m ed " . Succeeding occurrences then pointed me toward medicine, ophthalm olo gy, military service, oculoplastic surg ery, and "semiacademia". Having bee n a part of th e oc uloplastic service at the University of

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California Medical School with such associates as Drs. Marvin Quickert, Earl Rathbun,John Sullivan.James Langham, Devron Char, Gary Aguilar, and Stuart Seiff has been stimulating. UCSF departmental chairmen, Drs. Frederick Cordes, Michael Hogan , and Steven Kramer, have been more than supportive. My close association with many of the "greats" of ophthalmology, oculoplastic surgery, and plastic surgery has been more than an unaspiring small town Northern California boy could ever have hoped for. Dame Fortune has been good to me.

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Chapter 10 IN MEMORIAM: LESTER T. JONES , M.D. John L. Wobig

Lester T. Jones (Fig. 102) began his career in 1921 when he received his medical degree from th e University of Oregon M edical School. His bedside manner gentle, respectful and reassuring-help ed him quickly build a thriving practice. Hi s practice was first in general medicine, then as a specialist in eye, ear, nose and throat. Shortly after leaving medical school, Dr. Jone s began teaching gross anatomy at the North Pacific School of Dentistry, which was later renamed the University of Oregon Dental School. He continued that pursuit for twenty years while maintaining an active private practice. He became a Clinical Profe ssor of Otolaryngology and later Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology at the University of Oregon Health Sciences Center. Dr. Jone s was committed to perpetuating the "whole physician" approach to medi cin e. The whole physician-a tireless, dedicated professional whose primary concern focused on the patient, who condu cted research to create better diagnostic and treatment methods , and who shared the fruits of that research openly through teaching students and colleagues alike. His dedication to educatio n and research brought him to the University over and over. He taught gen erations of ophthalmologists about the anatomy of the eye and how to diagnose and treat tearing problems. Dr. Jo n es died in l 98 3 at the age ofe ighty- Fig. r o2. Lester T. Jone s. nine . He was a lifelong Oregonian and a pion eering phy sician. To his credit, he developed technique s for curing the tearing patient and correcting lid abnormalities. Dr. Jon es had the rare combi nation of qualitie s that embody the ideal physician: a caring practitioner, an inquisitive and meticulous investigator, a pursuer of solution s that have the challenge of application, and a dedicated and venerated teacher. Over the years, he certai nly has set standards for the w hole physician.

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Chapter 11 TRIBUTE

TO MERRILL]

. REEH, M .D.

James L. Hargiss

Merrill]. Reeh (Fig. rn3) has made many contributions to the field of ophthalmic plastic and reco nstru ctive surgery and to the early development of the ASOPRS . Although Dr . Reeh's many careers have been interrupted by a series of severe strokes, he will certainly be remembered for these contributions and his trem endou s talents as a teacher . Born and raised in Nebraska, Merrill Reeh 's first career wa s the study and teaching of the English language. Among his other early interests was the alto saxophone, which he played with the Nile Marching Band, well into his seventies. His next career was military medi cine , first in tropical medicine and ophthalmology; he suffered malaria in Panama . Co lonel Reeh became a flight surgeon, instructor, then Chief of Ophthalmology in the School of Aviation Medicin e at Randolph Field, and commanda nt of the station hospital. He became certified by the American Board of Ophthalmology in 1943, having made one of the highest scores on his examination. After serving as an instructor in ophthalmology at Washington University , and separating from the Army, he moved to Portland, Oregon, where he became Clinical Assistant Professor at the University of Oregon Medical School. Here h e trained many residents and founded the program at the Dever Institute where he served as Director . He was Chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology at Good Samaritan Ho spital and wrote the still classic book , Treatmentof Lid and EpibulbarTumors,and established his laboratory of ophthalmic pathology. Dr. Reeh was the consummate teacher . His course in ophthalmic plastic surgery at the American Academy of Opht halm ology was among the most popular , and he was given th e Academy's Honor Award in 1954 and the Senior Honor Award in 1984. Other honors included official thanks from the Philippine government , and from the Pan American Association of Ophthalmology . He is a Life Fellow in th e ASOPRS . Having lost his first wife , Orpha Ellen, he married his present wife, Betty, and began his last career as Clinical Professor at the University of Washington . Dr. Reeh trained many residents in this program until 1991 when his illness forced retirement . He always showed an unending enthusiasm for teaching ophthalmology , espec ially his beloved subjects of ophthalmic ana tom y, pathol ogy

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Fig.

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Merrill]. Reeh .

and oculoplastic surgery . This enthusiasm carried with him until the last days of his good health. Dr. Reeh' s love of teaching has had a significant impact upon a generation of American ophthalmologists and ocu loplastic surgeons.

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Chapter 12 REMEMBRANCES AND COMMENTS OF PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASOPRS Wendell L. Hughest Orkan GeorgeStasior MargaretF. Obear CharlesK. Beyer-Machule Robert R. Wilkins Richard R. Tenzel BartleyR. Frueh GeorgeF. Buerger,Jr.

David B. Soll Robert M. Dryden John L. Wobig Allen M . Putterman A. Jan Berlin ]. Earl Rathbun Richard P. Ca"oll Joseph C. Flanagan

Mark R. Levine ]. Justin Older Arthur]. Schaefer Clinton D. McCord,Jr. BerniceZ. Brown Arthur S. Grove, Jr. John A. Bums Albert Hornblass

[Editor's note: T11ehistoryof the A SOP RS, aspresentedin the previouschapters, is further enrichedby tire remembrances and commentsefthe Society's Past Presidents (Figs. 104-127). Afull listing <ifPast Officersefthe ASOPRS is presentedin Appendix 2. A listingof the meetingsoverwhich eachefthe Past Presidentspresidedis presentedin Appendices4 and 5.] WENDELL L. HUGHES, MD t

President,196<r1970 I have watched the interest in ophthalmic plastic surgery grow from the time ofDr. John Wheeler up to the presentlarge and vital society we now enjoy. In accepting the presidency of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS), I gave my unqualified support to this endeavor. The devoted leaders of the Society have served as a catalyst to promote a burgeoning interest in what is now a true subspecialty. The main persons who were responsible for the achievements during my presidency were the members of the Executive Board, a fine group of dedicated individuals. There is no question that the ASOPRS has become a very vital force now, with over 300 members, and two meetings yearly. I feel very honored to have been a part of it.

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ORKAN GEORGE STASIOR, MD

President1971

As the second president of ASOPRS, I considered it a special privilege to be the president during a most dynamic and formative year. There were many meetings and discussions regarding our goals and how to implement them. There was concern about how our new society could best complement the already outstanding oculoplastic teaching of the experienced instructors in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery of the American Academy of Ophthalmology . It was felt that the ASOPRS would contribute most to our subspecialty by being a forum where young eye plastic surgeons could not only learn more about oculoplastic surgery, but could organize and run their own meetings with the guidance, stimulation, teaching and assistance of their older oculoplastic colleagues. Our society also would be a constant source of outstanding new instructors in oculoplastic and reconstructive surgery for the American Academy of Ophthalmology. A continued strong relationship with the American Academy of Ophthalmology was stressed. For our specialty to continue to grow actively and creatively, it was recommended that inter-specialty and international relationships should be developed and nurtured. This was started in the second year with multi-specialty presentations at the annual meeting. International oculoplastic surgeons were invited to attend and encouraged to participate in our meetings. The requirement of a thesis for membership in our society was discussed at length. It was agreed that this requirement should be mandatory and should not be waived. Preparing a meaningful scientific thesis would allow each new member to know at least one oculoplastic subject in great detail. This type of specialized knowledge would not only create better oculoplastic specialists, but would increase the knowledge of the entire membership and would generate more new ideas and research and help our specialty to continue growing. To encourage additional leadership responsibilities for younger surgeons, we recommended that the president, after completing his one year term, become Chairman of the Advisory Board for one year and then retire from the Advisory Board in two years. This would ensure a greater turn over on the Advisory Board, allowing more eye plastic surgeons to experience the challenges and solutions of problems that are constantly presented to the Advisory Board. It is heart-warming to note how many of our original educational, leadership, inter-specialty and international growth goals have been achieved. It is exciting to view the phenomenal development and acceptance of our society and to applaud the high quality of so many of our well trained and enthusiastic eye plastic surgeons. I congratulate the dynamic leaders and members who have made this possible. We have had twenty-five memorable and inspiring years. The future of our important specialty is assured.

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Fie. 104. Wendell L. Hughes, MD, President 1969-1970

Fie. 105. Orkan George Stasior, MD, President 1971

MARGARETF. OBEAR, MD

President1972 [Editor'snote: Dr. Obear's essayhas previouslybeenpublished (ObearMF: History of thefounding of the ASOPRS. Adv Plast ReconstrSurg 1986;5:431-2) and is reprinted with pemiission of McGraw Hill PublishingCompany. Revisions weremade together with the help of Dr. Obearand herfamily .] Our society was founded mainly because we all realized that what we had would not work with the ever-increasing interest of ophthalmologists in ophthalmic plastic surgery. What was once done by only a few surgeons was now gathering interest everywhere. In New York City, I was associated with Dr. Byron Smith following my fellowship under him. I was an advocate for a separate society composed of doctors interested in the development and furthering of ophthalmic plastic surgery. Because of my work with Smith, I was familiar with his technique of teaching procedures in the office, at the hospital, and with his work in the AAOO. In attempting to learn from Smith, I attended courses with him in Baltimore, Newark, Philadelphia, Boston, and of course, Chicago. At this time I was only a beginner,

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but what I saw fascinated me; I wanted to be a part of it. Coincidental with the development of the nidus of our society, John Converse, a general plastic surgeon, had initiated the Converse Society of General Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Naturally, there was some overlap ofideas, but only in limited degree. The two were never and never will be the same. At this time, Smith was closely associated with four other current or recently graduated fellows: Charles Beyer, George Buerger, Thomas Cherubini, and Robert Wilk.ins. Having completed my fellowship, I was in the position to present Smith's lecture material as well as to assist him in his operations; therefore, I was closely associated with his four fellows and developed lasting friendships with them. We discussed the need for the development of a separate group of plastic ophthalmologists, to be within the AAOO. I believed such an association could best be created by obtaining the aid of the more established physicians who were teachers of ophthalmic plastic surgery under Dr. Wen dell Hughes. I proceeded with this plan. All the physicians were very helpful and enthusiastic. Without their aid, our society would never have gotten off the ground. We owe a great amount of respect and credit to all of them for the help they so freely gave.

CHARLES K. BEYER-MACHULE,

MD

President1973

From the beginning, the goal of the ASOPRS was to further the knowledge in our subspecialty and to acquire new qualified members after completion of sanctioned fellowships. Certainly the importance of being recognized by other similar associations was of great significance to us. With this thought in mind, I remember that in the part of my own presidency, the effort was made by some of our senior members to make our society join already existing larger groups with related professional interests. It was this specific move, however, which I did not accept as a principle for our society. My concept for our group of professionals was and is not quantity but quality as a basis for its existence. This fortunately appears to be very much the case now as examinations are required for membership. Likewise , very formalized fellowships for a minimum of one year under approved tutorship are required. Appropriate committees were formed and annual meetings were created which have been regularly held in conjunction with the American Academy of Ophthalmology . Spring meetings have been added. Our organization bas become very much recognized and has increased to several hundred members. The Society was established as a non-profit association and its constitution and bylaws were formally registered at the time of my presidency. This was accomplished by our attorney, Mr. Lesley Markus of Boston , Massachusetts. The contributions of numerous individuals to this society over the years from its conception to its completion, and finally to its state today, have made the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic andReconstructive Surgery a leading and recognized subspecialty in ophthalmology in North America. Significant substance

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FIG. 106. Margaret F. Obear, MD, President 1972

F1G. 107. Charles K. BeyerMachule, MD , President 1973

to these efforts has been especially aided through the support and identification with our Society by the reknowned and outstanding specialists of our time. A partial list includes Wendell Hughes, Edmund Spaeth, Byron Smith, Alston Callahan, Charles Iliff, Crowell Beard, Merrill Reeh, Joseph Hill, Carl Johnson, Jack Crawford, Raynold Berke, Orkan Stasior,J. Gordon Cole, and Sidney Fox. A similar group, the European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ESOPRS) was established years later. This society works in close association with our own in a very harmonious manner.

ROBERT B. WILKINS, MD

President1974 During my presidency the concept of a spring meeting was developed. The spring meeting however, only included the Executive Committee of the Society. We held a spring meeting in Galveston, Texas when I was president-elect and at this meeting Charles Beyer , Bart Frueh, George Buerger, Bob Dryden and Marv Quickert were in attendance. The following year a meeting was held at Harvard in May. This was the year that l was indeed president , not president-elect. The meeting was held in conjunction with an eye plastic meeting that was sponsored by Charles Beyer . During my term, new ideas such as publications from the Society and public relations for the Soci ety were discussed and carried forward. There was a constant discussion about moving the meeting away from the Academy in

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FtG. 108. Robert B . Wilkins , MD, President 1974

those days; however, the meeting was quite small with maybe one hundred people in attendance. Following each meeting we would always end with a cocktail party in the same room as the meeting. Those were in the early developmental days of the Society and every idea was a new idea. Our main goal in those days was to have the significant plastic papers presented at the ASOPRS Fall Meeting and not at the general meeting of the Academy. We continued to have many people contacting us for charter memberships , thereby eliminating the need to write a thesis, etc. These people felt eligible for charter membership because they had been doing plastics for many years, were fairly well known in the field, but had failed to attend the first meeting in Chicago in 1969, which guaranteed charter membership. Generally, if the person was well known enough in plastics they were accepted as charter members. The Society in those days was becoming more popular and more successful. Our goals also in those days were to get the founders of the Society off of the Executive Committee and returned from office so that other people could get in and it would not be an inbred society.

RICHARD R. TENZEL, MD

President 1975 The major accomplishment of the year that I was in office was co set up the present rules for fellowship programs. We limited the number of fellows that a preceptor could train at one time and made certain that the applicants underwent a formal fellowship training. The thesis was to be presented first to the Society

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Fie . 109. Richard R. Tenzel, MD , President 197 5

before it could be published. This served to increase the introdu ction of new thoughts, ope rations and techniques in our meetings. The coo rdinati on of the fellowship training and thesis requirements defined our goals of high standards and produced greater cohesiveness within the Society. The Spring M eeting was further developed. The format of presenting compli cations and problem caseswas set up at this time (stolen from the Byron Smith Study Club ). We conti nu ed to develop good relations with other organizations in ophthal mology and medicine. The liaison between the oc ularists and the ASOPRS was formed and cooperation established for their annual meeting. Overall, I believe this was a year that we increased the strength of our Society, reaffirmed our goals of membership and activism, and set a course for continued growth.

BARTLEY R. FRUEH, MD

President1976 I became an officer of th e ASO PR S through a set of fortunate circumstances and president at the age of 38 und er thoroughly unfort un ate circumstances. In 1972, a young upstart named Geo rge Buerger, one of the founders, was secretary of the Society. H e felt he needed an assistant. I have always assumed that the job req uir ed someone of lower status th an George and that I was the only one to fit that req uireme nt . I was electe d to the newly created position of assistant secretary at the

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Fie . 110. Bartley R. Frueh , MD, President 1976

meeting in Dallas that fall. I was also elected to membership then, having fulfilled all the requirements. I asked George what he would like me to do. He suggested that I take over making arrangements for the fall meeting and advertising the meeting and he would handle membership applications, records, bylaws, etc. Before the next meeting, my title was elevated to secretary and George became the executive secretary, titles and responsibilities that have held to this day. I instituted sending mailings about our meeting to all ophthalmologists in the USA, using bulk mailing, which resulted in a significant increase in attendance at our fall meeting with corresponding increase in revenue for the Society. In the spring of 1974, the tragic death of our president-elect, Marvin H. Quickert, changed the order of succession to the presidency. It had been felt important that the president-elect be someone who had been on the Executive Board so they would be familiar with the inner workings of the Society. Dick Tenzel, the treasurer , was the obvious person to become president-elect because of his seniority and the general respect he commanded. That meant he would be president in 1975. This decision was reached by phone conversations among the members of the Executive Board shortly after Marvin 's death. The Nominating Committee that fall asked George Buerger to run for president-elect the following year, but he declined, saying he preferred to wait another year as he had more work to do as executive secretary. That left me as the only other person who had experience being on the Executive Board. I was nominated and subsequently elected to the position of president-elect.

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In retrospect, a major event of my presidency was the institution of a membersonly spring meeting for case presentations and informal discussions of various problems. When the Society was started, the spring meeting was a business meeting for the Executive Board and was hosted by the president . Then a plastics meeting was appended, presented by the individual members of the Executive Board for the local ophthalmologists. There was one in Houston in 1973 and one in Boston in 1974. Although a presentation was planned for Miami in 1975, the pre-registration was too low to justify the meeting and it was cancelled. Out of this grew the idea of having a meeting for members only in conjunction with the Executive Board meeting, a pra ctice that has been continued to this day. The privilege ofbeing able to attend this meeting is a prime incentive for being an ASOPRS member. The first spring meeting was held at Tan -Tar-A Resort in Osage Beach at the Lake of the Ozarks, Missouri . It was memorable for the JO attendees for the difficulty they had getting there. Although it was a 2-1/2 hour drive from either St. Louis or Kansas City, most had arranged flights on puddle-jumpers from those airports. The Lake of Ozarks airport is not known for its size or sophistication and weather caused most of the flights to find an alternative landing place, with Fort Leonard Wood being the most popular. Ground transportation then had to be found to Tan-Tar-A , with some rumors that mule-back rides were the only alternative for some. The format of brief, informal case presentations with open discussion worked well. At this meeting, The Nominating Committee, consisting of Dick Tenzel , Arthur Grove, and myself, nominated David Soll as presidentelect, Charles Iliff as vice-presiden t, Jim Langham as treasurer, and Jan Berlin as secretary and the slate was elected by the membership that fall.Jack Taylor, as the Honorable Timothy Hays, eminent Mayor ofWhoopup, Missouri was our afterdinner speake r on Saturday night . Months after the meeting ended, George Buerger told me that it had taken him three weeks to get back to Pittsburgh from Missouri. It wasn't clear whether he had argued with the mule driver or flown Allegheny Airlines. I represented ASOPRS at the Ophthalmology Division Long-Range Planning Conference, AAOO, held in anticipation of the split between ophthalmology and otolaryngology in 1978. I was one of 33 participants , 16 of which represented organizations such as ours. The president-elect of the AAOO, Brad Straatsma, and the Secretary , Fred Blodi, both recognized the paramount importance of making room for satellite organizations such as ours within the framework of the Academy meeting , although others such as Payton, Shoch, and Buxton had opposed this. Our fall meeting was held at the Aladdin Hotel in LasVegas on October 6th . Hank Baylis, the program chairman, and Dick Dortzbach , the assistant program chairman created an excellent program. The time of the meeting was unusual. The Academy Scientific Session started on Wednesday afternoon, 6 October. We decided not to have the meeting on th e 5th because the 4th was Y om Kippur . To hold our meeting on the 6th, we were not allowed to have it concurrent with the AAO Scientific Session. Thus the meeting went from 8:30 a.m. to 12:45 p .m . and from 6:oo p.m.

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until 8:40 p.m. At that mee ting, the Lester T.Jones Surgical Anatomy Award was presented to Bob Dryden. Jam es Boy nton was awarded the coveted Marvin H. Quickert Award for the outstanding thesis. O ur august and wry Executive Secretary, Geo rge Buerger, presented my membership certificate to me in front of the entire meeting. (I had been badgering the rascal for it for four years.) There were 14 ASOPRS -approved fellowship programs at that time, including the newly approv ed programs of Sonny M cCord and Allen Putterman. Our treasury had a balance of$20,257.37 in February of 1976. This seemed good to us th en. By the end of the year thi s amo unt had increased to $23,521.05. We were in fat city. Bylaws were change d to no longe r allow th e Exec utive Board to waive any requirement for membership in the Society on a per case basis. There had been pressure in the past to admit this person or that person who didn't have all the qualifications on the basis that the y should be grandfathered or because it was a politically wise thin g to do. This change made life easier for the members of the Executive Board. In additi on to the inauguration of membership-only sprin g meetings, an imp ortant product of my presidency was the increase in th e minimum length of fellowships for memb ership eligibility from six mont hs to one year. I felt this longer fellowship wo uld significan tly improve th e skills of the fellow with the by-product of decreasin g the numb er of people finishing training each year. Only Crowell Beard's program had one-year fellowships prior to this change. The thought of a 6-mo nth fellowship seems almost silly today, with many programs, including my own, having expanded to two years.

GEORGE F. BUERGER, JR., MD

President1977

In planning for the 2nd Annual ASOPRS Spring Meeting for 1977, a major problem arose. While I dearly wanted the meeting to be held in Pittsburgh so everyone could see firsthand the great progress that had been made in cleaning up Pittsburgh from its image of th e smoky city, a major reco nstruction project was to be undertaken between the airport and downtown Pittsburgh. Plans for this were projecting driving delays from the airport to downtown that would extend a normal 20 minute trip to perhaps an hour and a half There was no way I was going to allow my colleagues to spend that much time sitting in traffic on a construction project. I wo uld never have heard the end of it! I then started a quest for somep lace in th e vicinity that would adequately show off our area and yet would provide great accommodations for the meeting. In discussing this with friends and colleagues one place kept cropping up on their list of recommendations: The Green briar in White Sulfu r Sprin gs, West Virginia. I had never visit ed there but several friends said that there co uld be no finer choice made.

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Jr.,

Accordingly I talked with the people at the Greenbriar, studied the brochures, made plan s, and sent the anno un ce ment letters for the April 22-24 meeting. Following the tradition started by Bart Frueh in selecting a hard-to-get-to spring meeting location , the Greenbriar seemed ideal! It was not on a major highwa y nor could it be easily approached . Interstate 64 was not yet built so the curvy, hilly roads of West Virginia would have to be endured from any nearby airport. It was about a 6 hour drive from the Pittsburgh International Airport , so that was not a reasonable flight destination. Flights were available through Pittsburgh and others cities to Roanoke, Charleston, or nearby Lewi sburg with then only a relatively short drive to The Greenbriar. While not ma ny family members made it, thirty fellows participated in the scientific sessions and social activities. The gracious southern hospitality of the Greenbriar is seldom achieved by any other resort. It offered all the amenities that one desired along with good food, good case presentation s, and man y friendships bonded ever closer. At that meeting the Executive Committee reviewed with our attorney from Boston the implications of incorporation in Massachusetts and the various laws, rules and regulations that had to be followed with such incorporation . Then as now, the Executive Committee meeting required a great deal of time and th e quality vs. quantity issue continued to be discussed. An open long range planning discussion to ok place. The fall meeting, the Eighth Annual Meeting, was held on October 1st at the Statler-Hilton Hotel in Dallas under the Chairmanship of Di ck Dortzb ach. Honorary Fellowship was extended to Guillermo Pico, MD. John T. Simonton presented the Wendell Hugh es Lecture, " Practic al Ptosis Surgery".

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Planning continued with the late Kevin Hill , MD , for ASOPRS members to serve as the faculty at the annual Colby College Ophthalmology Seminar Augu st 6-10, 1978. Participating were Crowell Beard, Charles Beyer, Bob Dryden, Davi d Soll, Dick Tenzel and myselÂŁ ASOPRS was now achieving recogni tion from the Ameri can Academy that we were an organization to be recko ned with and that the work for whic h we stood was one of quality. We also showed them that our integrity in choo sing quality ove r quantity was a wise one. Man y other organization s have loo ked to us as the epito me of a successful and strong organization well respected by o ur peers.

DAVID B. SOLL, MD

President 1978 M y year as president was a most enjoyable one and through the coope rative efforts of th e members we were able to institute new ideas and we re able to have a very produ ctive year. Durin g th at year, the Society was still relatively young and the numb er of members small enough so that everyone knew each othe r by first name and also knew abo ut each one's background. In retrospect, the more important contributions of that year were: Form ation of an Exhibit Co mmittee and the institution of an ann ual ASOPRS ex hibit at th e American Academy of Ophthalmology as well as othe r regional meetings; establishm ent of guidelines for certifica tion of our oph thalmi c plastic surgery fellowship program s; establishment of guidelines for the sis require men ts; inclu sion of oculoplastic surgery papers to be present ed at the AR VO meeting and instituti on of collabora tive efforts, the focus being on ed ucational in terchange, wi th gene ral plastic surgery. This led to the agree men t that an ophthalmic plastic surg eon would be represented on the editorial boards of the jo urnal s Ophthalmic Surgery and Plasticand ReconstructiveSurgery. Th e two members named to these jo urnal s, respectively, were Cha rles Iliff, MD, and Alston Callahan, MD.

ROBERT M. DRYDEN,

MD

President 1979 I was delighted to have served as Preside nt of ou r Society during th e ten th year of its existe n ce. Thi s Society was develo pin g and pr ogressing signifi cantly to the point where w e now indu cted ten new members at o ur me eting that year and each paid $1 5.00 for our annual dinner at a lovely San Francisco C hin ese restaurant. I was fortunate to have the supp ort of an energetic and efficient Ex ecutive Committee. The Immediate Past Secretary J an Berlin created an Officer Procedure Manual for all po sition s in the Society to be updat ed by outgoing officers. We were very much involved in the monitoring of the fellowship programs , maintaining their quality , and regula ting the spectrum oflearning opportunities to w hich the

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Fie. 112. David R. Soll, MD, Pre sident 1978

Fie. 113 . Robert M . Dryden , MD , President 1979

fellows were being exposed. We started an oral examination process initially to evaluate the fellowship programs but immediately realized that the tests should be used to control the quality of the individuals admitted to our Society. As a further incentive to promoting quality the ASOPRS Research Award was created by the Research Committee, chaired by Arthur Grove . Promotion for eye plastic surgery became a reality. The Exhibit Committee was chaired by Mark Levine and developed an exhibit for the Society that could be circulated around the country . We investigated, under Dr. Wilkins' direction, having a public relations firm involved in promoting our Society. After evaluating the options and hearing the high cost, it was decided that an alternative for promotion would be to develop an educational pamphlet for both educating patients and physicians. We and the American Academy of Ophthalmology were talking about recertification with meetings with the AAO Recertification Committee on two occasions. Although recertification surfaced initially at this time, it was felt that it was something to be resisted for now. It was anticipated that if recertification came to be, the empha sis would be on the evaluation of one's specialty rather than the general field of ophthalmology. There was concern about our becoming involved with the American College of Surgeons and having representation in that organization . It was pointed out to us by the American College of Surgeons that we needed 200 Fellows of the College (F.A.C.S.) approved by the appropriate Advisory Council of the College and Approval by the Board ofRegents. It was emphasized that all new members in our

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Society should become Fellows in the American College of Surgeons so we could gain this desired recognition. Our meetings were held at the Tanque Verde Guest Ranch in Tucson, Arizona, and in San Francisco. At the latter , each of the ten first presidents was awarded a silver Hopi Indian key holder engraved with the Society's logo. I know that I have appreciated having this award and curren tly use it daily, as it carries all my keys. Being president of the Society was an Honor. It was most appreciated and is held in fond memory.

JOHN L. WOBIG, MD

President1980 My involvement in the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery started with the Office of Executive Secretary in 1978. Thi s term of office ran for two years. My pre sidency was during the I 980-8 I year. Of most interest during the I 980 year was a rather lengthy discussion with regards to preceptors having two fellows at one time. With one exception it was unanimou sly agreed that only one fellow could be assigned to a preceptor. Thi s has followed through the years to be an acceptable arrangement. There was a tremendou s interest during this same year to hire a public relations firm to tell others about the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Many people were interviewed and presented plans of how to advertise the expertise of our Society. The cost of the public relations campaign were prohibitive for our rather young Society at this time. Emphasis began during this same year on planning the International M eeting which was to be a one-and-a-half-day meeting that would be held in 1982 in San Francisco. Time has shown us this was an outstanding meeting for our Society. A lot ofinterest during these years was shown with request for insurance billings and procedure terminology. Many different committee members worked on improving the relationship of our Society with the various insurance companies and Medicare. The Continuing Education Committee was functioning well by this point and was an active committee being headed by Bernd Silver. A relatively new proced ure was the oral examination which was given in San Francisco and was really quite successful in determining who would be good candidates. In addition to this, the Thesis Committee was active and obviously doing its job since several theses were turned down as inadequate, and average theses were no longer considered adequate. We had many committees at this particular time, and the committees that provided services to the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery were the International Meeting Committee, the Thesis Committee, Continuing Education Committee, Program Committee, Nominating Committee, Lester T. Jones Award , Publications , Research Committee, Exhibit

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F1G. 114 . John

L. Wobig, MD,

President 1980

Committee and Bylaws Committee. All these actively worked towards making a better society. I certainly enjoyed working with everybody within our Society and the committee structures. It has proven to be very successful with growth throughout the years. I am thankful that I could contribute a small part to the organization and development of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

ALLEN PUTTERMAN,

MD

President1981 I have wonderful memories of my year as President of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Prior to that year, I spent three years on the Executive Committee, initially as Executive Secretary and then as President-Elect. This involvement led to an easy transition in assuming the Presidency. The first major event of my Presidency was hosting the Spring meeting. It was the responsibility of the President of the Society to plan and host the spring meeting, which traditionally had been held in a location close to the city in which the President lived. My wife, Lynette, encouraged me to have the meeting in Acapulco, which, of course, is nowhere near Chicago. We scouted hotels in Acapulco the year before the meeting and chose the Pierre Marquez. I also ex-

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panded the duration of the meeting to three half-days of case presentations rather than two days, which had previously been the custom. In addition, I assembled the case presentations according to the subject matter rather than going around the room from doctor to doctor as had been previously done. The case presentations were educational, the weather was beautiful, and every one who attended the meeting seemed to have a terrific time. The next event I planned was the fall meeting. I recall the the Executive Committee Sessions, both in Acapulco and at the Fall meeting, ran very smoothly and efficiently. It was my policy that if an issue required a great deal of discussion to channel it into a committee to study the issue in order to save time during the business meetings. Another memory of this year was changing the policy of the fellowship interviews and acceptance time. The prior policy was to allow the Preceptors to choose their fellow at any time. Some programs were choosing candidates I 1 / 2 to 2 years before the date that a fellowship was to begin, whereas others did so only 6 to 8 months before the beginning of the fellowship. This led to candidates accepting programs that were not their first choice out of fear that other programs might not choose them. To alleviate some of the anxiety the candidates were experiencing, I instituted a June I date when all candidates would be notified of their acceptance. This was done I 3 months before initiation of the fellowship and led to more orderly process in the selection of fellows. This policy continued for several years and then was stopped until recently, when a similar common date of acceptance was reinstituted. Also during my Presidency the issue of recertification was debated. I became a member of the Recertification Committee, which I served on for the next 5 years

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under the chairmanship of Lawrence Winograd. I represented the Society by voting against recertification and strongly recommended that if it was necessary to be recertified, that our members should be evaluated only in our subspecialty rather than in general ophthalmology. It was an honor to serve as president of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic andReconstructive Surgery. I will always cherish the memories of that year.

A. JAN BERLIN, MD

President1982 At this late date, some twelve years after enj oying the privilege of serving the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery as president, it is difficult to recall specific events that occurred during my tenure. There are no presidential diaries nor recorded tapes of official or non-official conversations to review for tidbits of interest. It was my pleasure to serve , and, in turn, my responsibility to see that those following me were given a similar opportunity. An area of interest during my term was the promulgation of better relationships between the Society and the Academy. It was challenging to serve as liaison between the Society and the Program Advisory Commit tee, participating in the process of selecting symposia topics and symposia chairpersons, cementing relationships that led ultimately to Academy sponsored and designated co urses in the field of ophthalmic plastic surgery. With any official position, one's ability to manage the organization is directly related to the abilities of those in supporting positions. It was my pleasure to have so many talented and eager people join me on the Executive Committee. With Earl Rathbun, Charles Leone, Mark Levine, Gene Wiggs, Joe Flanagan, and Bob Waller as supporting staff, the year passed quickly . I was then , and remain now, appreciative and grateful for their support and counsel.

J.

EARL RATHBUN, MD

President1983 In 1983 the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery continued to try to define the direction the various aspects of the Society should take . The Society was we ll established with traditions and patterns developing. To more accurate ly know the interests and opinions of the members, in 1982 a survey was sent to eac h member by President-Elect Earl Rathbun . This survey inquired as to membership in other societies, past committee service to ASOPRS, desired future committee and officer participation, and thoughts about the formats, locations, and times of the Spring and Fall meetings. The survey indicated that most members were happ y with the procedures of the Society and this information served as a guide to the Executive Committee in 1983.

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A. Jan Berlin , MD, President 1982 FI G. I 16 .

Fie. 117.J. Earl Rathbun , MD , President 1983

Many issues were discussed by the Executive Committee with definite policy decisions being able to be made in several areas. The Executive Committee accepted the recommendations of the Ad-Hoc Committee that wa s established to review the 5-years-in-practice alternative method of meeting membership requirements. With the new rule the only alternative method of gaining membership other than doing an approved fellowship would be for a "candidate who has shown outstanding contribution in the field of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructi ve surgery to be nominated by the Executive Committee for membership". Faced with the continuing problem of Preceptors of the Fellowship programs not adhering to a uniform acceptance date and not being willing to use a matching plan, the Executive Committee provided a temporary solution by eliminating a set date for acceptance . 198 3 saw the second year of the Board of Councillors of the Academ y. With representatives from each of the states and from several of the subspecialty societies, there appeared to be a spark of interest in recognizing and serving the needs of subspecialty societie s. It quickly became apparent that ASOPRS was far more organized than any of the other subspecialty societies. The next year the represen tatives of the subspecialty groups to the Board of Councillors met to share common problems and goals . The 1983 Spring meeting was held at the Silverado Country Club in the Napa Valley of California. Those attending enjoyed touring wineries and vineyards as well as the excellent golf and tennis facilities . The banquet was held among the

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aging barrels of Inglenook Winery after a tour of the wine cellars and winery . A wide variety of interesting problem cases were discussed at the scientific session. The Fall Scientific Program was well attended at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Chicago. The featured sympo sium was Surgical Pearls from the Experts with Drs . Flanagan, Levine, Older , Rathbun and Wobig. The Lester T. Jones Anatomy Award recipient was Richard Anderson, MD. The Research Award was given to Drs . S.G . Slade, J.V. Linberg and A.R. lmmediata for their paper on the Control of Lacrimal Secretions. The Quickert Thesis Award was not given in 198 3.

RICHARD P. CARROLL , MD

President1984 The American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery was a relatively new , but rapidly maturing organization in 1984. In defining goals for the year, the Executive Committee had the benefit of a comprehensive survey of our membership conducted by the Education Committee in 1983. Based on this survey , the following objectives were outlined in the president's inaugural letter to the membership: I. 2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

7.

Establish ground work to ensure proper third party reimbursement of oculoplastic procedures; Establish a new level of communication and understanding with other plastic and reconstructive organizations; Increase ASOPRS visibility through the new oculoplastic journal and through public relations efforts; Further build upon our excellent relationship with the American Academy of Ophthalmology for the benefit of both organizations; Evaluate and upgrade the ASOPRS fellowship program; Further develop a written examination to complement the ASOPRS oral examination; Critically evaluate our educational programs to meet the everchanging needs of our membership .

Four ad hoccommittees were established to work in the following areas: 1. 2.

3. 4.

Study outside political influence s; Establish a better relationship with other specialties; Study third party reimbursement; and Review the ASOPRS fellowship programs.

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Recognizing the importance of blending experience with fresh ideas, a special effort was made to encourage participation in committee work by both new members and former officers. Committees were asked to focus their attention on the seven major goals for the year. The Education Committee administered a written examination to ASOPRS candidates on a trial basis at the 1984 Fall Meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. This committee also developed a format for contacting former fellows in an effort to more closely monitor ASOPRS-sponsored fellowship programs. In addition, an in-depth review of each fellowship was begun , which included obtaining input from both preceptors and fellows with regard to establishing a matching program . The "five year rule" which pertained to fellowships not sponsored by the ASOPRS was dropped to make ASOPRS membership available to all qualified oculoplastic surgeons. A public relations program for ASOPRS was debated at length during both the Spring and Fall Meetings. By the end of 1984, over 60,000 copies of the 1981 ASOPRS Informational Brochure had been sold to members, and efforts were initiated to develop a new brochure and a new logo. An editorial commemorating the fifteenth anniversary of the ASOPRS and its new involvement with CLAO was published in the CIAO Journal. The journal OphthalmicPlasticand Reconstructive Surgerywas enthusiastically endorsed by the Executive Committee. Managed care was already gaining a significant foothold in Minnesota and in other states, and the need for the ASOPRS to become involved in reimbursement issues was recognized. The Third Party Reimbursement Committee established communication with both the AAO and the AMA to work on CPT coding and

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reimbursement issues as they related to ophthalmic plastic surgery. Initial efforts were made with regard to the feasibility of contracting for administrative services, and establishing a Long Range Planning Committee. The Annual Spring Meeting was held at the Pinehurst Resort in North Carolina where reasonable rates, family orientation, and southern hospitality encouraged a record number of us to attend. The year began with seven primary objectives; significant progress was made in each of these areas. Many initiatives such as obtaining proper reimbursement and developing better communications with other organizations are ongoing, but solid foundations were established during I 984.

JOSEPH FLANAGAN, MD

President1985 During my year as President of the ASOPRS, several serious issues were considered and decisions made. An Ad Hoc Committee on Fellowship Programs was initiated and formalized. The scope of this committee was to organize a method to evaluate the current fellowship programs. Emphasis was to be placed on such factors as the overall training that a fellow received in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery, as well as exposure to other disciplines in ophthalmology such as neuroradiology, pathology, neuro-ophthalmology, and immunology. This was to insure quality control and to make sure that fellowships continued to be a viable working, teaching and learning experience. Because of concerns regarding the potential liability of the officers of the ASOPRS and to protect them against potential restraint of trade complaints brought by individuals who were not members of the Society, a committee was organized to investigate liability insurance. Legal advice was also sought. Upon review at that time, it was felt insurance was not necessary; however, it was suggested that this possibility be reviewed periodically by the Advisory Board. Another issue that was given serious consideration was the scope of the fellowship examination. The question was raised as to whether the written exam should be in essay form or changed to a multiple choice/fill in the blank type of exam. At that time, I was a member of the National Examining Board of Ocularists and had been involved in a similar process by that organization. This first hand experience had graphically demonstrated the intricacies and difficulties that were encountered in attempting to fabricate a written examination. Combined with the input from others , as well as my own experience, it was elected to continue with a written essay form of examination. Finally, the Spring Meeting was held at Long Boat Key on the west coast of Florida. Fifty members (and some of their families) attended the meeting. There were several executive sessions at which all committees were represented and

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F1G. 119. Jo seph C. Flanagan, MD , Presid ent 198s

reported . There were also two, one-half day scientific sessions at which problem cases were pre sented, followed by open discussion . It was agreed by all tho se attending that this type offorum was very educational, allowing everyone to fully discuss and criticize diagnosti c and therapeutic challenges. On the lighter side, a full schedule of social activities wa s planned, including golf, tennis and volley ball tournaments and a wind surfing contest. I still remember the winners of those events. Bob O'Dair and his family were impressive winners in the volley ball tournament, and Orkan Stasior's family certainly made him look very good in taking first place in the wind surfing contest. The individual efforts of Art Schaefer were recogni zed in the golf tournament , although I was quite surprised at the number of people who que stioned the validity of his "handicap." Finally, yours truly wa s the winner in the tennis tournament and quite frankly I was quite distraught that it was suggested that the tournament was "thrown " to placate the host.

MARK LEVINE, MD

President 1986 During my year there were three key contributions. The first was that of developing a new brochure for the Society, for whi ch Jim Katowitz was the chairman. The bro chure was totally redesigned to show a pre- and post-operative sketch of our major procedure s. The second significant issue was that of quality assurance for the fellowship programs. An Ad-Hoc Committee was formed, and a final committee chosen of those members who were felt best able to judge fellow ship training program s. They

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were to decide whether the fellowships met the standards of the Society . The ultimate attempt was to eliminate those programs that were felt to be substandard. Although it was a controversial issue, it was passed in my year. Unfortunately , this was not enforced in the following years. A third issue was that of expansion of fellowships. It was felt that proliferation of fellowships was counterproductive, and that tighter control would result in better-trained fellows. Fellowships would be expanded as older Preceptors retired. Moreover , it was decided that a maximum of two fellowships a year could be added; not to exceed six in the next three years. I presided over the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstru ctive Surgery for the 1986 year , with the 17th Annual Scientific Symposium held at the Fairmont Hotel in New Orle ans, November 8, 1986.

J. JU STIN OLDER, MD

President z987 During the past decade, the economics of the practice of medicine has come to the forefront in the minds of many physicians. In the fifties, sixties, and seventies, medical training revolved around patient care and research. Medical practice reflected this training. By the eighties, however, with the advent of cost cutting measures by Medicare, the emergence of HM O's, and the increased competition from fellow physi cians and non-physicians , doctors began to look seriously at the economics of their practices. This trend became just as evident in ophthalmic plastic surgery as in other fields of medicine.

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Medicare began to reimburse surgeons of patients based upon CPT codes. It therefore became imperative for members of our Society to learn all of the appropriate codes in order to receive proper reimbursement. It became apparent in the early eighties that the codes available in the CPT manuals did not sufficiently describe the operations we performed. As our new subspecialty continued to emerge, operations and procedures were devised and discovered which were not listed anywhere in the CPT manual s. 1n 1983, I was asked to chair a committee to look into the pos sibility of getting CPT codes co better reflect our procedures. I chaired this committee for three years and met with continued frustration. It took two years to eve n get an answer from the committee , let alone get any codes changed . When I became President of the Society, I decided that the main priority of my year in office should be to educate the member s of the Society regarding use ofCPT codes so they could obtain fair reimbursement for the surgery performed. I felt that my service to the Society should be economic education, as well as the time honored tradition of academic education. With these thoughts in mind, I elected to extend the Spring meeting by one day to allow for extensive discussions regarding ways to understand the CPT codes as they were presently used by Medicare and other insurance agencies. Concurrently, the committee which I had organized was continuing its efforts to introduce new codes into the CPT system. One of th e reasons the meeting was held in Bermuda was to provide a unique and enticing environment so that members would be willing to spend an extra day at the meeting. Another reason was to invite the European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery to join us. A few member s from Canada were able to attend. The discussions regarding CPT coding and related topics were very productive . In my opinion, they were one of the highlights of the meeting and served as a beginning for similar dialogues which have co ntinued at subsequent meetings . In the ensuing years, subsequent committees have been able to achieve what my committee could not, i.e. introduce new codes into the CPT manual . However, I believe that the education of our members regarding ways to understand and use the CPT codes for a proper reimbursement was one of the more valuable contributions of my presidency.

ARTHUR

J.

SCHAEFER, MD

President 1988 The Society undertook many important activities during my year as President that effected significant changes. This was especially true in the areas of education, bylaws, and governmental relations . The Education Committee was among the most active. Under the direction of Perry Garber, two of the Committee's members, Chris Fleming and John Van

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Gernert, prepared a survey of members that provided up-to-date addresses and academic affiliations, placed into a computerized database. The committee was enlarged to help with written and oral examinations that were given in the fall in Las Vegas. Forty-two prospective members applied to take these exams, the largest number to that date. Under the direction ofJohn Bums, the Education Committee also revised an evaluation form which was used by fellows to evaluate their respective fellowship programs. At my suggestion , the Preceptor Committee, chaired by Albert Hornblass added Richard Dortzbach, J. Earl Rathbun and Orkan Stasior as members. I also proposed the rotation of the chairmanship after a maximum term of three years. This change was unanimously approved by the Executive Committee . Probably one of the most important changes which I proposed as president-elect was that the vice-president should become the president-elect after his term as vicepresident and then succeed to the presidency in his third year. This has provided additional continuity and experience in the succession to the presidency. John Bums was the first member of the Society to succeed to the presidency in this manner under this new bylaw. Another important change in the bylaws allowed all candidates to take the written and oral exams immediately following their preceptorship, as long as they applied for membership in the ASOPRS. This now can be done before an applicant's thesis is approved, but certainly provides additional incentive for applicants to complete their thesis and achieve membership status. During this year, the ASOPRS Research Award and Reeh Pathology Award Committee was dis-

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solved and its responsibilities were transferred to the Thesis Committee. One of the Thesis Committee members, John Harrington, developed specific standards for these two awards, something that had not been in place before this time. Interaction with the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) continued to be an important activity of the Society during my term. In May 1988, William Tasman, Associate Secretary for the AAO Program Advisory Committee , requested that I provide a list of possible discussants for a variety of topics in ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery. I then sent a letter to the membership requ esting volunteers to serve as discussants. A majority of th e membership responded and a tabulated list was sent to the Academy. This will hopefully assist the Academy in broadening its pool of discussants for future Academy meetings and conferences. In June 1988, I asked John Bums to represent us at an AAO meeting in Washington chai red by Bruce Spivey regarding the Harvard Resource Based Re lativ e Value Study (RBR VS). Although we cou ld not establish direct input into the RBR VS process, John helped us to have some input and close contact with George Garcia and Wayne Fung of the Academy who were directly representing ophthalmology. The loomi ng RBR VS process highlighted the critical nature of effective third party and governmental relations. The stifling bureaucra cy surro undin g Medi care and Medicaid was beginning to carry over to other third party carriers. Burdensome paperwork and regulations placed upon physicians, were restricting their ability to deliver quality care. The interaction of the Society with other societies, governmental agencies and third party carriers on socio-economic issues was informally organized under our Vice-President, Richard Anderson, as the "Combined Committee of Society Affairs." This committee achieved formal status the following year . On a final personal note , I had the pleasure of inducting my son, Daniel P. Schaefer , into the society and presenting the ASOPRS diploma to him at the Business Meeting in Las Vegas on Octobeq , 1988. I believe this was probably the first such o ccurrence for the Society.

CLINTON D. McC ORD, JR., MD

President1989 Our Society's meetings represent to most members the major event of the year , and our Annual Spring Meeting took place at the Cloister at Sea Island , Georgia. The locale and accomodations seemed to suit the attending members well. Th e fall scientific session whi ch took place in conjunction with the American Academy of Ophthalmo logy met in New Orleans, and an excellent scientific program was prepared by Ralph Wesley, and accommodations were ably arranged by Bill Nunery. During the I 988-89 year, several new committees were formed. The Combined Committee for Society Affairs was formed which consisted of encompassing

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F1G. 123 . Clinton D. McCord.Jr ., MD, President 1989

several separate committees which had previously worked independently. Representatives from the American College of Surgeons, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Medical Association and other governmental relation committees were included under this committee with the chairman so that activities could be more coordinated. At the request of the American Board of Ophthalmology, a committee to study recertification guidelines was formed . The committee chairman was Dr. John Harrington. At the request of Dr. Wendell Hughes, a committee to determine the Wendell Hughes Lecturer was formed. The 1988-89 year was quite active in the field of government relations with the ongoing Hsaio Study. Representatives of our Society participated in conjunction with Academy representatives at several meetings. John Bullock and Bill Stewart together represented our Society well. During this year of turmoil , John Bullo ck independently analyzed the economic impact of the Hsaio guidelines from a mathematical standpoint. His very astonishing conclusions were published in A~us, the publication of th e American Academy of Ophthalmology . Also during this year, major efforts were undertaken at the request of the Medicare Administration to revise the CPT coding under guidelines of our Society. David Reifler was extremely instrum ental and helpful, together with Richard Anderson andJohn Shore . A modification in the fellowship training program was proposed by John Burns, the Chairman of the Education Committee; and this was approved by the Executive Committee. In essence, a number of new fellowship programs were approved, but it was strongly recomm ended by the Executive Committee that existing fel-

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lowship programs, and all new fellowship programs, should strive to become twoyear fellowship programs. It was felt that this would enhance the skills of our fellowship graduates and allow our subspecialty to be more competitive within the medical community.

BERNICE Z. BROWN, MD

President1990 The Annual Spring Meeting of the Society was held at the Ahwahnee Hotel in Yosemite Valley, California from April 29 to May 2, 1990. The weather in the Yosemite National Park was perfect. The meeting was held just prior to the fires of 1990. There was plenty of water in the falls and everything was beautiful. At the Spring Meeting, the Executive Committee instituted a matching program for fellowship appointments. Updating of the bylaws was also addressed with the goals of standardization offellowships and compliance with fellowship requirements. There are currently 22 approved fellowships, of which ten are two-year programs. We established an Ethics Committee to study issues concerning the use of the Society by the members as an endorsement in various items for their practice use. Other public relations policies were considered in this committee also. Efforts were continued to achieve the listing of the Society's journal, Ophthalmic Plastic and ReconstructiveSurgery in the Index Medicus (MEDLARS). The effort resulted in the acceptance of our journal for indexing in MEDLARS. The subscription cost for the journal was incorporated into the annual dues, reflected in a proportionate increase. A support group for Graves' disease was fonned by patients suffering from Graves' disease. ASOPRS members that were appointed to the Advisory Board included Clinton McCord , Bernice Z. Brown, and Robert Waller. The Annual Fall Meeting was held at the Westin Hotel in Atlanta and was attended by over 500 people. The Society implemented program changes necessary to fulfill the requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), thus maintaining full CME accreditation. We also established channels for ongoing input concerning recertification in continuing education with an appointment of a member to the committee dealing with that. In 1990, the membership rose to 276 individuals including 17 new members . The Placement Committee, chaired by Gerald Harris, was established to help Society members find placement. Also during this year, we noted that the American Board of Ophthalmology announced cessation of lifetime Board certification. Beginning in 1992, ten-year certificates were to be instituted which will require recertifi cation every ten years. There may be a choice to be recertified as a general ophthalmologist or a subspecialist. lnitial discussions were begun by Richard Carroll on the concept of producing a 25th anniversary history of the ASOPRS.

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Fie. 124. Bernice Z. Brown, MD, President 1990

ARTHUR S. GROVE, JR., MD

President1991 The first ASOPRS meeting which I attende"d was held in 1972 in Dallas, while I was a fellow with Drs. Crowell Beard and Marvin Quickert. Although the Society was just three years old at that time, I remember being impressed by the quality of the presentation s and the camaraderie of the member s. In the two decades that have passed since then, the ASOPRS has grown in size and stature. As the membership has enlarged, the informality of those early years has been replaced by an organization with increasing responsibilities. Fortunately, the Society's educational qualities have been enhanced and the friendships have persisted. By the time I assumed the Presidency in 1991 1 it was apparent that the Society needed a central office with administrative assistance. Therefore , a special LongRange Planning Committee chaired by Dr. Jay Older was appointed. A management group was subsequently selected and now function s to aid the Executive Committee and help with Society meetings. The original Society bylaw s had been modified over twenty years, but they did not reflect some of the current needs and realities of the Society. The Executive Committee, along with Ors. Jim Hargiss and George Buerger, completely revised the bylaws during a series of meetings including an entire weekend marathon session in Chicago. Among the most important changes in the bylaws were the addition of the Secretary of Education to the Executive Committee, the inclusion of former international members into full fellowship, and the expansion of the Nominating Committee to five members. The Education Committee was given

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increased responsibilitie s with enlarged membership. A Directory Committee was established and chaired by Chris Fleming, which produced a pictorial direct ory of Society members. I continue to be encouraged by the strength and growth of the Society, and am thankful for the enthusiastic support which is given by the members .

JOHN A. BURNS, MD

President1992 1992 was a transition year for ASOPRS . The organization was strengthened by the addition of a new Executive Committee position, Secretary for Education , and the administration of the organization improved by the hiring of the first full-time staff organization. It was also the initial year of the major upheaval in Medicare reimbursement and the birth of an effective ASO PRS Third Party Reimbursement Committee. In 1992, Perry F. Garber was elected the first Secretary of Education. Prior to this there had been a rapid expansion of educational issues and respon sibilities . The Pre ceptor Committee began meeting on a twice yearly basis and providing the Executive Committee with significant input regarding their problems, desires, and conflicts. The Education Committee comp leted a more formalized oral exam and the written exam was expanded and formalized. At the same time the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education required the Society to formalize the Spring and Fall Scientific Sessions and be more responsive to the needs of the physicians attending these sessions. In addition, the Education Committee was involved in the ongoing effort to appropriate ly evaluate our present fellowships and make recommendations regarding new programs which they felt would be outstanding. At th e time of the bylaws revisions, formalized in 1991, it was felt that supervision of both of these highly involved committees required an Executive Committee member that could be immediately responsive to their needs. The election of Perry Garber and his implem entation of the new bylaws justified the wisdom of the bylaws change, since he did an outstandingjob ofimplementing the coo rdin ation of the committees reporting to him. During 1992 two new publi cation s were provided to the members. David Wilkes completed the writing, layout, graphics, and publi cation of the third ASOPRS educational pamphlet . The initial printing was twice that of the two previous brochures and did allow for personalization by individual members . In the fall, Treasurer -Elect David Reifler handled the distribution of 60,000 brochures from his office. The brochur es quickly sold out, prompting the Society to plan a second printing. In 1991 , Dr . Arthur Grove proposed that the Society publish a directory with membership photos and biographi cal data. This project was comp leted in 1992 by Chris Flemin g and John Van Gernert and forwarded to the membership in the Fall.

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FIG. 125. Arthur S. Grove, Jr ., MD , President 1991

F1G. 126. John A. Bums , MD,

President 1992

In 1991, an Ad-H oc Long R ange Plannin g Committee was formed to assess the future needs of th e Society. Dr. Jay Older chaired the commit tee. After the first meeting their was consensus that th e organization had become so large that it was impo ssible for th e officers to effectively administrate all of the requirem en ts on a day-to-day basis. They proposed that a management firm be hir ed to provide record keeping and cor respond ence service for the organizatio n . The Executive Committee co nsidered potential candidat es at the Spring meeting , individ ually interviewed a select group of four at the Fall meeting, and in December 1992 hired the Crow-Segal manag eme nt firm of Winter Park, Florida to provide this, and probable additional services starting in January 1993. Prior to 1992, Medi care had be en a reasonably stable and predictable govern ment agency for medicine to interact with. On January 1, 1992, an RBR VS system was implemented by th e H ealth Care Finance Admini stration (H C FA) wit h the expected turmoil associated with a new gove rnment program . Prior to 1992 , ASOPRS had a Third Party Reimbursement Com mitt ee which had served littl e purpo se and essentially consisted of a single individual, the chairman . By February 1992, it be cam e obviou s that ASOPRS would have a great deal of dialogue with the Ameri can Academy of Ophthalmology and H CF A regarding reimbursement issues. David Reifler rapidly expanded his committe e to six outstanding indi viduals, all with extensive experience in reimburs eme nt issues, and developed ext remel y close ties with th e Am erican Academ y of Ophthalmology to develop lines of comm uni catio n with H CF A and support the socioeconomic needs of ASOPRS.

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The committee gene rated thousands of pages of correspondence with the American Academy of Ophthalmology and HCFA and attended at least three separate meetings organized by the Ameri can Academy of Ophthalmology regarding reimburseme nt issue s. At the Fall Executive Co mmittee Meeting, two new two-year fellowships were approved. The new Pr eceptors were John D. Bullock, MD, Clinical Profe ssor and Chairman, Department of Ophthalm ology , Wright State University , and George B. Bartle y, MD , Chairman, Department of Ophthalmology, M ayo Clinic, Ro chester, Minne sota.

ALBERT HORNBLA SS, MD

President, 1993 I becam e President of the ASOPRS at a time when medicine was und ergoin g tremendo us convulsion s. With political promise s of health care reform , there was a conce rted attack up on medi cine and physicians, especially subspecialists like ophthalmic plastic surge ons. Mu ch of my year was spent defending oursubspecialty in both medical circles as well as with government agen cies. Fortunately , my prede cessor, John Bum s, had left the ASOPRS in excellen t shape. I also had a wonderful team wo rking for me. I found that being on the Executive Com mittee for the previous four years before my presidency prepar ed me well for the task at hand. It was a wo nd erful privilege and an honor to serve. Th e Society began th e yea r in excellent financial shape and its assets continu ed to grow . Da vid R eifler , as Trea surer , did a superb j ob obtaining du es. Due to our excellent financial position, I attempted to provide additional services to ou r membership. This included greater educatio nal resources and public relations efforts to enhance our progress. A Public Informati on Committee, chaired by Mi chael Patipa and David Wilke s, dev elope d pamphlets for medi cal professionals as we ll as for lay people, and a ne w Society logo to includ e on our stationery and educational materials. Under Edwin Augu stat, we cont inued to have an excellent scientific/ informational exhibit at the 1993 AAO Annual Me eting . Th e publi cation of this 25-yea r Anni versary B ook and Society sponsorship of th ejournal, OphthalmicPlastic and ReconstructiveSurgeryalso have both endurin g scientific and inf orm ational value. These many initiatives in educating our colleagues and the public are essential in enhan cing our position as th e ph ysicians respo nsible for eyelid and orbital disease. Our Society grew to 333 memb ers during 1993 and it is conti nuin g to grow. W e en tered into a con tract with a professional association management firm and initiated ou r new exec utive offices in Winter Park, Florida to handle many of the adminis trative and functional duties of th e Society. Barbara Beatty became our Executive Director. We became centralize d which assisted our Executive Secretary, Mi chael Callahan, in processing fellowship applications. I beli eve th at thi s professional relationsip will imp rove the efficiency of our Society. I was pleased to have presided ove r two exem plary meetings in 1993. In Jun e, 105 members at-

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F1G. r 27. Alben Homb lass, MD , President 1993

tended our Spring M eetin g at the Sagamore H otel at Lake George in Bolton' s Landing , New York. The weather was fabulous and Chris Fleming did an excellent job on the scientific program. We had thr ee days of scientifi c presentations, and panel discussions we re h eld on opti c nerve decompression and laser lacrimal surgery. Socioeconomic programs were held on managed care and C PT co ding. D rs. Gavaris, Goldberg and Schaefer directed the Golf and T ennis tournaments and over I 25 spouses and childre n attended and enjoyed the resort. Ralph Wesley organized the Fall M eeting at th e Fairmont Hot el in Chicago, Illinois. The largest atte nd ance (600 person s) in ASOPRS history was recorded. Mi chael Hawes arranged a fabulous scien tific program that was lively and we llpaced. J ack Ro otman was our featured speaker on orbital inflamm atory diseases and was outstanding. The pape rs at the meeting were timely and well-presented. The Archive s Committee, chaired by Paul Gavaris, had produced the first video in the Society's "Founding Fathers Series" that featured Dr. Alston Callaha n and this was present ed at the meeting. During 1993, th e ASOPRS con tinu ed to have active involvement in the AAO Instru ction Pro gram and we are vigoro usly planning for 1994. Represented by John Harrin gto n and David R eifler, the ASOPRS also participated in the new sub specialty section of the AAO Co un cil. With the assistance of the C PT / Third Party Relations Committee , chaired by David Reifler , we participated with the Academy in C PT coding changes and communicated abo ut relativ e work values and th e Medi care fee schedule to the H CFA. In an effort to help our membership furth er deal with new trend s in health care, I fom1ed an ASOPR S M anaged Care Commi ttee headed by Joe Arterberry and

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Douglas Gossman. Jim Karesh chaired our Practice Opportunity Committee, thus providing a matching service for available positions. As Secretary of Education, Perry Garber developed a manual on Rules and Regulations concerning fellowships. Twenty fellowships matched under our Category I fellowship program. The match was sponsored by the National Resident Matching Program. Yet Category II fellowship programs continued to proliferate. Our strict supervision offellowship programs therefore was limited by these programs which were out of our system. However, our system of written and oral examinations, with its continued updating, and the high standards maintained by our Thesis Committee continue to assure that the highest caliber physicians among Categories I and II applicants will achieve Society membership. In 1993, the Thesis Committee, chaired by Robert Small, accepted ten theses. Overall, thirteen new fellows were inducted into the Society. Our newer and more senior fellows will benefit from our membership directory that is being updated by John Woog. Our sense of identity and cohesiveness can only be enhanced by this 25-year Anniversary Book. I am very pleased with my appointment of David Reifler as Editor-a very good choice indeed. As we enter the Silver Anniversary of the Society, I am pleased that George Paris will be our President. The next 25 years will see a different society as we adjust to national health care needs. A survey was taken of ASOPRS Fellows to determine how well the Society was performing--and we fared very well. Our challenge in the coming year will be in the direction of training and preparation of oculoplastic surgeons. It is imperative that we fully assessour nation 's needs for quality medical care and to adapt our fellowship program to meet these needs. This is the task before us. Should we have one-year or two-year fellowship programs? Should more or less fellows be trained? The debate will help our Society grow stronger. I am continually amazed at the quality and energy of our membership. I applaud the present stand of our Society members and urge the Society to focus on this issue as we come together in 1994 and prepare for the challenges of the next 25 years. I look forward to my new role as Chairman of the Advisory Committee. My year as President was a great year for me. I repeatedly urged our members to take pride in our profession. We should be proud of the incredible work we do in restoring vision and facial constru ction. We must use this same talent and our pride in our profession to provide improved vision to our politicians in an effort to protect our patients' freedom of choice and their access to subspecialties. I thank God for bestowing good health , my wife Bernice and my children, David, Moshe, and Elana, for their patience and love. I thank the Society members for their help and allegiance. May we continue to go from strength to strength.

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Chapter 13 THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE OF THE ASOPRS PerryF. Garberandjohn A . Burns

The stated purpose of the American Society of Ophthalmi c Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) is " to advance education, research and the quality of clinical practice in the fields of Plastic and Re constructive Surgery involving the eyelids, orbits and lacrimal system." Originally , ophthalmologists who sought to obtain further training in this field spent three to six months with one or more of the senior oculop lastic surgeons in this country-John Wheeler , Wendell Hughe s, Crowell Beard , Alston Callahan, Charles Iliff,or Byron Smith. After the establishment of the ASOPRS, a more formal system of training was instituted. In 1973, during the presidency of Charles Beyer , Richard Tenzel and Robert Wilkins proposed that a committee be established to evaluate ophthalmi c plastic surgery training programs. The Executive Committee appointed Ri chard Tenzel as chairman of an Ad Hoc Committee on Fellowship Training. The Ad Ho c Committee communicated with the American Medical Association (AMA) Re sidency Review Committee regarding the establishment of formal fellowship training programs in oculoplastic sur gery. Presented to the Executive Committee at the 1973 Fall Meeting, Dr . Tenzel's report reco mmended th at pro spec tive fellowship programs should apply directly to the AMA for approval. Fellow ship s were to be a minimum of six months in duration. The pr ecep torships existing at that time included those of Drs . Crowell Beard , Charles Beye r, Alston Calla han, J oseph Hill , Charles Iliff, Gerard Shannon , Byron Smith, Orkan Stasior, Richard Tenzel and Rob ert Wilkin s. The Education Committee was established in 1974 by Pre sident Robert Wilkins. It was called the Continuing Education Committee with James H argiss serving as chairm an and John Wobig serving as assistant chairman. The Committee suggested that the Society, not th e AMA , should grant approval to the fellowship s. The minimum req uirements for fellowship training were established including training programs of twelve months duration. The Education Committee filed an application with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medi cal Education to obtain Continuing Medi cal Education (C ME) credits for the ASOPRS programs. In the fall of 1974, an AMA survey team reviewed th e Scientific Symposium of the Annual Fall Meeting . Impr essed with th e quality of the me eting and presentations (having commented that it was full of "vigor and enthusiasm"), they granted accreditation. Thu s, the 1975 Scientific Symposium was the first ASOPRS meeting to receive AMA Category-I CME credits.

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Between 1974 and 1978, the first new fellowships were appro ved-those of Henry Baylis, Robert Dryden,John Simonton/Byron Smith, David Soll, Clinton M cC ord , Allen Putterman, and Ri chard Dortzba ch . In 1976, Earl Rathbun and Bernd Silver were appointed to the Ed ucation Committee to work with Chairman Jame s Hargiss. The procedure was modified so that members of the Society desiring to establish fellowships applied directl y to th e Execu tive Committee. Bernd Silver (Fig. 128) was appointed chairman of the Continuing Ed ucation Co mmitte e in 1977.John Burns joined th e Committee in 1979 and became co -chairman in 1981. It was during their terms as co-c hairmen of the Education Committee that mo st of the criteria for fellowships and entry requi rement s into the Society were established. During the 1978 presidency of Da vid Soll, the function of the Edu cation Commi ttee was expanded and the requi rements for an approved fellowship program were formulated and distributed. The new requirements stipulated that the pre ceptor must be a member of th e Society and must have practi ced oculoplastic surgery for five years. The preceptor 's practice had to predominantly involve oculoplastic surgery and had to be able to provide fellows with a wide exposu re to clinical disorders of th e eyelid, orbit and lacrimal system. Precept ors had to have an academic affiliation , research facilities and availability of a medical library and photogr aphy . In addition, a multi-di sciplinary experien ce with exposure to anatomy, radiology, pathology, dermato logy, oto laryngology, plastic surgery, neurosurgery , etc. were necessary. Orbital dissection and pathology rotation were also required. The fellow ship was for a one- year period , with a minimum volume of 250 cases per year, 50 of which had to be performed by the fellow. The role of the Edu cation Committee was expanded to encompass two additional areas-r eview of the existing fellowship programs, and preparation of an oral examination to be given to applicants for membership into the Society . In the fall of 1979, the first oral examination was given unde r the directorship ofJoseph Flanagan . In 1981, during Bernd Silver's tenure as Chairman of the Ed ucatio n Com mittee , John Burns was appoint ed Co-chairman in charge of the oral examinations. By intr odu cing a standard set of questi ons as a guideline for all the examiners , the oral examination became more formal and equitable. In 198 3, th e Executive Co mmitte e instru cte d the Edu cation Commi ttee to give a writ ten examination to the Society applicants at the F....!.l M eeting. The first written examination was given by Frank Sutula in 1984 in Atlant a. That same yea r, President Ri chard Carro ll developed a fellowship evaluation questionnaire to be co mplet ed by all graduating fellow s. In 1985, an Ad Ho c Co mmit tee chaired by Arthu r Grove made numerou s recomm enda tion s regardin g th e fellowship pro grams. T hey reco mmend ed that a Fellowship Review Co mmitt ee be created to evaluate applications for new fellowship s and present them to the Exec u tive Committee. The Ad H oc Committ ee also recommen ded th at no upp er limit should be placed on the numb er of

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F1G. 128. Bernd Silver, Education Committee Chairman 1978-1988 .

training programs, however, only the programs that provide the highest quality of training would be considered for approval. The criteria for an approved training program were outlined. Society members were encouraged to organize highquality training programs and apply for Society approval, not to conduct unapproved training programs. The Committee further advised that all programs be reviewed every five years and those that were found deficient be placed on a one-year probation . In addition, only one fellow could be trained by a preceptor in any given year. These functions were eventually incorporated into the responsibilities of the Education Committee. Perry Garber was appointed to the Education Committee in 1986, where he joined Frank Sutula in making up and administering the written examinations. Over the course of the next three years, the examination changed from essays to a short-answer type of examination where que stions were contributed by numerous members of the Education Committee. The examination became more co mprehensive, encompassing anatomy, anesthesia, and pathology, as well as clinical oculoplastic and orbital surgery. After more than a decade of service in charge of the Education Committee , Bernd Silver retired as co-chairman at th e end of 1987 and John Burns assumed the position of full chairman of the committee in 1988 . At that time , there were 20 approved oculoplastic training programs. A record number of 37 candidates sat for the written and oral examinations. The Committee formulated and distributed a questionnaire to graduating fellows to review the existing fellowships. Since oculoplastic surgery had developed and the subspecialty had been recognized by

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other surgical specialties, the Committee addressed the idea of two-year training programs for the first time. Richard Anderson and William Nunery were the first preceptors to convert their fellowship programs into two-year training programs. The first new two-year fellowship program approved was that of Ralph Wesley in 1989. The Executive Committee encouraged all new training programs to be two years in duration. Reorganizing the Education Committee in 1989, President Clinton McCord appointed Perry Garber as assistant chairman to work with Chairman John Bums. Under the guidance of the Preceptors' Committee, the ASOPRS first implemented a matching program for the Society-approved fellowships with the National Residents Matching Program. The first match took place on May 16, 1990 for positions starting in July, 1991. At this time there were 22 fellowships, I 2 oneyear and 10 two-year programs. Forty-eight applicants participated in the match, and most preceptors obtained their first choice. At the end of 1990, John Burns, having steered the Education Committee for 12 years through controversy and growth, retired from his 10-year chairmanship to become President-Elect of the ASO PRS. President Arthur Grove, Jr. appointed Perry Garber as chairman and Michael Hawes as assistant chairman of the Education Committee in 1991(fig. 129). The functions of the Education Committee expanded to handle all matters of Society fellowships and education. The Committee assumed responsibility for obtaining continuing medical education accreditation and for preparing questionnaires for the Fall and Spring Meetings. The format of the oral examination was fashioned after the American Board of Ophthalmology, utilizing prepared questions with props such as photographs of radiologic studies and pathology slides. In order to perform all of these functions, the Education Committee was divided into numerous subcommittees. One subcommittee is responsible for preparing, administering and grading the written and oral examinations of candidates for membership. Another is responsible for fulfilling the requirements of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. A third subcommittee prepares and reviews the questionnaires filled out by each graduating fellow and by the preceptors every two years. It also reviews applications for new fellowships. In the course of fulfilling its functions, the Education Committee interacts with the Executive Committee, the Preceptor Committee, the Program Committee and the Thesis Committee. During his presidency, Arthur Grove,Jr. devoted much attention to revising the Society's bylaws. Recognizing the involvement of the Education Committee in so many Society functions, the bylaws provided for a new office--Secretary of Education, with a two-year term. The Secretary of Education is Chairman of the Education Committee and a voting member of the Executive Committee. Perry Garber was elected the first Secretary of Education starting in 1992 and Michael Hawes was again appointed assistant chairman. As president in 1992, John Bums was particularly interested in formalizing the educational policies of the Society. He therefore commissioned the Education

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Fie. 129. Education Committee Chairmen and Assistant Chairmen (left to right ): Michael). Hawes; John L. Wobig; James A. Hacgiss; John A. Bums ; and Perry F. Garber. Not pictured: Bernd Silver (see Fig. 128).

Committee to distribute and tabulate an Educational Policy Survey to the membership. Over 90% of the membership responded to the questionnaire. The survey information is being used to establish a set of rules and regulations regarding ASOPRS fellowship programs. The Education Committee has grown from a Continuing Education Committee initially assigned to formalize fellowship training and obtain CME credit for the Society's meetings to a committee responsible for all the educational activities of a burgeoning society. The ASOPRS is respected by ophthalmology and related specialties as an organization with quality fellowships and quality membership. The Education Committee is prepared to continue this tradition through the end of this decade and into the twenty-first century.

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Chapter 14 ASOPRS: THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE George L. Paris

[Editor's note: The ASOPRS is indeedfortunate to have as dedicatedand capablea leaderas GeorgeL. Paris (Fig. 130), the currentASOPRS President.It isfitting that Dr. Parisprefaceshis essay about the present andfuture of the ASOPRS with remembrancesofpersonal events experiencedduring thefounding year of this Society twenty-five yearsago, and ofhis mentor, Dr. CrowellBeard.]

THE PRESENT

As I write this section, I cannot help but reflect to the year 1969 when Dr. Crowell Beard interviewed me for his fellowship. He pointed out that he and the three other preceptors of that time had acquired much of their knowledge of ophthalmic plastic surgery during World War II and had refined it to that date. It was the wish of those preceptors to pass that information on to other ophthalmo logists prior to their retirement. Dr. Beard had one uncompromising prerequisite--that every fellow guarantee that he or she wou ld teach oculoplastic surgery throughout their career. Little could the original preceptors have anticipated the enormous successes of the society they had spawned. At present, the over 300 national and international members of the ASOPRS have earned the tremendous respect of our peers in ophthalmo logy and ourfellow physicians because ofwhatwe do best- EDUCATE! Currently our twenty-eight fellowships are superior and there is major competition for each position. Preceptors invariably produce a person well trained in anatomy, surgical judgement and techniques who almost always pass the difficult oral and written examinations on their first attempt. Theses have added new and in-depth knowledge to our science. The Education Committee, our largest, is comprised of dedicated members who monitor the performance offellowships and advise preceptors on those infrequent occasions when the quality of their program can be improved. ASOPRS members teach in every major medical school in the United States and in many foreign countries. Our scientific sessions have had escalating attendances and serve to update the practicing ophthalmologist in the newest medical and surgical advan ces of our discipline. Our peers admire us because we freely disseminate knowledge and make ourselves available on both a local and national basis to assist them with challenging clinical problems.

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George L. Paris, ASOPRS President. F1G. 130.

During the past few years, three important new committees were formed with a view to expanding our current horizons and contending with the challenges of the future. The Long Range Planning Committee, whose positions are occupied by several past presidents, directed the ASOPRS to a 1993 affiliation with Crow Segal Co. which serves as our executive office. They assist members of the Executive Committee in carrying out their responsibilities and help with the organization of society functions such as the Annual Scientific Symposia and the Annual Spring Meetings. Crow Segal is helping to further improve communications with our membership and finally give us a permanent home base. The Committee on CPT Coding and Third Party Reimbursements has helped clarify the increasingly complex problems of dealing with insurance companies and government agencies. The intricacies of CPT coding are being worked out so that our members can be properly informed regarding which codes are more readily recognized and approved by third party payers and which are appropriate for multiple or complicated procedures. Numerous hour. have been spent explaining the medical and surgical knowledge and abilities required of our specialists to agencies such as the Health Care Finance Administration (HCFA). A relationship has been established with HCFA to facilitate communications in the future. A steady dialogue of information will be forthcoming to continually update the membership with regard to the ever-changing processes of CPT coding and government regulations. In 1993, a long overdue Public Information Committee was formed. They have already begun the challenging task of explaining who we are to our patients and our professional colleagues. Information describing the special training we possess

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and the delicate procedure s we are uniquely qualified to perform will be disseminated via news articles, office literature and media communications. We must do a better job ofletting the medical world know who we are and what we can accomplish, and this committee is enthusiastically undertaking that mission . Clearly, we have over-achieved when judged by the parameters of the original preceptors. Our Society is solid-ethically , educationally, and financially. We are the envy of our ophthalmology colleagues.

THE FUTURE

In terms of what we can control we face a brilliant future. Our membership will have a steady growth of well-trained individuals who will continue to educate . We will acquire a better understanding of anatomy, evaluate different modalities and explore new surgical techniques . Those that are valuable and stand the test of time will be retained and that knowledge disseminated . Preceptorships will continue to flourish and cautiously grow as deserving new ones are evaluated and approved . We will soon be recognized as a surgical subspecialty society by the American College of Surge ons. However, in many aspects we face a very uncertain future---a redundancy to be sure--the future is always uncertain . Unfortunately, external for ces-regulation by federal and state governments as well as stringent and often unfair prior authorization demands by insurance companies, HM O 's and PPO' s-may prevent us from giving the very finest care to our patients and curb the incentives which have stimulated growth and knowledge . Many of our members have a guarded optimism or even a fear of the future for oculoplastic surgery and medicine in general . If and when difficult times occur , we would do well to follow the advice of Dr . Robert Loeb, former Bard Professor of Medicine at Columbia University , which may be paraphrased as follows : Recall the altruistic reason s when you the young, bright, dedicated and achieving individual chose a career in medicine . Continue to work toward and excel in those lofty ideals which brought you to your current successful position in life and the future will allow you to grow and thrive as will our beloved ASOPRS!

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Appendix

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1994 ASOPRS MEMBERSHIP AND COMMITTEE R O STER S David M . R eifler and Barbara Fitz G erald-Beatty

PART I. FELLOW S OF TH E ASOPR S

[Editor's note: A s ofJanuary 1, 1994, the Society's roster of333 Fellows consisted of300 dues-paying Fellows, 27 Uf e Fellows, and 6 H onorary Fellows. In p reparing the.final revisions to this book, Society Fellows and the ophthalmologic community at large were struck with the news ofthe passing of Wendell L. Hughes, who died on February 1 o, 1994. In addition to Dr. Hughes, the names ofall individuals who were Fellows ofthe Society at the time oftheir deaths appear in memoriam as a preface to the cu" ent membership roster. For all cu" ent and past members, the years of entry as a Fellow ofthe ASOPRS and years ofservice as Officer or A dvisor are also listed. The Society's archived minutes were considered authoritative in resolving discrepanciesbetween other sources in detem1ining the year ofentry as a Fellow ofthe ASO PR S. 71ie ASO PR S Bylaws defines a Charter Fellow as having been a member prior to, or at the time of, the fi rst annual meeting ofthe Society held on October 11, 1969. Some certificates of membershipfo r Charter Fellows were issued in 1970. A chronological listing ofOfficers, Advisors, and membership transitions isfound in App endix 2. A comprehensive listing ofSociety sp onsored Preceptors (positions requiring approval ofthe Executive Committee) has been compiled by Drs. Pm y Garber and J ohn B urns and is presented as Appendix 3. The authors apologize fo r m ata that have been inadvertently published and suggest that Fellows fo rward co" ections to the ASOPR S Ard1ives Commitee, care of the Society 's Executive Office.]

IN MEMO RIAM

R aynold N . Berke , MD (190 1-1986) Charter and Ufe Fellow (1969) Carroll W. Brownin g, MD (19 16- 1992) Fellow (1974), Life Fellow (1983) J. Gordon Co le, MD (1908-1 984) Charter Fellow (1969), Life Fellow (1980) John S. Crawfo rd, MD (19 13-1990) Charter Fellow (1969), Vice President (1973) Sidney A. Fox, MD (1898- 1983) Charter and Life Fellow (1969)

1 99 4

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2 11


Deane C. Hartman, MD (1908- 1973) Charter Fellow (1969) Sanford D . Hecht, MD (1932-19 87) Fellow (1970) Wendell L. Hughe s, MD , ScD (Hon ) Charter Fellow and Life Fellow (1969), President (1969-1970)1 Advisor (1971-1986) Lester T. J one s, MD (1894- 1983) Charter and Life Fellow (1969)1 Ad visor (197<>1971) Marvin H . Qui ckert, MD (1929-1974 ) Charter Fellow (1969), President Elect (1974) Albert D . Ruedem ann , Sr., MD (1897-1 97 1) Charter and Life Fellow (1969) Gerard M . Shann on , MD (1924-1 98 1) Charter Fellow (1969) Byron C. Smith, MD (1908-1 990) Charter Fellow (1969), Ad visor (197<>-19 79), Vice President (1980) Edmund B . Spaeth, MD (1890-19 76) Charter and Life Fellow (1969) AC T IVE FELLOWS

Jam es L. Adams, MD Fellow (1992) Gary L. Aguilar, MD Fellow (1980) N orman C. Ahl , MD Fellow (1979) Ri chard L. Ande rson, MD Fellow (1976), Vice President (1988} Ri chard C. Angrist, MD Fellow (1986) Kathle en F. Archer, MD Fellow (1990) J oe F. Art erberry, MD Fellow (1988) Ed win C. Augu stat, MD Fellow (1975) Peter H . Ballen , MD Charter Fellow (1970), Life Fellow (1991) Ni cholas J. Barn a, MD Fellow (1992) Geo rge B. Bartley, MD Fellow (1991) H enry I. Baylis, MD Charter Fellow (1970), Program Chairman (1976) 1 Vice President (1983)

2 12

A PPEND

IX

ONE


Crowell Beard , MD Charter Fellow (1969), Vice-President(1979), Advisor (1972-1982), Life Fellow (1990) Randall Beatty, MD Fellow (1992) Bruce B. Becker, MD Fellow (1989) Edward H . Bedrossian ,Jr. , MD Fellow (1985) Ross S. Benger, MD InternationalFellow (1988), Fellow (1991) James E. Bennett, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Life Fellow (1980) Donald J. Bergin, MD Fellow (1985) A. Jan Berlin , MD, Charter Fellow (1969), Secretary(1977-1978), PresidentElect (1981), President (1982), Advisor (1983-1992) Craig E. Berris, MD Fellow (1979) F. Dean Berry , MD Fellow (1990) Thomas A. Bersani, MD Fellow (1989) Todd L. Beyer, DO Fellow (1989) Charles K. Beyer-Machule, MD Founding Fellow (1969), President-Elect (1972), President (1973), Advisor (19741981), Life Fellow (1993) Brian S. Biesman , MD Fellow (1993) David W . Bishop, MD Charter Fellow (1969) Martin Bodian, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Life Fellow (1988) Milton Boniuk, MD Fellow (1972) Gary E. Borodic, MD Fellow (1992) Stephen L. Bosniak, MD Fellow (1980) Bert Bowden, MD Fellow (1992) James R. Boynton, MD Fellow (1976) Alvin H. Brackup , MD Charter Fellow (1970)

19

94

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R. Larry Brenner, MD Fellow (1974) Glen 0. Brindley, MD Fellow (1980) Bernice Z. Brown, MD Fellow (1976), Executive Secretary(1984-1985), PresidentElect (1989), President (1990), Advisor (1991- ) George F. Buerger , Jr., MD Founding Fellow (1969), Assistant Secretary(1970), Secretary(1971-1972), Executive Secretary(1973-1975), President-Elect(1976), President(1977),Advisor (19781987) Frank V. Buffam, MD Fellow (1976) John D. Bullock, MD Fellow (1975) John A. Bums, MD Fellow (1975), ProgramChairman (1986), Treasurer(1987-1988), Vice-President (1990), President-Elect (1991), President(1992), Advisor (199J-) Kenneth V. Cahill, MD Fellow (1987) N. Branson Call, MD Fellow (1980) Alston Callahan, MD CharterFellow (1969), Advisor (1970-1973), Life Fellow (1992) Michael A. Callahan, MD Fellow (1979), Executive Secretary(1992-1993) Charles B. Campbell III, MD Fellow (1982) Thomas E. Campbell, MD Fellow (1973), Life Fellow (1983) Timothy P. Carey, MD Fellow (1991) Richard P. Carroll, MD Fellow (1975), ProgramChairman (1979), Executive Secretary(1980-1981), President-Elect (1983)Presiderit(1984),Advisor (1985-1994) Mont J. Cartwright, MD Fellow (1993) Mark A. Cepela, MD Fellow (1991) Jack Chalfin, MD Fellow (1979) Devron H. Char, MD Fellow (1982) Richard M. Chavis, MD Fellow (1985)

214

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O NE


William P. Chen, MD Fellow (1981) Jonat han D. Chris tenbury, MD Fellow (1988) Frank H . Christensen, MD Fellow (1982) Murray D. Christianson, MD Fellow (1981) W. Andrew Cies, MD Fellow (1977) Daniel J. Caden, MD Fellow (1992) M arc S. Cohen, MD Fellow (1991) Harvey P . Cole III, MD Fellow (1993) J. Richard 0. Collin, FRCS ,DO Fellow (1977) Howard Conn, MD Fellow (1987) Stephen T. Conway, MD Fellow (1980) Scott M. Corin, MD Fellow (1989) Philip L. Custer, MD Fellow (1985) Roger A. Dailey, MD Fellow (1990) Robert D. Deitch, MD Charter Fellow (1969) Robert C. Della Roc ca, MD Fellow (1975) Arthur G. DeVoe, MD Fellow (1974), Life Fellow (1982) James B. Dickson, MD Fellow (1988) Peter J. Dolman, MD Fellow (1992) Richard K. Dortzbach, MD Fellow (1973), ProgramChairman (1977), Secretary(1987-1988), Vice President (1993), President-Elect(1994) Timothy W. Doucet, MD Fellow (1981) Marcos T. Doxanas, MD Fellow (1982)

I

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Steven C. Dre sner , MD Fellow (1990) Rob ert M . Dryden , MD , Charter Fellow (1969), Program Chaim,an (1974), Treasurer (1975- 1976), President Elect (1978), President (1979), Ad visor (1980-1988} Kathleen Du erksen, MD Fellow (1993) Jo nathan]. Dutton , MD, PhD Fellow (1983) Jeffrey P. Edelstein , MD Fellow (1987) Jani ce E. Eggert, MD Fellow (1989) Ira Eliasoph, MD Fellow (1976) Victor M . Eln er, MD , PhD Fellow (1989) Gil A. Epstein , MD Fellow (1980) Steven Fagien, MD Fellow (1991) Stuart R . Farris, MD Fellow (1993) R oc ko M . Fasanella, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Life Fellow (1990) William Fein , MD Fellow (1973) Kenn eth A. Feldman, MD Fellow (1991) Morris Feldstein, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Life Fellow (1991) D ouglas P. Felt, MD Fellow (1986) John R . Finlay, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Life Fellow (1994) Joseph C. Flanagan, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Program Chainnan (1980), Secretary (1981- 1982), PresidentElect (1984), President (1985), Ad visor (1986- ) J ame s C. Fleming , MD Fellow (1980), Program Chairman (1994) L. N eal Freeman , MD Fellow (1990) Bartley R . Frueh , MD Fellow (1972), Secretary (197:r1974), President-Elect (1975), President (1976), Ad visor (1977-19 86)

216

APPENDIX

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Dennis J. Galbraith, MD Fellow (1985) Peny F. Garber, MD Fellow(1981),SecretaryefEducation(1992--1993), ExecutiveSecretary(199.,-1995) Paul T. Gavaris, MD Fellow (1977), ProgramChairman (1990) Craig E. Geist, MD Fellow (1990) Steven M. Gilbard, MD Fellow (1990) Michael P. Gingold, MD Fellow (1993) Geoffrey J. Gladstone, MD Fellow (1992) Herbert J. Glatt, MD Fellow (1990) Arthur T. Glover, MD Fellow (1987) Robert A. Goldberg, MD Fellow (1989) Sam Goldberger, MD Fellow (1992) Russell S. Gonnering, MD Fellow (1982) M. Douglas Gossman, MD Fellow (1986) John D. Griffiths, MD Fellow (1990) Neil D. Gross, MD Fellow (1991) Arthur S. Grove, Jr. MD Fellow (1973), Treasurer(198J-1984), Executive Secretary(198~1987), PresidentElect (1990), President(1991),Advisor (1992-- ) Carmen Guberina, MD Fellow (1984) Kurt W.L. Guelzow, MD Fellow (1978) Pierre Guibor, MD Fellow (1971) Conrad K. Hamako, MD Fellow (1977) James L. Hargiss, MD Charter Fellow (1969), ProgramChairman (1978) John N. Harrington, MD Fellow(1975),Secretary(1991), SecretaryefMeetings(1992), VicePresident(1994)

I

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Gerald J. Harris, MD Fellow (1982), Treasurer(1991-1992) John T. Harv ey, MD Fellow (1988) Weldon E. Havins, MD Fellow (1982) Michael J. Hawes, MD Fellow (1980), Program Chaimian (1993), Secretaryof Education (1994-1995) J. Timothy H effernan, MD Fellow (1991) Eva H . Hewes, MD Fellow (1976) Joseph C. Hill , MD Charter Fellow (1969), Advisor (1970-1971), ufe Fellow (1990) Scott R. Hobson, MD Fellow (1990) R obert J. Hofmann , MD Fellow (1992) John B. Holds, MD Fellow (1989} D onald A. H ollsten , MD Fellow (1988) Albert H ornblass, MD Fellow (1974), ProgramChaimian (1985), Vice President(1989 & 1991), President Elect (1992)1 President(1993)1 Advisor (1994- ) Susan M. Hu ghes, MD Fellow (1982) John W. Hun eke, MD Charter Fellow (1970) Kenneth]. Hyd e, MD Fellow (1992) Charles E. fliff, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Advisor (1970-1977), Vice President(1977), Life Fellow (1983) Ian T . Jackson, MD H onorary Fellow (1990) Steven T. Jackson, MD Fellow (1982) Carl C. Johnson, MD C harter Fellow (1969), Advisor (1970-1976), Vice President (1976), Life Fellow (1987) Ira S. Jon es, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Vice President(1978), Life Fellow (1994) David R. Jordan, MD Fellow (1989)

218

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O NE


David A. Kahanic, MD Fellow (1992) Sara A. Kaltreider, MD Fellow (1987) David F. Kamin, MD Fellow (1979) James F. Kapustiak, MD Fellow (1989) James W. Karesh, MD Fellow (1987) Lawrence G. Kass, MD Fellow (1987) James A. Katowitz, MD Fellow (1978), ProgramChainnan (1984), Treasurer(1985-1986), Vice President (1987) Lawrence B. Katzen, MD Fellow (1980) Martin Kazdan, MD Fellow (1973) Michael Kazim, MD Fellow 1991. Robert E. Kennedy, MD Fellow (1975), Life Fellow (1991) Robert H. Kennedy, MD Fellow (1989) Robert C. Kersten, MD Fellow (1985) Guy M. Kezirian, MD Fellow (1992) Jemshed A. Khan, MD Fellow (1988} Don Osami Kikkawa, MD Fellow (1993) Man K. Kim, MD Fellow (1988) Roger Kohn, MD Fellow (1978) Burton Krimmer, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Life Fellow (1982) Ronald W. Kristan, MD Fellow (1987) Jan W. Kronish, MD Fellow (1989) Thomas M. Kropp, MD Fellow (1988)

1994

ASO PRS

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2 19


Dwig ht R . Kulwin, MD Fellow (1980) Sco t E. Lance, MD Fellow (1990) James Langh am, MD Fellow (1973), Treasurer (1977- 1978) Francis G. LaPiana, MD Fellow (1978) D avid C. Lam ed, MD Fellow (1990) Lewis Laurin g, MD Fellow (1974) M artin L. Leib, MD Fellow (1991) Steven Leibowitz, MD Fellow (1986) J oel M . Leibsohn , MD Fellow (1977) Bradley N . Lemke, MD Fellow (1980), Program Chaim1an(1991) C harles R . Leo ne, Jr ., MD Charter Fellow (1970), Secretary (1975-1976)1 Vice President (1982) Alan M. Lessner, MD Fellow (1992) Peter S. Levi n, MD Fellow (1993) Mark R . Levine, MD Fellow (1974), Executive Secretary (1982-1983}1 President-Elect (1985)1 President (1986), Adv isor (1987- } R obert E . Levine , MD Fellow (1980) J ohn V . Linber g, MD Fellow (1986) Jack V. Lisman, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Life Fellow (1991) Ri chard D . Lisman, MD Fellow (1984) Gary S. Lissner, MD Fellow (1980) D on Liu, MD Fellow (1981) Edw ard L . Liva, MD Charter Fellow (1970), Life Fellow (1992) J ohn A. Long , MD Fellow (1989)

220

APPENDIX

O NE


Virginia Lubkin, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Life Fellow (1990) David B. Lyon, MD Fellow (1990) Rodney W. McCarthy , MD Fellow (1980) Clinton D . McCord, Jr., MD CharterFellow (1969), ProgramChairman (1981), President-Elect(1988), President (1989), Advisor (199<r ) Joan E. McFarland, MD Fellow (1987) John]. McGetrick, MD Fellow (1984) Daniel L. McLachlan, MD Fellow (1979), ProgramChairman (1988},Executive Secretary(199<r1991) Elizabeth Maher, MD Fellow (1992) Charles S.G. Maris, MD Charter Fellow (1969) Alfred C. Marrone , MD Fellow (1977) John L. Martin,Jr., MD Fellow (1990) Ronald T. Martin, MD Fellow (1991) Thomas R. Mather , MD Fellow (1989) Joseph A. Mauriello, Jr., MD Fellow (1983) Marlon Maus, MD Fellow (1993) Frederick A. Mausolf, MD Fellow (1975) Murray A. Meltzer, MD Charter Fellow (1969) Franck MeronkJr., MD Fellow (1979) John C. Merriam, MD Fellow (1989) Dale R. Meyer, MD Fellow (1990) Michael E. Migliori, MD Fellow (1990) Gordon R. Miller, MD Charter Fellow (1970)

I 994

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221


Fay E. Millett, MD Charter Fellow (1969), VicePresident(1981) Arthur L. Millman , MD Fellow (1989) Robert B. Mondshine, MD Fellow (1981) James L. Moses, MD Fellow (1978) Richard S. Muchnick, MD Fellow (1978) John W. Murrell, MD Fellow (1992) John C. Mustarde, MD Honorary Fellow (1979) Amin M . Nasr, MD Fellow (1992) John M . Nassif, MD Fellow (1991) Thomas C. Naugle , MD Fellow (1981) Christine C. Nelson, MD Fellow (1987) Eric R. Nelson, MD Fellow (1991) Jeffrey A. Nerad, MD Fellow (1989) Frank A. Nesi, MD Fellow (1991) Russell W. Neuhaus , MD Fellow (1982) Frank W. Newell, MD Fellow (1971), Life Fellow (1991) Ernst Nicolitz, MD Fellow (1978) Narieman A. Nik, MD Fellow (1986) Thaddeus S. Nowinski, MD Fellow (1987) William R . Nunery, MD Fellow (1980), ProgramChairman (1987), Secretary(198~1990) M argaret F. Obear, MD Founding Fellow (1969), Secretary(1970), President-Elect(1971), President(1972), Advisor (1973-1974), Life Fellow (1974) Robert O'Dair, MD Fellow (1981) Hugh N. O'Donoghue, MD InternationalFellow (1983), Fellow (1991)

222

APPENDIX

O NE


Karnes H. Oestreicher, MD , FRCS(C) Fellow (1991) William N. Offutt, IV, MD Fellow (1992) J. Justin Older, MD Fellow (1975), Secretary(198;-1984}, President-Elect(1986), President(1987}, Advisor (1988- } James C. Orcutt, MD Fellow (1987} George L. Paris, MD Fellow (1974), Secretary(1985-1986}, Treasurer(1989-1990), Vice President (1992), President-Elect(1993), President(1994) Robert C. Pashby, MD Fellow (1978} Michael Patipa, MD Fellow (1982} James R. Patrinely, MD Fellow (1987} Robert B. Penne, MD Fellow (1991) Kevin I. Perman, MD Fellow (1986} Arthur C. Perry , MD Fellow (1978} Richard L. Petrelli, MD Fellow (1978} Guillermo Pico, Sr. MD Honorary Fellow (1977) William J. Pidde, MD Charter Fellow (1969) Jack Pincus, MD Fellow (1973) Jeffrey C. Popp, MD Fellow (1984) Steven G. Pratt, MD Fellow (1982) James P. Pressly, MD Fellow (1978} Polly A. Purgason, MD Fellow (1992) Allen M. Futterman, MD Fellow (1973), Executive Secretary (1978-1979), President-Elect(1980), President (1981},Advisor (1982-1991) Lawrence H. Quist, MD Fellow (1992) Gary T. Raflo , MD Fellow (1981}

19 94

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CO MMITTEE

ROSTERS

22]


Bruce R . Rams ey, MD Fellow (1971) J . Earl Rathbun , MD Fellow (1973), Treasurer (197~1980 ), President-Elect (1982), President (1983), Advisor (1984- 1993) Merrill J. Reeh, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Advisor (1970-1974), Vice-President (1975) David M. Reifler, MD Fellow (1985), Treasurer (199:r 1994) Howard S. Reitman, MD Fellow (1976) Charles D . Ri ce, MD Fellow (1992) I. Rand R odgers, MD Fellow (1991) Rene S. R odriguez-Sains , MD Fellow (1992) Janet L. Roen, MD Fellow (1983) Peter A. Rogers , MD International Fellow (1971), Fellow (1991), Life Fellow (1993) Jo seph]. R oss, MD Fellow (1990) Robert Rub enzik, MD Fellow (1975) Mark C. Ru chman , MD Fellow (1982) Peter J. Sakol, MD Fellow (1991) Guillermo Salcedo, MD Fellow (1992) David H. Saunders, MD Fellow (1977) David E. Savar, MD Fellow (1978) Arthur J. Schaefer, MD Fellow (1973), Secretary{197~ 1980), Vice President (1985), President-Elect (1987), President (1988), Advi sor (198~ ) Daniel P. Schaefer, MD Fellow (1988) John J. Schietrom a, MD Fellow (1988) Robert A. Schimek, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Life Fellow (1991) David R . Segrest, MD Fellow (1983)

224

APPENDIX

O NE


Stuart R . Seiff, MD Fellow (1986} Deborah D. Sherman, MD Fellow (1992) Carl S. Shibata, MD Fellow (1981} John W . Shore, MD Fellow (1982), ProgramChairman (1992) Norman Shorr, MD Fellow (1976) Frank T. Shotton, MD Fellow (1981} Ron a Z . Silkiss, MD Fellow (1988} Dani el Silva, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Vice President (1974), Life Fellow (1987) Bernd Silver, MD CharterFellow (1969), Vice President (1984} Robert A. Silver, MD Charter Fellow (1969) John T. Simonton, MD Fellow (1973), Life Fellow (1992) David]. Singer, MD Fellow (1973) Hamp son A. Sisler, MD Fellow (1971) Rob ert G. Small, MD Fellow (1972) Barry R . Smith, MD Fellow (1992) John W . Snead, MD Fellow (1979) David B. Soll, MD Charter Fellow (1969), Program Chairman (1975), President-Elect (1977), President (1978) Thomas C. Spoor , MD Fellow (1987} George 0. Stasior, MD Fellow (1993) Ork an George Stasior, MD CharterFellow (1969), President-Elect (1970), President (1971), Advi sor (1972-1973) Mary A. Stefanyszyn, MD Fellow (1988} Charles M. Stephen son , MD Fellow (1975), Vice President (1986)

1994

A SO PR S MEMBER SHI P

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225


Christopher Stephenson, MD Fellow (1992) William B. Stewart , MD Fellow (1978), ProgramChaim1an (1983), Executive Secretary(1988-1989) John H. Sullivan, MD Fellow (1975) R . Toby Sutcliffe, MD Fellow (1983) Francis C. Sutula , MD Fellow (1979) Victor Syracuse, MD Fellow (1976), Life Fellow (1980) Myron Tanenbaum , MD Fellow (1987) Ri chard R . Tenzel , MD Charter Fellow (1970), Treasurer(1973-1974), President (1975), Advisor (19761983), Life Fellow (1991) Daniel]. Town send , MD Fellow (1991) David T. T se, MD Fellow (1982) John V. Van Gernert, MD Fellow (1985) Everett R . Veirs, MD Honorary Fellow (1980) Angela Veloudio s, MD Fellow (1992) Kenneth P. Vestal, MD Fellow (1991) Lars M . Vistnes, MD Honorary Fellow (1978) Robert R. Waller , MD Fellow (1977), Program Chainnan (1982) William L. Walt er, MD Fellow (1973) Gary S. Wein stein , MD Fellow (1989) S. Joseph W einstock , MD Fellow (1981) Robert A. Wei ss, MD Fellow (1993) Mi chael G. Welsh, MD Fellow (1988) Ralph E. Wesley, MD Fellow (1979), ProgramChaim,an (1989), Secretaryof Meetings (199.r 1994)

226

APPENDIX

O NE


Linton A. Whitaker, MD H onoraryFellow (1984) William L. White, MD Fellow (1992) Eugene 0. Wiggs, MD Fellow (1973), Treasurer(1981-1982) T. David I. Wilkes, MD Fellow (1982) Robert B. Wilkins, MD Founding Fellow (1969), Treasurer(1970-1972), President-Elect(1973), President (1974), Advisor (1975-1984) Martha C. Wilson, MD Fellow (1992) Joh n L. Wobig, MD Fellow (1974), Executive Secretary(1976--1977), President-Elect(1979), President (1980), Advisor (1981-19 89) Ted H. Wojno, MD Fellow (1983) Darrell E . Wolfley, MD Fellow (1982) John]. Woog,MD Fellow (1986) John Wright, MD InternationalFellow (1978), Fellow (1991) Allan E. Wulc, MD Fellow (1986) Rex A. Yannis, MD Fellow (1993) John G. Yassin, MD Fellow (1973) R. Patrick Yeatts, MD Fellow (1991)

PART II. 1994 ASOPRS COMMITTEE ROSTER

AAO Councillors Councillor:]. Justin Older, MD Alternate: Rona Z. Si/kiss, MD AAO Instruction Course Committee Chairmar1:Gerald]. Harris, M .D. AAO Joint Program Committee Chairman:Jonathan]. Dutton, MD Ted H. Wojno, MD AAO Research, Regulatory Agencies and Federal Systems Committee Chairman: Bernice Z. Brown, MD

1994

AS OPRS

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AND

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227


Advisory Board Chairman: Albert Hornblass, MD Bernice Z. Brown, MD John A. Burns, MD Richard P. Ca"oll, MD Joseph C. Flanagan, MD Arthur S . Grove,Jr., MD Mark R. Levine, MD Clinton D.McCord , Jr. , MD ]. Justin Older, MD Arthur]. Schaefer, MD Archives Committee Chairman: Paul T. Gavaris, MD James W . Karesh, MD Ralph E. Wesley, MD Lawrence G. Kass, MD Edward H. Bedrossian, Jr . MD David M. Reifler, MD (Honorary member) Awards Committee Chaimian: Bradley N. Lemke, MD Robert C. Della Rocca, MD James Katowitz, MD Budget Committee Chaim1an: David M . Reifler, MD Ralph Wesley, MD Perry Garber, MD Leonard Pepe, CPA, Consultant Barbara Beatty, Executive Director Bylaws Committee Chainnan: Daniel L. Mclachlan, MD Co- Chainnan: Jam es L. Hargiss, MD James R. Boynton, MD Gary L. Aguilar, MD CPT / Third Party Relations Committee Chaim1an: David M. Reifler, MD Jeffrey P. Edelstein, MD Ronald W. Kristan, MD Arthur C. Perry, MD Dale R. M eyer, MD Deborah Sherman, MD Daniel]. Townsend, MD Gary S. Weinstein, MD Directory Committee Chainnan: John Woog, MD John V. Van Gernert, MD Michael Patipa, MD

228

APPENDIX

ON E


Education Committee Chairman: Michael Hawes, MD Kathl een F. Archer, MD Thomas A. Bersani, MD Kenneth V. Cahill, MD William P. Chen, MD Steven C. Dresner, MD Robert Goldberg, MD Russell S. Gonnering, MD Scott R. Hobson, M . D . Donald A. H ollsten, MD Jemshed A . Khan, MD Jan W . Kronish, MD Martin L. Leib, MD Bradley N. Lemke, MD John V. Linberg, MD Joseph A. Maun"ello, Jr ., MD Murray A. M eltzer, MD Russell W. Neuhaus, MD James C. Orcutt, MD I . Rand Rodgers, MD Janet L. Roen, MD Daniel P. Schaefer, MD David R . Segrest, MD Gary S. Weinstein, MD

Ethics Committee Co-Chairman: Bartley R. Frueh, MD Co-Chaim1an: Charles R. Leone, Jr ., MD Perry F. Garber, MD Neil D . Gross, MD Robert E. Levine, MD

Exhibit Committee Chairman: Edwin C. Augusta!, MD Paul T. Gavaris, MD John B. Holds, MD Susan M. Hughes, MD Robert C. Kersten, MD Jeffery A . Nerad, MD Russell Neuhaus, MD Polly Purgason, MD Myron Tanenbaum, MD

Governmental Relations Committee Co-Chairman: Paul T. Gavaris, MD Co-Chairman: David M. Reifler, MD

Journal Committee Chairman: Bernice Brown, MD

1994

ASOPRS

MEMBERSHIP

AND

COMMITTEE

ROSTER

S

229


Charles K. Beyer-Machule, MD ]. R . 0 . Collin, I'-RCS Richard K. Dortzbach, MD David R. J ordan, MD Sara A. Kaltreider, MD David B . Lyon , MD Alfr ed C. Marrone, MD Christine Nelson, MD ].Ju stin Older, MD Kevin I. Pem1an, MD Jeffrey Popp, MD Jan et L. Roen , MD Charles M. Stephenson, MD Myron Tanenbaum, MD R. Patrick Yeatts, MD

Long-Range Planning Committee Chaimian:]. Ju stin Older, MD J ohn A. Bum s, MD Alb ert Hombl ass, MD Richard P . Carroll, MD Bartley R. Frueh, MD ]. Earl Rathbun , MD

Manang ed Care Committee Co-Chaimian: J oe F. Arterberry, MD C o-C hairman: M . Doug las Gossman, MD

Nominating Co mmittee Chairman.Albert H omblass, MD Gil A . Ep stein, MD Eva H . H ewes, MD John N. Harrington, MD Bradley N. Lemke, MD

Practice Opportunity Committee Chaimian: Jam es W . Karesh, MD

Pre ceptor Committee Ch aim1an:J ohn W ob(g, MD R ichard L. Anderson, MD George B . Bartley, MD H enry L. Baylis, MD John D. Bullock, MD R obert C. Della R occa, MD Ri chard K. D ortz bach, MD R obert M . Dryd en, MD Jonathan]. Dutt on, MD J oseph C. Flanagan, MD Bartley R . Frueh, MD

2)0

APPEND

IX

ONE


Arthur S . Grove,Jr ., MD Gerald]. Harris, MD Alb ert Hornblass, MD Jam es A . Katowitz, MD Martin S. Kaz dan, MD Jeffery A . N erad, MD William R. Nun ery, MD Allen M . Putterman, MD Stuart R. Seif[, MD John W. Sh ore, MD No rman Sh orr, MD Orkan George Stasior, MD David T. T se, MD Ralph E . W esley, MD R obert B . Wilkin s, MD Darrell E. Wolfley, MD Program Committ ee Chairman: James C. Fleming, MD A ssistant Chairman: Rob ert A. Goldberg, MD John N. Harrington, MD Mi chael]. Hawes, MD Public Infom1ation Committee Chairman: M ichael Patipa, MD As sistant Chairman: Th omas C. Naugle, MD Frank H . Christensen, MD Scott M. C orin, MD Steven C. Dresner, MD Gil A. Epstein, MD Michael Kaz im, MD Dw ight R. Ku/win, MD David B. Ly on, MD Dale R. M eyer, MD J ohn W . Shore, MD N orman Sh orr, MD C harles M . S teph enson, MD T hesis Co mmitt ee C hairman: K enneth V. Cahill, MD Secretary: Rob ert G. Small, MD R oger A . Dailey, MD Jam es W. Karesh, MD Christine C. N elson, MD T we nty -fifth - Y ear Anni versa ry B oo k C ommitt ee C hairman: Da vid M. R eifler, MD C o-C hairman: Bernice Z. Brown, MD Ri chard P. C arroll, MD

I 99 4

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23 I


James W. Karesh, MD Wendell Hughes Lecture Committee Crowell Beard, MD A. Jan Berlin, MD Allen M . Putterman, MD

232

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Appendix CHRONOLOGICAL

2

LISTING OF OFFICERS, ADVISORS, AND

MEMBERSHIP TRANSITIONS David M. Reifler andJames C. Fleming PART I. CHRONOLOGICAL

LISTING OF OFFICERS

The names of ASOPRS officers as recorded in the Society's minutes, have appeared in the programs of each of the Annual Scientific Symposia. A chronological listing of the officers was published in 1992 in the ASOPRS Membership Directory, prepared byJames C. Fleming with the assistance ofPerry F. Garber and John V. Van Gernert. Further details regarding the development of the Exe cutive Committee may be found in Chapters 2 and 12. As this commemorative book is going to press, a new, 1994 edition of the ASOPRS Membership Directory has just been published by the Society under the auspices of the Directory Committee, chaired by John Woog.

1969

President: Wendell L. Hughes, MD

1970

President: Wendell L. Hughes, MD President-Elect: Orkan George Stasior, MD Treasurer: Robert B. Wilkins, MD Secretary: Margaret F. Obear, MD Assistant Secretary: George F. Buerger, Jr ., MD

1971

President: Orkan Geo rge Stasior, MD President-Elect: Margaret F. Obear, MD Treasurer: Robert B. Wilkins, MD Secretary: George F. Buerger, Jr. MD

1972

President: Margar et F. Obear, MD President-Elect: Charles K. Beyer , MD Treasurer: Robe rt B. Wilkins, MD Secretary: George F. Buerger, Jr., MD

1973

President: Charles K. Beyer , MD President -El ect: Robert B. Wilkins, MD Vice President: John S. Crawford, MD Executive Secretary : George F. Buerger, Jr. MD Treasurer: Richard R. Tenzel , MD Secretary: Bartl ey R . Frueh, MD

CH R O N O LOG I C AL

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ADVI SO R S,

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1974

President: Robert B. Wilkins, MD President-Elect: Marvin H . Quicken, MD Vice President: Daniel Silva, MD Executive Secretary: George F. Buerger, Jr., MD Treasurer: Richard R. Tenzel, MD Secretary: Bartley R. Frueh, MD Program Chairman: Robert M. Dryden, MD

1975

President: Richard R. Tenzel, MD President-Elect: Bartley R. Frueh, MD Vice President: Merrill J. Reeh, MD Executive Secretary: George F. Buerger, Jr., MD Treasurer: Robert M. Dryden , MD Secretary: Charles R. Leone, Jr., MD Program Chairman: David B. Soll, MD

1976

President: Bartley R. Frueh, MD President-Elect: George F. Buerger, Jr., MD Vice President: Carl C. Johnson, MD Executive Secretary: John L. Wobig, MD Treasurer: Robert M. Dryden, MD Secretary: Charles R. Leone, Jr., MD Program Chairman: Henry I. Baylis, MD

1977

President: George F. Buerger, Jr., MD President-Elect: David B. Soll, MD Vice President: Charles E. Iliff , MD Executive Secretary: John L. Wobig, MD Treasurer: James Langham, MD Secretary: A. Jan Berlin, MD Program Chairman: Richard K. Dortzbach , MD

1978

President: David B. Soll, MD President-Elect: Robert M. Dryden, MD Vice President: Ira S. Jones, MD Executive Secretary: Allen M. Putterman, MD Treasurer: James Langham, MD Secretary: A. Jan Berlin, MD Program Chairman: James L. Hargiss, MD

1979

President: Robert M. Dryden, MD President-Elect: John L. Wobig, MD Vice President: Crowell Beard, MD Executive Secretary: Allen M. Putterman, MD Treasurer : J. Earl Rathbun , MD Secretary: Arthur J. Schaefer, MD Program Chairman: Richard P. Carroll, MD

ZJ4

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1980

President: John L. Wobig, MD President-Elect: Allen M. Futterman, MD Vice President: Byron C. Smith, MD Executive Secretary: Richard P. Carroll, MD Treasurer: J. Earl Rathbun, MD Secretary: Arthur J. Schaefer, MD Program Chairman: Joseph C. Flanagan, MD

1981

President: Allen M. Futterman, MD President-Elect: A. Jan Berlin, MD Vice President: Fay E. Millett, MD Executive Secretary: Richard P. Carroll, MD Treasurer: Eugene 0. Wiggs, MD Secretary: Joseph C. Flanagan, MD Program Chairman: Clinton D. McCord, MD

1982

President: A. Jan Berlin, MD President-Elect: J. Earl Rathbun, MD Vice President: Charles R. Leone, Jr., MD Executive Secretary: Mark R. Levine, MD Treasurer: Eugene o. Wiggs, MD Secretary: Joseph C. Flanagan, MD Program Chairman: Robert R. Waller, MD

1983

President: J. Earl Rathbun, MD President-Elect: Richard P. Carroll, MD Vice President: Henry I. Baylis, MD Executive Secretary: Mark R. Levine, MD Treasurer: Arthur S. Grove, Jr., MD Secretary: J. Justin Older, MD Program Chairman: William B. Stewart, MD

1984

President: Richard P. Carroll, MD President-Elect: Joseph C. Flanagan, MD Vice President: Bernd Silver, MD Executive Secretary: Bernice Z. Brown, MD Treasurer: Arthur S. Grove, Jr. MD Secretary: J. Justin Older, MD Program Chairman: James A. Katowitz, MD

1985

President: Joseph C. Flanagan, MD President-Elect: Mark R. Levine, MD Vice President: Arthur J. Schaefer, MD Executive Secretary: Bernice Z. Brown, MD Treasurer: James A. Katowitz, MD Secretary: George L. Paris, MD Program Chairman: Albert Homblass, MD

CHRONOLOGICAL

LISTING

OF

OFFICERS,

ADVISORS,

AND

TllANSITIONS

23 5


1986

President: Mark R. Levine , MD President-Elect: J.Justin Older, MD Vice President: Charles M. Stephenson, MD Executive Secretary: Arthur S. Grove, Jr ., MD Treasurer: James A . Katowitz, MD Secretary: George L. Paris, MD Program Chairman: John A. Burns, MD

1987

President: J. Justin Older, MD President-Elect: Arthur J. Schaefer, MD Vice President: James A. Katowitz, MD Executive Secretary: Arthur S. Grove, Jr. MD Treasurer: John A. Burns, MD Secretary: Richard K. Dortzbach , MD Program Chairman : William R . Nunery, MD

1988

President: Arthur J. Schaefer, MD President-Elect: Clinton D. McCord, Jr. , MD Vice President: Richard L. Anderson , MD Executive Secretary: William B. Stewart, MD Treasurer: John A. Burns, MD Secret ary: Richard K. Dortzbach, MD Program Chairman: Daniel L. McLachlan, MD

1989

President: Clinton D. McCord, Jr., MD President-Elect: Bernice Z . Brown , MD Vice President: Albert Hornblass, MD Executive Secretary: William B . Stewart, MD Treasurer : George L. Paris, MD Secretary : William R. Nunery, MD Program Chairman: Ralph E . Wesley, MD

1990

President: Bernice Z . Brown, MD President-Elect : Arthur S. Grove, Jr ., MD Vice President: John A. Burns , MD Executive Secretary: Daniel L. McLachlan, MD Treasurer: George L. Paris, MD Secretary: William R . Nunery , MD Program Chairman : Paul T . Gavaris, MD

1991

President: Arthur S. Grove , MD President-Elect: John A . Burns, MD Vice President: Albert Hornblass, MD Executive Secretary: Daniel L. McLachlan, MD Treasurer: Gerald J. Harris , MD Secretary: John N . Harrington, MD Program Chairman: Bradley N. Lemke, MD

2 36

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1992

President : John A. Burns , MD President-Elect : Albert Hornblass, MD Vice President : George L. Paris, MD Executive Secretary : Michael A. Callahan, MD Treasurer: Gerald J. Harris, MD Secretary of Meetings: John N . Harrington , MD Secretary of Education: Perry F. Garber, MD Program Chairman : John W. Shore, MD

1993

Pre sident: Albert Hornblass , MD President-Elect : George L. Paris, MD Vice President: Richard K. Dortzbach, MD Executive Secretary : Michael A. Callahan, MD Treasurer: David M . Reifler , MD Secretary of Meetings: Ralph E. Wesley, MD Secretary of Education : Perry F. Garber, MD Program Chairman : Michael J. Hawes , MD Advisory Board Chairman: John A. Burns, MD

1994

President: George L. Paris, MD President-Elect: Richard K. Dortzbach , MD Vice President : John N . Harrington , MD Executive Secretary: Perry F. Garber, MD Treasurer: David M. Reifler, MD Secretary of Meetings : Ralph E. Wesley, MD Secretary ofEducation: Michael]. Hawes, MD Program Chairman: James C . Fleming , MD Advisory Board Chairman : Albert Hornblass, MD

PART II. ADVISORY BOARD MEMBERS

Byron C. Smith , MD Alston Callahan, MD Joseph C. Hill, MD Charles E. Iliff, MD Carl C. Johnson, MD Lester T. Jones, MD Merrill J. Reeh, MD Wendell L. Hughes, MD Orkan G . Stasior, MD Crowell Beard, MD Margaret F. Obear , MD Char les K. Beyer , MD Robert B . Wilkins , MD Richard R . Tenzel, MD

C HR O N O LOG I C AL

LI STI NG

1970-1979 (Chairman 1970-1971) 1970-1973 1970-1971 1970-1977 1970-1976 1970-1971 1970-1975 1971-1986 1972-1973 (Chairman 1972-1973) 1972-1982 1973-1974 1974-1981 (Chairman 1974) 1975-1984 (Chairman 1975) 197<r-1983(Chairman 1976)

OF

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Bartley R. Frueh, MD George F. Buerger , Jr., MD David B. Soll, MD Robert M . Dryden , MD John L. Wobig, MD Allen M. Putterman, MD A. Jan Berlin , MD J. Earl Rathbun , MD Ri chard P. Carroll, MD Joseph C. Flanagan, MD Mark R. Levine , MD J. Justin Older, MD Arthur J . Schaefer , MD Clinton D. McCord , Jr ., MD Berni ce Z. Brown, MD Arthur S. Grove,Jr ., MD John A. Bum s, MD Albert Hornbla ss, MD

PART Ill. CHRONOLOGY

1977- 1986 (Chairman 1977) 1978-19 87 (Chairman 1978) 1979-19 87 (Chairman 1979) 1980-1988 (Chairman 1980) 1981- 1989 (Chairman 1981) 1982-1991 (Chairman 1982) 1983-1992 (Chairman 1983) 1984-1993 (Chairman 1984) 1985- 1994 (Chairman 1985) 1986- (Chairman1986) 1987- (Chairman 1987) 1988- (Chairman 1988) 1989- (Chairman 1989) 1990- (Chaim,an 1990) 1991- (Chaimian 1991) 1992- (Chairman1992) 1993- (Chairman 1993) 1994- (Chairman1994)

O F MEMBER SHIP TRAN SIT IONS

Archived ASOPRS minutes and annual meeting progr ams confirm th e accuracy of the chronologic listing of ASOPRS Officers and Advi sors. However , for th e early years of the Society , some discrepancies in the chronology of entry of new fellows (and other transition s of membership statu s) may be found betwe en th e minute s and th e directory . Sources of in consistencies include th e following: 1.

2.

3. 4.

A list of members prior to or at the time of the first annual m eeting of October l I, 1969 (C harter Fellows as defined in in the bylaws, Articl e II, Section 4) could not be locate d; Certificates of charter membership we re issued to memb ers entering th e Society in 1970; M em bership roster lists for the early years were not available; and Minut es often did not includ e m embership transition s such as terminatio ns and deaths.

During th e years 1970 through 1974, new Fellow s we re accep ted into the Society eith er with or without thesis. Excep tions to a thesis require m ent were made on a case-b y-case basis, but only during the se early years of the Society. T he h ono r of this exce ption given to som e is certainly counterbalanced by th e lauda ble completion of a thesis by others . In the followin g list, this distinction is made o ut of histori cal int erest only. T he authors view the inconsistencies as a natural part of

238

APPEND IX

TWO


a fledgling organization (See Chapter 2). At variance with the current Society Bylaws, subsequent reference to fellows accepted without thesis as Charter Fellows was found in some archived materials of the Society. In the following list, the designation of a Charter Fellow follows that of the Bylaws. The Society membership roster and published directory served as the basis for the chronologies. However, the Society's minutes were given preference in preparing the following list. 1969

Founding Fellows: Charles K. Beyer, MD; George F. Buerger, MD; Thomas Cherubini, MD; Margaret F. Obear, MD; and Robert B. Wilkins, MD. Charter Fellows:Crowell Beard, MD; James E. Bennett, MD; Raynold N. Berke, MD; A. Jan Berlin, MD; David W. Bishop, MD; Martin Bodian, MD; Alston Callahan, MD; John S. Crawford, MD; Robert D. Deitch, MD; Robert M. Dryden, MD; Rocko M. Fasanella, MD; Morris Feldstein, MD; John R. Finlay, MD; Joseph C. Flanagan , MD; Sidney A. Fox, MD; James L. Hargiss, MD; Deane C. Hartman, MD; Joseph C. Hill, MD; Wendell L. Hughes, MD, President; Charles E. Iliff, MD; Carl C. Johnson, MD; Ira S. Jones, MD; Lester T. Jones, MD; Burton Krimmer, MD; Jack V. Lisman, MD; Virginia Lubkin, MD; Clinton D. McCord, Jr., MD; Charles S.G. Maris, MD; Murray A. Meltzer, MD; Fay E. Millett, MD; William]. Pidde, MD; Marvin H. Quicken, MD; Merrill]. Reeh, MD; Albert D. Ruedemann, Sr., MD; Robert A. Schimek, MD; Gerard M. Shannon, MD; Daniel Silva, MD; Bernd Silver, MD; Robert A. Silver, MD; Byron C. Smith, MD; David B. Soll, MD; Edmund B. Spaeth, MD; and Orkan George Stasior, MD.

1970

Charter Fellows (see introductory note): Peter H. Ballen, MD; Henry I. Baylis, MD; Alvin H. Brackup, MD;John W. Huneke, MD; Charles R. Leone, Jr., MD; Edward L. Liva, MD, Gordon R. Miller , MD; and Richard R. Tenzel, MD New Fellow (with thesis):Sanford D. Hecht, MD.

1971

New Fellows:Pierre Guibor, MD; Andrew S. Markovitz, MD; Frank W. Newell, MD; Bruce R. Ramsey, MD; and Hampson A. Sisler, MD. InternationalFellow:Peter A. Rogers, MD. Died: Albert D. Ruedemann, Sr., MD.

1972

New Fellows(without thesis):Angus L. MacLean, MD. New Fellows (with thesis): Bartley R. Frueh, MD; Milton Boniuk, MD; and Robert G. Small, MD.

C HR O N O LOG I C AL

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239


1973

New Fellows: (withoutthesis}: Thom as E . Campbell, MD ;James Langham , MD ; Allen M . Putterman, MD;J. Earl Rathbun, MD ;John T . Simonton , MD ; David]. Singer , MD ; Richard K. Dortzbach, MD ; Martin Kazdan , MD;J ack H . Pincus, MD; and Lowell W . Wilder, MD . New Fellows (with thesis}: William Fein, MD ; Arthur S. Grove, Jr ., MD ; A. Benedi ct Ri zzuti , MD ; Arthur J. Schaefer, MD ; William L. Walter , MD; Eugene 0. Wiggs , MD ; and J ohn G. Yassin, MD. Di ed: Deane C. Hartm an, MD.

1974

New Fellows(withoutthesis}:Carroll W. Browning, MD ; ArthurG . D eVoe, MD; Albert D . Ruedemann , Jr ., MD; William Carroll, MD. New Fellows (with thesis):R . Larry Brenner , MD; Albert Hornblas s, MD ; Gerald Tennant , MD ; Lewis Lauring, MD; George L. Paris, MD;John L. Wobig , MD . Life Fellow: Margaret F. Obe ar, MD. D ied: Marvin H. Qui ckert, MD .

1975

New Fellows: Edwin C. Augu stat, MD ; John D. Bullock, MD ; John A. Bum s, MD ; Ri chard P. Carroll, MD; Rob ert C. Della Ro cca, MD ;John N. Harrington, MD; Robert E. Kennedy, MD ; Frederick A. Mausolf, MD ;J.Justin Older, MD; R obertRub enzik , MD; CharlesM. Stephenson, MD ; andJ ohn H. Sullivan, MD .

1976

New Fellows:Ri chard L. Anderson , MD;James R. Boynto n, MD; Berni ce Z. Brown , MD ; Frank V. Buffam, MD ; Ira Eliasoph , MD; Eva H . H ewes, MD ; H oward S. R eitman , MD; Norman Shorr , MD; and Victor Syracuse, MD . Died: Edmund B. Spaeth , MD .

1977

New Fellows:W . Andrew Cies, MD ;J. Richard 0 . Collin, DO , FRCS ; Paul T. Gavaris,MD ; Conrad K Hamako , MD ;Joel M . Leibsohn, MD ; Alfred C. Marrone, MD ; David H. Saunders, MD; and Robert R . Waller, MD . Honorary Fellow:Guillermo Pico, Sr., MD

1978

New Fellows:Kurt W .L. Guelzow, MD;Jam es A. Katowitz, MD; Roger Kohn, MD; Francis G. LaPiana, MD ; James L. Moses, MD ; Ri chard S. Muchni ck, MD ; Ernst Ni colitz, MD ; Robert C. Pashby, MD; Arthur C. Perry , MD; Rich ard L. Petrelli, MD; James P. Pressly, MD; David E. Savar, MD; William B . Stewart, MD; and Christine L. Zolli , MD. International Fellow:John Wright , MD . Honorary Fellow:Lars M. Vistnes, MD .

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1979

New Fellows: Norman C. Ahl, MD; Craig E. Berris, MD; Michael A. Callahan, MD; Jack Chalfin, MD; David F. Kamin , MD; Daniel L. McLachlan, MD; Frank Meronk ,Jr., MD;John W . Snead, MD; Francis C. Sutula, MD; and Ralph E. Wesley, MD. Honorary Fellow:John C. Mustarde , MD. Resigned: Albert D. Ruedemann, Jr., MD.

1980

New Fellows: Gary L. Aguilar, MD; Stephen L. Bosniak, MD; Glen 0 . Brindley, MD ; N. Branson Call, MD; Stephen T. Conway, MD; Gil A. Epstein , MD ;James C. Fleming, MD; Mi chael]. Hawes, MD; Lawrence B. Katzen, MD; Dwight R . Kulwin, MD; Bradley N. Lemke, MD ; Robert E. Levine , MD; Gary S. Lissner, MD; Rodney W. McCarthy, MD; and William R. Nunery, MD . Honorary Fellow: Everett R . Veirs, MD. Life Fellows:James E . Bennett, MD; J. Gordon Cole, MD; and Victor Syracuse, MD.

1981

New Fellows:William P. Chen, MD; Murray D. Christianson, MD ; Timothy W .Dou cet,MD ;PerryF .Garber,MD;DonLiu ,MD;RobertB.Mondshine , MD; Thomas C. Naugle, MD; Robert O'Dair, MD; Gary T. Raflo, MD ; Carl S. Shibata, MD; Frank T. Shotton , MD; andS.Jo seph Weinstock , MD. [HonoraryFellow: Award may not have been presented; listed in symposium program but no further record of recipient uncovered.] Resigned: Thomas Ch erubini , MD . Died: Gerard M . Shannon, MD.

1982

New Fellows: Charles B. Campbell, III, MD ; Devron H . Char, MD; Frank H . Christensen, MD; Marcos T. Doxanas , MD ; Russell S. Gonnering, MD ; Gerald]. Harris , MD ; Weldon E. Havins , MD; Susan M. Hughes, MD; Steven T.Ja ckson, MD; Russell W. Neuhaus, MD; Michael Patipa , MD ; Steven G. Pratt , MD ; Mark C. Ru chman, MD;John W. Shore , MD ; David T. Tse, MD , T. David I. Wilkes, MD; andDarrellE. Wolfle y, MD. Life Fellows:Arthur G. DeVoe, MD; and Burton Krimmer, MD .

1983

New Fellows:JonathanJ . Dutton, MD, PhD;Joseph A. Mauriello ,Jr ., MD; Janet L. Roen, MD; David R . Segrest, MD; R . Toby Sutcliffe, MD; and Ted H. Wojno , MD. InternationalFellows:J. Richard 0 . Collin, DO , FRCS; Hugh N. O'Donoghue, MD. Life Fellows: Carroll W . Browning , MD; Thomas E. Campbell, MD ; and Charles E. Iliff , MD . Died: Sidney A. Fox , MD ; and Lester T. Jon es, MD .

C HR O N OLOG IC AL

L IST IN G

OF

OFF I C ER S,

ADVISORS

,

AND

TR AN S IT I ONS

2 41


1984

New Fellows: Carmen Guberina, MD ; Ri chard D. Lisman, MD ; J ohn J. McGetrick , MD; and Jeffrey C. Popp , MD. Honorary Fellow: Linton A. Whitaker, MD . Died: J. Gordon Co le, MD.

1985

New Fellows:Edward H. Bedrossian,J r., MD ; Donald J. Bergin, MD; Ri chard M. Chavis, MD; Phillip L. Custer, MD; Dennis]. Galbraith, MD ; R obert C. Kersten, MD ; David M. Reifler, MD; and John V. Van Gernert, MD .

1986

New Fellows:Richard C. Angrist, MD; Douglas P. Felt, MD; M . Dougla s Gossman , MD; Steven Leibowitz , MD;John V . Linberg, MD ; Narieman A. Nik , MD ; Kevin I. Perman , MD ; Stuart R . Seiff, MD ;J ohnJ. Woog, MD; and Allan E. Wulc, MD . Resigned: Lowell Wilder, MD. Died: Raynold N . Berke, MD.

1987

New Fellows:Kenneth V. Cahill, MD; How ard Conn, MD ; Jeffrey P. Edelstein, MD ; ArthurT. Glov er, MD ; Sara A. Kaltreider , MD;James W . Karesh, MD; Lawrence G. Kass, MD ; Ronald W. Kristan, MD ;Joan E . ,, McFarland, MD; Christine C. Nel son , MD; Thaddeus S. Nowinski, MD ; Jame s C. Or cutt , MD ;James R. Patrinely , MD; Thom as C. Spoor, MD ; Myron Tanenbaum , MD . Resigned:Gerald Tennant , MD. Life Fellows: Carl C. John son, MD ; and D aniel Silva, MD. Died: Sanford D. Hecht, MD .

1988

New Fellows:Jo seph F. Arterberry , MD ;Jonathan D . Chri stenbury, MD; J ames B. Dickson , MD ;John T. Harvey, MD; Donald A. Holl sten , MD ; Jemshed A. Khan , MD ; Man K. Kim, MD; Thom as M . Kropp , MD ; Daniel P. Schaefer , MD ;JohnJ. Schietroma, MD ; Ron a Z. Silk.iss,MD ; Mary A. Stefanyszyn, MD ; Michael G. Wel sh, MD . New InternationalFellow: Ross S. Benger, MD. Life Fellow. Martin Bodian, MD .

1989

242

New Fellows: Bruce B. Becker , MD ; Thomas A. Bersani, MD; Todd L. Beyer, DO; Scott M. Corin, MD ; Janice E. Eggert, MD; Victor M . Elner, MD , PhD; Robert A. Goldberg , MD;John B. Holds, MD; David R .Jordan, MD ;James F. Kapustiak, MD; Robert H. Kennedy, MD ;Jan W. Kronish, MD ;John A. Long, MD; Thomas R. Mather, MD;John C. Merriam, MD ; Arthur L. Millman, MD;Jeffrey A. Nerad, MD; Gary S. Weinstein , MD.

APPENDIX

TWO


1990

New Fellows:Kathleen F. Archer, MD; Francis Dean Berry, MD; Roger A. Dailey, MD; Steven C. Dresner, MD; L. Neal Freeman, MD; CraigE. Geist, MD; Steven M . Gilbard, MD; Herbert J. Glatt, MD; John D. Griffiths, MD; Scott R. Hobson, MD; Scot E. Lance, MD; David C. Lamed, MD; David B. Lyon, MD; John L. Martin, Jr., MD; Dale R. Meyer, MD; Michael E. Migliori, MD; and Joseph]. Ross, MD. Honorary Fellow:Ian T. Jackson , MD. Life Fellows:Crowell Beard, MD; Joseph C. Hill, MD; Rocko M. Fasanella, MD; and Virginia Lubkin, MD. Died: John S. Crawford, MD; and Byron C. Smith, MD.

1991

New Fellows:George B. Bartley, MD; Timothy P. Carey, MD; Mark A. Cepela, MD; Marc S. Cohen, MD; Steven Fagien, MD; Kenneth A. Feldman, MD; Neil D. Gross, MD;J. Timothy Heffernan, MD; Michael Kazim, MD; Martin L. Leib, MD; Ronald T. Martin, MD ; John M. Nassif, MD; Eric R. Nelson, MD; Frank A. Nesi, MD; James H . Oestreicher, MD; Robert B. Penne , MD; I. Rand Rodgers , MD; Peter J. Sakol, MD; Daniel]. Townsend, MD; Kenneth P. Vestal, MD; and R. Patrick Yeatts, MD. Re-categorizationof InternationalFellowsas Fellows(Change in Bylaws): Ross S. Benger , MD; J. Richard 0. Collin , FRCS; Hugh O'Donoghue, MD; andJohn Wright , MD . Life Fellows:Peter H. Ballen, MD; Morris Feldstein, MD; Robert E. Kennedy, MD; Jack V. Lisman, MD ; Frank W. Newell , MD; Robert A. Schimek, MD; Richard R. Tenzel, MD.

1992

New Fellows:James L. Adams, MD; Nicholas J. Barna, MD; Randall L. Beatty, MD; Gary E. Borodic, MD; Herbert H. Bowden, MD; Daniel]. Coden, MD; Peter J. Dolman, MD; Geoffrey J. Gladstone, MD; Sam Goldberger, MD; Robert]. Hofmann, MD; Kenneth]. Hyde, MD; David A. Kahanic, MD; Guy M. Kezirian, MD; AlanM. Lessner, MD; Elizabeth A. Maher, MD;John W. Murrell, MD; Amin M. Nasr, MD; William N. Offutt, IV, MD; Polly A. Purgason, MD; Lawrence H. Quist , MD; Charles D. Rice, MD; Rene S. Rodriguez-Sains, MD; Guillermo Salcedo, MD; Deborah D. Sherman, MD; Barry R . Smith, MD; Christopher B. Stephenson, MD; Angela Veloudios, MD; William L. White, MD; and Martha C. Wilson, MD. Life Fellows:Alston Callahan, MD ; Edward L. Liva, MD; and John T. Simonton, MD. Resigned:Andrew Markovitz, MD; and Christine L. Zolli, MD. Died: Carroll W. Browning, MD.

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1993

New Fellows:Brian S. Biesman, MD; Mont]. Cartwrig ht , MD; Harvey P. Cole, III; MD; Kathleen Duerksen, MD; Stuart R. Farris, MD; Michael P. Gingold, MD ; Don Osami IGkkawa , MD; Peter S. Levin, MD; Marlon Maus, MD; George 0. Stasior, MD; Robert A . Weiss, MD; and Rex A. Yannis, MD.

Life Fellows:Charles K Beyer-Machule , MD; and Peter A. Rogers , MD 19941

Life Fellows:John R . Finlay, MD; and Ira S.Jones, MD Died: Wendell L. Hughes, MD

' As of June 15, 1994.

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Appendix 3 FELLOWSHIP PROGRAMS: A LISTING OF PRECEPTORS

AND

THEIR FELLOWS

PerryF. GarberandJohn A. Burns Prior to 1969, ophthalmologists received training in oculoplastic surgery by spending 3 to 12 months in preceptorship with experienced surgeons, notably Drs . Crowell Beard , Alston Callahan, Wendell Hughes and Byron Smith. With the founding of the ASOPRS, formal fellowship programs were established to train ophthalmologists in the subspecialty. To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Re constructive Surgery, the following list of ASOPRS- sponsored fellowship programs and fellows has been complied.

PART I. LISTING OF ORIGINAL PRECEPTORSHIPS

AND FELLOWS

The early preceptors of oculoplastic surgery were contacted for a list of the fellows they had trained. As many years have passed and they each trained many people, it is possible that some names have been inadvertantly omitted.

CROWEL L BEARD, MD ( 1968- 1990) SAN FRANCISCO,

CALIFORNIA

AssociatePreceptors: Marvin H. Quickert, MD ; J. Earl Rathbun, MD . Assistant Preceptors: Gary L. Aguilar, MD; Jame s Langham , MD; Stuart R. Seiff, MD ; andJohn H. Sullivan, MD. Fellows:Albert York, MD (1968); Robert Dryden , MD (1969); Rodney Rue, MD (1969);James Langham, MD (1969);]. Earl Rathbun , MD (1970); Brooks Crawford, MD ( 1970); George Paris, MD (1971); Andrew Markovitz, MD (1971); Lewis Lauring, MD (1972); Thomas Hoyle III, MD (1972); Carol Knight, MD (1973); Arthur Grove,Jr., MD (1973); Charles Stephenson, MD (1973);Robert Scharf, MD (1973);Robert Waller, MD (1973);Howard Beale , MD (1973);Bemi ceBrow n,MD (1973);].Justin Older,MD (1974); John Harrington , MD (1974); Richard Muchni ck, MD (1974); Byron Chong, MD (1974); Eva Hew es, MD (1975);John Bullock, MD (1975); John Sullivan , MD (1975); Ri chard Whitten, MD (1976); Daniel Jenkins , MD (1976); Rich ard Anderson, MD (1976); Richard Collin, FRCS (1977); Richard Bensinger , MD (1977); Lowell Schoengarth , MD (1977); Devron

FELL O W SHIP

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PRECEPTORS

ANO

THEIR

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245


Char,MD (1977);Helena Frank, FRCS (1978);RobertPashby, MD (1978); John Snead, MD (1979); Glen Brindley , MD (1980) ;Jo seph Nor eilca, MD (1981); Edward Yavitz, MD (1982); Joe Arterberry, MD (1983); Carl Minatoya, MD (1984); Christine Nelson, MD (1985); Christopher Stephenson , MD (1986); Man Kim , MD (1987);James Ahn , MD (1988); Neal Freeman, MD (1989); Kenneth Vestal, MD (1990); and John Chang, MD (1991).

ALSTON CALLAHAN, MD (1951- 1990), BIRMINGHAM,

ALABAMA

Fellows:John Bond , MD (1952); Larry Calkins, MD (1952);Jame s Robinson,Jr ., MD (1953); KarlAijian,MD (1954); RobertC opeland,MD (1954); George Speakman , MD (1954); R . Bruce Ram sey, MD (1955); William Grant, MD (1956); Donald McKerricher, MD (1956); Kurt Hahn , MD (1957); Angel Terrero, MD (1958);Jorma Castren, MD (1958); Rene Altarirano , MD (1959); Thomas McKenzie , MD (196o); Joseph Amdur , MD (1960); Jose Zubero, MD (1961); Luis Perez, MD (1962); Thoma s Campbell, MD (1963); Donald Chisholm, MD (1963); Robert D eitch, MD (1963); David Bishop, MD (1963); Paul Dubbs, MD (1964); Jack Pin cus, MD (1964); Milorad Milic , MD (1965); Donald Jans en, MD (1965); Martti Leismaa, MD (1966); CharlesLeone,Jr. , MD (1966); RobertBeckoven , MD (1967); Saebert Chamikle s, MD (1967); Richard Dort zbach , MD (1968); Fay Millett, MD, (1968); Robert Wilkins , MD (1969); Howard Reitman , MD (1969); Charles Jone s, MD (1970); Bartley Frueh , MD (1970); David Callister, MD (1971); Thomas Naugle ,Jr. , MD (1971); Frank McGehee , MD (1972); How ard Beale , MD (1972); Samuel Strickland, MD (1973); FrederickMausolf, MD (1973);Ea rlNelson , MD (1974); Edwin Augustat , MD (l 974); Roger Kohn, MD (1975); Monte Holland, MD (1975); Bernice Brown , MD (1975); Michael Callahan, MD (1976); Frank Shotton , MD (1977); and Eric Stillman , MD ( 1990 ).

WENDELL L. HU GHES, MD (1940- 1968), HEMP STEAD, NEW YORK

Fellows(listed alphabetically): Talat Algun , MD; Alvin Brackup, MD ; Peter Ballen , MD ; David Bi shop, MD; J. Gordon Cole, MD; Herman Elwyn , MD ; Regina Gilroy, MD; LeRoy Gray, MD;Joseph Hill, MD; M artin Kazdan, MD; Virginia Lubkin , MD ; Cary Leggett; MD, Charles Mari s, MD ; Hal Maxwell, MD; M arvin Quickert, MD; Terry Ry an, MD ;John Simonton, MD ; Hamp son Sisler, MD; Byro n Smith, MD ; Orkan George Stasior , MD ; and Eyrup Yilsnaz, MD .

246

APPENDIX

THREE


IRAS. JONES, MD (11175-1983) , NEW YORK, NEW YORK

Fellows:Laurence Desjardin, MD {1975);Jean Pierre Lemoine, MD (1977); Gerald H arris, MD (1977); Martin Leib, MD (1980); John Stabile, MD (1981); Kambiz Moazed, MD (1981); George Duncan, MD (1982); and Jeffrey Ne stor, MD (1983). BYRON SMITH , MD ( 1960-1990) NEW YORK, NEW YORK (Information obtained from Dr. Richard Lisman).

Fellows:Margar et Obear, MD; Arthur Schaefer, MD; Peter Rogers , MD; Richard Tenzel, MD (1960); Orkan George Stasior, MD (1960); David Soll, MD (1960); Bernd Silver, MD (1962); A. Jan Berlin , MD (1966); Clinton McCord, Jr. , MD (1967); Henry Baylis, MD (1967); Charles Leone, Jr., MD (1967); Gordon Miller, MD (1967); Jo seph Flanagan, MD (1968); Robert Wilk.ins, MD (1968); Thomas Cherubini, MD (1968);John Bums , MD (1968); Charles Beyer-Machule, MD (1968); Allen Putterman, MD (1968); Robert Small, MD (1969); George Buerger,Jr., MD (1969); Daniel Barr , MD (1969); Eugene Wiggs , MD (1969); Lowell Wilder, MD (1969); Pierre Guibor, MD (197o);John Yassin, MD (197o);John Griffiths, MD (1970); Gerald Hecker , MD (1971);James Langham , MD (1970); Thomas Naugle , MD (1971); Albert Hornblass , MD (1972); Mark Levine , MD (1972); Frederico Serrano, MD (1973); ArthurGrove ,Jr. , MD (1973); Paul Gavaris, MD (1973); Robert Della Rocca , MD (1973); Peter Odell, MD (1974); S.Joseph Weinstock, MD (1975); Perry Garber , MD (1976);James Carty,Jr. , MD (1976); Carmen Guberina, MD (1976); Gerald Harris , MD (1977); Richard Petrelli , MD (1977); Frank Nesi , MD (1977); Steven Conway, MD (1978); Elaine Shulman, MD (1978); Stephen Bosniak, MD (1979); Glenn Jelks, MD (1981); Richard Lisman , MD (1981); Edward Bedro ssian, Jr. , MD (1983); Steven Gilbard, MD (1984}; Donald MacDonald, MD (1985); Philip Silverstone , MD (1986); Brian Arthurs, MD (1987); Kenneth Hyde , MD (1988); John Nassif, MD (1989); Elizabeth Maher , MD (1990); and Ni cholas Barna , MD (1991).

PART II. LISTING OF ASOPRS-SPONSORED

FELLOWSHfP PROG RAMS AND FELLOWS

The goals of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery are to advance education, research and the quality of clinical practice in oculoplastic surgery. Accordingly, the Society has established fellowship training programs, as described in Chapter 13. The following is a list of the fellowships that have been sponsored and the fellowsthat have completed these programs through June 1994.

FELL O W S HIP

PR OGR hM S:

,\

LI ST I N G

OF

PR E C EPT ORS

hND

THEIR

FELL O W S

247


[Editor's note: The cu" ent Rules and R egulations governingSociety-sponsored Fellowship Programs (as adoptedby the Executive Committee December30, 1993) have been distributedto all Society membersas the EducationalProgramManual. This documentis includedamong the Rules and Regulations that have been reproduced in Appendix 9, Part 2, (No. 4).]

RI C HARD L. ANDERSON,

MD (1980- 1984) IOWA C ITY, IOWA; (198 4- )

SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH

Fellows: Fran~ois Codere, MD (1981); David Tse, MD (1982); Drew Dillman , MD (1982);Jonathan Dutton , MD (1983); Gary Weinstein, MD (1983); Robert Kersten, MD (1984);Jeffrey Nerad, MD (1985); Thaddeus Nowinski , MD (1985);James Patrinely, MD (1986); David Jordan, MD (1987);John Holds, MD (1988); William Mcleish, MD (1991); Patrick Flaharty, MD (1992); Bhupendra Patel, MD (1993); and Paul Langer, MD (1994).

GEORGE 8. BARTLEY , MD (1993-

) ROCHE STER , MINNESOTA

Associate Preceptors : Robert R. Waller , MD; and William McLeish, MD.

HENRY I. BAYLIS, MD ( 1974-

) LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

A ssociate Preceptor: Robert A. Goldberg, MD . Fellows:W . AndrewC ies,MD (1975);Norman Shorr, MD (1976); Conrad Hamako, MD (1977); Robert Axelrod, MD (1978); N . Branson Call, MD (1979); Carl Shibata, MD (1980); N achum Rosen, MD (1981); Rus sell Neuh aus, MD (1982); R. Toby Sutcliffe, MD (1983); Kevin Perman, MD (1984); Martin Failor, MD (1985); Mary (Polly) M cKinstry, MD (1986); Rona Silkiss, MD (1987);John Long, MD (1988); Michael Groth, MD (1989); Eri c Nelson, MD (1990); Mart ha Wilson, MD (1991); Laurie McCall, MD (1992); Mark Garbutt , MD (1993); and Stacia Goldey, MD (1994).

CRO WELL BEARD, MD (1968-1990)

SAN FRANCISCO,

CALIFORNIA

A ssociate Preceptors: Marvin Quickert, MD (Dec.), and J. Earl Rathbun, MD. A ssistant Preceptors: Gary L. Aguilar , MD; James Langham , MD; Stuart R. Seiff, MD; and John H. Sullivan, MD . Fellows:Alb ert Yo rk, MD ( 1968); Robert Dryden, MD (1969); Rodn ey Rue, MD (1969);James Langham, MD (1969);]. Earl Rathbun , MD (1970); Brooks Cra wford , MD ( 1970); Andrew Markovitz , MD (1971); George Paris, MD (1971); Lewi s Lauring, MD (1972); Thomas Hoyle III, MD (1972); Arthur Grove, Jr ., MD (1973); Carol Knight , MD (1973); Charles Stephenson, MD (1973); Rob ert Scharf, MD (1973);Bernice Brown , MD (1973);Rob ert

248

APPENDIX

THREE


Waller , MD (1973); H oward Beale , MD (1973);].Justin Older, MD (1974); John Harrington, MD (1974); Richard Muchnick , MD (1974); Byron Chong, MD (1974); Eva Hewes , MD (1975);John Bullock, MD (1975); John Sullivan , MD (1975); Ri chard Whitten , MD (1976); Daniel Jenkin s, MD ( 1976); Richard Anderson, MD ( l 976); Richard Collin, FRCS ( l 977); Richard Bensinger , MD (1977); Lowell Schoengarth, MD (1977); Devron Char,MD (1977); HelenaFrank, FRCS (1978);RobertPashby,MD (1978); J ohn Sne ad, MD (1979); Glen Brindley, MD (198o);Joseph Noreika, MD (1981); Edward Yavitz, MD (1982); Joe Arterberry, MD (1983); Carl Min atoya, MD (1984); Christine Nel son , MD (1985); Christopher Stephenson, MD (1986);ManKim , MD (1987); Nei1Freeman , MD (1989); and Kenneth Vestal, MD (1990).

CHARL ES K. BEYER-MACHULE,

MD (1971-1987) BOSTON , MASSACHUSETTS

Fellows:Roger Kohn , MD (1972);Raymond Rei ch , MD (1973);Joshua Frankel, MD (1974); Bru ce Cassidy, MD (1975); Rodney McCarthy, MD (1976); Harry Kolodn er, MD (1977); Steven Pratt , MD (1978); Miriam Dougherty, MD (1978); Mary Bathrick, MD (1979); Barry Smith, MD (1980); Tony Tyers, MD (1980); Susan Hughe s, MD (1981); R . Patrick Yeatts, MD (1982); Amin Nasr,MD (1982); AmiramShapiro, MD (1983);Dan Townsend, MD (1984); Thoma s Berard , MD (1985); and Stephen Sameshima, MD (1986).

JOHN D. BULLOCK, MD (1993-

ROBERT C. DELLA ROCCA, MD (1986-

) DAYTON, OHIO

) NEW YORK, NEW YORK

Assodate Preceptors: Rich ard D . Lisman, MD ; and Murray A. Meltzer , MD . Fellows: Bryan Arthurs , MD (1987); KenHyde , MD (1988);JohnNassif, MD (1989); Elizabeth Maher, MD (1990); Nicholas Barna, MD (1991); David Nelson , MD (1992); Mark Weiner, MD (1993); and Leslie Sims, MD (1994).

RI C HARD K. DORTZBACH, MD (1978-

) MADISON, WISCONSIN

Assodate Preceptors: Bradley N . Lemke , MD; Ru ssell S. Gonnering, MD ; and David B . Lyon , MD . Fellows: FrancisSutul a, MD (1979);Mich aelH awes, MD (198o); Russell Gonnering , MD (1981); David Segrest, MD (1982); John McGetrick , MD (1983); Richard Angrist, MD (1984); John Woog , MD (1985); Sara Kaltreider , MD (1986); VictorElner,MD (1987);JanKronish,MD (1988);DavidLyon, MD (1989); George Stasior , MD (1990); Deborah Sherman, MD (1991); DonKikkawa,MD (1992);JosephShovlin, MD (1993); and Roberta Gau sas, MD (1994).

fELLOW

SHIP

PROGRAM

S:

A LISTING

Of

PRECEPTOR

S

AND

T HEI R

fELL OW S

249


JONATHAN J. DUTTON, MD, PhD (19in-

) DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA

Fellows:Holly Barbour, MD (1993).

ROBERT M. DRYDEN, MD (197r

) TUCSON, ARIZONA

Fellows:Kurt Guelzow, MD (1975); Stephen Byars, MD (1976); Joel Leibsohn , MD (1977); Arthur Perry, MD (1978); Frank Meronk, MD (1979);James Fleming, MD (1980); Marcos Doxanas , MD (1981); David Wilkes, MD (1982);Jeffrey Popp, MD (1983);James Adams, MD (1984); Allan Wulc, MD (1985); Jeffrey Edelstein, MD (1986); Todd Beyer, DO (1987); Thomas Mather, MD (1988); Joseph Ross, MD (1989); David Kahanic, MD (1991); Joel Meyers, MD (1992); Peter Wong, MD (1993); Perry Waggoner, MD (1994).

JOSEPH C. FLANAGAN, MD (196s,

); GERARD SHANNON, MD (DEC .)

PHILADELPHIA, PENN SYLVANIA

Fellows:John Yassin, MD (197o);RobertWhite ,Jr.,MD (1971); lgnatiusHneleski , Jr., MD (1972); Herbert Greenwald, Jr ., MD (1973); Jean-Claude Pilet, MD (1974); Christine Zolli, MD (1975); John Negrey, Jr., MD (1975); Gerald Cullen, MD (1976); Rutheva Dizon Moore, MD (1976); David Saunders , MD (I 977); Ernst Nicolitz , MD (1978), Daniel Mclachlan, MD (1979); Gary Aguilar , MD (1980); Ch arles Campbell , III , MD (1981); Mark Ruchman,MD (1982);JosephMauriello,Jr.,MD (1983);MaryStefanyszyn, MD (1984);DavidLarned,MD (1985); Daniel Schaefer, MD (1986);Jame s Dickson, MD (1987); George Alter, MD (1988); Robert H . Kennedy, MD (1989); Robert Penne, MD (1990); William Bigham, MD (1991); Robert Mazzoli , MD (1992); Andrea Hass, MD (1993); and Peter Sneed , MD (1994). BARTLEY R. FRUEH, MD (1983- ) ANN ARBOR , MICHIGAN

AssociatePreceptors:Christine C. Nelson, MD; and Victor M . Elner , MD . Fellows:Douglas Felt, MD (1984); Ross Benger, MD (1985);James Ka pustiak, MD (1986); Thomas Bersani, MD (1987); Scott Hobson, MD (1988); Kamel Itani, MD (1989);James Oestreicher, MD (1990); Mont Cartwright, MD (1992); and Angela Perry , MD (1994). ARTHURS.

GROVE, JR., MD (1984- ) BOSTON, MASSACHU SETTS

AssociatePreceptor:John J. W oog, MD. Fellows:Steven Leibowitz, MD (198 5); Arthur Glover , MD (1986);J emshed Khan, MD (1987); Craig Geist, MD (1988); Richard Palu, MD (1989); Rand 2$0

APPE ND IX

THREE


Rodgers, MD (1990); Marlon Maus, MD (1991); William Whi te, MD (1992); Stuart Farris, MD (1993); and Clifton Slade, MD (1994);

GERALD J. HARRI S, MD (1987-

) MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN

Fellows: Jani ce Eggert , MD (1988); Randall Beatty, MD (1989); Peter Sako!, MD (1990); Peter Dolman , MD (1991); and Robin D eans, MD (1993).

ALBERT HORNBLASS, MD ( 1982- ) NEW YO RK , NEW YORK

Fellows:Brian Herschorn , MD (1983); Da vidReifler , MD (1984); CarlHanig, MD (1985); Larry Kass, MD (1986); Neil Gross, MD (1987); Mi chael Gingold, MD (1988); Daniel Coden, MD (1989); Mi chael Loeffler, MD (1990); Polly Purgason , MD (1991); Joseph Eviatar, MD (1992); Brian Biesman, MD (1993); and Kip Dolphin, MD (1994).

JAME S A. KATOWITZ, MD (1984- ) PHILADELPHIA , PENNSYLVANIA

Fellows: Thomas Kropp, MD ( 1985); Michael Welsh, MD (I 986); Donald H ollscen, MD (1987); Peter Fries, MD (1988); Michael Kazim , MD (1989);Kenneth Piest, MD (199o);Jill Foster, MD (1991);Joanne Low , MD (1992); Lawrence Handl er, MD (1993); and Katrinka H eher, MD (1994).

MARTI N KAZDAN, MD (1965- ); AND JOSEPH HILL, MD (EMERITU S) TORON TO, ONTARIO,

CANADA

AssociatePrecept ors: S. Joseph Weinstock , MD ; R obert C. Pashby, MD ; John T. Harvey, MD; and James H. Oestreicher, MD . Fellows:Y. Dayall, MD (1966); Kullhe sthr a, MD (1967); David Rodrique , MD (1970); Ray Noble , MD (1972); Richard Apt, MD (1975); Walter Bethel , MD (1976); Norman Ahl, MD (1977); David Savar, MD (1978); Gary Lissner, MD (1980); GaryRaflo , MD (1981); Timothy Dou cet,MD (1981); TedRo senstock,MD (1982); Nari emanNik , MD (1983); Denni s Galbraith , MD (1984); Richard Weise, MD (1985); Steve Mishkin, MD (1986); Kathle en Archer, MD (1987); Scott Corin,MD (1988); Angela Veloudios, MD (1989);MichaelAshenhurst,MD (1990); Sam Goldberger , MD (1991); Conrad Kavalec, MD (1992); David Cowen, MD (1993); and Sajeev Katchuia, MD (1994).

CLINTON D . M cCORD, JR. , MD (1977-19 88) ATLANTA, GEORGIA

Fellows: Jim Moses , MD (r978);Ralph Wesley , MD (1979);WilliamNunery , MD (1980); William Chen, MD (1981);John Shore, MD (1982);Jim Putn am,

FELLOWS

HI P

PR.OGR.AMS:

A

LI STIN G

OF

PR.ECEPTOR.S

AND

THEIR.

FELLOWS

25 I


MD (1983); Don Bergen, MD (1984); Douglas Go ssman , MD (1985); Myron Tanenbaum, MD (1986); Robert Weiss, MD (1988).

JEFFREY A. NERAD, MD (1992-

), IOWA C ITY , IOWA

Fellow: Ronan Conlon, MD (1994).

WILLIAM R. NUNERY, MD (1987-

) INDIANAPOLI S, INDIANA

AssociatePreceptor:Ronald T. Martin , MD . Fellows: Ronald Martin , MD (1989); Mark Cepela, MD (1991); and Grant Heinz, MD (1993).

ALLEN M. PUTTERMAN,

MD ( 1977-

) CHI CAGO, ILLINOI S

Fellows:Jack Chalfin, MD (1978); Robert Mondshine, MD (1979); Gil Epstein, MD (198o);LanyKatzen,MD (1981);FrankChristensen,MD (1982);James Karesh, MD (1983); Geoff Gladstone, MD (1984); David Fett , MD (1985); Arthur Millman , MD (1986); Michael Migliori , MD (1987); Steve Fagien , MD (1988); Herb Glatt, MD (1989); Ken Feldman , MD (1990); Gideon Schneck, MD (1991);Jean Olson, MD (1992); Albert Cytryn, MD (1993); and Zachary Klett , MD (1994).

STUART R. SEIFF, MD ( 1991- ) SAN FRANCISCO, C ALIFORNIA

AssociatePreceptors: Gary L. Aguilar, MD; Devron H. Char, MD;J. Earl Rathbun , MD; andjohn H . Sullivan, MD. Fellow: William Meecham , MD (1993).

JOHN W. SHORE, MD ( 1992- ) BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS

Fellow: Jurij Bilyk, MD (1994).

NORMAN

SHORR,

MD (1983- ) BEVERLY HILLS, CALIFORNIA

Fellows:J oel Kop elm an, MD (1984); StuartSeiff , MD (1985);JoanM cFarland, MD (1986);Jonathan Christenbury, MD (1987); Rob ert Goldberg, MD (1988);

252

APPENDIX

THREE


Alan Lessner, MD (1989); Marc Cohen, MD (1990); Herbert Bowden.Jr., MD (1991); Yoash Enzer, MD (1992); Cynthia Boxrud, MD (1993); and Kenneth Steinsapir, MD (1994).

JOHN T. SIMONTON,

MD, ( 1975- 1986) NEW YORK, NEW YORK

Assodate Preceptors: Byron C. Smith, MD; and Robert C. DellaRocca, MD. Fellows:Perry Garber , MD (1976); Steve Conway, MD (1978); Stephen Bosniak, MD (1979); Richard Lisman, MD (1981); EdwardBedrossian, MD (1983); Steven Gilbard , MD (1984); Donald MacDonald, MD (1985); and Philip Silverstone, MD (1986).

DAVID B . SOLL, MD (1976- 1980, 1993-1994 ) PHILADELPHIA, PENN SYLVANIA

Fellows: Alfred Marrone, MD (1977); Fred Schwarze, MD (1979); Mustapha Shayegan , MD (1980); and Stephen Soll, MD (1994).

ORKAN G. STASIOR, MD (1972- ) ALBANY, NEW YORK

Fellows:Larry Stewart , MD (1972); Richard Apt, MD (1973); Claude Warren , III, MD (1973); Robert Della Rocca, MD (1974); Douglas Rampona, MD (1974);]. WynnJacobs,MD (1975);RichardAnderson , MD (1975);Bradley Lemke , MD (1980); Don Liu, MD (1981);JanetRoen, MD (1982);Donald Cerise, MD (1983); Elliot Korn, MD (1984); Ronald Kristan, MD (1985); Kenneth Kesty, MD (1986); Paul Rosenberg, MD (1987); John Bortz, MD (1988); Guy Kezirian, MD (1989); Kathleen Duerksen, MD (1991); and David Turock, MD (1993).

RICHARD

R . TENZEL, MD (1971-1990 ) MIAMI, FLORIDA

Fellows:Mark Levine , MD (1971); William Stiles, MD (1971); Howard Bruckner, MD (1972); William Nevins, MD (1973); FrankBuffam, MD (1975);James Boynton, MD (1976); William Stewart, MD (1976); Earl Kidwell, MD (1977); Murray Christianson, MD (1979); Vincente Alcarez , MD (1980); Howard Conn, MD (1981); Ted Wojno , MD (1982); Philip Custer , MD (1983); Warren Stout, MD (1984); John Schietroma, MD (1985); John Martin, MD (1986);]. Timothy Heffernan, MD (1987); Danny Kim , MD (1988); and David Tenzel, MD (1989).

FELL O W SHIP

PRO G RAM S :

A

LI STIN G

OF

PRE C EPT O R S

AND

THEI R

FELL O W S

253


DAVID T. TSE, MD. (1990-

) MIAMI, FLORIDA

Fellow: Steve Gilberg, MD (1992).

RALPH E. WESLEY, MD (1989-

) NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE

Fellows:Patrick Tiedeken, MD (1990); Harvey Cole, III , MD (1992); and Brant Murphy (1994).

ROBERT B. WILKINS, MD (1972-

) HOUSTON,

TEXAS

Fellows:Alan Baum, MD (1973); Richard Carroll, MD (1974); William Hanco ck, MD (1975); KurtGuelzow , MD (1976); Dennis Tibble, MD (1976);James Pressly, MD (1977); Gerard Hunter, MD (1978); Dwight Kulwin, MD (1979); Craig Berris, MD (1980); Mi chael Patipa, MD (1981); Weld on H avins, MD (1982); James Merritt, MD (1983); Steven Laukaiti s, MD (1984); William Byrd, MD (1985); Jeffrey Hofman , MD (1986); Walter Murrell, MD (1987); Paul Garland, MD (1988); Rex Yannis, MD (1989); Scott Lance, MD (1990); Timothy Carey, MD (1991); Brian Wong , MD (1992); Richard Urso, MD (1993); and Amyia Prasad, MD (1994).

JOHN L. WOBIG, MD (1988- ) PORTLAND, OREGON

AssociatePreceptor:Roger A. Dailey, MD . Fellows:Roger Dailey, MD (1989); Dale Meyer , MD (1990); Daniel Dale , MD (1991); Diana Habrich, MD (1992); Grant Gilliland, MD (1993); and Lloyd Hildebrand, MD (1994).

DARRELLE.

WOLFLEY, MD ( 1990-- ) NEW HAVEN, CONNECT ICUT

AssociatePreceptor:Richard L. Petrelli, MD. Fellow: Geva Mannor , MD (1993).

254

APPENDIX

THREE


Appendix 4 ANNUAL FALL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIA David M. Reifler

Since the establishment of the ASOPRS, the Annual Scientific Symposia of the Society (Table 4) have been held close to the dates of the Annual Fall Meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) (Chapter 2). The First Annual Scientific Symposium was held on October 2, I 970 , at the Sands Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada. The Thirteenth Annual Scientific Symposium was held on October 29 and 30, 1982, at the Hilton Hotel in San Francisco, California, in conjunction with the XXIV International Congress of Ophthalmology and American Academ y of Ophthalmology Combined Meeting. This meeting was co-sponso red by th e International Lacrimal Society and the International Society for Orbital Disorders and was called the International Symposium on Eyelid, Orbital and Lacrimal Surgery. The Twenty-fifth Annual Scientific Symposium is scheduled to take place on October 29, 1994, at the Fairmont Hotel in San Francisco, California. A listing of dates and loc ation s of the more informal Annual Spring Meetings (without citation of parti cipants) appears in Appendix 5. Since 1978, the ASOPRS and the AAO have also held Annual Combined Meetings within the body of the Academy program, which have been listed (with citation of presentations and authors) in Appendix 7. This appendix con tains a cumulative list of all pre sentations made during the first twenty-four Annual Scientific Sympo sia of the ASOPRS . It was not feasible to reproduc e the programs in facsimile. However, in comp arison to the original program s, this allowed some change s to be made to correct apparent error s and achieve a consistent format. The following editorial correctio ns, additions, and omissions should therefore be noted : Correctionsaddressed obvious misspellings of names of authors, 1 and membership status at the time of the symposium. With occasional variance from each original program, an attempt was made to parenthetically note invited , non-member status (1), or the sis pre sentation (T) where appropriate, following the name of respecti ve, individual authors. Member / non-m em ber status was not indicated for 1982 as this was the co-sponsored Int ernational Symposium .

1 . A few repetitive errors and omissions were noted in the introductory notes and body of the programs: Inaccurate dates and names of award recipients; frequent misspelling of the last name of Founding Fellow and Past President Margaret Obear , MD ; and repea ted incorrect listing of the middle initial of Marvin H . Quicken, MD in referring to the The sis Award that bears his name .

SC IENTIF

I C S YMP OS IA

25

5


Additions included the names of recipients of awards that were deduced from Executive Committee Minutes and other sources. Only the presenters of awards we re generally listed in the original programs. Where known, th e name of an award recipient has bee n added in brackets after that of the pr esenter. The bra ckets denote omission in the original program and do not minimize the importance of the recipient 's accomplishment . The names of all known award recipients are sepa rately summarized by year and category in Appendix 8. Also, for each sym posium , the presentations of papers and awards, and moderated discussions are numbered in co nsecutiv e order. Cross-references to the se numbered lists are made throughou t thi s text using abbreviated citation s.2 Omissions includ ed times of presentation s, the lo cation of practice for participant s, and incidental no tes about registration, breaks, lun cheon s, etc. It should be mentioned that over th e past ten years, programs distributed on site to attendees have included detailed abstracts of presentation s. The se progr am abstracts have bee n archived in the Society's Executive Offi ces but no attempt has been made to reproduce them here . Considered individually and co llectiv ely, the several hundreds of presentations and th e publications they have spawned repre sen t con tribution s of great historical importan ce. The spirit of the pro ceedings of the Annual Scientific Symposia is captured in tw o photographs taken during th e late st meetings at the Fairm o nt Hotel in Chicago: The first illustrates the pre sent ation of new surgical techniques with a 3D video (Scientific Symposium 93 [54]) (Fig. 131); the second illu stration depi cts the closing pre sentation-an Award of Appreciati on to Alston Callahan, MD (Fig . 132). The video presentation /o ral hi story (Scientific Symposium 93[80]) that pre ce ded thi s awa rd has been preserved in th e Society archives. The legendary skills of Dr . Callahan as a teacher of new techniques throu gh audio-visual means (C hapt er 1) were featured by former Callahan fellow, Thomas C. Naugle , MD who served as the interviewer . As represented by these illu strati ons , the ASOPRS , through its sym po sia, transmits th e very latest in excitin g new ideas, discoveries, and technology while never losin g sight of the scientific and histori cal foundations that provid e Perspectivesin Ophthalmic PlasticSurgery-3

ln the Ind ex of Personal Names and the Index of Subjects, Scientific Symposia presentations are cited with the year of presentation followed by the consec utivel y numb ered location in the program in brackets . For example, the 1970 President'sWelcomeAddressby Wendell L. Hughes, MD , appears in the ind ices as 70[ 1). Citations for the Com bined Meetin~ of th e ASOPRS and the AAO (Appendix 7) are listed in a similar fashion in the indices. 3. Perspectivesin Op/1t/1a/111i c PlasticSurgery was the title given by Imm ediate Past Program C hairman Michael H awes, MD to the 24th Annual Scientific Symposium. 2.

256

APPEN

D IX

F O UR


FIG. 131. Fellow symposium speakers stereoscopically viewing a 3D video presented by Scott Hobson , MD (Scientific Symposium 93 [54)) during the 24th Annual Scientific Symposium, Chicago, IL, November 13, 1993. Left to right : Dani el McLachlan, MD , Allen Wul c, MD, and Jill Foster, MD .

FIG. 132. Alston Callahan, MD (right) receiving an Award of Apprecia tion from Program Chairman Michael). Hawes (left) at the 1993 ASOPRS Scien tific Symposium, Chicago, IL, November 13, 1993.

S C IENTIFIC

S YMPOSIA

257


TABLE

4. ANNUAL

SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIA DATES AND LOCATIONS

!St

October 2 1970

Sands Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

2nd

September 17, 1971

Hotel International, Las Vegas, NV

3rd

September 22, 1972

Fairmont Hotel, Dallas, TX

4th

September 14, 1973

Faim1ont Hotel, Dallas, TX

5th

October 6, 1974

Sheraton Dallas Hotel, Dallas, TX

6th

September 21, 1975

Fairmont Hotel, Dallas, TX

7th

October 6, 1976

Aladdin Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

8th

October 1, 1977

Hilton Hotel, Dallas, TX

9th

October 27, 1978

Radisson-Muehlebach Kansas City, MO

10th

November 9-10, 1979

Hilton Hotel, San Francisco, CA

11th

November 7-8, 1980

Pick Congress Hotel, Chicago, IL

12th

November 6-7, r981

Peachtree Plaza Hotel, Atlanta, GA

13th*

October 29-30, 1982

Hilton Hotel, San Francisco, CA

14th

November 4, 1983

Ritz-Carlton Hotel, Chicago, IL

15th

November 16, 1984

Peachtree Plaza Hotel, Atlanta, GA

16th

October 4, 1985

St. Francis Hotel, San Francisco, CA

17th

November 8, 1986

Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans, LA

18th

November 7, 1987

Faim10nt Hotel, Dallas, TX

Hotel,

19th

October 7, 1988

Tropicana Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

20th

October 28, 1989

Marriott Hotel, New Orleans, LA

21st

October 27, 1990

Westin Hotel, Atlanta, GA

22nd

October 12, 1991

Anaheim Marriott Hotel, Anaheim, CA

23rd

November 7, 1992

Loews Anatole Hotel, Dallas, TX

24th

November 13, 1993

Fairmont Hotel, Chicago, IL

* International Symposium on Eyelid, Orbital and Lacrimal Surgery. Sponsored by the ASOPRS, the International Lacrimal Society and the International Society for Orbital Diseases.

258

APPENDIX

FOUR


I ST ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SESSION

October2 1970, Sands Hotel, I.As Vegas, NV

President 's Welcome Address Wendell L. Hughes, MD 2. Total Eyelid Reconstruction Clinton D . McCord, MD J. Case Presentation Joseph C. Hill, MD 4. Differential Diagno sis of Orbital Chole steatoma Daniel Silva, MD 5. Repair of Traumatic Lid Coloboma Rocko M . Fasanella, MD 6. Cicatricial Ectropion Following Wies Procedure on Upper Lid Henry Baylis, MD 7. Case Presentation John W. Huneke , MD 8. Dacryostenosis Following Cosmetic Rhinoplasty Joseph C. Flanagan, MD 9. Upper Eyelid Reconstruction with Mid-Forehead Flap (with movie) Robert B . Wilkin s, MD IO . Afferent Lacrimal System (with movie) Rufin Marecki, MD , Gu est Lecturer (I) 1 r. Classification of Ptosis and Senile Entropion Lester T. Jones, MD 12 . High Section ofLevator in Marcus-Gunn and Mueller 's Mu scle for Levator Extension James L. Hargiss, MD 1 3. Mini-Block Resection for Congenital Ptosis Robert Schimek, MD 14. An External Approa ch to Ptosis Repair (with movie ) Martin Bodian, MD 15. Surgical Approaches to Essential Blepharospasm Allen M . Puttennan, MD 16. Discussion of All Presentations Advisors : Byron C. Smith , MD , Al ston Callahan, MD, J oseph Hill, MD , Charles E. fli.ff,MD , Carl C. J ohnson, MD , Lester T. Jones, MD, M errillJ. R eeh, MD 1.

SC I E NTIF

I C S YMP OS IA

2 59


PTOSIS PROBLEMS-CASE

PRESENTATIONS

17. Pto sis Surgery: Some Delayed Complications Ro cko M. Fasanella, MD

18. Her editary External Ophthalmoplegia: A Challenge in Pto sis R epair Martin Bodian, MD 19. Duplication of Eyelid Fold Following Fasanella Procedure All en M . Putt em,an , MD 20. Treatment of M arcus-Gunn Syndrome Jam es L. Ha rgiss, MD 21. Altern ating Pto sis Associated with Alternating H ypertropia H enry Baylis, MD 22. An Unusual Etiology for Pto sis Margaret F. Obear, MD 23. An Unu sual Ptosi s Case George F. Buerger,Jr., MD 24. Pto sis Case Pre sentation Marvin H . Quickert, MD 2 5. Discu ssions and Retort by Panel Lester T. Jon es, MD, Carl C. Johnson, MD, C rowell Beard, MD , and Merrill ]. R eeh, MD 26 . An Up side Down Cutler-Beard Bridge Flap Sanford D . H echt, MD (T ) 27. Diagno sis and Complications of N aso-Orbital Fracture Charles K. Beyer, MD 28. R epai r of Bilateral Blowou t Fracture s Charles R. Leone,Jr., MD

ORB ITAL SYMPOSIU M

29. Orbital Decompression via Maxillary Antrum Robert B . Wilkins, MD 30. Orbital Decompression for Exophthalmos (with movie) Dani el Silva, MD 31. Orbital Decompression via R oof, Floor, and Lat eral Wall Jam es L. Hargiss, MD 32. Discussion Alston Callahan, MD, Byron C. Smith , MD , and Merrill]. R eeh, MD ADJOURN BUSINESS MEETING

200

APPEND I X

FOUR


2ND ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

September 17, 1971, Hotel International, LAs Vegas, NV LACRIMAL SYMPOSIUM

Marvin H. Quickert, MD, Chairman

r. Silicone Lacrimal Drainage Stents: Technique of Placement Robert M. Dryden, MD Lacrimal Drainage Stents, Results ]. Earl Rathbun, MD 3. Dacryocystography: Interesting Cases Martin Brennan, MD (I), Joseph C. Flanagan, MD 4. Trephines in Lacrimal Surgery John T. Simonton, MD 5. Diagnosis of Lacrimal Drainage Obstruction Crowell Beard, MD 6. The Importance of Nasal Anatomy for the Eye Plastic Surgeon Lester T. Jones, MD 7. Surgical Treatment of Upper Eyelid Retraction Allen M. Putterman, MD, Martin Urist, MD (I) 8. Cosmetic Eyelid Surgery through the Operative Microscope Robert Schimek, MD 9. Superiority of the Transconjunctival Approach in the Removal of Orbital Fat in Cosmetic Blepharoplasty Virginia Lubkin, MD 2.

COSMETIC BLEPHAROPLASTY

Charles Maris, MD, Chairman

A New Technique of Eyebrow Lifting jack Anderson, MD (I) 11. Chemosurgery of the Eyelids Thomas Baker, MD (I) 12. Varied Techniques in Cosmetic Blepharoplasty Thomas Rees, MD (I) I 3. A New Approach to Cosmetic Blepharoplasty Harold Silver, MD (I} 14. Who Needs an Eye Plastic Surgeon? Orkan G. Stasior, MD, President IO.

SC IENTI

F I C S YMP OSI A

26 I


ORBITAL DIAGNOS TI C STUDIE S

Pime Guibor, MD, Chaim1an (I) 15. Tomography Stephen L. Troke/, MD (I) 16. Contrast Studies William Hanef ee, MD (I) 17. Ultrasound Jackson Coleman, MD (I) 18. Thermograph y Pierre Guibor, MD (I) 19. Ptosis of the Lower Eyelid-A New Concept Lester T. Jones, MD 20.

21.

Ptosis of the Lower Eyelid-Aponeurosis Advancement James L. Hargiss, MD Lower Eyelid Advan ceme nt Marvin H. Quickert, MD , R obert M. Dryd en, MD

CO MPLICATIONS OF OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC SURG ERY

Richard R . T enze l, MD, Chaim1an

Ptosis Crowell Beard, MD 23. Orbital Fractur es Byron Smith, MD 24 . Cosmetic Bleph aroplasty Richard Tenzel , MD 25. Lid R econs tru ctio n (The Hugh es T echni que ) Gerard Shannon, MD 26. Lid Reconstruction (The Cutler-Beard Technique) Sanford Hecht, MD 27. Lid R eco nstru ction (The Mu starde Technique) Alston Callahan, MD 22.

ADJOURN BUSINESS MEETING

262

APPENDIX

FO U R


3RD ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM September 22 , I.

1972,

Faimtont Hotel, Dallas, TX

Opening Remarks [ On behalf of Margaret Obear, MD, President]

NEW INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES 2.

A New Approach to Secondary Installation of a Muscle Cone Implant into the Orbit Virginia Lubkin, MD

3. Decompression for Thyroid Exophthalmos Henry I. Baylis, MD, Thomas C. Calcaterra, MD 4. Irrigation and Bubble Technique Sanford D. Hecht, MD 5. The Stapling Gun in Oculoplastic Surgery Pierre Guibor, MD (I), Byron Smith, MD 6. Discussion Alston Callahan, MD

SYMPOSIUM-HIDDEN

DANGERS IN OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC SURGERY

7. Preoperative Psychologic Pitfalls Roy B. Sessions , MD (I) 8. When to Recommend No Further Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Alston Callahan, MD 9. Legal Obligations john Conley, MD (I) 10.

Questions Byron Smith, MD

CONGENITAL ANOMALIES SYMPOSIUM

Structural and Orbital Facial Disparities Donald Wood-Smith, MD (l) I 2. Structural Lid Anomalies Richard R. Tenzel, MD 13. Ocular Motility Problems in Craniostenosis Syndromes Marilyn Miller, MD (I) I 4. Orbital and Soft Tissue Anomalies I I.

Daniel Silva, MD I 5.

Questions Orkan C. Stasior, MD

SC IENTIFI

C SYMP OS IA

26 3


16. The Annual Lester T. Jone s Anatomy Award Presented by Orkan G. S tasior, MD[* to Marvin H . Quickert, MD] 17. Congenital Lamellar Ichthyo sis Charles R. Leone,Jr., MD 18. Variable Pressure of the Tear Sac during Eyelid Closure Albert T. York, MD 19. Ex cision of Carcinoma at the Medial Canthus Peter H. Ballen, MD 20.

Levator Resection for Blepharopto sis R obert A. Schimek, MD , Charles Campbell, MD

21.

Preparation, Packaging , and Sterilization of Cadaver Fascia Lata: A Report on the Re sults oflts Use on 76 Lids for Co ngenital Ptosis Repair (Movie) John S. Crawford, MD

22.

â&#x20AC;¢

Discussion Merrill]. R eeh, MD

THESIS PRE SENTATIONS

23. An Alternative Method for Reconstructing the Low er Lid Bartley R. Frueh, MD (T) 24. The U se of Sliding Tarsal Flaps for the Repair of Lateral Lid Defects Milton B oniuk, MD (T) 2 5. Some Uses of Split-Thi ckn ess Skin Grafts in Ophthalmic Plastic Surg ery Rob ert G. Sma ll, MD (T ) 26 . Discussion C rowell B eard, MD

MALPOSITION OF EYELIDS

27. A Biomechanical and Physiological Appr oach to Corrective Surgery for

Senile Entropion Hamp son A . Sis ler, MD

28 . Tucking of the Inferior Aponeuro sis for Senile Entropion (Movi e) Jam es L. Hargiss, MD 29. Tr eatment of M oderately Severe C icatricial Entropion Charles K. Beyer, MD 30. Surgical Repair of Sector Blepharoptosis Martin Bodian, MD

3 1 . Di scussion Marvin H. Quickert, MD ADJOURN BUSINESS MEETING

264

APPENDIX

F OU R


4TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM September 14, 1973, Fairmont Hotel, Da llas, TX 1.

Opening Remarks Charles K. Beyer, MD , President

EYELID RECONSTRUCTION 2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

7.

The Rhomboid Flap in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery John D . Bullock, MD (I), Neal Koss, MD (I), Stephen V. Flagg, MD (I) Mustarde Lower Lid Recons truction Used Medially with Attention to the Lateral Canthal Angle Fay E. Millett, MD The Semicircular Flap for Upper and Lower -Lid Reconstruction Richard R . Tenzel , MD An Improved Technique for Taking Nasal Septa! Grafts Charles R. Leone,Jr. , MD Complications of Chemosurgery of the Lids and Adjacent Areas Henry I. Baylis, MD Discussion Wendell L. Hughes, MD

PTOSIS

8. Bell's Phenomenon Proven By Roentgenocinematography John T. Simonton, MD, Gehart S. Schwartz, MD (l),James Koverman, MD (I) 9. Inverse Marcus-Gunn Phenom enon Virginia Lubkin, MD 1 o. Repair of Blepharoptosis with a Modification of the Fasanella-Servat Operation John S . Crauford, MD 11. An Internally Isolated-Externally Controlled Levator Resection Allen M . Putterman, MD, Martin]. Urist, MD 12. A Re-Evalu atio n of the Fasanella vs Apon euroti c Approach of Pto sis Surgery Lester T. Jon es, MD 13. Discussion Carl C. J ohnson, MD

SC I ENT I F I C SYMPOSIA

265


PHOTOGRAPHY

14. How to Get the Best Results with Your Camera Richard R. Tenzel , MD

r5 . The Four-Projector Four-Screen Method of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Presentations and Other '73 Innovations Alston Callahan, MD

ORBITAL DISEASE

16. Xeroradiography and X-ray Anatomy of the Orbit Pie"e Guibor, MD 17. The Use ofTechnitium 99 and Mercury 197 in the Detection of Orbital

and Perisinus Tumors Joseph C. Flanagan, MD 18. Surgical Approaches to the Orbit John E. Wnght , MD, Guest Speaker (I) 19. Discussion Charles E. fl!ff, MD

BUSINESS MEETING (MEMBERS ONLY) ENUCLEATION SURGERY 20.

The Use of Donor Sclera Material in Socket Surgery David B. Soll, MD

ORBITAL TRAUMA

The Present Status of Methylmetha crylate in the Field of Surgery Peter H. Ballen, MD 22. Blowout Fractures-Wait or Operate Orkan G. Stasior, MD 23. Late Motility Problems following Orbital Floor Fractures Robison D. Harley, MD, Guest Speaker (I) 21.

LACRIMAL PROBLEMS

24. Lacrimal Scintiphotography Arthur S. Grove,Jr., MD (T)

266

APPENDIX

F OU R


25. Silastic Tubes for Conjunctivorhinostomy:

Long-Term Results and

Management of Problems John M . Ca"oll, MD (I), Charles K. Beyer, MD 26. Pyrex Tubes for Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy: Results and Management of Problems John Wob~, MD (I) 27 . Discussion James L. Hargiss, MD

Long-Term

EYELID MALPOSITIONS

28. Senile Entropion and Ectropion: A Histopathological Investigation Hampson A . Sisler, MD , John Finlay, MD, Gerald Labay, MD (I) 29. Dermal-Flap Procedure for Resistant Ectropion of the Lower Eyelid

Robert G. Small, MD 30. Combined Mechanism ofEctropion: Eugene 0. Wiggs, MD (T)

Etiology and Treatment

3 I. Snellens-Streatfield Operation for Cicatricial Entropion Makram A . Tadras, MD (I) 32. The Arion Silicone Prosthesis Donald Wood-Smith, MD , Guest Speaker (I) 33. Discussion Crowell Beard, MD

BLEPHAROSPASM

34. Complications in Surgery for Blepharospasm Richard K. Dortzbach, MD 35. Current Concepts in Essential Blepharospasm Robert B. Wilkins , MD 36. Discussion John W. Henderson, MD, Guest Discusser (I)

BLEPHAROPLASTY

37. Cosmetic Blepharoplasty Maury L. Parkes, MD, Guest Speaker (I)

ADJOURN

SC IE NTIFIC

SY MP OS IA

267


5TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

October 6, 1974, Sheraton Dallas Hotel, Dallas, TX 1.

Welcoming Comments Robert B. Wilkins, MD, President

BLEPHAROPTOSIS 2.

Mueller's Muscle-Conjunctival Resection in the Treatment of Blepharoptosis Allen M. Putterman, MD , Martin]. Urist, MD

3. Levator Tuck-A Simplified Ptosis Technique Richard K. Dortzbach, MD 4. Disinsertion of the Levator Aponeurosis Following Cataract Extraction George L. Paris, MD (T), Marvin H. Quickert, MD 5. Clinical and U1trastructural Correlation in Congenital and Acquired Ptosis Albert Hornblass, MD (T), Masazumi Adachi, MD (I), Arthur Wolintz, MD (I), Byron Smith, MD

Discussion Lester T. Jones, MD, John Wobig, MD 7. Control of Lid Movement and Bell's Phenomenon Robert Jampel, MD, Guest Speaker (1) 6.

NEW INSTRUMENTS

8. A New Disposable Canalicular Intubation Probe Virginia Lubkin, MD

9. The Davol-Simon Dermatome in Oculoplastic Surgery Charles R. Leone, Jr, MD IO.

Mustarde Tissue Forceps, 4

1/

4 inches; Wilkins Orbital Floor Elevator

Richard P. Ca"oll, MD (I), Robert B. Wilkins , MD

ACUTE TRAUMA

11. Pneumo cephalus: A Sign oflntracranial Involvement in Orbital Fractures Joseph C. Flanagan, MD I 2.

Superior Orbital Rim Fractures

Peter H . Ballen, MD 13. Lester T. Jones Award [* Presented to Orkan G. Stasior, MD]

268

APPEN DIX

FOUR


ANESTHESIA

14. General Anesthesia-The Surgeon's Responsibility D . Richard Reynolds, MD , Guest Speaker (I)

CORNEA

15. The Corneal Tattoo Operation Robert A. Schimek, MD

CONJUNCTIVA

16. Cryosurgical Treatment of Papillomas of the Conjunctiva Allison]. Berlin, Jr., MD

TERMINOLOGY

17. Orbital Terminology: Hyperophthalrnos, Medialophthalmos, Lateralophthalmos Pierre Guibor, MD

Hypoophtalmus,

BUSINESS MEETING COSMET IC SURGERY I 8.

Blepharoplasty Simon Fredricks, MD, Guest Speaker (I) 19. Chemical Face Peeling Thomas J. Baker, MD, Guest Speaker (I) 20. Brow Elevation Walter E. Berman, MD , Guest Sp eaker (I) 21. Discussion Alston Callahan, MD

LACRIMAL

The Simplified Dacryocystorhinostomy-A Time Proven Operative Procedure Charles E. fliff, MD 2 3. Repair of Occluded Lacrimal Canaliculus Martin Bodian, MD 22.

SCIENTI

F I C S YMP OS IA

269


24. Silicone Intubation: An Alternative to a Dacryocystorhinostomy

David Soll, MD 25. Silicone Intubation of the Lacrimal System: Pitfalls, Problems, and Complications Lewis M. LAuri11g, MD (T) 26. Discussion of above paper 27. Marvin H. Quicken Award

Presentedby CrowellBeard, MD[* to Lewis M. LAuringMD] RECONSTRUCTION:

LID, CANTHAL, AND ORBITAL

28. Levator Recession Henry I. Baylis, MD 29. Hughes Procedure

CharlesM. Stephenson,MD (T) 30. The Complication

of the Hughes Tarsoconjunctival

Flap

Robert B. Wilkins, MD 3 1. Discussion of the above two papers Henry I. Baylis, MD 32. A New Method for the Secondary Emplacement of an Orbital Implant BartleyR. Frueh, MD, Gary E. Felker,MD (1) 33. Cicatricial Entropion of the Upper Lid: An Analysis of Techniques and Descriptions of a Modified Procedure RobertRubenzik, MD (T), Rid,ard R. Tenzel, MD. GordonR. Miller, MD 34. Reconstruction of the Medial Canthus by Spontaneous Granulation (Laissez-faire) John N. Ha"ington, MD (T) 3 5. Use of Methylmethacrylate in Oculoplastic Surgery GeraldL. Tennant, MD (T) 36. Discussion of the above three papers

Byron Smith, MD

ADJOURN

27 0

APPENDIX

F OU R.


6TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

September 2r, 1975, Fairmont Hotel, Dallas, TX

r.

Welcome Richard R. Tenzel, MD, President

BLEPHAROPLASTY ASSOCIATED PROCEDURES 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. r o.

AND COMPLICATION S

Blepharoplasty Augmentation Procedures Including Brow Lift and Dermabrasion Richard T. Farrior, MD, Guest Speaker (I) Modified Skin Technique for Lower Eyelid Blepharoplasty Clinton D. McCord,],., MD Modified Technique for Upper Eyelid Blepharoplasty Richard R. Tenzel, MD Conjunctiva! lncision for Excision of Herniated Orbital Fat Peter Randall, MD (1), Ferdinand R. Schwartz, MD (I) Complications of Cosmetic Blepharoplasty Mark R. Levine, MD Temporary Blindness Following Cosmetic Blepharoplasty Allen M. Futterman, MD Surgical Revision of the Upper Eyelid Fold William A. Cies, MD (I), Henry I. Baylis, MD Surgical Revision of the Oriental Eyelid Robert Rubenzik, MD Panel Discussion Martin Bodian, MD, Alston Callahan, MD, Lester M. Cramer, MD

ECTROPION-ENTROPION

r I Repair of Medial Ectropion Robert M . Dryden, MD r2 . Lazy-T Double Triangle Technique for Correction of Lower Eyelid Ectropion Byron Smith, MD r 3. Nonincisional Suture Technique for the RepairoflnvolutionalEntropion Mom·s Feldstein, MD I 4. Panel Discussion Crowell Beard, MD, Albert Hornblass, MD, Charles E. flijf, MD, John L. Wobig, MD

SC IENTIFI

C SYMP OS I A

27 1


NEW TECHNIQUES AND COMPLICATIONS

15. A New Technique for Pterygium Surgery Robert G. Small, MD 16. Atraumatic Silastic Tube for Canalicular Intubation Jo seph C. Hill, MD 17. Removal of Ecchymosis by Histamine Iontophoresis Virginia Lubkin, MD 18. Complications of Orbital Glass Bead Implantation Jack V. Lisman . MD 19. Panel Discussion Charles K. Beyer, MD, Lester T.Jones , MD , GerardM. Shannon, MD , Byron Smith, MD 20. Le ster T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award Presented by Lester T . Jones, MD [* Recipient unknown, see Appendix 8] EYELID RECONSTRUCTION

Lower Eyelid Reconstruction by Tarsal Transposition Eva H. Hewes, MD (I),John H. Sullivan, MD (I), Crowell Beard, MD 22. Variations in Lower Eyelid Reconstruction Eugene 0. Wiggs, MD 23. Repair of Unusual Eyelid Deformities Robert B . Wilkins, MD 24. Panel Discussion Crowell Beard, MD, George F. Buerger, Jr, MD, Lester M. Cramer, MD , Bartley R. Frueh, MD, John T. Simonton, MD 21.

SYMPOSIUM ON CRYOSURG ERY

25. Cryogenesis and the Management ofBenign and Malignant Tumors of the

Eyelids Setrag A . Zacarian, MD, Guest Speaker (I) 26. Cryotherapy of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Clinical and Experimental Considerations John D . Bullock, MD 27. Cryotherapy for the Treatment ofTrichiasis John H. Sullivan, MD 28. Panel Discussion Crowell Beard, MD, Richard R. Tenzel , MD BLEPHAROPTOSIS

29. Complications of Silastic Slings for Ptosis Edwin C. Augustat, MD

272

APPENDIX

FOUll


30. Cross Sectional Exposure of the Orbital Septum in Ptosis Surgery Henry I. Baylis, MD 3 I. The Superior Rectus for Surgery of Ptosis: Never? Well Hardly Ever. .. Robert A. Schimek, MD 32 . Acquired Traumatic Dehiscence of the Levator Muscle Aponeurosis Jay Justin Older, MD 3 3. Panel Discussion Crowell Beard, MD , Joseph C. Flanagan, MD, Charles E. fliff, MD, Richard R . Tenzel, MD 34. Marvin H. Quickert A ward Presented by Crowell Beard, MD [* to John D. Bullock, MD]

SKIN SURGERY

3 5. Skin Surgery and Scar Revision in the Midfacial Area Lester M. Cramer, MD, Guest Speaker (1)

PROBLEM CASE SYMPOSIUM

36. Panel: David B. Soll, MD, Crowell Beard, MD, Alston Callahan, MD, Lester M. Cramer, MD, Sanford D. Hecht, MD, Charles E. Iliff, MD, Byron Smith, MD, Richard R. Tenzel, MD, Setrag A. Zacarian, MD (1)

CASE REPORTS

37. Medial Canthal Tendon Malposition Richard P. Carroll, MD (I), Robert B. Wilkins, MD, Simon Fredricks, MD, (1), Robert G. Small, MD 38. Spontaneous Voluntary Proptosis (Movie) A . Benedict Rizzuti , MD

FRACTURE SYMPOSIUM

39. Panel: David B. Soll, MD , Alston Callahan, MD, Lester M. Cramer, MD (I), Richard R. Farrior, MD, Charles R. Leone,Jr, MD, Bernd Silver, MD , Byron Smith, MD, Orkan G. Stasior, MD

ADJOURN BUSINESS MEETING (AGENDA; VOTE ON CORPORATE

SC IENTIFI

BYLAWS)

C S YMP OS IA

273


7TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

October6, 1976, Aladdin Hotel, Las Vegas,NV Welcome BartleyR. Frueh, MD, President

1.

EYELID RE CO NSTRUCTION

Reconstruction of the Medial Canthus Robert B. Wilkins, MD 3. Upper Eyelid Reconstruction Using Ipsilateral Tarsus CharlesM. Stephenson, MD 4. A Normal Eyelid Margin Following Eyelid Reconstruction William A. Cies, MD (I), Henry I. Baylis, MD 5. Surgical Treatment of Eyelid Neurofibromas RichardR. Tenzel, MD,James R. Boynton, MD (T), GordonR. Miller, MD 6. Eyelid Reconstruction Using Upper Lateral Nasal Cartilage David B. Soll, MD 7. Staged Excision-Reconstruction of Extensive Facial Orbital Tumors Arthur S. Grove, Jr., MD 8. Comments on above papers CrowellBeard, MD 2.

RECENT ADVANCES IN GENERAL PLASTIC SURGERY

9.

This Past Year in Plastic Surgery Harvey Zarem, MD, Guest Speaker(I)

SOC KET PROBLEMS AND MISCE LLANEOUS

Simple Non -Surgical Cosmetic Techniques John A . Burns, MD Ir. Complications of Silicone Lacrimal Tubing AJ. Berlin, Jr., MD 12. Lacrimal Trephine CharlesK. Beyer, MD 13. Use of a Short Fascia Strip Mark R. Levine, MD 14. Use s ofR.T.V. Silicone in Orbital Re constru ction GeorgeL. Paris, MD , Lars N. Vistnes, MD (I) r 5. Deep Socket Re construction Allen M. Puttem1an,MD, Robert Scott, MD (1) IO.

274

AP PEN D IX

FOUR


16. A Principle of Mu cous Membran e Grafting Bartley R . Frueh, MD 17. Comments on above papers Orkan G. Stasior, MD

SYMPOSIUM ON THE ORB IT 1 8.

Orbital Surgery John Wr ight, MD , Guest Speaker (I) 19. The Osteoplastic Flap Technique for Frontal Sinus Mu cocele Gary A . Haug, MD (I), Richard K. Dortz bach, MD 20 . Loss of Cerebral-Spinal Fluid in Orbital Surgery David F. Kamin, MD (1), H enry I. Baylis, MD 21. Tumors of the Lacrimal Sac J osp eh C. Flanagan, MD , ]. Parker Stokes, MD (I) 22. Lateral Orbital Decompre ssion Ira Sn ou,Jones, MD 23 . Orbital Decompression: Ogura Te chniqu e Thomas Calcaterra, MD, Guest Speaker (I) 24 . Orbital De co mpression : Lower Eyelid Appro ach C linton D . McCord, MD 25. Additi o nal Comments on Orbital Surgery J ohn Wright, MD 26 . Lester T . Jon es Surgical Anatomy Award Presented by Lester T . Jones, MD [* to Ri chard R. T enze l, MD]

LID MALPOSITION AND BLEPHAROPTOSIS

27 . Transient Ectropion Byron Smith, MD 28. Entropion and Efficiency of th e Ey elid R etractors Robert M . Dryd en, MD, John L. W obig, MD 29. Treatment ofEntropion: Statistical Summ ary Arthur]. Schaefer, MD 30 . Bleph aro plasty : Upper Eyelid Fold Harvey Zarem, MD, G uest Speaker (I) 3 I. U se of Lateral Canthal Sling in E ctropi on Ri chard R . T enze l, MD, Frank Buffam, MD (T), Gordon R. Miller, MD 32 . Lateral Canthoplasty Merrill]. R eeh, MD 3 3. Postoperative Scarring in th e Lower Eyelid: Prevention and Treatm ent R ichard P . Carroll, MD

SC I EN TIF I C SY MP OS IA

275


34. Epicanthus and Epiblepharon Carl CordesJohnson, MD 35. Frontalis Fixation: A Twenty Year Review John Crawford, MD 36. Tarsal Resection: Reoperation for Ptosis or Contour Abnormalities Norman Shorr, MD (T), Henry Baylis, MD 37. Comments on above papers Richard R. Tenzel, MD 38. Marvin H . Quickert Award Presented by Crowell Beard, MD [* to James Boynton, MD]

SUPER PANEL OF EXPERTS

39. New Developments of Special Interest, 1976 Crowell Beard, MD, Alston Callahan, MD, CharlesE. fliff,MD, Byron Smith, MD, Orkan G. Stasior, MD, Richard R. Tenzel, MD , Mr. John Wright 40. Questions and Answers

ADJOURN

276

APPENDIX

FOUR


8TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFI C SYMPO SIUM

October I , 1977, Dallas Hilton Hotel, Dallas, TX I. 2.

Welcome GeorgeF. Buerger, MD, President History of Americ an Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Recon stru ctive Surgery, Inc . Charles K. Beyer, MD

ANATOMY

3. The Medial Canthal Tendon Branches Out Ri chard L. And erson, MD

LACRIMAL

4.

Lacrimal Fun ction Tests: A Comparative Study Albert H ornblass, MD , Theodore Ingis, MD (I) 5. The Effective ness of the Pigtail Probe Method of Repairing Canalicular Lacerations David H. Saunders, MD (T), Gerard M. Shannon, MD , Joseph C. Flanagan, MD 6. Current Techniques in Canaliculi-Lacrimal Duct Surgery Paul T. Gavaris,MD (T) 7. Comments on the four p receding papers John L. Wob~, MD

TUMORS

8. Pro spective Views on the Tr eatment of Eyelid and Adnexal Malignan cies CrowellBeard, MD, Devron H. Char, MD (I)

ORBIT AND SOCKET

9.

10 .

I I.

Diagn osis and Treatment of Congenital Malformations in the Orbital Region Byron Smith, MD , FeaturedSpeaker Fronto - Orbital Defects-The Neurosurgical and Oculoplastic T eam Peter H. Ballen, MD Silicone in Ophthalmic Plastic and Rec onstru ctive Surgery: A Review and Laborat ory Trial WilliamB. Stewart,MD (T), RichardR. Tenzel, MD

SC I ENTIFIC

S Y M P OS IA

277


Orbital Implant Extrusion J oel Leibsohn, MD (T), Robert M. Dryden, MD 13. Comments on the three preceding papers David B. Soll, MD 14. Orbital Cellulitis Following Dental Extraction John D. Bullock, MD I 5. Orbital Osteomas: Behavior, Evaluation, Treatment Arthur S. Grove, MD r 6. A Modified K.ronlein Technique for Exposure of the Orbital Apex for Excision of Orbital Apex and Optic Nerve Tumors Clinton D . McCord, Jr, MD r 7. Surgical Correction of the Lateral Canthal Deformity Associated With Anophthalrni c "Enophthalmos" William L. Walter, MD 18. Comments on the four preceding papers Orkan G. Stasior, MD 19. Questions from audience on preceding papers Moderator: Bartley R. Frueh, MD 20. An Overview of Orbital Fractures Al ston Callahan, MD, Michael A. Callahan, MD (I) 21. Pacho-Mechani cs in the Production of the Anophthalrnic Orbit Syn drome LArs M. Vistnes, MD , Featured Guest Speaker (I) 22. Que stions from audience on pap ers following coffee break Mod erator: Arthur S. Grove, Jr., MD 12.

THYROID

EYE DISEASE

23. The Challenge of Graves' Dis ease Charles E. Iliff, MD, Featured Speaker 24. Lower Eyelid Retraction: Management Robert R . Waller, MD (T)

UPPER EYELID CREASE

25. Supratarsal Fixation Robert G. Small, MD

PTOSIS

26. Lasso Technique in Upper Lid Fascia Lata Froncalis Fixation for Pto sis Sanford D. Hecht, MD

27 8

AP PEN DIX

F OU R


27. Surgical Correction of Acquired Ptosis Secondary to Large Conjunctival Cysts Mark R. Levine, MD 28. Comments on the four preceding papers Robert M. Dryden, MD

SYMPOS IUM ON THE NEWER PTOSIS PROCEDURES

29. Local Anesthesia in Ptosis Surgery H enry I . Baylis, MD 30. Fasanella-Servat Eugene 0. W(ggs, MD 3 I. Sutureless Fasanella-Servat Lewis M. Lauring, MD 32 . Muller Mu scle-Conjunctiva Resection Allen M. Putterman, MD 3 3. Levator Apo neurotic Repair John L. Wobig, MD 34. Levator Tuck Jay J. Older, MD 35. External Tarsoaponeurectomy Clinton D . McCord , MD 36. External Levator Re section Without Cutting the Levator Horns Richard R. Tenzel, MD 37. Comments on the Newer Ptosis Procedures Richard R. Tenzel, MD 38. Marvin H. Quickert Fellowships Presented by Robert M. Dryden , MD [* to Ja ck Chalfin, MD, Earl Kidwell, MD, Robert Pashby, MD, Arthur C. Perry,MD] 39. Marvin H. Quickert [* Thesis] Award Presented by Lester T. J ones, MD [* to Robert Waller, MD] 40. ASOPRS Honorary Fellow Presented by George F. Buerger, MD [* to Guillermo Pico, Sr., MD] 41. Questions from audience on papers following lunch Allison J. Berlin, Jr., MD, Moderator

ENTROPION

AND ECTROPION

42. Tarsal Grafting for Correction of Cicatricial Entropion Conrad Hamako, MD (T), H enry I. Baylis, MD

43. Invol utional Entropion: Experimental Data Richard Co llin, FRCS (T), J. Earl Rathbun, MD

SC IE NT I FI C SYMPOSIA

279


44. Ectropion of the Lower Eyelid Secondary Miiller's MuscleCapsulopalpebral Fascia Detachment Allen M . Putterman, MD

45. Comments on the three preceding papers Charles R. Leone, MD 46. Treatment of Epiphora due to Flaccid Eyelids Joseph C. Hill , MD 47. A Modification of the Silicone Spring Procedure for Treatment of Orbicularis Paralysis Alfred C. Ma"one, MD (T), David B. Soll, MD 48. Survey of Techniques for Repair of Orbicularis Oculi Palsy FrederickA . Mausolj, MD

MISCELLANEOUS EYELID PROBLEMS

49. Split-Level Full-Thickness Lid Graft Bernice Z. Brown, MD, Crowell Beard, MD 50. A Conventional Repair of a New Problem: The Cicatricial "Cervical Blo od Pressure Cuff Syndrome " Rob ert E. Kennedy , MD 5 I . Comments on the five preceding papers Robert B . Wilkins, MD 52. Que stions from audience on papers following coffee break George F. Buerger, MD, Moderator

ADJOURN BUSINESS MEET ING

280

APPENDIX

FOUR.


9TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

October 27, 1978, Radisson-Muehlebach Hotel, Kansas City, MO I.

Welcome David B. Soll, MD , President

PART I ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Whitnall 's Ligament Ray S. Dixon , MD (1), Richard L. Ander son, MD Rhesis Eyelid Anatomy Francis G. LAPiana, MD (T) Homer 's Mu scle and the Lacrimal System Norman C. Ahl, MD (T) Nerve Supply to Miiller's Muscle (Featured Paper) J.R.0 . Collin, FRCS (1), Crowell Beard, MD , and Irmgard Wood (I) Discu ssion Bernice Z. Brown, MD

PANEL ON ECTROPION , ENTROPION,

TRI CHIA SIS, AND DI STICHIASIS

Mod erator: Richard R. Tenzel , MD

7. Medial Ectropion Martin U. Hatt , MD (I) 8. Ectropi on Suture R oger Kohn , MD

9. Recal citrant Lateral Entropion Gerard M . Shannon, MD and Ernst Nicolitz, MD (I), David H. Saunders, MD 1 o.

Bow Legs Repair of Entropion

Sanford D. Hecht, MD 11. Modified Wheeler Entropion Operation Alvin H. Brackup, MD 12. Qui ckert Entropion Repair Andrew S. Markovits, MD 13. Lateral C anthal Tendon Tuck Arthur J. Schaefer, MD 14. Cryotherapy ofDistichiasis Bartley R. Frueh, MD 1 5.

Lamellar Cryotherapy Richard L. Anderson, MD

SC IENTIFI

C S YM POSIA

281


16. Concluding Remarks

Dr. Tenzel 17. Marvin H. Quickert

Fellowship Awards

Presentedby Robert M. Dryden, MD[* to FrancisC. Sutula, MD] 18. Que stio ns and Answers on Part I

Henry I. Baylis, MD, Moderator PART II BLEPHAROPTOSIS

19. Mini-block

Levator Resection

Robert Schimek, MD 20.

Superior Tarsal Muscle Re section

Richard K. Dortzbach, MD 21.

Ptosis, Lower Lid Retraction , and Dry Eyes

Hamspon Sisler, MD 22.

Preventable Problem s following Fasanella-Servat Procedure

Richard P. Ca"oll, MD 23. Discussion

Rocko Fasanella,MD 24. The Marvin H. Quickert Thesis Award [* Not presentedin 1978 by decisionof the Executive Committee althoughlisted

in the program]

NASOLACRIMAL SYSTEM

25. Lacrimal Treatment after Medial Tumor Resection s

]. Ju stin Older, MD 26. Silicone Intubation,

Procedure

]. Earl Rathbun, MD 27. Silicone Intubation , Results Robert Pashby, MD (T) 28. Pun ctum Reformation

Allen M. Putterman, MD 29. Conjunctiva!

Contracture

after Lacrimal Surgery

Robert G. Small, MD 30. Discussion of Lacrimal Papers and Featured Presentation: The Care and Feeding of Jone s' Tubes Allston Callahan, MD and Michael Callahan, MD (I) 3 1. Questions and Answers on Part II

John Wobig, MD, Moderator

282

APPENDIX

FO UR


PART III LID RETRACTION , INVOLUTION, AND LAGOPHTHALMO S

32. Mi.illerect omy and Levator R ecession ja ck Chaffin, MD (T ) 33. Medial and Lateral Canthopl asty for Paralytic Lagophthalm os William B. Stewart, MD and Richard R. Tenze l, MD 34. Lateral and C anthal Strips for Lax Lids D ennis C ordy, MD (I), Richard And erson, MD 35. Rep air of Lower Lid Retra ction All en Putterrnan, MD 36. Post-Blephar oplasty Low er Lid R etraction Conrad Hamak o, MD and Henry I. Baylis, MD 37. Discussion Charles R . Leone, MD 38. Th e Lester T. Jon es Surgi cal Anatom y Award Presented by Lester T. J ones, MD [* to C rowell Beard, MD]

O RBIT AND SOC KET

39. Aut oge nou s Fascia W rapped Impl ants Mark R. Levine, MD 40. Giant Cys ts of the Orbit Arthur S . Grove,Jr., MD 41 . Inferi or Fomix Orbit otom y James L. M oses, MD (T ) 42. Lacrimal Ob stru ction after Ogu ra D eco mpr ession D . M ichael Colvard, MD (I), R obert R. Waller, MD 43. Di scussio n o f Papers and Intr oductio n of Gu est Speaker David B. Soll, MD, President 44. Th e Orbit and Granulomat o us Vasculiti s Leo K oomneej, MD , PhD, Guest Speaker (I) 45. ASOPRS H onorary Fellowship Aw ard Presented by David B. Soll, MD , President [* to LArs M . Vistnes, MD] 46. Qu estio ns and An swers on Part III George F. Buerger, jr ., MD, M oderator

SC I E NTIFI

C S YM POSI A

2 83


PART IV MALIGNANT TUMORS

47. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Orbit John D. Bullock, MD and James Augsburger, MD 48. Radiation and Surgery in Exenteration David Savar, MD (I), and]oseph C. Hill, MD 49. BCC of Both Lids of One Eye Eugene 0. Wiggs, MD 50. Frozen Section Techniques Arthur C. Perry, MD (T) 5 I. Discussion Gerard M. Shannon, MD

RECONSTRUCTION

TECHNIQUES

52. 0 to Z Plasty George L. Paris, MD

53. Reconstruction of Partial Brow Loss Joel Leibsohn, MD and Robert M . Dryden, MD 54. Repair of Symblepharon William Fein, MD 55. After Surgery: The Cosmetologist Virginia Lubkin , MD 56. Discussion of Papers and Featured Paper: Emergency Reconstruction an Upper Lid Byron Smith, MD and Frank Nesi, MD

SPECIAL PAPER

57. Litigation in Oculoplastic Surgery Jerome W. Bettman, Sr., MD and George L. Paris, MD 58. Questions and Answers on Part IV Charles K. Beyer, MD, Moderator

ADJOURNMENT BUSINESS MEETING

284

APPENDIX

F O UR

of


10TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Novemb er 9, 19791 San FranciscoHilton Hotel, San Francisco, CA 1.

Welcome Robert M. Dryden, MD, President

PART I: CONGENITAL, LACRIMAL , TRAUMA 2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

Correction of Telecanthus and Epicanthal Folds Clinton D . McCord,Jr ., MD Hemi-facial Atrophy Presenting as Lid Coloboma Virginia Lubkin, MD, Byron Smith , MD Effects of the Silicone Tube on the Canaliculus (T) John W. Snead, MD (T),J. Brooks Crawford, MD (I),J. Earl Rathbun, MD Routine Use of Silicone Tubes in DCR Jay Ju stin Older, MD DCR with Intubation of the Canaliculi Hugh N. O'Donoghue , MCh , FRCS (I) Reconstruction of the Lower Canaliculus and Punctum Clinton D. McCord, Jr. , MD Lacrimal System Dacryoliths Roger Rath, MD (I), Leonard Rich, MD (I), A. Jan Berlin, MD Results ofDCR-Analysis ofReoperations Daniel L. McLachlan, MD (T) , GerardM. Shannon, MD , Joseph C. Flanagan ,

MD

Orbital Anatomy as Viewed by an Endoscope Norman Shorr, MD , Henry Baylis, MD 1 I. Orbital Roof Fractures Joseph C. Flanagan, MD, Gerard M. Shannon, MD , Daniel L. Mcl..Achlan, MD (I) 12 . Preserved Irradiated Homologous Cartilage for Orbital Reconstruction ]. V. Linberg, MD (I), Richard L. Anderson, MD, JJ. Edwards, MD (I), W.R . Panje, MD (l), J. Bordach, MD (I) 13. Orbitocranial Injuries Robert E . Kennedy, MD, Joseph D . Silverberg, MD (I) 14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Unrecognized Eyelid and Orbital Foreign Bodies David B . Soll, MD 15. Management of Ocular Adnexal Problems in Traumatic Craniofacial Deformities Linton A . Whitaker, MD (l), James A . Katowitz, MD IO .

SC I ENT IFI C S YM POS IA

28

S


FEATURED PRESENTATION

r 6. Early and Late Management of Burns of the Eyelids David G. Bowers,Jr., MD (I) 17. Marvin H. Quicken Fellowship Award Presentedby RobertM. Dryden, MD [* to CraigE. Bem·s, MD andJames C.

Fleming, MD] r 8. Questions and Answers: Part I Bernice Z. Brown, MD, Moderator

PART II: PTOSIS, ECTROPION,

ENTROPION,

BLEPHAROPLASTY

19. Physiologic Classification of Ptosis

Bartley R . Frueh, MD 20.

21.

Cyclic Oculo-Motor Spasm Peter Fells, FRCS (I), Richard Collin, FRCS A New Instrument for Obtaining Fascia Lata

John S. Crawford, MD The A-Frame Operation for Acquired Ptosis Robert G. Small, MD 23. Po sterior Approach Repair of Aponeurotic Defects 22.

Ridzard Collin, FRCS 24. lnvolutional Blepharoptosis: A Hi stopathologic Study FrancisC. Sutula, MD (T), RichardK. Dortzbach, MD, 25. Surgical Correction of Pseudoptosis in Double Elevator Palsy MicltaelA. Callahan, MD (T) 26. Inferior Aponeurosis Tucking Revisited

James L. Hargiss,MD 27. Combined

Z-plasty-Horizontal

Shortening Ectropion Procedure

Allen M. Futterman, MD 28. Bilateral Visual Loss After Blepharoplasty JJ. Edwards, MD (I), Richard L. Anderson, MD 29. Punctum Puckering Procedure

Sanford D. Hecht, MD 30. Repair of Ectropion Associated with Everted Punctum

Martin Bodian, MD 3 r. Horizontal Buried Suture Combined with Lid Shortening for Encropion

Robert A. Schimek, MD 32. Exposure Keratitis Following Ptosis Surgery

David F. Kamin, MD (I)

286

APPENDIX

FOUR.


33. Marvin H . Quickert Th esis Award Presentedby Crowell Beard, MD[* to MichaelA. Callahan, MD] 34. Questions and Answers: Part II GeorgeF. Buerger,Jr., MD, Moderator

ADJOURNMENT BUSINESS MEETING

Saturday, November ro, 1979 PART 111:THYROID,

RECONSTRUCTION

35. Use of Scleral Grafts in Oculoplastic Surgery Nancy R. Webb, MD (I), Milton Boniuk, MD 36. Levator Lengthening by Marginal Incisions Arthur S. Grove,Jr., MD 37. Improved Motility and Relief of Diplopia after Orbital Decompression Ray S. Dixon, MD (1), GeorgeR. Lesser, MD (I) 3 8. Com plicatio ns of Transantral Orbital Decompression Henry I. Baylis, MD 39. Basal Cell Carc inoma, D o I Ha ve It All? Fay E. Millett, MD 40. Scleral Grafts in the Secon d Stage of Hugh es Procedure VirginiaLubkin, MD 4r. Simplified Method for Full Thickness Lower Lid Skin Graft Merril{]. Reeh, MD 42. Sclera in the Cu tler-Bear d Procedure Ralph E. Wesley, MD (T), Clinton D. McCord,Jr., MD 43. Radi cal Surgery of M edical Cant hal Basal Cell Carcinoma Mark R. Levine, MD 44. Anterior Lamellar Flap for Major Canthal and Eyelid Reconstruction Richard L. Anderson, MD 45. M edial Ca nthal Plication Orkan C. Stasior, MD 46. Dir ect Closure in Major Lower Lid Reconstruction Frank Meronk,Jr., MD (T ), Robert M. Dryden, MD 47. R econstruction of the Lids Utilizing a M yocutaneous Island-P edicle Flap CharlesM. Stephenson,MD

SC IENTIFI

C S YMP OS IA

287


48. Double Lamellar Vertical Lid Reconstruction W . Andrew Cies, MD 49. Triangular Subcutaneous-Based Skin Flaps David H. Saunders, MD, Gerard M . Shannon, MD 50 . Double Rhomboid Flap Bashar Hamdi, MD (I),John D. Bullock, MD

FEATURED PRESENTATION

5 I. Early and Late Management of Eyelid Scars Richard C. Webster, MD (I) 52. Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award Presented by Lester T. Jones, MD [* to John L. Wobig, MD] 53. Questions and Answers: Part III Alston Callahan, MD, Moderator

PART IV: MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS, SYMPOSIUM ON COMMON

OPHTHALMIC

PLASTIC PROCEDURES

54. Conjunctiva! Erythroplasia of Queyrat George R. Mikhail, MD (!),James P. Wise, MD (1), Ray S. Dixon, MD (I) 55. Electrodissection in Eye Plastic Surgery Robert M. Dryden, MD, Frank Meronk,Jr., MD (I) 56. Intraorbital Eyeglass Bow Mark R. Levine, MD 57. Terylene Orbital Implant Hugh N. O'Donoghue, MCh, FRCS 58. Pupillary Dilatation in Fractures of the Floor of the Orbit Albert Hornblass, MD 59. Evacuation of Orbital Hematoma by Continuous Suction Andrew S . Markovits, MD 60. CSF Leak Following Removal of a Benign Mixed Tumor of the Lacrimal Gland Albert Hornblass, MD

FEATURED PRESENTATIONS SYMPOSIUM ON COMMON

61. Dacryocystorhinostomy John L. Wobig, MD 62 . Anterior Levator Resection Robert R. Waller, MD

288

APPENDIX

F O UR

OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC PROCEDURES


63. Upper Lid Blepharoplasty RichardR. Tenz el, MD 64. Low er Lid Blepharopla sty R obert B. Wilkins, MD 65. ASOPRS Honorary Fellowship Award Presented toJohn C. Mustarde, MD 66. Q uestions and Answers: Part IV Orkan G. Stasior,MD, Moderator

ADJOURN

SC IENTIFI

C SY M P OSI A

289


I ITH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

November 7th & 8th, 1980, Pick Congress Hotel, Chicago, IL 1.

Welcome John L. Wob~, MD, President

PART I: ORBIT, LACRIMAL BLEPHAROPLASTY AND BROW LIFT

Electronic Tonometry in Orbital Diagnosis J ohn D. Bullock, MD 3. Orbital Decompression in Thyroid Myopathy Fay E. Millett, MD 4. Inv erted Papilloma Invo lving the Ocular Adnexa and Orbit Richard Dortzbach, MD, Francis Su tula, MD, Michael Hawes, MD (I) 5. Surgical Management of Orbital Implant Extrusion by Impl ant Placement Posterior to Tenon's Fascia William B. Stewart, MD,James B . Gratiot, MD (I), David B. Soll, MD 6. Unusual Closed Fractures of the Medial and Lateral Orbital Walls and Their Complications Clinton D. McCord,Jr., MD, William R. Nunery, MD (I) 7. Visualization of the Arteries, Veins and Nerves of the Orbit by Sector Computed Tomography A.Jan Berlin, MD, Meredith A. Weinstein, MD (1), Michael T. Modic, MD , (I), Barbara Risius, MD (I), Paul M. Dud1esneau, MD (1) 8. Immunolo gic Characterization of Orbital and Conjunctiva! Lymphoid Tumors Glen 0. Brindley, MD (T), Devron H. Char, MD (I), Paul Stein, PhD (I), Crowell Beard, MD 9. A Study of the Intranasal Ostium Created by External Dacryocystorhinostomy Utilizing an Endorhinoscope John V. Linberg, MD (T), Richard L. Anderson, MD IO . ASOPRS Research Award Presented by Arthur S. Grove, Jr. , MD [* recipient unknown] I I. Polytomography in Evaluation of Extensive Basal Ce ll Car cinoma of the Orbit Joel Leibsohn, MD, William Mangum, MD (1) 12. Congenit al Rhabdomyosarcoma David F. Kamin, MD 13. Rapid Recurrence of Papillary Squamous Ce ll Carcinoma of the Canaliculus Roger Kolm, MD, Kenton Nofsinger, MD (I), Sheldon Freedman, MD (I) 2.

290

APPEND

IX

FOUR


14. Jones' Tube--How Good is It? Mark R. Levine, MD r 5. Lower Lid Blepharoplasty-Cheek Lift Robert G. Small, MD 16. Posterior Eyebrow Fixation Orkan G. Stasio,, MD, Bradley N. Lemke, MD (I) 17. One-way Flow in the Lacrimal Drainage System: Determinants From the Basic Sciences Hampson A. Sisler, MD 18. A Benign Lacrimal Sac Tumor as a Cause of Intermittent Epiphora Craig E. Berris, MD (I), Robert B. Wilkins, MD 19. Obtaining and Using Temporalis Fascia in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Norman Shorr, MD 20. Spontaneous Enophthalmos Associated with Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis Dwight R. Ku/win, MD (T), Robert B. Wilkins, MD 21. Marvin H. Quickert Fellowship Award Presented by John L. Wobig, MD [* to Don Uu, MD] 22. Questions and Answers: Part I George F. Buerger,Jr., MD, Moderator

PART II: BLEPHAROSPASM, LID AND ORBITAL FRACTURES

23. Blepharospasm: An Alternative Approach William N. Gillum, MD (I), Richard L. Anderson, MD 24. Residual Tumor after Major Lid Reconstruction Eugene 0. Wiggs, MD 25. Medial Canthal Tendon Refixation after Trauma Michael A. Callahan, MD, Alston Callahan, MD

SYMPOSIUM ON ORBITAL FRACTURES

26. Intr oduc tion and Complications Gerard M. Shannon, MD 27. Surgical Treatment of Orbital Floor Fractures O rkan G. Stasior, MD 28. Surgical Treatment of Orbital Floor and Tripod Fractures-Otolaryngologic Viewpoint Eugene Tardy, MD (1) 29. Alternative Methods ofTreatment Allen M. Puttem1an, MD 30. Questions and Answers: Part II Alston Callahan, MD, Moderator

SC IEN T IFI C S YM POS IA

29 1


Saturday, November 8, 1980 PART 111:LID TUMORS, RECONSTRUCTION

3 1. Pigmented Ba sal Cell Carcinoma of the Eyelids

Albert Hornblass, MD, Joseph A. Stefano, MD (1) 3 2. Lower Lid Colobomas in Cranio - Facial Anomalies: Fact or Fiction? Jame s A. Katowitz, MD 33. Epigard in the Management of Eyelid Neoplasms Frands G. LAPiana, MD 34. Scleral Grafting in the Management of Ligneous Conjunctivitis A. Jan Berlin, MD 35. Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Eyelids Treated by Lamellar Rese ction Arthur S. Grove, MD 36. Uses of the Mid-Forehead Flap in Re co nstructive Procedures Richard K. Dortzbach, MD 37. Mohs ' Chemosurgery: The Techniques Francis C. Sutula, MD 3 8. The Characteristics of Ear Cartilage and Its Use as a Graft Material Henry I . Baylis, MD 39. Photocoagulation ofHemangiomas of the Eyelids and Orbit in Children John S. Crawford, MD, Robert C. Pashby, MD 40 . DCNB Immunotherapy of Recurrent Squamous Papilloma of the Conjunctiva Richard Petrelli, MD (T) 41. Orbital Cyst Formation in Anophthalmi c Rabbit Orbits Rodney W. McCarthy, MD 42. The Hughes Reconstruction of Lower Eyelid Defects: Avoiding Complications Charles M. Stephenson, MD 43. Spontaneous Granulation After Medial Canthal Tumor Removal Jay Justin Older, MD 44. Dermis Fat Grafting and Analysi s of Early Postoperative Complications and Methods of Their Prevention Cary L. Aguilar, MD (T), GerardM. Shannon, MD , Joseph C . Flanagan, MD 45. Full Thickness Upper Eyelid Bucket Handle Flap for Total Lower Eyelid R econst ruction Richard L. Anderson, MD 46 . The Nasolacrimal Drainage System of th e Rabbit as an Animal Model for Man Cary S. Lissner, MD (T) 47. Enophthalmos Secondary to Maxillary Sinus Mucocele David H. Saunders, MD

292

APPENDIX

F O UR


48. Marvin H. Quick ert Thesis Award Presentedby Robert M. Dryden, MD[* to BradleyN. Lemke, MD] 49 . Questions and Answers : Part III Robert B. Wilkins, MD , Moderator

PART IV: PTOSIS, SYMPOSIUM ON COMMON

OPHTHALMIC PLASTI C

PROCEDURES

50. Lid Droop Following Contralateral Ptosis Repair

Martin Bodian, MD 5 1. The Importance ofElectrom yography Before Surgery for Acquired Ptosis

VirginiaLubkin, MD , Mark Sivak, MD (I) 52. Contro l of the Fold with Ptosis Surgery from the Conjunctiva! Surface

Robert A Schimek, MD 53. The Effects of the Fasanella-Servat Procedure on the Pre-Corneal Tear

Film Daniel L. McLachlan,MD, GerardM . Shannon, MD , Joseph C. Flanagan, MD 54. Levator Tran sposition and Frontalis Sling Procedur e in Severe Unilateral Ptosis and the Paradoxically Innervated Levator James Fleming, MD (T), RobertM . Dryden, MD , Marvin H. Quickert,MD

FEATURED PRE SENTATIONS

55. Blepharospasm: A Surgical Proc edure for Therap y

Arthur F. Battista, MD (I) 56. The Role of the Aponeurosis in Ptosis Surgery

Robert Dryden, MD 57. Pedi atric Surgery of the Lacrimal Excretory System John L. Wobig, MD 58. Tarsal Grafts for Eyelid Reconstruction CharlesR. Leone,Jr., MD 59. ASOPRS Honorary Fellowship Award [* Presented to EverettR. Veirs, MD] 60. Que stions and Answers: Part IV Carl C. Johnson, MD , Moderator SYMPOSIUM ADJOURN S

S C IE NTIFI

C S YMPO S IA

293


I 2TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFI C SYMPOSIUM

November 6, 1981, Pead1tree Plaz a Hot el, Atlanta, GA 1.

Welcome Allen M . Putt ennan, MD, President

PART I: LAC RIMAL DRAINAGE

Silicone Intubation for Failed Nasolacrimal Du ct Probing in Children Richard D ortz bach, MD , Thomas France, MD (I), Burton Ku shner, MD (1), Ru ssell S. Gonnering, MD (I) 3. The U se of Silicone Tubing in Treating Can alicular Injuri es Associated with Eyelid Tumors 2.

William Walter, MD

4. Survey of ASOPRS Opini on Regarding Functional Lacrimal Sac Obstruction Virginia Lubkin, MD

5. Bilateral Congenital Lacrimal Sac Mu coce les with N asal Extension Ri chard D evine, MD (I), and Ri chard And erson, MD 6. Lacrimal Scintillography: Advances and Functional Clinical Applications Timothy Doucet, MD (T ) 7. D iscussion of Lacrimal Papers and Lacrimal Updat e J ohn Wobig, MD

PART II: PTOSIS PRO CEDURES

8. Blepharop lasty wit h Aponeuro sis Re section Robert Schimek, MD 9.

Preserving Muell er's Muscl e in Levator Surgery for Ptosis Hamp son Sisler, MD

IO.

I 1.

Levator Aponeur otic Dehi scence and Co ngenital Ptosis Marcos D oxanas, MD (T), R obert Dryden, MD The U se of I mm Silicone Rods for Frontalis Suspension in Selected Cases of Upper Eyelid Ptosis William St ewart, MD, Jam es Langham, MD

I 2.

Minimal Ptosis Surgery-Movie Paul Gavaris, MD

I

3. Frontali s Sling wit h Silicone R ods J ay Ju stin Older, MD , Peter Dunne, MD (I)

14. Silicone Frontalis Sling Charles Leone, MD , J ohn Shore, MD (I), J ohn Van Gernert, MD (I) I 5.

Discussion of Ptosis Papers and Ptosis Updat e Crowell Beard, MD

294

APPEN D IX

FOUR


16. ASOPRS Honorary Fellowship Award

[* Listed in the programbut uncertainwhetheractuallyawarded.] 17. Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award

[* Presentedto BerniceZ. Brown, MD] PART III: ANATOMY

18. The Microscopic Anatomy of the Lower Eyelid Retractors

MichaelHawes, MD (T), RichardDortzbach, MD 19. The Parasympathetic Innervation of the Lacrimal Gland R. W. McCarthy, MD

FEATURED GUEST SPEAK.ER PRESENTATION 20.

The Treatment of Hemifacial Atrophy Maurice].Jurkiewicz, MD (I)

PART JV: EYELID TUMORS 21.

Injection of Steroids for Juvenile Hemangiomas Which Disturb the Visual Axis

BerniceBrown, MD 22.

Capillary Hemangiomas of the Eyelids and Orbit

Eugene W~s, MD 23. Full Thickness Eyelid Biopsy for Presumed Carcinoma In Situ of the

Palpebral Conjunctiva

Joel Leibsolm,MD, Robert Waller,MD , John Bullock, MD 24. Nitrous Oxide Cryosurgery for Intraepithelial Epithelioma and Its Implication

Richard Devine, MD (I), RichardAnderson, MD 25 . Discussion of previous papers

CharlesBeyer, MD FEATURED GUEST SPEAK.ER PRESENTATION

26. Mohs' Chemosurgery as it Relates to Ophthalmology Richard Bennett, MD (I) 27. Results with Mohs ' Fresh-Frozen Technique Combined with Reconstruction for Difficult Eyelid and Periorbical Malignancies

RichardAnderson, MD 28. Discussion of Lid Reconstruction

Following Mohs ' Chemosurgery

Ri chard Tenzel, MD

SC IENTIFI

C SYMP OS I A

295


29. Discussion of Lid Reconstruction

Following Mohs' Chemosurgery Orkan Stasior, MD 30. Discussion of Mohs' Chemosurgery Arthur Grove, MD Saturday, November 7, 198 I PART V: COMPLICATIONS

3 r. Blindness Following Ectropion Repair Richard Ca"oll, MD 32. Bleeding in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery George Pan's, MD 33. Thermal Orbital Injuries from Disposable Cauteries Don Liu, MD (T) 34. Does Conjnctival Resection in Ptosis Surgery Lead to a Dry Eye? Martin Bodian, MD 3 5. Discussion of Complication Papers Byron Smith, MD

PART VI: EYELID MALPOSITION

36. Review ofEyebrow Lift Procedures Vincente Alcarez , MD (T) , Richard Tenzel, MD 37. Evaluation of the Patient with Ectropion Bartley Frueh, MD , L.D. Schoengarth,MD (I) 38. Tarsal Ectropion Secondary to Detachment of Lower Lid Retractor Ralph Wesley, MD 39. Managment of Margnal Entropion of Upper Lid Milton Boniuk, MD 40 . Cicatricial Entropion: An Analysis of Its Treatment with Transverse Blepharotomy and Marginal Rotation l.AwrenceKatzen, MD (T), Allen Puttem1an, MD 41. Lateral Canthal Tendon Dehiscence Michael Patipa, MD 42. Reconstruction of Absent Lateral Canthal Tendon Mu"ay Meltzer, MD 43. Discussion of above papers Robert Dryden, MD

296

AP P EN D I X

FOU R.


PART VII: GRAFTS AND MISCELLANEOUS TECHNIQUES

44. The Pullover Technique for Recurrent Pterygium Robert Small, MD 45. Surgical Treatment of Ligneous Conjunctivitis David Kamin, MD 46. Repair of Superior Sulcus Deformity Using Autogenous Cartilage FrancisSutula, MD, M .L. Miller, MD (I), 0. Thomas, MD, B.A. Newton, MD (I) 47. Autogenous Ear and Nose Cartilage as Donor Material Norman Shorr, MD 48. Cilia Transplantation Thomas Naugle, MD (T) 49. Lash Transplant for Trichiasis Hugh O'Donoghue, MD (I) 50. Discussion of above papers Allen Putterman, MD 5 r. Marvin H. Quickert Fellowship Award Presentation [* David R. Segrest, MD] 52 . Marvin H. Quickert Thesis Award Presentation [* Presentedto Michael]. Hawes, MD]

PART VIII: ORBITAL DISEASE AND SURGERY

53. The Role of the Ophthalmologist in the Cranio-Facial Team Approach to Repair of Major Traumatic Orbital Defects James Katowitz, MD 54. A Combined Trans Cranial and Orbital Approach to Optic Nerve Gliomas Milton Boniuk, MD 55. The Transplant of Abdominis Rectus Muscle to the Orbit Following Exenteration James Hargiss, MD 56. Orbital Neurolemmoma: Clinical Presentation and Surgical Management Branson Call, MD, John Wright, MD 57. Benign Osteoblastoma of the Orbit A J. Berlin, MD 5 8. The Surgical Management of Orbital Varices Mark Levine, MD

SC IENTIFI

C S YMP O SIA

297


59. Discussion of above papers

Joseph Flanagan,MD 60. The Orbital Decompression-A Approach

Comparison of the Eyelid and Orbital

Henry Baylis, MD 61 . Inferior Lateral Orbitotomy

Arthur Grove, MD 62. The Role of Orbital Computerized Tomography in the Managem en t of Orbital Disease Ray Dixon, MD 63. The Fat Lobule Dissection and Removal for Exophthalmos in Graves' Disease SanfordHecht,MD, PierreGuibor,MD , DarrellWo!fley,MD (I), EugeneWiggs, MD 64 . ASOPRS Research Award Presentedby Arthur S. Grove, MD[* to Elaine L. Chuang, MD] 65. Resorbable Implant for Bony Orbital Defects Elaine L. Chuang, MD (I) 66. Discu ssion of above papers Robert Wilkins, MD PART IX: ENUCLEATION

AND SOCKET SURGERY

67. Orbital Implants and Choroidal Melanoma ].R. 0. Collin, MD, Robert Sanke, MD (I) 68. Biomechanics of Socket Movement: A Proposed Enucleation Technique William Chen, MD (1), Clinton D. McCord,Jr., MD 69. Dermis Fat Graft in Orbital Reconstru ction

John Bullock, MD 70. Discussion of above papers David B. Soll, MD

SYMPOSIUM ADJOURNS

298

APPENDIX

FOUR


INTERNATIONAL

SYMPOSIUM ON EYELID, ORBITAL AND LACRlMAL SURGERY

Friday and Saturday, October 29 and 30, 1982 IMPERIAL BALLROOM HILTON HOTEL, SAN FRANCISCO, CA

Friday, October 29, 1982 1.

Welcome Jan Berlin, MD, President, ASOPRS

PART I: THE EYELIDS

Moderator: William Stewart, MD A. EYELID MALPOSITION

Entropion Following Cutler-Beard Reconstruction Richard Carroll, MD 3. Variation in the Pathophysiology oflnvo lutional Entropion and Its Treatn1ent Arthur Schaefer, MD 4. Cicatricial Entropion, An Alternative Approach Timothy Doucet, MD, Hsua-Ho Chu, MD 5. Aponeurosis Disinsertion in Congenital Entropion David Tse, MD (T), Richard Anderson, MD 6. Ectropion Repair by Lower Fomix Reconstruction Joel Leibsohn, MD 7. Discussion J.R.0. Collin, MD 8. Upper Eyelid Retraction Recession Robert Dryden, MD, T. David Wilkes, MD 9. Contro lled Recession of the Upper Eyelid Robert Small, MD IO . Discussion Arthur Grove, Jr., MD I I. The Anesthesia for Leva tor Resection in Adults Andre Reny, MD r 2. A Significant Advance in Frontalis Surgery Virginia Lubkin, MD I 3. Physiologic Approach to Frontalis Suspension Operation Bernd Si lver, MD 14. Super Maximum Levator Resection for Severe Unilateral Congenital Blepharoptosis Gil Epstein, MD, Allen Puttennan, MD 2.

SC IE N TIFI

C S Y MP OS IA

2. !) \)


I 5.

Long-term Follow-up of Ptosis Correction by Frontalis Suspension: Comparison of Autogenous Fascia, Preserved Fascia and Silicone Slings Michael Callahan, MD 16. Aponeurosis Surgery for Congenital and Acquired Ptosis Jay Older, MD 17. Involutional Ptosis-Additional Anatomic Findings Clinton McCord,Jr., MD,John Shore, MD 18. The Marcus Gunn Phenomenon-A Review of7r Cases Steven Pratt, MD (T), Charles Beyer, MD, Car/Johnson, MD,John Papale,

MD 19. When is Jaw-Winking Bartley Frueh, MD

not Jaw-Winking?

Repair of Ptosis in Blepharophimosis David Kamin, MD, Nachum Rosen, MD 2 r . Discussion Crowell Beard, MD 20.

B. TUMORS 22 .

23. 24.

25.

26.

Malignant Melanoma of the Eyelid Skin Leo Koornneef, MD, Alec Garner, MD, ].R. 0. Collin, MD, Arnold Levine, MD The Multiple "Nevoid" Basal-Cell Carcinoma Syndrome: A Phakomatosis Arthur Grove, Jr., MD Amyloidosis of the Ocular Adnexae Bradley Lemke, MD, Orkan Stasior, MD Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma -A Clinico-Histopathologic Review of 37 Cases Marcos Doxanas, MD, W. Richard Green, MD Oiscussion Eugene Wiggs, MD

C . RECONSTRUCTION

TECHNIQUES

27. Tarsal Plate Reconstruction Gianpiero Actis, MD , Angelo Vannini, MD 28. Eyelid Reconstruction Using Tarsomarginal Grafts H. Hubner, MD 29. Upper Eyelid Transposition Flaps for Full Thickness Vertical Shortening

of the Lower Lid Eugene Wiggs, MD 30. The Use of Tarsus as a Free Transfer Graft in Oculoplastic Surgery Charles Stephenson, MD, Bernice Brown, MD

JOO

APPEN DIX

FOUR


3 I . Reconstruction of the Medial Can thu s by Spontaneous Granulation (Laissez Faire)-A Review John Ha"ington, MD 32. Tarsal Advancement Flaps in Upper Eyelid Reconstruction Charles Leone,Jr ., MD 3 3. Discussion Richard Tenzel, MD

D. COSMETIC SURGERY

34. Simultaneous Treatment ofDermatochalasis and Abnormal-Appearing Skin Allen Putterman, MD 35. Finesse in the Medial and Lateral Canthus in Brow and Blepharoplasty Norman Sho", MD 36. lntraoperative and Postoperative Bleeding Associated with Blepharoplasty Henry Baylis, MD, Russell Neuhaus, MD 37. Discussion Richard Wilkins, MD

E. ADDITIONAL PRESENTATIONS

38. Protractor Extirpation for Blepharospasm Richard Anderson, MD 39. Dermabrasion with Mucous Membrane Graft for Cicatrizing Diseases of Eyelid Clinton McCord,Jr ., MD, William Chen, MD 40. Use of Autologous Conj unctival Transplantation for Reconstruction of the Periocular Mucous Membrane in Abnormalities of the Eye, Eyelid, and Orbit David Vastine, MD, William Stewart, MD 41. Prevention and Treatment of Cicatricial Epicanthus Dwight Ku/win, MD 42. The Medical and Surgical Treatment of Cicatricial Pemphigoid Mark Levine, MD 43. Cinching the Inner Canthal Ligament Robert Schimek, MD 44. Correction of Recurrent Trichiasis Mohamed Ali El-Aswad, MD 45. Discussion Byron Smith, MD 46. Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award Presented by Allen Putterman, MD [* to Richard K. Dortzbach, MD]

SC IENTIFI

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47. ASOPRS Past President Award Presented by A. Jan Berlin, MD [* to Allen M. Futterman, MD]

PART II: THE LACRIMAL SYSTEM

Moderator: Everett Veirs, MD

48. Management of Previously Failed Probings in the Pediatric Patient Using Dacryocystograms Frank Christensen, MD (T), Allen Futterman, MD 49 . Evaluation of the Lacrimal Drainage System by Computerized Axial Tomography Martin Bodian, MD, Steven Divack, MD 50. A Useful Alternative to Silicone Intubation in Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Weldon Havins, MD (T), Robert Wilkins, MD 51 . Simplified Intubation Technique in Congenital Dacryostenosis (Film) H. Busse, MD, H. Promesberger,MD 52. Silicone-Octopus Repair ofLacrimal Obstructions in Children Koji Nagashima, MD 53. Single Armed Lacrimal Stent for Intubation Paul Gavaris, MD 54. Lacrimal Sac Identification in Dacryocystorhinostomy Surgery Robert Dryden, MD, T. David Wilkes, MD 55 . Surgical Management ofLacrimal Drainage Problems in Severe Craniofacial Deformities James Katowitz, MD 56. Marvin H . Quickert Fellowship Award Presented by A. Jan Berlin, MD [* recipientunknown] 57. Medial and Lateral Punctal Repositioning Hampson Sisler, MD 58. Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage after Dacryocystorhinostomy Russell Neuhaus, MD (T), Henry Baylis, MD 59. Treatment of Congenital Dacryostenosis Adolphe Neetens, MD, M. Rubbens, MD 60. Lacrimal Surgery in Children Susan Hughes, MD (T), Richard We/ham, MD 61. Modified Trephining Technique for the Insertion of Jones Tubes Peter Henderson, MD 62. Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy with Mucous Membrane Graft Charles Campbell, III, MD (T) 63. Saphenous Vein Grafting in Lacrimal Surgery-A New Approach to Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy David Soll, MD

J02

APPEN D IX

FO UR


64. Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy Orkan Stasior, MD 65 . Dis cussion John Wobig, MD ADJOURN BUSINE SS MEETIN G FOR ASOPRS MEMBER SHIP

Saturday, October 30 PART Ill: THE O RBIT

M oderator: G.M. Bleeker, MD A. VASCULAR DISORDERS

66. Intralesional Cortical Steroid Inje ction for Infantile Orbital Hemangi oma

Burton Ku shner, MD 67. Cavernous Hemangioma-A Retro spe ctive Review of Orbital Inv olvement and a New Classification of Systemic Manife station s Mark Ru chman, MD (T ), J oseph Flanagan, MD 68. Spontaneou s Carotid-Cavernous Fistula s w ith Deta chable Ballo on Catheter Occlusion LAwrence Katz en, MD, Barry Ka tze n, MD , David Davis, MD , Ri chard Tenze l, MD 69. Di scussion Allen Putt erman, MD

B. ANATOMY AND DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES

70. ASOPRS Research Award Presented by J ohn D . Bullock, MD [* to Ru ssell S. Gormering, MD] 7 1. The Cynomo lgu s M o nk ey as a Mod el for Orbital R esearch Ru ssell Gonnering, MD, Ri chard Dortzbach, MD 72 . Vascular Ar chite ctur e in th e Human Orbit Michael Bergen, MD 73. A New Echographic Sign for a R eliable Diff erential Diagnosis of Graves' Di sease Karl Ossoinig, MD 74. Orbital Tissue Differentiation with Standardized Echography Sandra Byrne, J oel Glaser, MD 7 5. Discussion Clinton M cCord, Jr. , MD

SCIEN

T I FIC

SY MP OS IA

JO)


C. INFLAMMATIONS

76. Orbital Cellulitis Following Dental Extraction John Bullock, MD 77. Treatment of Orbital Abscess Albert Hornblass, MD, Kathleen Stern, MD, Cecil Grimes, MD 78. Subperiosteal Abscess of the Orbit Gerald Harris, MD 79. Our Experience in Ten Years of Ocular Diagnostics in "Borderline" Orbito-Sinusal Pathology A. Reibald, MD, Vincenzo Lorusso, MD, C. Balacco-Gabrielli,MD 80. Discussion John Wright, MD

D. NEOPLASMS

81. Orbital Metastases from Carcinoma Franfois Codere, MD, Richard Anderson, MD 82. Tumor s of Salivary (& Lacrimal) Gland Origin (12 Years Experience) John Norman, MD 8 3. Recent Advances in Pathology as Applied to Orbital Biopsy Jack Rootman, MD, Noel Quenvill, MD , David Owen, MD 84. Discussion Charles Leone, Jr. , MD 8 5. Marvin H . Quickert Thesis Award Presented by James Katowitz, MD[* to Russell S. Gonnering, MD]

E. ORBITAL SURGERY

86. Endoscopy and Orbital Surgery John Norris, MD 87. Surgical Treatment of N eurofibroma of the Orbit IanJackson, MD, E.R. l.Aws, Jr., MD 88. Autogenous Lipo-Dermal Orbital Implantation: 100 Cases Byron Smith MD, Stephen Bosniak, MD, Frank Nesi, MD, FrancisLAPiana, MD 89. Treatment of the Contracted Eye Socket ].M.H.M. Borghouts, MD, A]. Otto, MD 90. Reconstruction of the Lower Fornix in the Anophthalmic Socket M. Hatt , MD 91. Therapeuti c Socket Ablation Francis LAPiana, MD, Hugh Peterson, MD

304

APPENDIX

FOUR


92. Surgery on Orbital Floor Fractures: Influence of Time of Repair and

Fracture Size Michael Hawes, MD, Richard Dortzbach, MD 93. In Situ Molded Methyl Methacrylate Implants to Correct Late Traumatic Orbital Floor and Rim Defects ]. Earl Rathbun , MD 94. Advantages ofintemal Stable Fixation of Zygomatic Fractures H.P. van den Akker , MD, F.H.M. Kroon, MD 9 5. Transcranial Orbitectomy Byron Smith, MD, Stephen Bosniak, MD, Donald Wood-Smith, MD 96. The Coronal Approach to the Orbit: Ophthalmic Indications Giulio Bonavolonta, MD 97. Update: Management of Orbital Mucoceles and Cysts John Simonton, MD, Robert Della Rocca, MD 98. Evisceration with Posterior Releasing Incisions and Scleral Fixation Sutures Charles Stephenson, MD 99. Contraindications to Further Oculoplastic Surgery Alston Callahan, MD 100. Discussion Joseph Flanagan, MD

F. ADDITIONAL PRESENTATIONS IOI.

I 02.

103. 104. 105.

106.

Ocular Muscle Extorsion and Congenital Orbital Malformation Serge Morax, MD Management of a Traumatically Dislodged Frontal Sinus Orbital Osteoma Robert E . Kennedy, MD Lipid Granuloma of the Frontal Bone N. Branson Call, MD , John Wright, MD Palpebral and Orbital Dermoid Cysts-58 Cases M.S. Pirouz, MD , A. Kheyrieth, MD, P. Bashizadeh-Fakhar CT Controlled Fine Needle Orbital Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Orbital Metastases Devron Char, MD {T) Discussion Richard Dortzbach, MD ADJOURN

SC IE N TIFI C S YMP OSI A

J OS


14TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

November 4, 1983, Ritz-Carlton Hotel, Chicago, IL Call to Order/Welcome ]. Earl Rathbun, MD , President William B. Stewart, MD, ProgramChairman

I.

LACRlMAL SYSTEM

Control of Lacrimal Secretion S. Slade, MD (l),J. V. Linberg, MD, A.R. Immediata, MD (I) 3. Age Related Changes in the Human Lacrimal Gland Janet L. Roen, MD (T), 0. G. Stasior, MD 4. Lacrimal Gland Duct Cysts Albert Hornblass, MD, BJ. Herschorn, MD (I) 5. Punctal Agenesis: A Review Susan Hughes, MD, Richard We/ham, FRCS (I) 6. Exogenous Ball Valve in Lacrimal Sac D.P. Felt, MD (I), Bartley Frueh, MD 7. Modified DCR John Burns, MD 8. Tear Flow after DCR/CDCR N.A. Nik, MD (T),JJ. Hurwitz , MD, FCRS(C) (1), Chin Sang, MD (I) 9. Palpebral Dacryoadenectomy for Epiphora BJ. Herschorn, MD (I), A. Hornblass, MD, C. Guberina, MD (I) IO. Frontal Sinusitis from Lacrimal Surgery Ralph E. Wesley, MD I I. Lacrimal System Involvement with Wegener's Granulomatosis Francis C. Sutula, MD, Lynda Lane, MD (I) I 2. Comment and Discussion/Probing and Irrigation of the Lacrimal Drainage System James Katowitz, MD 13. ASOPRS Research Award [* Presented to Stephen G. Slade, MD] 2.

EYELID--BASIC

14. Introductory

CONCEPTS

Remarks/Overview/Importance Robert R. Waller, MD I 5. Lower Eyelid Laxity and Ocular Symptoms Don Liu, MD, Orkan G. Stasior, MD

306

APPENDIX

FOUR

of Systematic Approach


16. Unified Approach to Surgical Correction oflnvolutionalEntropion of the Lower Eyelid Richard Dortzbach, MD, John McCetn"ck, MD (I) 17. Anatomic Basis for the Repair of Ectropion Russell W. Neuhaus, MD 18. Eyebrow Incision Making Bradley Lemke, MD, Orkan C. Stasior, MD 19. Surgical Treatment of Essential Blepharospasm Clinton D. McCord, MD, John W. Shore, MD, James R. Putnam, MD (I) 20. Preliminary Results in the Treatment ofBlepharospasm with Botulinum Toxin Alan B . Scott, MD (I) 21 . Bleeding in Blepharoplasty: An Anatomi c Approach R. Toby Sutcliffe, MD (T), Henry Baylis, MD 22 . Injury and Repair Following Cryosurgery of th e Eyelid & Lacrimal System of the Rhesus Monkey D. Liu MD,]. Nateilla, DDS (1), A. Schaefer, MD , A . Cage, MD (I)

EYELID-SURGI

CAL TECHNIQUES , APPLICATIONS, & ILLUSTRAT IVE CASES

23. Medial Ectropion Repair CJ. Crawford, FRACS (I),J.R.O. Collin, FRCS 24. M edial Canthal Tendon Laxity and Repair Joel Leibsolm, MD 25. Periosteal Fixation in Blepharopla sty Robert C. Small, MD 26. Temporalis Muscle Transfer for the Correction oflnvolutional Ectropion S.L. Bosniak, MD, M.E. Sacks, MD (I) 27. Cicatricial Lower Lid Ectropion and the Malar Eminence Hamps on A. Sisler, MD 28. Use of a Periosteal Strip to Augment Lid Reconstruction C. Weinstein, MD (I), R.L. Anderson, MD , D . Tse, MD 29. Homologous Tarsus as a Donor Graft in Eyelid Surgery Bernice Z. Brown, MD 30. Lamellar Tarsoplasty for Horizontal Tarsal Kink Rodney W. M cCarthy, MD 3 1 . Vertical Tarsal Buckling-A Complication of Ptosis Rep air M . Patipa, MD, Robert Wilkins, MD 32. Tarsal Rotation for Reconstruction of Upper Eyelid Defects R. Kersten, MD (1), R. Anderson, MD, D. Tse, MD 33. Management of Post-Blepharoplasty "Round Eye " and Scleral Show: " Madame Butterfly Procedure " Norman Shorr, MD

SC IENTIFI

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307


34. The Mysterious "Second" Temporal Fat Pad Allan Putterman, MD 3 5. Repair of Thyroid Lid Retraction with Fascia Lata Grafts C. B. Campbell, MD,]. Flanagan, MD 36. Large Peri-Ocular Keratoacanthomas J.R. Boynton, MD, S.S. Searl, MD (I), E.H. Caldwell, MD (I) 37. Treatment of Eyelid Spider Bite with Dapsone W .R. Ballinger, MD (1), R.E. Wesley, MD 38. Comment / Followup oflntroductory Remarks Robert R. Waller, MD

SOFT TISSUE POCKET RECONSTRUCTION

39. Anatomic Changes in the Anophthalmic Socket J.M . Weston, MD (I), D . Soll, MD 40. Conformer Design in Socket Reconstruction John Harrington, MD 41. Dermal-fat "Baseball" Orbital Implant John Bullock, MD 42. Barriers to Orbital Imp lant Migration and Extrusion David Segrest, MD (T), R.K. Dortzbach, MD

LUNCHEON-PRESENTATION

OF AWARDS

43. [* Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award not specifically listed .] [* Presented to Richard L. Anderson, MD] 44. Discussion / Questions & Answers [* Luncheon moderatornot listed.]

THERAPEUTIC

INNOVATIONS

45. Two New Devices for Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Virginia Lubkin, MD 46. Tarsus in a Bottle ]. V. Linberg, MD (I) 47. Ear Cartilage Banking ]. W . Shore, MD, Susan J. Dittmar, MD (I) 48. Co2 Laser Excision ofXanthelasma G. C. Gladstone, MD (I), H. Beckman, MD (I) 49 . Co2 Laser Treatment of Malignant Conjunctiva! Lesions F. Codere, MD (I), S. Brownstein, MD (I)

30 8

AP PENDIX

F O UR


50. Use ofHematoporphyrin-Photoirradiation

Therapy in Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome D. Tse, MD, R. Kersten, MD (I), R. Anderson, MD 51. Combined Surgery and Cryotherapy for Scleral Invasion of Epithelial Malignancies Jonathan]. Dutton, MD (T) 52 . Comment / Discussion A. Jan Berlin, MD

ORBIT

53. Orbital Gunshot Wounds M. C. Ruchman, MD , ]. C. Flanagan, MD 54. CT Scanning in Orbital Floor Fractures S.M . Cilbard, MD (I), M.F. Mafee, MD (I) 55. Hematic Cyst A. Shapiro, MD (I), M. Tso, MD (I), A. Putterman, MD, M. Goldberg, MD (I) 56. Evaluation of Cystic Lesions of the Orbit ]. Merriam, MD (I), D. Char, MD, R. Stone, MD (I) 57. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment ofDermolipomas R. Connering, MD, B. Lemke, MD 58. Non-Steroid Responsive Pseudotumor of the Orbit Richard L. Petrelli, MD 59. Orbital Cellulitis D. Bergin, MD (l),J. Wright, MD, FRACS 60. Surgical Approach to the Medial Retrobulbar Space Charles Leone, MD 61. Review of Exenteration Charles Stephenson, MD 62. Elective Orbital Decompression Combined with Lid and Muscle Surgery Robert A. Schimek, MD 63. Comment on Surgery for Thyroid Ophthalmopathy Clinton D. McCord, MD 64. A New Exophthalmometer Thomas C. Naugle, MD 65. Isolated Neurofibroma of the lnfraorbital Nerve ]. Roen, MD, C. Labay, MD (I), C. Dauge, MD (I), R. Della Rocca, MD 66. Angiolyrnph oid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of the Orbit C. Harris, MD, L. Clowry, MD (1),J. Randall, MD (I) 67. Orbital Mucormycosis William P. Chen, MD

SC I E NTIFI

C S YM POS IA

30 9


68. Comment on Orbital Section Arthur Grove, MD

SURGICAL "PEARLS" FROM THE EXPERTS

69. Blepharoplasty

]. Earl Rathbun , MD 70. Ptosis ]. Ju stin Older, MD 7 I. Eyelid Reconstruction Joe Flanagan, MD 72. Dacryo cystorhinostomy John Wobig, MD 73. Enucleation Mark Levine, MD 74. Penultimate, Definitive Discussion and Comment Henry Baylis, MD 7 5. Clo sing Remarks

ADJOURN BUSINESS MEETING

JI0

APPEND I X

FOUR


I 5TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Nov ember 16, 1984, PeachtreePlaza Hotel, Atlanta, GA 1.

Call to Order / Welcome Richard P. Ca"oll , MD , President James A . Katowitz , MD, Program Chairman

PTO SJS/LJD RETRACTION

Ptosis and Hypotropi a J.R. 0 . Collin, FRCS, J.P. Lee (I) 3. Brow Suspension with a Transpo sed Leva tor Muscle Russell W. Neuhau s, MD 4 . Congenital Lower Eyelid R e~raction James W . Karesh, MD (1), All en M. Puttem1an, MD 5. The Use of Preaponeurotic Fat Capsule as a Tissue Glide in Repairing Cicatricial Lagophthalmos John N. Ha"ington , MD 2.

LID RE CON STRU C TION

6.

7. 8.

9.

IO .

1I . 12.

I 3.

I 4.

Nitrous Oxide-Oxygen Inhalation Sedation Analgesia in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Gilbert A . Epstein, MD The Eyelid Crease in Eyelid and Orbital Surgery Robert M . Dryd en, MD , Jam es L. Adam s, MD (I) Pseudoxanthelasma J ohn D . Bullock, MD, Patrick]. Connelly, MD (I), Basel Yanes, MD (1), R. Jean Campbell, MD (I) Central Retinal Artery Occlusion: A Complication of Intralesi onal Steroid Iniection in Juvenile Hemangioma Norman Sho" , MD Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: R eport of Two Cases David B . Soll, MD , Domenic C. Izz o, MD (I) A New Tissue Expander in O culoplastic Surgery Jeffrey]. Hurwitz , MD (I), W . Victor, MD (I) Reconstruction of the Medial Canthal Tendon Michael Patipa, MD Repair of Medial Canthal Dystopia Emily Fant, MD (I), Francis C. Sutula, MD A New App roach to Entropion Repair by Pre-Tarsal Orbicularis Muscle Fixation Wen Ming Hsu, MD (I), D on Liil, MD

SC I ENTI

FI C SY M POS IA

] I I


r 5. Combined Viable Composite Graft Temporal Semicircular Skin Flap Procedure Allen M. Puttennan, MD 16. Management of the Patient with Facial Nerve Palsy and a Description of a Fascia Lata Facial Sling Eugene o. W~s, MD 17. The Use ofTemporalis Muscle Transfer in Seventh Nerve Palsy Clinton D . McCord, MD, DJ. Bergin, MD (I)

BLEPHAROSPASM SYMPOSIUM

Moderator: Robert B. Wilkins , MD

r 8. The Problem Robert B. Wilkins , MD 19. Orbicularis Extirpation for Essential Blepharospasm: Surgical Modifications and Long Term Results Gary S. Weinstein, MD (I), Richard L. And erson, MD 20. Botulinum Toxin Injections : Update I Bartley Frueh, MD, Ted H. Wojno, MD, Douglas P. Felt, MD (I) 21. Botulinum Toxin Injections: Update II Norman Sho", MD,Joel Kopelman, MD (I) 22. Botulinum Toxin Injections : Update III and Comparison of Results Robert B. Wilkins, MD 23. Blepharo spasm-Panel Discussion 24. Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award Presented by Ri chard L. Anderson, MD[* to Clinton D. McCord, Jr., MD] 25. Merrill]. Reeh Pathology Award Presented by William Stewart, MD [* toJanet Ro en, MD]

THE LACRIMAL SYSTEM

Moderator: Albert Homblass, MD 26. Digital Subtraction Dacryocystography Gary T. Rajlo, MD,Jerry E. Galloway, MD (I), Thomas A. Kavic, MD (1) 27. Preventing Septa! Adhesion s Post Da cry ocystorhinostomy Richard R. T enze l, MD 28. A New Tear Duct for Stenting and By-Pass Jeffrey]. Hurwit z, MD (I) 29 . The Silicone Sponge Stent Dacryocystorhinostomy Robert G. Small, MD, Roger Bonham, MD (I), Steven Sobol, MD (I) 30. The M anagement of Displaced Silastic Tube s John A. Burns, MD

J 12

APPENDIX

FOUR


3 r. Jones Bypass Tubes-A Long Term Follow Up Robert B. Wilkins, MD 32. A Lacrimal Perspective--1984 Abraham Werb, FRCS (1)

FEATURED LECTURER

33. Facial Skeletal Contouring: Aesthetic and Structural Concepts Linton A. Whitaker, MD 34. Discussion 35. ASOPRS Research Award [* Listed in program but minutes indicate that award was not given.]

ORBITAL IMAGING TECHNIQUES-NEW

CONCEPTS

Moderator: Arthur Grove, MD

36. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Orbital Disorders: A Preliminary Report Michael Boxer, MD (I), Perry F. Garber, MD, Samuel Packer, MD (I), Roger A. Hyman, MD (1),Jon A. Edwards, MD (I), Harry L. Stein, MD (I) 37. A New Technique of Computerized Image Procession from CT Scans to Produce Precise In Vivo Orbital Volumes and 3D Reconstruction of Orbital Contents Virginia Lubkin, MD, Arthur Millman, MD (1), Martin Gersten, MD (I), Arie L. Liebeskind, MD (I), Albert Messina, MD (I)

ORBITAL TUMORS

3 8. Childhood Orbital Pseudotumors Mark R . Levine, MD, Hans E. Grossniklaus, MD (!),Jonathan H . Lass, MD (I) 39. Palpable Orbital Masses-A Review of 300 Cases Steven G. Pratt, MD , Richard L. Dallow, MD (I) 40. Extraocular Muscle Involvement in Orbital LymphomaA Series of 5 Cases Albert Homblass, MD, FredericA. Jakobiec, MD (I), David M. Reifler, MD (I), Jonathan H. Mines, MD (I) 41. Orbital Suction Trap Aspiration Biopsy (ST AB) Daniel R. Tobin, MD (I), Gregory B. Krohel, MD 42. Lymphatic Drainage of the Monkey Orbit John]. McGetrick, MD (T) 43. Marvin H. Quickert Thesis Award Presented by Michael A . Callahan, MD [* toJohn]. McGetrick, MD]

SC IENTIFI

C S YM POS IA

3l J


ORBITAL RECONSTRUCTION

Moderator: Richard K. Dortzbach, MD

44. Adjunctive Hyperbaric Oxygen in Periorbital Reconstruction Ru ssell S. Gonnen·ng, MD

45. Surgical Techniques for Closure of Naso-Orbital and Nasocutaneous Fistulae John W. Shore, MD, Frank W. Shagets, MD (1), Charles R . Leone, Jr ., MD 46. Reconstruction of Severely Contracted Anophthalmic Sockets with Dermis Fat/ Split Thickness Skin Grafts from Single Donor Site Ralph E . Wesley, MD, john E . Carney, MD (I) 47. Exenteration of the Orbit Milton Boniuk, MD

48. Use of Dermal Graft to Line Exenterated Orbit Joseph A. MaurielloJr., MD, K.H. Han , MD (I) 49. Management of Deep Orbital Invasion by Skin Can cer MOHS Excision Michael A . Callahan, MD 50. ASOPRS Past President Award Presented by Richard P. Carroll, MD to]. Earl Rathbun, MD

ORBITAL TRAUMA

51. Improved Technique for Repair of Trimal ar Fractures and Orbital Trauma William R. Nunery, MD 52. Surgical Repair of Medial Wall Fractures Charles R. Leone, MD, William C. Lloyd III , MD (I) 53. Medial Orbital Wall Fractures : Complications and Management David R. Segrest, MD , Ri chard K. Dortzbach, MD 54. Orbital Volume Augmentation with Adjustable Prefabricated Methyl Methacrylate Subperiosteal Implants Steven C. Dresner, MD (I), Franfois Codere, MD (I), Christine Corriveau, MD (l),Jean -Franfois Durette, BCO (I)

SYMPOSIUM-ENOPHTHALMO

S AND THE SEEING EYE

Moderator:Jam es A . Katowitz, MD 55. The Problem-Causes and Classification Arthur S. Grove, MD 56. Synthetic Impl ants Clinton D. McCord, MD

)14

APP END IX

F OUR


57. Soft Tissue Implants and Camouflage Techniques Allen M. Futterman, MD 58. Autogenous Bone Implants Linton A. Whitaker, MD 59. Panel Discussion

SURGICAL PEARLS

Moderator:Richard P. Carroll, MD 60. How I Create a Matching Lid Crease in Unilateral Ptosis

]. Earl Rathbun, MD 61. How I Reattach the Posterior Limbs of the Medial Canthal Tendon Clinton D. McCord, MD 62. How I Select the Proper Location and Pass Transnasal Wire Joseph C. Flanagan,MD 63. How I Form the Lid Margin and Canthus after Lid Sharing Proc edures Henry C. Baylis, MD 64. Panel Discussion MEETING ADJOURNS

SC IENTI

F I C SY MP OSI A

J I

5


16TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

October 4, 1985, St . Francis Hotel, San Francisco,CA

Call To Order/Welcome Joseph C. Flanagan, MD , President Albert Hornblass, MD, Program Chairman 2. Intracanalicular Eyelid Fracturing for Severe Medial Ectropion Ronald W. Kristan, MD (I), Orkan G. Stasior, MD 3. A Simple Method for Correction Entropion Hugh O'Donohue, FRCS 4. Lateral Canthal Tendon Anatomy Vincent Gioia, BS (I),John V Linberg, MD, Steven A . McCormick, MD (I) I.

EYELID RECONSTRUCTION

5. Upper Eyelid Entropion-A Review of Over 200 Cases J.R . 0. Collin, FRCS, E.G. Kemp, FRCS (I) 6. Th e Medial Spindle Procedure for Involutional Medial Ectropion Thaddeus S. Nowinski, MD (I), Richard L. Anderson, MD 7. Free Autogenous Tarsal Conjunctiva! Grafts to Reconstruct Major Eyelid Defects Mi chael]. Hawes, MD 8. Management of Congenital and Acquired Telecanthus Roger Kohn, MD 9. Use of the Pre-Auricular Graft in Eyelid Reconstruction Robert M . Dryden, MD , Allen E. Wulc, MD (I) 10. Small Incision Techniques in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery John]. Woog, MD (I), Richard K. Dortzbach, MD I I. Orbicularis Mobilization in Eyelid Reconstruction Marcos T . Doxanas, MD 12 . Double Composite Eyelid Reconstruction, A Long Term Follow Up Charles K. Beyer-Machule, MD I 3. Hematoporphyrin-Derivative Photodynamic Therapy for Exophytic Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Conjunctiva David T. Tse, MD , Robert Folberg, MD (1) 14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lid David M. Reifler, MD (T), Alb ert Hornblass, MD

BLEPHAROSPASMS

15. Facial Nerve Injury and Primary Rhytidectomy in the Treatment of Essential Blepha.rospasms David R. Fett, MD (I), Charles Z. Weingarten, MD (I), Allen M. Futterman, MD

316

APPENDIX

FOUR


16. The Use of Initial "High Dose" Botulinum in the Treatment of

Blepharospasm John N. Harrington, MD

PTOSIS

17. The Modified Fasanella-Sexvat Ptosis Operation Using a Polypropylene

Pull-Out Suture Charles M . Stephenson, MD 18. Cystic Lesion of the Lid Following Ptosis Surgery Russell S. Gonnering, MD , Richard P. Carroll, MD 19. Treatment of Congenital Ptosis by Maximal Levator Resection Joseph A. MaurielloJr ., MD 20. Correction of Ptosis by the Levator Advancement Technique James H. Carraway, MD (I) 21. Treatment of Prolapsed Conjunctiva Gila Buckman, MD (I), Mark R. Levine, MD 22. The Use of Adjustable Sutures in Upper Eyelid Surgery Robert G. Small, MD 23. Denexvation Miillerectomy and Levator Recession: The "Upside-Down Recession" for Graves' Disease John W. Shore, MD, William R. Burks, MD (I) 24. Aberrant Regeneration of the Facial Nexve Paul Gavaris, MD 25 . Coexistent Nodular and Morpheaforrn Basal Cell Carcinoma of Eyelids Francis G. LAPiana, MD

FEATURED LECTURER

26. Changing Concepts in Surgical Techniques in Aesthetic Blepharoplasty Thomas D. Re es, MD (I) 27. Questions and Answers 28. Mertjll J. Reeh Pathology Award Presented by William B. Stewart, MD [* to John D. Bullock, MD]

THE ORBIT

Moderator: John A. Bums, MD 29. Subperiosteal Abscess of the Orbit: The Bacteriological Basis for Surgical

Drainage Gerald]. Harris, MD

SCIEN

TIFI

C S YMP OSI A

317


30. Treatment of Orbital Pseudotumor with Chemotherapy George L. Paris, MD

3 r . Orbito-Cranial and Microsurgi cal Re constructive Surgery Bryant A . Toth, MD (I), William B . St ewart, MD 32. Benign Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia and Other Encapsulated Lesion s of th e Orbit Milton Boniuk , MD 3 3. Flow Cytometry Identificatio n of Orbital Lymphocyt e Sub-Group s ]. T. Harvey, MD (I), M. McDemwtt, MD (I) 34. Thyroid Orbital Decompressi on Richard L. Anderson, MD, Titaddeus S . Nowin ski, MD (I) 35. Micro surgi cal Bypass of the Ophthalmi c Artery Lewis D. Freidlander, MD (I), David L. Barrows, MD (I), Clin ton D . M cCord Jr .,MD 36. Meningoen cephalo cele R obert B . Wilkins, MD , William A . Bvrd, MD (I) 37. Staging and Therapy in Patient with Orbital Non-Hodgkin s Lymphom a (NHL ) C. Bennett, MD (I),J. Bitran, MD (D, M. R ecant, MD (I), A. Futt erman, MD C. Shapiro, MD (I), ]. Karesh, MD (I), U. Kalokbe, MD (I)

FEATURED LEC TURER

38. Opti c Nerve Di sease Frederick A . Jakobiec, MD (I)

THE ORBIT (CO NT.)

M oderator: Jam es A. Kat owitz, MD

39. Orbital Exenteration without Skin Grafting All en M . Puttem1an, MD 40 . Orbital Implantation S.L. Bosniak, MD , A . Millman , MD (I), V. Lubkin , MD , R. D ella R oaa, MD M . Gersten, MD (I), W . N unery, MD 41 . Dermi s Grafts in Socket R econstruction Ted H. Woj no, MD , R ichard R. Tenze l, MD 42. The Late C orrection of Post-T raumati c En ophthalmo s with Visually U seful Eye s Ri chard D . L isman, MD, Byron Sm ith, MD , Henry Spinelli, MD (I) 43. Late Extruding Orbital Implant : A N ew Techniqu e of Repair R. Toby Sutcliffe, MD 44. Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award Presented by Ri chard P. Carroll, MD [* to Marcos T. D oxanas, MD]

3 18

AP PEN D I X

FOUR.


SYMPOSIUM ON BLEPHAROPIGMENTATION

Moderator: Albert H ornblass, MD

45. The Angris Method-Cooper Vision Giora G. Angris, MD (I) 46. Clinico-Pathologic Correlation Michael Patipa, MD 47. Complications of Skin Tattooing T. David Wilke s, MD 48 . A Critical Review of Blepharopigmentation Orkan Stasior, MD 49. Discus sion

LACRIMAL

Moderator:Joseph C. Flanagan, MD 50. Survey ofLacrirnal Drainage Surgery 1981-19 84 JJ. Hurw itz , MD (I), S. Ruthe,f ord, MD (I), G. Wilkes, MD (I), D . Wilkes, MD (1), R.A . Weise, MD (I) 5 I. Congenital Lacrimal Fistulas D onald]. Bergin, MD (T ), Richard We/ham, MD , FRC S (I) 52. Treatment of Pun ctal Canali cular Fibrosis from Fluoro uracil Ther apy Norman Shorr, MD , Stuart R. Seif[, MD (I) 53. Punctal A gene sis Susan M . Hugh es, MD, Richard We/ham, MD , FRCS (I)

54. Ex cisional Biop sy of the Nas olacrimal Duct John V. Linberg, MD (1), S teven A. McCormick, MD (1) 55. Lacrimal Gland Cysts J ohn D. Bullock, MD , J ohn A . Fleishman, MD (I) 56. One Minute T ear Secretion Tests LAwrence B . Katze n, MD 57. Silicone Intubation for Partial and Total Na solacrimal Du ct Obstruction in Adults Richard C. Angrist, MD, Richard K. Dortzbach, M.D

SYMPOSIUM : AESTHETIC EYE PLASTI C SURG ERY

Moderator:Ju stin]. Older, MD

58. Surgi cal Anatom y of the Upper Eyelid Fascia Richard Siegel, MD (I) 59. The Oriental Eyelid Don Liu, MD

SC IENTIFI

C S YMP OS IA

3 19


60. Asian Blepharoplasty William P. Chen, MD 61. High Lid Crease Thomas D . Rees, MD (I) 62. Blindness and Blepharoplasty Robert R. Waller, MD

63. The Brow Lift Jay Justin Older, MD 64. Ambulatory Eye Plastic Surgery Henry I. Baylis, MD 65. Panel Discussion ADJOURN BUSINES S MEETING

)20

APPEND I X

FO UR


17TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

November 8, 1986, Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans, LA 1.

Call to Order Mark R. Levine, MD, President John A. Burns, MD, Program Chairman

EYELID RECONSTRUCTION

An Unusual Cosmetic Caper (A New Wrinkle to Avoid Wrinkles) James R. Boynton, MD, S. Scott Searl, MD (l),Jeffrey Heimer, MD (I) 3. Eyelid Surgery in Thyroid Disease Carol LAne, MD (I), Karen Kaden MD (1),J.R.O. Collin, FRCS 4. A Pharmacologic Study of the Sympathetic Eyelid Tarsal Muscles Douglas P. Felt, MD (T), Bartley R. Frneh, MD 5. Bleomycin Treatment for Recurrent Conjunctival Papillomas Russell W. Neuhaus, MD 6. Eyelid Myxomas and Conjunctival Pigmented Spots Robert H. Kennedy, MD (1), Robert R. Waller, MD, ]. Aiden Carney, MD (I) 7. Conjunctival Map Biopsies to Determine Pagetoid Spread Allen M. Putterman, MD 8. Local Anesthetic and Lid Force Generation James F. Kapustiak, MD (1), Bartley R. Frneh, MD 9. Implantation ofDermis-Fat into the Upper Eyelid for Deep Superior Suki John V. Van Gernert, MD, Charles R. Leone,Jr., MD IO. Free Autogenous Pearl Fat Grafts to the Eyelids Norman Sho", MD 11. Bio-Electric Skin Conductivity Potentials in Albino Rabbits Richard C. Angrist, MD (T), Russell S . Gonnering, MD, Richard K. Dortzbach, MD, Kathryn Crawford, BS (I) 12 . Uses of the Aponeurotico - Septal Membrane James L. Hargiss, MD r 3. Trans-Septal Lipolytic Diathermy: Review of 100 Cases Stephen L Bosniak, MD 14. The Round - Eye Disaster in Cosmetic Blepharoplasty-Cause and Cure Virginia Lubkin, MD I 5. Blep harochalasis Donald]. Bergin, MD, Clinton D. McCord, MD 16. Where is the Gray Line? Allen E. Wulc, MD (T) 17. Marvin H. Quickert Thesis Award Presented by Frank C. Sutula, MD[* to Allen E. Wulc, MD] 2.

S C IENTIFIC

SYMP OSI A

J

21


SYMPOSIUM ON TRAUMA

18. The Early and Late Management of Eyelid Bums Dwight R. Ku/win, MD 19. Management of Canalicular Trauma John L Wobig, MD 20. The Late Management of Seventh Nerve Paralysis of the Eyelids David B. Soll, MD 21. The Early and Late Management of Severe Medial Canthal Trauma Clinton D . M cCord, MD 22 . Management of Orbital Fractures Bartley R. Frueh, MD 23. Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award Presented by Marcos T. Doxanas, MD to Glenn W . Jelks , MD

BLEPHAROPTOSI S

24 . Amblyopia in Congenital Ptosis Albert Hornblass, MD, Lawrence Kass, MD (1), Ann Zi.ffer, MD (I) 25. Ptosis Associated with Fatty Infiltration of Muller's Muscle and Levator Muscle Kenn eth V. Cahill, MD (I), George F. Buerger,Jr., MD, Bruce L. Johnson, MD (1) 26. Whitnall's Ligament Eyelid Suspension for Severe Blepharoptosi s Joel Leibsohn, MD

MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS

William R. Nun ery, MD , Moderator 27. Preservation of the Appearan ce of the Asian Eyelid in External Pto sis Surgery Cary L. Aguilar, MD, Chris Stephenson, MD , (I) 28. The Surgical Treatment of Lower Eyelid Retra ctio n Robert C. Small, MD 29. Management of Eyelid Complications Following Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Richard P. Carroll, MD 30. Transpositional Tarsoconjunctival Flaps from the Upper and Lower Eyelid Milt on Boniuk, MD

J22

APPENDIX

FOUR


3 1. Semi-Circular Flap Revisited Mark R. Levine, MD , Gila Buckman , MD (I) 32. Lateral Palpebral Tendon Repair for Lower Eyelid Ectropion R obert M . Dryden, MD, Jeffrey Edelstein, MD (I) 33. Eyelid Reconstruction Using Tempor ary Tissue Expanders Perry F. Garber, MD, Freden"ckN. Lukash, MD (1) 34. The U se of Artificial Skin in Eyelid Re construction John]. Woog, MD (T) 35. ASOPRS Research Award Presented by John D. Bullock, MD toJ ohn J. Woog, MD 36. Modifi ed Lazy-T Pro ced ure to Correct Medial E ctropion with Vertical Tra ction Murray A. M eltze r, MD

FEATURED

LECTURER

37. Magneti c Re sonan ce Im aging of the Orbit Steven E. Harris, MD (I)

LA CRIMAL

38. Conjunctivochalasis: A Cause of Tearing and Its Managem en t Don Liu, MD 39. Distal Canalicular Trephination Hamp son A. Sisler, MD 40. Lacrimal Pump Fun ction Narieman Nik, MD (1), Ri chard Strecker, MD , (I), Da vid Dickey, (1) 41. Allergi c Lacrimal Obstruction T ed H. Wojno, MD 42. Th e Modifi ed "Ambos" Lacrimal Stent Charles K. Beyer-Machule, MD, Tho mas M. Berard, MD (I) 43. Early Silicone Intub atio n in Frac tur es of the Midface Gerald]. Harris, MD, F. Hunt er Fuerste, MD (I) 44. Success Rate of Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy Ri chard D. Lisman, MD, Byron Smith, MD 45. Mu coe pidermoid Carc inom a of the Lacrimal Gland Sandra ]. Sef,nski, MD (I), Bernice Z. Brown, MD 46. ASOPRS Past President Awa rd Presented by Mark R. Levine, MD toJ oseph C. Flanagan, MD

SCIENT

IFI C S YMP O SIA

323


SYMPOSIUM ON LIABILITY PROBLEMS IN OCULOPLASTIC SURGERY

John A. Burns, MD, Moderator MEDICAL MALPRACTICE: THREE VIEWPOINTS

47. Plaintiffs' Council's Viewpoint Jason A. Blue, Attorney at Law (1) 48. Defen se Council's Viewpoint Robert E . Kerrigan, Attorney at Law (1) 49. The Insurance Viewpoint David L. Murray, Medical Protective Company (I) 50. Panel Discussion

THE ORBIT

James A. Katowitz , MD , Moderator

5I . Management of Initial and Recurrent Extruding Evisceration Implants David B. Soll, MD

52. Delayed Primary Closure-A Technique to Avoid Implant Extrusion Following Evisceration for Endophthalrnitis John W. Shore, MD,]. Paul Dieckart, MD (I), Mark Levine, MD 53. Combined Spherical Implant and Dermis Fat Graft £nucleation Procedure Paul T. Gavaris, MD 54. New Approach to Orbital Tumor Diagnosis Using P-3 r NMR Spectroscopy Steven Leibowitz, MD , Nancy H. Kolodny, MD (l), Arthur S. Grove, MD Michele Sprengnether (I) 55. Dynami c Proptosis John D. Bullock, MD, George B. Bartley, MD (I) 56. Orbital Cellulitis with Periorbital Elevation Bradley N. Lemke, MD, Russell Gonnen·ng, MD , Gerald Harris, MD , Joel Weinstein, MD (I) 57. Spont aneou s "Blowout Fracture" Michael A. Callahan, MD 58. Immediate Reconstru ction of Complex Orbital Fractures by Autogenous Tissue Grafting Denni s]. Galbraith, MD (T),J.S. Gruss, MD (I),Je.ffreyHurwit z, MD (I) 59. Reconstru ction of Orbital Contour Abnormalities : A Regional Anatomi c Approa ch Using Silicone Onlay Implants Vincent Giampapa, MD (l),Joseph Mauriello, Jr. , MD

324

APPENDlX

FOUR


60. Correction of Post- Traumati c Orbital Deformitie s Using Cranial Bon e

61.

62.

63. 64.

65. 66.

67. 68.

69.

70. 71.

Grafts Peter S. Levin , MD (1), William B . Stewart, MD , Bryant A . Toth, MD (I) Plagio cephal y: An Analysis of Pre- and Postoperative O cular and Adnexal Abnormalitie s Thomas Bersani, MD (1), Jame s A. Katowitz, MD , Michael G. Welsh, MD (1), Gary R . Diam ond, MD (I), Scott Bartlett, MD (I), Lint on A . Whitaker, MD Orbital Reconstructi on with Propla st Lih Ma, MD (I) M errill]. Reeh Pathology Award Presented by William R. Nunery, MD [* to A lbert H ornblass, MD] Aveo lar Soft-Part Sarcoma of the Orbit Th omas C. Naugle, Jr ., MD , Jam es Ri chards, MD (I), R obert Small, MD, Robert Shaver, MD (I) Manag ement of Abnormal Orbital Dermoids Robert E. K ennedy, MD Cystic Lesion s of the Maxillary Sinus Affecting the Orbit Sara A Kaltreider, MD (I), Ri chard K. Dortzbach, MD Management of Combined Medial and Orbital Floor Fractures Phillip Silverstone, MD (I), Robert C. D ella Roaa, MD Retrobulbar Lympho scintigr aphy : A Safe and Useful Orbital Inv estigative Technique Richard A. Weise, MD,Jejfrey Hurwit z, MD (I), Hya cinth C hin- Sang, MD (I), Gunes N. Ege, MD (I) The Best Trick I Learne d in the Last Year Richard R. Tenzel, MD, Robert F. Halstead, MD (I), John Schietroma, MD (l),Judy Halstead, MD, (I), Th e U se of Ocular Adnexal Tissue in Brow Suspension K evin I. Perman, MD (T), H enry I . Baylis, MD Fairly Re cent Advan ces and Decline s in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Henry I. Baylis, MD ADJOURN BUSINESS MEETING

SCIENT

I FIC

SY MP OSIA

3 25


I 8TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

November7, 1987, FairmontHotel, Dallas, TX 1.

Call to Order / Welcome ]. Justin Older, MD, President William R. Nunery, MD , ProgramChairman

SECTION I

EYELID AND PTOSIS

Moderators:William Nunery, MD, and Albert Hornblass,MD 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. IO. 1 I.

Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in the United States 1893-1970 Stephen L. Bosniak, MD The Surgical Relations of the Levator Palpebrae Superioris Muscle BradleyN. Lemke, MD , GeorgeStasior,MD (I), Paul N. Rosenberg,MD (I) Browpexy-An Adjunctive to Standard Blepharoplasty Clinton D. McCord,Jr., MD, Myron Tanenbaum,MD (I) Cautery Dissection in Levator Surgery Richard P. Carroll,MD "All My Ptosis Patients End Up Perfect" (How I Cover My Mistakes with the Adjustable Suture Technique For Levator Plication) Craig E. Berris,MD High Incision Harvesting of Fascia Lata from the Leg Thomas C. Naugle,Jr., MD (1), L. Franklin Elliott, MD (I) Obtaining Autogenous Fascia Lata David R. Jordan, MD , (1), RichardL. Anderson, MD The Effect of Blepharoptosis upon the Field of Vision Kenneth V. Cahill, MD (T) Myogenic Ptosis Mark R. Levine, MD ASOPRS Past President Award Presentedby Jay Justin Older, MD [* to Mark R . Levine, MD]

FEATURED SPEAKER

Introduction of Featured Speaker Albert Hornblass,MD I 3. Cosmetic Surgery of the Eyebrow and Forehead Sherrill]. Aston, MD (I) 12.

326

APPEND

IX

FOUR


14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

Laser Ablation of Blepharopigmentation Myron Tanenbaum, MD (T) The Role ofLower Lid Injection ofBotulinum Toxin in Treating Facial Spasm: A Double Masked Study Bartley R. Frueh, MD, Christine C. Nelson, MD (I), James F. Kapustiak, MD (I) Trigeminal Trigger and Sensory Abnormalities in Hemifacial Spasm (HFS) Victor M . Elner, MD, PhD (I), Richard K Dortzbach, MD The Histological and Histochemical Characteristics of the Orbicularis Oculi Muscle in Children Christine C. Nelson, MD (T) Marvin H. Quickert Thesis Award Presented by John Shore, MD [* to Christine Nelson, MD]

SECTION

II

EYELID AND PTOSJS (CONT.)

Moderators: William R. Nunery, MD, Arthur S. Grove,Jr., MD 19. Complications of Eyelid Reconstruction using a Semicircular Flap Elizabeth A. Miller, MD (I), James R. Boynton, MD 20.

21.

22.

23. 24.

25. 26.

27.

Timing of Surgical Management of Cicatricial Ocular Pemphigus James C. Fleming, MD Cyanoacrylate Adhesive: Use in Frozen Section Examination of Eyelid Margins Howard Conn, MD (T) Sebaceous Carcinoma l..AwrenceG. Kass, MD (T) Cigarette Smoking and Morbidity in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Richard D. Lisman, MD, Byron Smith, MD, Bryan Arthurs, MD (I) Comparison of Absorbable and Non-absorbable Sutures John V. Linberg, MD, Donnaj.R. Mallory, MD (I), ]. Vernon Odom, PhD (I) Periorbital Skin Extensibility James R. Patrinely, MD (T) Statistical Review of 110 Modified Joe Hill Entropion Repairs John A. Bums, MD , Louis P. Caravella, MD (I), William R. Renland, MD (I) Treatm ent of Severe Lower Lid Retraction with an Orbicularis Muscle Hammock Richard R. Tenzel, MD

SC IEN T IFI C S YMP O S I A

327


28. Combined Excision and Drainage with Intralesional Cortico Steroid in the Treatment of Chalazia Gil A . Epstein, MD, Allen Putterman, MD

FEATURED SPEAKER

29. Introduction of Featured Speaker Arthur S . Grove,Jr., MD 30. Lacrimal Fossa Tumors John E. Wright, MD, FACS, DO (I)

SECTION Ill ORBIT AND ANOPHTHALMIC

SOCKET

Moderators:Bradley Lemke, MD, Ralph Wesley, MD 3 1. The Anatomy and Histology of the Anophthalmic Socket-Is the Myofi.broblast Present? Sara A. Kaltreider, MD (T), Ingolf H.L. Wallow, MD (I), Russell S. Gonnering, MD (T) 32. Fate of Primary Orbital Dermal Grafts in Guinea Pigs Barry R. Smith, MD (T) 33. Bacteriology of the Anophthalmic Socket and Prosthetic Eye RJ. Vasquez , MD (I), J.V. Linberg, MD 34. A Modified Enucleation Technique for Ocular Melanomas Ru ssell W . Neuhaus, MD 35. Lower Fornix Reformation in the Anophthalmic Socket Joel M . Leibsohn, MD 36. Direct Coronal and Direct Sagittal CT Scanning of the Traumatized Orbit Dwight R. Ku/win, MD 37. Medical Management of CT Scan Proven Orbital Floor Fractures Arthur L. Millman, MD (I), Robert C. Della Rocca, MD, Scott Spector, MD (I), Arie Lieberskind, MD (I) 38. The Use of Preserved Lyophilized Dura in Eyelid and Orbital Reconstruction Mary A. Stefanyszyn, MD, Joseph C. Flanagan, MD , Jam es B. Dickson, MD (I) 39. Polytetrafluoroethylene as a Graft Material in Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: An Experimental and Clinical Study James W . Karesh, MD (T)

328

APPE ND IX

F OU R


40. Approaching the Lateral Orbitotomy Using a Coronal Scalp Flap William B. Stewart, MD, Peter S. Levin, MD (I), Bryan A. Toth, MD (I) 4r. Orbital Invasion by Basal Cell and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Correlation of Tomographic and H istopathologic Findings Arthur T. Glover, MD (T) 42. Management of Meningiomas of the Optic Nerve Milton Boniuk, MD 43. Central Neurofibromatosis John D . Bullock, MD , David S. Felder, MD {I), Steven M . Rak es, MD {I) 44. Surgical Management of Perio cular Neurofibromato sis Robert C. Kersten, MD 45. Histio cytoma of the Orbit W en Ming Hsu , MD (I), D on Liu, MD 46. Cholesterol Granulomas of the Orbit D onald]. Bergin, MD , Clinton D. McC ord,Jr ., MD 47. Pseudotumor and Lymphoid Infiltrate-Distinct Clinicopathologic Entities Joseph A. Mauriello, Jr ., MD , J oseph C. Flanagan, MD 48. Orbital Aspergillosis: Conservative Debridement and Local Amph oteri cin Irrigation Gerald]. Ham¡s, MD

SECTION IV PEDIATR IC SYMPOSIUM

Moderators:Daniel McLachlan, MD , John Shore, MD

49. Pediatric Lacrimal Disorders Charles R. Leone, Jr ., MD 50. Pediatri c Pto sis Update Richard L. Anderson, MD 5 I. Blepharophimosis Syndrome Clinton D. McCord,Jr ., MD 52. Hemangioma in Childhood Bernice Z. Brown, MD 5 3. Orbital Tumors of Childhood Arthur S . Grove,Jr., MD 54. Bony Abnormalitie s of the Pediatric Orbit James A. Katowitz, MD 55. Argon and Yag Laser Treatment of Unrespon sive Juvenile Capillary Hemangioma Norman Sho" , MD, Jonathan D . Christenbury, MD (I)

S C IE NTIFIC

SYMP OS IA

329


LACRIMAL

56. Bilateral Lymphocytic Infiltrates Causing Dacryostenosis after Bilateral Successful Dacryocystorhinostomies Charles B. Slonim, MD (I),Jay Justin Older, MD 57. Management of Inflammatory Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Bettina Meekins, MD, (I).Jonathan]. Dutton, MD, PhD 58. Canalicular and Lacrimal Sac Abnormalities Associated with the StevensJohnson Syndrome Neil D. Gross, MD (I), Albert Hornblass, MD,James A. Auran , MD (I) 59. Percutaneous Removal of Dacryoliths In Acute Non -infectious Dacryocystic Retention Russell S. Gonnering, MD, St ephen L. Bosniak, MD 60. New Light on Dry Eye V. Lubkin, MD, P. Kramer, MD (I), W. Potter, MD (1), P. Weber, MD (I), L. Southren, MD (I), M. Dunn, MD (I) 61. Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma Todd L. Beyer, DO (I), Robert M. Dryden, MD 62. Intranasal Endoscopic Analysis of Dacryocystorhinostomy Failures Kerry M. Allen, MD (I), A. Jan Berlin, MD 63. Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy with a Jones Tube in Adults and Children Orkan George Stasior, MD 64. A Follow-up Report ofRecurrentJones Tube Extrusions Treated with a Modified Glass Tube Michael E. Migliori, MD (I), Allen M. Puttennan, MD 65. Nasal Funnel Flap Reconstruction of the Lacrimal Apparatus I. Kleiman Cohen, MD (1), Austin Mehrhof, MD (I) ADJOURN BUSINESS MEETING

330

APPENDIX

F O UR


I 9TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

October7, 1988, TropicanaHotel, !..AsVegas,NV 1.

Call to Order Arthur]. Schaefer, MD, President Daniel L. McLAchlan,MD, ProgramChairman

BLEPHAROPTOSIS

Moderators : Daniel L. Mcl..Achlan,MD, Ralph E. Wesley, MD 2.

3.

4.

5. 6.

7.

General Anesthesia and the Eyelid Curve Margin RobertM. Dryden, MD Blepharoptosis of the Upper Eyelid Associated with Ipsilateral Lower Eyelid Retraction GeorgeL. Paris, MD Success of Fasanella-Servat Operation Does Not Depend on Excision of Mueller's Muscle Gila Buckman, MD (I), FrederickA .Jakobiec,MD (1),Albert Hornblass, MD, Richard Lisman, MD Ptosis Surgery in the Asian Eyelid Man K. Kim, MD (T),J. Earl Rathbun, MD Study of Long-Acting, Absorbable , Polydioxanone Suture in Levator Palpebrae Superioris Surgery BradleyN. Lemke, MD, RichardK. Dortzbach, MD The 5-Flap Technique for Epicanthal Folds and Blepharophimosis Thaddeus S. Nowinski, MD, RichardL. Anderson, MD

FEATURED SPEAKER

8.

Introduction of Featured Speaker Daniel L. McLachlan,MD 9. The Facial Plastic Surgeon's Approach to Aesthetic Eyelid and Mid-Facial Surgery M. Eugene Tardy,Jr., MD (I)

EYELID AND ADNEXA IO.

Ir.

Medial Palpebral Tendon Repair for Medial Ectropion Jeffry P. Edelstein, MD Fascia Lata Suspension of Lower Lid to Camouflage Thyroid Ophthalmopathy StephenBosniak, MD

SC IENTIFI

C S YMP OS I A

33 I


Reanimation of the Paralytic Eyelid T. David Wilkes, MD, George F. Buerger, MD 1 3. Tarsal Pillar for Paralytic Ectropion Byron C. Sm ith, MD, Antonio De Damborenea, MD (I) 14. Kaposi's Sarcoma of the Eyelid David B. Soll, MD, Edward G. Redovan, MD (I) I 5. Sebaceous Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Margins and Canalicular Pagetoid Spread Jemshed A . Khan, MD (T), Arthur S. Grove, MD 16. The Ophthalmic Manifestation and Treatment of Amniotic Band Syndrome D onald A . Hollsten, Jr ., MD (T),Jame s A . Katowitz , MD 17. Coajunctival Scarring as First Sign of Ocular Pemphigoid in Oculoplastic Surgery Joseph A. Maun'ello,Jr. , MD 18. ASOPRS Past President Award Presented by Arthur]. Schaefer, MD to]. Justin Older, MD 19. The Use of Split-Thickness Skin Grafts for Eyelid and Facial Re construction after Mohs' Fresh Tissue Surgery Robert G. Small, MD 20. The Bi-Pedicle Tarsoconjunctival Flap James L. Hargiss, MD 21. Revascularization Studies of an Opposing Eyelid Pedicle Flap Rona Z. Si/kiss, MD (T), Henry I. Baylis, MD 22. Intentional Buttonholing of the Hughes Flap Joel M. Leibsohn, MD, Robert M. Dryden, MD 2 3. Prevention of an Abnormal High Lid Crease Following Skin Grafts to the Upper Eyelid Ri chard R. Tenzel, MD 24. Histopathologic Description of Rabbit Blepharopigmentation Following Full Thickness Eyelid Surgery Jonathan D. Christenbury, MD (T), Norman Shorr, MD I 2.

ORBIT

25. Optic Nerve Sheath Decompression for Pseudotumor Cerebri Thomas C. Spoor, MD, Neil D. Brourman, MD (l),John M. Ramocki, MD

(I) 26. The Effect of Hot Wire Cautery, Monopolar Electrocautery and Bipolar

Electrocautery on the Optic Nerve John]. Schietroma, MD (T), Richard R. Tenzel, MD 27. Visual Recovery after Nine Days of No Light Perception Charles B. Slonim, MD (I), ]. Justin Older, MD ,

]32

A P PEN D IX

F OU R.


28. Frontal Sinus Mucopyocele in Cystic Fibrosis Mark R. Levine, MD , Yoon-Duck Kim, MD (I) 29 . Orbital Vein Thrombosis John D . Bullock, MD, David S. Felder, MD (I)

30. Orbital Lymphangioma : A Pathophysiological Approa ch to Management Gerald]. Ham ·s, MD, Giulio Bonavolonta, MD (I) 3 I. Low Do sage Methotrexate Therapy for Steroid Re sistant Orbital Myo sitis Michael A. Schmitt, MD (1),A.Jan Berlin, MD, Careen Y. Lowder, MD (1), Louise A . Berlin, RDMS (1), W.S. Wilke MD (I) 32 . Cherubism and Orbital Manifestations Mi chael]. Hawes, MD 33. Magneti c Resonance Imaging in the Evaluation ofRetrobulbar Tumors Albert Hornblass, MD, Michael P. Gingold, MD (1), I. Rand Rodgers, MD (1), Michael Deck, MD (1) 34. Manag eme nt of Overcorrection of Orbital Decompression Clinton D . McC ord,Jr ., MD

FEATURED SPEAKER

35. Introduction of Featured Speaker Arthur]. Schaefer, MD 36 . Argon Laser and Yag Contact in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery J oseph C. Flanagan, MD

ORBITAL AND SOC KET RECON STRU C TION

37. The Us e of Cyanoacrylate Fixed Silicone Sheet in Medial Blow Out Fracture Repair Stuart R. Seif[, MD 38. Replacing the Globe Back into the Orbit Robert E. Kennedy, MD 39. Maxillary Balloon Prosthesis for the Repair of Complex Orbital Fractures John W . Sh ore, MD, Frank W. Shagets, MD (I),Jack F. Gillis, MD (1) 40. Compression Plates in Management of Complex Orbital Fractures Michael Patipa, MD, Andrew Slavin, DDS (I) 41 . Factors Affecting the Superior Sulcus and Enophthalmos of the Anophthalmic Socket Jan W. Kronish, MD (I), Richard K. Dortzbach, MD, Bradley N. Lemke , MD 42 . "Softball Implant"-A Larger Modified Baseball Implant Murray D. Christianson, MD 43. Clinical Update on Integrated Orbital Implants Arthur C. Perry, MD

SC IE N TIFI

C S YMPO

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JJJ


44. Orbital Volume Augmentation with Glutaraldehyde Cross-Link Collagen (Zyplast) K enneth V. Cahill, MD, John A. Burns, MD 45. The Pericranium : Uses in Orbital Surgery James R . Patrinely, MD, Louis Morales, MD (I), Richard L. Anderson, MD, Enrique Fernandez, MD (I) 46. Steroid De compression of Orbital Blowout Fracture s and Enhan ce d Surgical Decision Making Arthur L. Millman , MD (T), Allen M. Putterman, MD 47. Contact Neodymium: Yag Laser: Experimental Studies , Orbital and Oculoplastic Applications Jam es B . Dickson, MD (T),Joseph C. Flanagan, MD 48. Marvin H. Quickert The sis Award Presented by John N. Ha"ington, MD [* toJames B. Dickson, MD]

SYMPOSIUM ON CON TROVERSIE S

Moderators: A . Jan Berlin, MD, Charles M. Stephenson, MD MANAGEMENT OF BLOW-OUT

FRACTURES REVISITED

49. Early Management : Surgical Re sults Alston Callahan, MD 50. Late Management : Surgical and Non -Surgical Results All en M . Puttem1an, MD 51. Comment A . Jan Berlin, MD

SURGICAL APPROACH TO SEVERE UNILATERAL BLEPHAROPTOSIS

52. Frontalis Suspension: Advantages John S . Crawford, MD

53. Whitnall's Ligament Suspension: Advantage s Richard L. Anderson, MD 54. Super-Maximum Resection: Advantages ]. Earl Rathbun , MD 55- Comment Charles M . Stephenson, MD

TREATMENT OF PARTIAL NASOLACRIMAL OBSTRUCTION

56. Silicone Tube Intubation: An Alternative to Dacryocystorhinostom y Richard K. Dortzbach, MD

334

APPENDIX

FOU R


57. Dacryocystorhinostomy: Orkan G. Stasior, MD 58. Comment A. Jan Berlin, MD

The Definitive Procedure

SURGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF ORBITAL TUMORS

59. Fine Needle Aspiration for Orbital Tumors John S. Kennerdell, MD (1) 60. Orbitotomy for Orbital Tumors William B. Stewart, MD 61. Comment Charles M. Stephenson, MD

DECO MPRESSION FOR DYSTHYROID OPHTHALMOLOGY

62. Transconjunctival Decompression William R. Nunery, MD 63. Transantral Decompression Robert Della Rocca, MD 64. The Role of Orbital Radiation Peter Savino, MD (I) 65. Comment A. Jan Berlin, MD

LACR IMAL

Moderators: William L. Walter, MD , Charles B. Campbell, III, MD 66. Efficacy of the Primary Dye Test

67.

68. 69.

70.

71.

Martha M. Wright, MD (I), Thomas A. Bersani, MD, (1), Bartley R. Frueh, MD, David C. Musch, MD , (I) Quantitative Tear Flow Analysis through Upper and Lower Canaliculi N.A. Nik, MD,J .S. Daubert, MD (I), P. Chandeysson (I) Small Coil MRI Imaging of the Lacrimal System and Orbit Nom1an Sho", MD, Robert A. Goldberg, MD (I) Silicone Intubation of Traumatic Canalicular Lacerations Russell W. Neuhaus, MD Timing of Silastic Tubing Removal after Intubation for Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Michael G. Welsh, MD, (T),James A. Katowitz, MD Lacrimal Canalicular Transplantation with Composite Eyelid Graft Mu"ay A. Meltzer, MD, Gary D echelboim, MD, (1)

S C I ENTIFI

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335


72. Medial Canthal Tendon Reconstruction Richard Welham, FRCS (1), Richard Collin, FRCS 73. Anatomy of the Ethmoid Air Cells and Dacryocystorhinostomy John V. Linberg, MD, Charles A. Moore, MD (1) 74. Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award Presented by Richard L. Anderson, MD [* to John V Linberg, MD] 75. Techniques for Hemostasis During Dacryocystorhinostomy Robert B. Wilkins, MD, P.E. Garland, MD (I) 76. The Use of a Nasomucosal Transpositional Flap with a CDCR Daniel P. Schaefer, MD (T),Joseph C. Flanagan, MD 77. A Simplified Technique for Jones Tube Placement Jonathan]. Dutton, MD, Donald C. Faucett, MD (I) 78. The Value of a Nasal Septoplasty and Anterior Turbinectomy in Assuring Success when Performing a Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy Dwight R. Kulwin, MD 79. Lacrimal Sac Tumors Mary A. Stefanyszyn, MD (T) 80. Nearly Current Concepts in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Henry I. Baylis, MD BUSrNESS MEETING

336

APPENDIX

F O UR


20TH

ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC

SYMPOSIUM

October 28, 1989, Marriott Hotel, New Orleans, LA I.

Call to Order / Welcome Clinton D . McCord,Jr ., MD , President Ralph E. Wesley, MD, Program Chairman

EYELrD

Moderators: Ralph E. Wesley, MD, Paul Gavaris, MD

2.

Ptosi s Repair with an " Open Sky" Fascia Lata Sling and Direct Frontalis Fixation Thomas C. Spoor, MD 3. Three Flap Technique for Re construction of the Medial Canthal Region James A. Katowitz, MD, Michael Kazim, MD (1) 4. Local Eyelid Anesthesia Using lontophoresis John V. Linberg, MD, Dale R . Meyer, MD (1), Roberto]. Vasquez, MD (I) 5. The Measurement and Definition of Ptosis Robert G. Small, MD 6. Auricular Muscle Complex Grafts in Eyelid Retraction Thomas C. Naugle,Jr ., MD 7. Collagen Shield Contact Lens Use Following Eyelid Surgery Mu"ay A . Meltzer, MD , John M. Nassif, MD (1), Kenneth Hyde , MD (I) 8. Blepharoptosis Following Cataract Surgery: Retrobulbar vs Peribulbar Block Bradley N. Lemk e, MD 9. Hard Palate Mucosal Grafting to Correct Lower Eyelid Retraction Dwight R. Kulwin , MD, Robert C. Kersten, MD , David T . Tse, MD 10. An Unusual Form of Upper Lid Entropion David A. Hollsten, MD , A . Tyrone Glover, MD (I) 1 r. ASOPRS Past President Award Presented by Clinton D . McCord, Jr., MD to Arthur]. Schaefer, MD 12. Double Rhomboid Silicone Rod Frontalis Suspen sion Howard Conn, MD , Sam Goldberger, MD (I) I 3. Distichiasis Revi sited N. Branson Call, MD I 4. Cicatricial Ectropion Michael A . Callahan, MD I 5. Co2 Laser Combined with Conventional Microsurgery in the Treatment of Distichiasis M . Douglas Gossman, MD

SC IENTIFI

C SY MP OSIA

337


16. Eyelid Avulsion-A

Clinical and Experimental Study

Stuart H. Goldberg,MD (I),John D. Bullock,MD, Patrick]. Connelly, MD (I) 17. Involutional Entropion Repair-A Combined Procedure Scott E. Allen, MD (I), RichardP. Carroll, MD 1 8. Recurrence of Blepharospasm Following Lid Protractor Excision BartleyR. Frueh, MD, T.A. Bersani,MD (I), David C. Musch, MD (I) 19. Cyanoacrylate Skin Closure in Oculoplastic Surgery Nom1an Shorr, MD, Alan M. Lessner,MD (I) 20. Reanimation of the Paralyzed Lower Face Using Temporalis Muscle Transfer Jeffrey C. Popp, MD, Allen E. Wulc, MD 21. Botulinum Toxin for Blepharospasm in a Dystonic Syndrome L. Neal Freeman,MD (I), StuartR . Seif!,MD, Bruce0. Berg,MD (I), Daniel L. Bluestone,MD (I) 22. Primary Pleomorphic Adenomas of the Eyelid Russell S. Gonnering,MD, James Taira, MD (I), Paula l..Arson,MD (I) 23. Lester T. Jones Anatomy Award PresentedbyJohn V. Linberg,MD[* to BradleyN. Lemke, MD] EYELID (CONT.)

Moderators:BradleyN. Lemke, MD, Christine C. Nelson, MD 24. Repeated Botulinum A Toxin Inj ection: Failures in Clinical Practice and

a New Biomechanical System for Its Study RichardL. Anderson, MD,John B. Holds, MD (I), Steven G. Fogg,MD (I) 25. Surgical Treatment of Thyroid Related Lid Retraction: A New Variation Mark R. Levine, MD, Alfredo Chu, MD (I) 26. The Co njun ctival Flap-Cosmetic Shell-Ptosis Procedure: Treatment of Ptosis in the Patient with Severe Keratopathy

Allen M. Puttemian, MD 27. Congenital Lid Retraction l..ArryAllen, MD (I), Richard Collin, FRCS, DO 28. Upper Lid Blepharoplasty: Managing of the Medial Bulge with Coronal Scalp Resection Stephen L. Bosniak, MD, Jerry Acker, MD (I)

FEATURED SPEAKER

29. Intr oduction of Featured Speaker Ralph E. Wesley, MD 30. Orbital Reconstruction

Ian T. Jackson, MD (I)

338

APPENDIX

FOUH.


3 I. Management of Cosmetically Objectionable Veins in the Lower Eyelids Robert C. Kersten, MD, Dwight R. Kulwin, MD 32. Management of Ptosis in Pati ents with Absent Bell's Phenomenon J onathan]. Dutton , MD, PhD , Peter S . Levin, MD (I) 33. Simplified One Suture Technique for Ptosis Repair Don Liu, MD 34. Transconjunctival Blepharoplasty: The Evolution of the Technique and the Philosophy over the Past Six Years H enry I. Baylis, MD

FEATURED SPEAKER

3 5. Introdu ction of Featured Speaker ]. Earl Rathbun, MD 36. Complications from Removal ofEpibulbar Crowell Beard, MD

ORBIT

Lipodermoids

AND LACR.IMAL RECONSTRU C TION

Moderators: George F. Buerger, Jr., MD , James C. Fleming, MD

37. Orbital Decompression for Graves Disease leaving the Periosteum Intact John T. Harvey, MD , FRCS(C) 38. Management of Acute Visual Loss in Orbital Trauma and Infections: The Impli cations of Severe Proptosis Gerald]. H am·s, MD, Randall L. Beatty , MD (I) 39. A System for Measurement of Prosthetic Eye Movements using a Magnetic Search Coil Technique Jeffrey A. Nerad, MD (T), Richard Hurtig, PhD (I), David Bulgarelli, Ocularist (I), Keith D. Carter, MD (I) 40. Visual Loss Secondary to Nasal Lacrimal Duct Obstruction William R. Nunery, MD, Ronald T. Martin, MD (I)

FEATURED SPEAKER

41. Introdu ction of Featured Speaker Paul Gavaris, MD 42. The Truth about Dry Skin and Retin-A Nia K. Terezakis, MD (1) 43. Coffee Can Lid for Use in Dacryocystorhinostomy Cavity Richard R. Tenzel, MD

with Absent Nasal

SC IENTIFI

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339


SPECIAL TOPIC

44. Optic Nerve Fenestration for Psuedo Tumor Cerebri Thomas C. Spoor, MD

SPECIAL TOPIC

45. Development ofintegrated Orbital Implant Arthur C. Perry, MD 46. The Pathophysiology of the Anophthalmic Socket: Analysis of Orbital Blood Flow and Orbital Fat Jan W. Kronish, MD (T), Russell S. Gonnering, MD , Richard K. Dortzbach, MD,John H.G. Rankin, PhD (1), Deborah L. Reid, PhD (1), Tmence M. Phernett, BS (I), William C. Pitts, MD (1), Gerald]. Berry, MD (I)

FEATURED SPEAKER

47. Introduction of Featured Speaker Robert B . Wilkins , MD 48. The Care and Feeding of the Jones Tube Alston Callahan, MD

ADDITIONAL FREE PAPERS

Moderators:James L. Moses, MD, Christine L. Zolli, MD

49. U ses of Split Thickness Dermal Grafts in Oculoplastic Surgery Joseph A. Mauriello, Jr., MD 50. The Histologic Anatomy of the Medial Canthal Ligament and Surrounding Structures Victor Maurice Elner, MD (T) 5 I. Force Necessary to Fracture the Orbital Floor John W . Shore, MD, Robert P. Green, MD (I), Dani el R. Peters, MD (I) 52. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography in a Model of Wooden Foreign Bodies in the Orbit H erbert]. Glatt, MD (T), Phillip L. Custer, MD , Lynn Barrett, MD (I) 53. The Pathogenesi s of Canalicular Laceration Alan E. Wulc, MD 54. Orbital Augmentation by Hydroxyapatit e- based Composites: A Rabbit Study and Comparative Analysis Craig E. Geist, MD (I), Arthur S. Grove,Jr., MD , Mi chael A. Stracher, MD (I)

)40

APPEND

IX

FO UR


55. Nasal Endoscopic Repair of Failed Dacryocystorhinostomy James C. Orcutt, MD, PhD, Allen D. Hillel, MD (I) 56. Periorbital Pain and Headaches Associated with Naso -Orbital Fistula Milton Boniuk, MD 57. Silicone Nasal Lacrimal Intubation in Patients with Canalicular Atresia Kenneth V. Cahill, MD, John A. Burns, MD 58. Surgical Management of Advanced Localized Periocular Amyloidosis James R . Patrinely, MD, Douglas D. Kock, MD (I) 59. Marvin H. Quickert Thesis Award Presented by John N. Harrington, MD [* toJan W. Kronish, MD] 60. Correction of Enophthalmos Using Hydroxyapatite Steven G. Pratt, MD, MichaelJedrzymki , MD (I) 61. Orbital Complications Secondary to Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Russell W. Neuhaus , MD, Bradford C. Winegar, MD (I) 62. Bromocriptine Improves Thyroid Ophthalmopathy Marta 0. Lopatynsky, MD (I), Gregory B. Krohel, MD (I) 6 3. Management of Canaliculitis Albert Homblass, MD, Michael P. Gingold, MD (I), Peter Rubin, MD (I) 64. ASOPRS Research Award Presented by William L. Walter, MD[* to VictorM. Elner, MD] 65. Ocular Motility Disturbances Associated with Encapsulated Orbital Lesions Philip L. Custer, MD, Gill Roper-Hall, DBOT (I) 66. Midfacial Advancement for Malunited Fractures and Congenital Anomalies Perry F. Garber, MD, Stephen A . Sachs, DDS (I) 67. The Paranoid Patient and the Oculoplastic Surgeon: Beware! Michael]. Hawes, MD , Harold Bible, MD (I) 68. A Kinder, Gentler Postoperative Oculoplastic Dressing William B. Stewart, MD, Mark G. Bearman, MD (I)

FEATURED SPEAKER

69. Introduction of Featured Speaker

Richard R. Tenzel, MD 70. Perspectives in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Byron C. Smith, MD ADJOURN BUSINESS MEETING

SC IENTIFI

C S YMP OS IA

3 41


21ST ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

October 27, 1990, Westin Hotel, Atlanta, GA I.

Call to Order/Welcome Bernice Z. Brown, MD, President Paul T. Gavaris, MD, Program Chaimian

ORBIT AND LACRIMAL RECONSTRUCTIONS

Moderators: Arthur S. Grove,Jr., MD , Bradley N. Lemke, MD

Postmenopausal Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Estrogen Receptor lmmunocytochemical Assay of Female Lacrimal Drainage System Tissues Scott R. Hobson, MD (T) 3. Clinicopathologic Study of the Lacrimal Sac and Nasal Mucosa in Complete Acquired Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Joseph A. Mauriello,Jr., MD , Severin Palydowycz, MD (I) 4. Relaxed Skin Tension Line Incision for Dacryocystorhinostomy Gerald]. Harris, MD, Peter]. Sako/, MD, Randall L. Beatty, MD (I) 5. The True Canalicular Angle: A Mathematical Model Scott M. Corin, MD (l),Jeffrey]. Hurwitz, MD (1), William]. Corin, MD (1), 2.

Martin S. Kazdan, MD

6. Recent Advances in Ukrafine Surface Coil MRI of the Eyelid and Nasolacrimal System Robert Alan Goldberg, MD, Grant Heinz, MD (1),James Hyde, PhD (I)

Sympathetic Nerve Anatomy in the Cavernous Sinus and Retrobulbar Orbit of the Cynomolgus Monkey David B. Lyon, MD (T) 8. Saccadic Velocity Measurement in Orbital Fractures Elizabeth A. Maher, MD (1), Rob ert C. Della Roaa, MD, Sara Shipman, CO (I) 9. Orbital Rim Fixation and Orbital Floor Exploration in Zygomatic Complex Fractures Dwight R. Ku/win, MD, Robert C. Kersten, MD, Kevin Shumrick, MD (I) 10. Treatment of Traumatic Optic Neuropathies with High-Dose and Megadose Corticosteroids Thomas C. Spoor, MD, Danie[ B. Lensink, MD (1), Walter C. Hartel, MD (1) I 1. Traumatic Optic Neuropathy with Return of Vision 8 Days after Surgical Decompression of the Optic Nerve Joseph A . Maun ·ello,Jr., MD, LarryFrohman, MD (1),Abbott Kreiger, MD (I) I 2. Optic Nerve Sheath Fenestration: A Model for its Mechanism of Action Stuart R. Seif[, MD, Lopa Shah, MD 7.

342

APPEN D IX

FOUR.


r3 . ASOPRS Past President Award

Presentedby BerniceZ. Brown, MD to Clinton D. McCord,Jr., MD r 4. Orbital Complication

of Maxillary Sinus Irrigation in Children

James B. Conahan,MD (I), Glen 0. Brindley,MD,John P. Dieckert,MD (I), Tibor Ru.ff, MD (I), VernonM. Hemisen, MD (1) 1 5.

r6. I 7.

18. 19. 20.

Anaerobic Orbital Cellulitis: A Clinical and Experimental Study MichaelS.Jedrzynski, MD (I),John D. Bullock,MD, Thomas W. McGuire, MD (1), B. Laurel Elder, PhD (1) Exophthalmometry: Naugle vs. Hertel H.P. Cole, III, MD (I), BarrettD. Haik, MD (1),John T. Couvillion,BS (I) Extrusion Rates of Sphere Enucleation Implants William R. Nunery, MD, Ronald T. Martin, MD (I), DouglasZale, MD (I) Reconstruction of the Internal Orbit with Rigid Fixation Techniques Michael Yaremchuck,MD (I),Jdfrey A. Fearon,MD (I),John W. Shore,MD Kimura's Disease

MichaelLoeffler,MD (1), Albert Hornblass,MD The Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award Presentedby BerniceZ. Brown, MD[* to Robert C. Della Rocca,MD] BLEPHAROPLASTY SYMPOSIUM

Moderators:RichardD. Lisman, MD, NariernanA. Nik, MD 2 r.

22.

Blepharoplasty: Historical Perspective and Changes in Philosophy During My Career Byron C. Smith, MD, Richard D. Lisman, MD Anatomy of the Orbital Septum and Associated Eyelid Connective Tissues: Implications for Ptosis Surgery Dale R. Meyer, MD (T),John V. Linberg,MD ,John L. Wobig,MD , Steven

A. McCormick, MD (I) 23. Tinted Soft Contact Lenses As An Adjunct to Oculoplastic Surgery

Leroy G. Meshel, MD (I) 24. Investigation of Automated Peri:rnetry in the Evaluation of Patients for

Upper Lid Blepharoplasty Henry D. Hacker,MD (I), Donald A. Hollsten, MD 25. The Colorado Electrosurgical Needle Jeffrey C. Popp, MD 26. Suture Considerations in Blepharoplasty

Donald A. Hollsten, MD 27. Insights from a Series of Asian Blepharoplasty

William P. Chen, MD 28. Skin Excision Alone Does Not a Blepharoplasty Make Robert L. Mahanti, MD (I), Richard P. Carroll, MD

SC IENTIFI

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343


29. Combined Blepharoplasty and Ptosi s Repair through Single In cision Jay Justin Older, MD 30 . How to Avoid Medial and Lateral Webbing David B . Soll, MD 31. The Mini Brow Lift Andrew S. Markovits, MD 32. Temporal Brow-P exy-The "Chicken Brow Lift" Paul T . Gavaris, MD 33. Mid.forehead Brow Lift R obert C. K ersten, MD , Dwight R. Ku/win , MD 34. Ey ebrow Surgery Clinton D . McC ord, Jr., MD, Marcos T . Dox anas, MD

FEATURED SPEAKER

3 5. Introdu ction of Featured Speaker Paul T. Gavaris, MD 36. Co smetic Blepharoplasty for Ophthalmologists R obert S. Flowers, MD (I)

BLJ,PHAROPLASTY

SYMP OSIUM

Mod erators: M ichael A . Callahan, MD , Th omas C. Naugle, Jr ., MD 37. The Clinical Efficac y ofTretinoin (Retin-A) on Periocular Skin Daniel B . Lensink, MD (I), Th omas C. Spoor, MD , Brenda L. Kaufman MD , (I) 38. Simultaneou s Lateral Anterior Posterior Blepharopla sty Paul Weber, MD (I), Allan F. Wulc, MD , Jeffrey C. Popp, MD 39. Pre septal Trans co njunctival Lower Eyelid Blepharoplasty James R. Patrinely, MD, Robert C. Kersten, MD , Dwight R. Kulwin, MD 40. Lip olyti c Diathermy: 1990 Stephen L. Bosniak, MD 41 . Prevention and Tr eatment of Lower Lid Retracti on Following Bleph aropla sty R obert B. Wilkins , MD 42 . Lateral Cant hal Suspension with 6- o Polypropylene in Low er Eyelid Blepharopla sty R. Toby Sutcliffe, MD 43 . Lat eral Canthal Tendon Resection with Conjunctiva! Preservation for the Tr eatment of Eyelid Laxity During Blepharopla sty Michael Patipa, MD

344

APPEN DIX

FOUR


44. Management of Lower Lid Retraction Post-Blepharoplasty with Palate Mucosal Graft. Chemical Peel-An Adjunct to Lower Lid Blepharoplasty Norman Sho" , MD 45. Surgical Management of Secondary Bags and Festoons Joseph C. Flanagan, MD 46. The Inferior Fornix Approach: Operative Complications Christopher T. Wesifall, MD (1),John W. Shore, MD, William R. Nunery, MD 47. Hemorrhage after Blepharoplasty Russell W. Neuhaus, MD 48. Recognition and Treatment of Potential Problems in Cosmetic Blepharoplasty Richard R. Tenzel, MD 49. Patient Satisfaction in Oculoplastic Surgery Allen M. Futterman, MD

FEATURED SPEAKER

50. Introduction of Featured Speaker Paul T. Gavaris, MD 5 I . Aesthetic Facial Surgery Bahman Teimourian, MD (I)

PTOSIS AND EYELID RECONSTRUCTION

Moderators:Edwin C. Augustat, MD, l.AwrenceB. Katzen, MD 52. HIV and Banked Fascia Lata Edward H. Bedrossian,Jr., MD

53. Fascia Lata Sling Revision Thaddeus S. Nowinski, MD, James R. Patrinely, MD 54. Whitnall' s Sling with Ex ternal Tarsectomy for the Correction of Severe Ptosis J ohn B. Holds, MD, William M. Mc Leish, MD , Richard L. And erson, MD 55. Frontalis Suspension Utilizing Autogenous Periorbita Phillip L. Custer, MD 56. Transconjunctival Frontalis Suspension Roger A. Dailey, MD (T) 57. Acquired Ptosis : Dehiscen ces and Disinsertions: Are They Real or Iatrogenic? John]. Martin,Jr., MD (T) 5 8. T he Effect of Ptosis on Ocular Growth John V. Linberg, MD, William K. Blaylock, MD (I), Cung Mei Chao, PhD (I)

SCIEN

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59. Early Revision in the Office for Adults Having Levator Ptosis Surgery Richard K. Dortzbach, MD, Jan W. Kronislr, MD 60. Severe Ptosis Complicated by Marked Fibrosis Robert M. Dryden, MD 61. The Blepharogram: A Preliminary Report Robert G. Small, MD 62. Upper Eyelid Nerve Fibers: Anatomical and Immu no histochemical Analysis Kevin R. Scott, MD (I), David T. Tse, MD,Jan W. Kronish, MD 63. Dynamic Closure with Facial Cerclage Hitched to Temporalis Transplant for Paralytic Lagophthalmos Michael A. Callahan, MD 64. Comparison of the Arion Silicone Spring and Gold Weight Procedures for the Treatment of Lagophthalmos Associated with Facial Paralysis Perry F. Garber, MD 65. Marvin H. Quickert Thesis Award Presented by William L. Walter, MD [* to David B. Lyon, MD] 66. Lid Crease and Retractor Repair in CongenitalEntropion andEpiblepharon Arthur L. Millman, MD, Allen M. Putterman, MD 67. Medial Canthal Tendon Reconstruction by Use of a Nasal Periosteal Rotation Flap Joel M. Leibsohn, MD, Fred Hahn, MD (I) 68. Use of Autogenous Fascia Lata for Lower Eyelid Suspension George L. Paris, MD 69. Conventional Frozen Sections in Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Review of 236 Cases Herbert]. Glatt, MD , Allen M. Puttem1an, MD 70. Conjunctivoplasty as an Adjunct Procedure in Lower Eyelid Entropion and Ectropion Repair Myron Tanenbaum, MD 71. The Temporoparietal Fascia! Flap for Orbital Reconstruction Don S . Ellis, MD (I), William B. Stewart, MD, Bryant A. Toth, MD (I) 72. A New Pathogenetic Mechanism for Entropion Milton Boniuk, MD 73. The World of Cosmetic Blepharoplasty According to Baylis Henry I. Baylis, MD ADJOURNMENT BUSINE SS MEETING

346

APPENDIX

FOUR.


22ND ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

October 12, I.

1991,

Anaheim Marriott Hotel, Anaheim, CA

Introduction Arthur S. Grove, MD, President Bradley N. Lemke, MD, Program Chairman

ORBIT

Moderators:Albert Hornblass, MD, Gerald]. Ham ¡s, MD 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

8.

9. IO.

I 1.

I 2.

Household Obiects as a cause of Self-Inflicted Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome Associated with Deep lntracranial Penetration James W. Karesh, MD, George A . Cioffi, MD (I) Measurement of Globe Position in Complex Orbital Fractures R. Patrick Yeatts, MD, Erik Van Rens, MD (I), Carol L. Taylor, MD (I) The Syndrome of the Posterior Blow-Out Fracture Stuart R. Seif[, MD Banked Fascia Lata as an Orbital Floor Implant Edward H. Bedrossian,Jr., MD Caveats in the Repair of Late Enophthalmos James R. Patrinely, MD Cadaver Model of Pseudotumor Cerebri and the Measurement of Subarachnoid Pressure of the Optic Nerve Don Liu, MD, Alfred Sadun, MD, PhD {I) Protocal for Management of Traumatic Optic Neuropathy-Role of Optic Nerve Sheath Decompression Joseph A. MaurielloJr ., MD, LarryFrohman, MD (l),Joseph DeLuca, MD (1), Abbott Krieger, MD (I), Michael Schulder, MD {I) Brown Tumor and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Mark R. Levine, MD Optic Nerve Sheath Decompression-Revisited . Do it Right ; Make it Easy Thomas C. Spoor, MD, John M. Ramocki, MD (I) Management of Ocular Melanosis with Chroidal Melanoma and Extrascleral Extention Deborah D . Sherman, MD (1), Richard K. Dortzbach, MD , Stephen]. Sramek, MD (I) Invasive Squamous Carcinoma of the Orbit Arising from Asymptomatic Orbital Epidermoid Tumors: Two Cases John B. Holds, MD, RichardL. Anderson, MD, Nick Mama/is, MD(I), Ramon L. Font, MD (I), Marilyn C. Kincaid, MD (I)

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r 3. Techniques for Enucleation in Retinoblastom a Douglas]. Van Putten (I), Milton Boniuk, MD 14. Locating Extra-Ocular Muscles When Placing Secondary Implants in

Anophthalmic Socket Reconstruction Murray D . Christianson, MD 15. The Use ofHydroxyapatite Spheres in the Anophthalrnic Socket PatientResults and Current Techniques Arthur C. Perry, MD r6. The Rate ofVascularization of Corralline Hydroxyapatite Orbital Implants Phillip]. Ferrone, MD (I), Jonathan]. Dutton , MD 17. Unexpected Results with Hydroxyapatite Orbital Implants Kenneth V. Cahill, MD,John A . Bum s, MD I 8. Porous High-Density Polyethylene: A New Orbital Implant Steven C. Dresner, MD, Rebecca A. Braslow, MD (1),Robert A . Goldberg, MD 19. A Comparison of Hydroxyapatite and Porous Polyethylene as Orbital Implants Jerry K. Popham, MD (I), PeterA .D . Rubin, MD (I), David Magnate, MD(I), John W. Shore, MD 20. Stimulation of Orbital Growth by Use of Expandable Implants in the Anophthalrnic Cat Orbit Mark A. Cepela, MD (T), William R. Nunery, MD , Ronald T. Martin, MD (1) 21. ASOPRS Research Award Presented by Alfred C. Marrone, MD [* to Mark A . Cepela, MD] 22. Orbital Speaker Panel : Questions and Answers

THYROID

Moderators: Bartley R. Frueh, MD, Dani el P. Schaefer, MD 2 3.

Introduction of Featured Speaker Richard K. D()rtz bach, MD 24. Strabismus Update in Graves' Disease Burton]. Kushner, MD (I) 25. Endos copic Sphenoidoscopy with Visualization of the Optic Canal Aids in Trans -Orbital Approach to Apical De compression in Graves ' Disease J emshed A. Khan , MD , LArry A . Hoover, MD , David V. Wagner, MD 26. The Surgical Cure for Lateral Dystopia of Thyroid Ophthalmopathy Francis C. Sutula, MD 27. A Comparison of Composite Hard Palate Mucochondral Grafts and Ear Cartilage Grafts in Dysthyroid Lower Eyelid Retraction Surgery Nom1an Shorr, MD

348

APPEND

IX

FOUR.


28 . Upper Lid Retraction Associated with Thyroid Eye Disease: Levator

Recession Techniques ]. Justin Older, MD 29 . The Proximal Levator Technique for Recession of the Upper Eyelid Robert G. Small, MD 30. Introduction of Featured Speaker Russell S. Gonnering,MD 3r. Medical Update on Autoimmune Thyroid Disease James W. Findling, MD , FACP (I) 32. Thyroid Speaker Panel: Questions and Answers

EYELID

Moderators:Perry Garber, MD, Sara A. Kaltreider,MD 33. Tarsotomy for Correction of Cicatricial Entropion Robert C. Kersten, MD, Dwight R. Kulwin, MD, Franklin Kleiner, MD (I)

34. Lid Splitting with Lash Resection for Lower Lid Cicatricial Entropion and Trichiasis Ted H. Wojno, MD 35. Hard Palate Mucosal Graft for Marginal Entropion John A. Long, MD 36. Limitations and Promises of Hard Palate Mucosal Grafting Paul T. Gavaris,M.D., Randall V. Wong, MD (1), Lorenz E. Zimmerman, MD (I) 37. Monopolar Cautery for Graft Cartilage Sculpting in Reconstru ctive Eyelid Surgery Allan E. Wulc, MD, Gary D. Markowitz, MD (1), Kevin I. Perman, MD 38. The Clinical Applications and Histologic Analysis ofBilayered Epithelial Equivalent Grafts for the Reconstruction of Orbital and Eyelid Tissues EricP. Purdy,MD(I),JohnD. Bullock,MD, BarbaraE.Hull, PhD([), Cynthia F. Elking, MS (I) 39. DNA Flow Cytometry of Sebaceous Cell Carcinomas of the Ocular Adnexae: Introduction to the Technique in the Evaluation of Periocular Tumors Peter]. Sakol, MD (T), Kenneth B. Simmons, MD (1),Patrick W. McFaden, BS (1), Gerald]. Harris, MD (I), BruceM. Massaro, MD (I), Susan K oethe, PhD (I) 40. Marvin H . Quickert Thesis Award PresentedbyJohn H. Sullivan, MD [* to Peter]. Sakol, MD] 41. Long-Term Followup for Treatment of Conjunctiva! Extension of Sebaceous Carcinoma of the Eyelids with Cryotherapy Evan Sacks, MD (I), RichardD. Lisman, MD, FrederickA.Jakobiec, MD (1), NicholasBarna, MD (I)

SCIENT

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42. Microscopically Controlled Excision of Conjunctiva! Neoplasms Delyse R. Buus, MD (I), David T. Tse, MD (1), Robert Folberg, MD (I)

43. Why Do Chinese Patients Bleed More During Ophthahnic Plastic Surgery? Jeffrey Schiller, MD (I), Stephen Bosniak, MD, Wilson Ko, MD (1) 44 . Update on Ultrafine Surface Coil MR : A New Method to Study Eyelid Physiology Robert A . Goldberg, MD,James Wu, BS (l),James Hyde , PhD (I) 45. Voluntary Entropion John Harvey, MD 46. Congenital Entropion with Intact Lower Eyelid Retra ctor Insertion George B. Bartley, MD (I),Jejfrey A. Nerad, MD, Robert C. K ersten, MD (I) 47. Insertion of the Anterior Central Levator Palpebrae Superioris Muscle Complex: The Elastic Attachment System George 0. Stasior, MD (T), Bradley N. Lemke, MD , IngolfH. Wallow, MD (I), Richard K. Dortzbach, MD 48. The Merrill]. Reeh Pathology Award Presented by Robert G. Small, MD[* to Deborah D. Sherman, MD] 49. The Role of the Levator Homs in Aponeuroti c Ptosis Repair Philip L. Custer, MD 50. Post Cataract Ptosis: A Pro spective Randomized Study Michael A . Callahan, MD 5 I. Revision of Fascia Lata Frontalis Suspension Donald A. Hollsten, MD 52. The Blepharoplasty Rotational Flap Gary S. Weinstein, MD 53. Lower Eyelid Retraction Following Blepharoplasty En¡c R. Nelson, MD (T), Henry I . Baylis, MD, Robert A. Goldberg, MD 54. Eyelid Speaker Panel : Questions and Answers 55. Introduction of Featured Speaker Norman Shorr, MD 56. Orbital Considerations in the Diagnosis and Management of Para nasal Sinus Disease Thomas C. Calcaterra, MD (I) 57. Ocular Dysmotility Secondary to Sinus Surgery Robert B. Penne, MD (T), Joseph C. Flanagan, MD, Mary A . Stefanyszyri, MD, 71,addeus S. Nowinski, MD

LACRIMAL

Moderators: Michael]. Hawes, MD, John V. Linberg, MD

58. Post Cataract Surgery Endophthalmitis in the Patient with a Functioning Jones Tube Russell W. Neuhaus, MD, Russell E. Swann, MD (I)

JS0

APPENDIX

FOUR


59. The Wedge Punctoplasty for Treatment of Punctal Stenosis Jeffrey P. Edelstein, MD, George Reiss, MD (I) 60. A New lnstrument to Measure the Resistance to Fluid Flow in the Lacrimal System William K. Blaylock, MD (l),Jolm V. Linberg, MD, Fawsi A . Masri, BA (I) 6r. Clinical Study on the Effectiveness of Tear Drainage with a Single Canalicular System under Environmental Stress Stephen Reed, MD (I), Gary S. Lissner, MD 62. The Management of of Canalicular Agenesis-A Io-Year Retrospective Review CJ. Lyons, FRCS (I), P.M. Rosser, FRACO (I), Richard We/ham, FRCS (I) 63. ASOPRS Past President Award Presented by Arthur S. Grove,Jr., MD to Bernice Z. Brown, MD 64. Computed Tomography and Combined Dacryocystography / Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Lacrimal Obstruction Herbert]. Glatt, MD, Alex C. Chan, MD (I), Lynn Ba"ett, MD (I) 65. The Prognostic Value of Preoperative Dacryocystography in Endoscopic Intranasal Dacryocystorhinostomy Geva E. Mannor, MD (I), Arthur L. Millman, MD 66. Endonasal Laser Assisted Dacryocystorhinostomy: Basic Research and Development Bruce M. Massaro, MD (I), Russell S. Gonnering, MD, Gerald]. Ham¡s, MD 67. Endonasal Laser-Assisted Dacryocystorhinostomy: Current Technique Russell S. Gonnering, MD, David B. Lyon, MD 68. Holmium YAG Endonasal Laser Dacryocystorhinostomy John]. Woog, MD, Ralph A . Melson, MD (I), Carmen A . Pulief,to, MD (I) 69. Laser Lacrimal Recanalization under Direct Endoscopic Visualization William Fein, MD 70. The Laser Assisted Endocanalicular Dacryocystorhinostomy Justin Stormo-Gipson, MD (I), Peter S . Levin, MD (I), Jonathan]. Dutton, MD 71. Paraorbital Sinus and Lacrimal Presenter Panel: Questions and Answers 72. A Tribute to Byron C. Smith, MD (1908-1990) Orkan G. Stasior, MD ADJOURN BUSINE SS MEETING

SC I E N T IFI C S YMP OS IA

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I


23RD ANNUAL SCIENTIFI C SYMPOSIUM

November 7, I.

1992,

Loews Anatole Hotel, Dallas, TX

lntr oduction/W elcome J ohn A. Bums , MD , President John W. Shore, MD, Program Chairman

FREE PAPER S: SESSION ONE

Moderators: R ona Z. Si/kiss, MD , Mu"ay A . Meltzer, MD 2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

9. I O.

Th e Oculopharyngeal Dystrophy Syndrome: The Role ofMiillers Muscle Da vid R. Jordan, MD, David]. Addison, MD (I) Normative Measurements of the Lid and Brow Christine C. Nelson, MD , Mont]. Cartwright, MD (I), Usha R. Kurum ety, MD (1), Bartley R. Frueh, MD, David C. Mu sch, PhD (I) Unilateral Ptosis and Eye Dominence Da vid B. Lyon, MD , Rus sell S. Gonnering, MD, Richard K. D ortzbach, MD, Bradley N. Lemke, MD A Comparative Study ofSurgical Techniques for Lid Crease Formati on to Correct Co ngenital Myogenic Ptosis Bartley R. Frueh, MD , Talya K. Horowitz , MD (I), David C. Musch, PhD , (1) Tre atment ofTele canthu s and Epicanthu s ln versus with Medial Canthal Tendon Screw and Five-Flap Technique Joseph A . Maun "ello,Jr ., MD, Anthony R. Caputo, MD (I) Levator Tran spo sition P.M . Rosser, FRACO (I),J. R .O. Collin, FR C S Prophylactic Use of Antibiotics in Oculopla stic Surgery Leo D . Hurley, MD (1), Christopher T . Wesifall, MD (I), Charles R. Leone, Jr ., MD Surgical Excision of Periorbital Cap illary Hemangiomas R ebeccaS. Walker, MD (1), Philip L. Custer, MD,Jejfrey A . Ne rad, MD Speaker Panel: Questions and Answers

FRONTIER S AND CO NTROVER SIES IN OCULOPLASTIC SURGERY SESSION ONE: HYDR OXYAPATITE O RBITAL IMPLANT S I I.

12.

352

H ydroxyapatite Orbital Implant, 1992 Update William R. Nunery, MD ASOPRS Membership Survey on Hydroxyapatite Orbital Implants Alb ert H ornblass, MD

APPENDIX

F O UR


13. Expo sure of Hydroxyapatite O cular Implants: Etiology and Preventi on Jonathon]. Dutt on, MD 14. Surgical Coverage of Exposed Hydroxyapatite Implant With Composite Hard Palate Graft No rman Sho", MD, Alan M . Lessner, MD 15. Should I Be Using Hydroxyapatite Orbital Implants to Reconstruct Anophthalmic Sockets? Thomas C. Naugle, MD

FREE PAPERS: SESSION TWO

16. Dernin eralized Bon e as an Orbital Implant in the Rabbit Bryan A. Sires, MD, PhD (I), Harry S. Geggel, MD (I),]. Timothy Heffernan, MD (I), Robert D. C rane, MD (I), J ohn B. H olds, MD

17. Magneti c Re sonan ce Imaging of the Anophthalmi c Socket: Pathomechanical Changes in the Orbit Following Enucleation and Evisceration C. Bradley Bowman, MD (I),Jan W. Kronish, MD , Robert R. Quencer, MD , (I) 18. Use of H ydroxya patit e in the Re co nstru ction of Orbital Floor Fra cture s D on 0. Kikkawa, MD (I), Bradley N. Lemke, MD 19. M edico legal Claims in Oculoplastic Surgery Mi chael T . Haw es, MD, Marilys Gilbert, RN, Esq. (I) 20. Hard Palate Mu cosa Graft in Cicatricial Entropion and Conjunctiva! D iseases Geva E. M anno,, MD (I), Da"ell E. Wolfley, MD, William D . Mathers, MD (I) 21. Survival Facto rs in Rhino-Orbital Cerebral Phycomyco sis John D. Bullock, MD , R obert A. Yohai, MD (I) 22. Speakers Panel : Qu estion s & Answers

OCULOPLAS TIC SURG lCAL PEARL S FOR THE OP HTHALMI C SURGEON: SESSION ONE

M oderators: Allan E. Wulc, MD , Paul T. Gavaris, MD 23. Sandwich Lower Eyelid Re cons tru ction Te chniqu e and Surgical Details F J. Steinkogler, MD (I) 24. Review of th e Pre vio us Paper Francis C. Sutula, MD 25. The Versatile Rhombi c Flap in Periocular Recon struction Robert C. K ersten, MD , Dw ight R. Ku/win, MD

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26. Review of the Previous Paper John T. Harvey, MD 27. Sandwich Technique for Adjustable Frontalis Suspension Peter A. D. Rubin, MD (I), Jurij Bilyk, MD (I), John W. Shore, MD 28. Review of the Previous Paper Ralph E. Wesley, MD 29. Periosteal Hammock for the Treatment of Paralytic Ectropion Guillermo Salcedo, MD (I) 30. Review of the Previous Paper Robert Della Rocca, MD 3 r. Speakers Panel: Questions & Answers

FEATURED SPEAKERS SYMPOSIUM: GRAVES' DISEASE

32. Introduction of Featured Speaker Rita Linggood, MD Daniel]. Townsend, MD 33. Radiation Therapy for Ophthalmic Graves' Disease Rita Linggood, MD 34. Introduction of Featured Speaker Richard L. Dallow, MD John W. Shore, MD

35. Some Effects and Consequences of Orbital Decompression for Graves' Disease Richard L. Dallow, MD 36. Speakers Panel: Questions & Answers

FREE PAPERS: SESSION THREE

Moderators: Stuart R. Seif[, MD, Murray D. Christianson, MD

37. Orbital Traumatic Neuroma: An Under-Recognized Clinicopathologic Entity Elizabeth A. Maher, MD (I), Steven McCom1ick, MD (I), Arthur Millman, MD, Robert Della Rocca, MD 38. Ethical Considerations in the Management of Orbital Disease in Patients with AIDS Don S. Ellis, MD (I), William B. Stewart, MD 39. Orbital Emphysema: Staging and Acute Management John H. Hunts, MD, PhD (I),James R. Patrinely, MD, Richard L. Anderson, MD 40. Management Opinions in Arteriovenous Malformations of the Orbit Gerald]. Harris, MD, Patrick R. Walsh, MD (I), Leo F. Czervionke, MD (I)

354

APPEN D IX

FOUR


41. The Significance of Calcifications Within Orbital Lesions as Identifi ed by

Computed Tomography George B. Bartley, MD, Paul D. Froula, MD (I),James A . Gam'ty, MD (I), Glenn S. Forbes, MD (I) 42 . Transethmoidal Optic Canal De·compression for Compressive Optic Neuropathy Secondary to Orbital Apex Lesions Jurij R. Bilyk, MD (I), Michael P.Joseph, MD (I), Francis C. Sutula, MD 43. Trigeminal Nerve Function in Orbital Disease Geoffrey E. Rose, MS, FRCS (I), John E. Wright, MD , FRCS 44. Smoking as a Cause of Ophthalmic Graves' Disease William R. Nunery, MD, Ronald T. Martin, MD (I), Grant W. Heinz , MD (I), Todd Gavin, MD (I) 45. Ocular Compromise Secondary to Periocular Use of Stainless Steel Wire or Suture R. Patrick Yeatts, MD,John Harvey, MD, FRCS(C ), George Bartley, MD 46. Primary Non-Keratinized Epithelial ("Conjunctiva!") Orbital Cysts James R. Boynton, MD , Sara A. Kaltreider, MD, Andrew P. Ferry, MD (I), Steven S. Searl, MD (I) 47. The Lester T. Jones Anatomy Award Presented by Robert Della Rocca, MD[* to Leo Koornneef, MD, PhD] 48. ASOPRS Past President Award Presented by John A. Burns, MD to Arthur S. Grove,Jr, MD 49. Speakers Panel: Questions & Answers

ASOPRS THESES SECTION

50. Introduction to the ASOPRS Theses Section Alfred C. Marrone, MD

5 r. Investigation of Orbital Lymphatics: Enzyme Histochemical Light Microscopic and Electron Microscopi c Studies Deborah D. Sherman, MD (T) 52. The Physical Effects of Space- Occupying Lesions in Cadaver Orbits Peter]. Dolman, MD, FRCS(C) 53. Brown Recluse Spider Envenomation of Eyelids: An Animal Model Harvey P. Cole, III , MD (T) 54. Stenotic Puncta: Microsurgi cal Punctopla sty William N. Offutt, IV, MD (T) 55. The Marvin H. Quickert Thesis Award Presented by Robert G. Small, MD [* to Harvey P. Cole, III, MD] 56. Presentation of the Merrill J. Reeh Pathology Award Presented by Kenneth B. Cahill, MD [* to Deborah D. Sherman, MD]

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OCULOPLAST!C SURGICAL PEARLS FOR THE OPHTHALMIC SURGEON: SESSION TWO

Moderators:James C. Orcutt, MD,James W. Karesh, MD 57. A Broad-Based, Single-Stitch Technique for Ptosis Repair Frank A . Nesi, MD, Geoffrey]. Gladstone, MD (I), Kevin L. Waltz, MD (1), John D. Siddens, MD (I) 58. Review of the Previous Paper GeorgeL. Paris, MD 59. Butterfly Tarsal Flap Reconstruction of Lower Eyelid Defe cts Following Mohs ' Micrographic Surgery Robert A Goldberg, MD, Ronald Moy, MD (I) 60. Review of the Previous Paper Donald]. Bergin, MD 61 . Lid Crease Lateral Orbitotomy Without Bone Removal for Opti c Nerve Sheath De compression Richard L. Anderson, MD, William M . McLeish, MD (1),Patrick M . Flaharty, MD (I) 62 . Review of the Previous Paper Jeffrey Nerad, MD 63. New Lateral Canthoplasty Robert G. Small, MD 64. Review of the Previous Paper Perry F. Garber, MD 65 . Speakers Panel: Questions & Answers

FRONTIER S AND CONTROVER SIES IN OCULOPLAT!C SURGERY SESSION TWO: LASER LACR!MAL DRAINAGE SUR GERY

66. Update on Holmium: Y AG Endonasal Laser DCR John]. Woog, MD, Ralph Melson, MD (I), Carmen A. Puliafito, MD (I) 67 . Results of Endoscopic Laser Dacryocystorhino stomy David M . Reifler, MD 68. Update on Endocanalicular Laser-Assisted Dacryocystorhinostomy Jonathan]. Dutton, MD, PhD, Holly Barbour, MD (I) 69. Endocanalicular Laser-Assisted Revision of Failed External Dacryocystorhinostomy William M. McLeish, MD, Patrick Flaharty, MD, Richard L. Anderson, MD 70. Should I Make the Move to Laser-Assisted Lacrimal Drainage Surgery? John L. Wob~ , MD

356

AP PE NDI X

FO UR


FREE PAPERS: SESSION FOUR

71. Complications of Surgery for Orbital Tumors Polly A. Purgason, MD (I), Albert Hornblass, MD 72. MR Imaging of Metallic Dust Following Use of Rotating Burr Charles M . Stephenson, MD 73. Herpetic Lacrimal Obstruction and Its Treatment Gecffrey E . Rose, MD, FRCS (I), Bhupendra C. Patel, FRCS (I), Richard A . L. Welham, FRCS (I) 74. Soft Tissue Augmentation with Autologous Injectable Dermis Steven Fagien, MD , Charles D . Kelman, MD (I), Dale P. Devore, PhD (I), Phillip Casson, MD (I) 75. Centurian Syndrome: Idiopathic Anterior Displacement of the Medial Canthus Timothy Sullivan, FRACO, FC Opth (I), Richard Welham, FRCS (I), Richard Collin, FRCS 76. Dacryocystectomy as Treatment for Dacryocystitis in the Elderly Patient Donald A. Hollsten, MD, Charles R. Leone, MD 77. Cryosurgical Treatment of Enlarged Middle Turbinates in Lacrimal Surgery Michael E. Migliori, MD 78. Dacryocystorhinostomy with Mitomycin Kenneth V. Cahill, MD,John A. Burns, MD 79. Speakers Panel: Questions & Answers ADJOURN BUSINESS MEETING

SC IENTIFIC

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24TH ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

November 131 1993, Fairmont Hotel, Chicago, IL Introduction Albert Hornblass, MD, President Michael]. Hawes, MD, Program Chairman

I.

FREE PAPERS: SESSION ONE

Moderators:John]. Woog, MD, David R. Segrest, MD 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

ro.

Polyphenotypic Small Cell Tumor: A Case Report David B. Lyon, MD, Richard K. Dortzbach, MD, Enid Gilbert-Barness, MD (I) Pterygium Surgery: A Surgical Technique & Use of Beta Radiation William L. Walter, MD Pseudotumors of the Eyelid Ted H. Wojno, MD, Hans Grossniklaus, MD (I) Are Lacrimal Sac Biopsies Necessary in Lacrimal Reconstructive Surgery? Daniel]. Townsend, MD The Role of the Medial Canthal Tendon & Lacrimal Crest Periosteum in External Dacryocystorhinostomy George B. Bartley, MD Clinical Bacteriology of Dacryocystitis in Adults Daniel]. Coden, MD, Albert Hornblass, MD, Brian Haas, MD (I) Trans-Canalicular Silastic Tube Removal John Harvey, MD Consequence of Early Unplanned Tubing Removal after Silicone Intubation for Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction C. Derek Ratliff, MD (I), Dale R. Meyer, MD Panel: Questions & Answers

PERSPECTIVES AND HORIZONS

IN OCULOPLASTIC SURGERY

SESSION ONE: ANATOMIC REVELATIONS, PIONEER.ING TECHNIQUES

r r. Vascular Anatomy of the Eyelid Susan M. Tucker, MD (I),John V. Linberg, MD I 2. The Posterior Component of Whitnall's Ligament Franrois Codere, MD (I), Nancy Tucker, MD (I), Brent Rinaldi, MD (I) I 3. Graves' Disease Eyelid Retraction: Treatment with Lateral Canthal Advancement Bradley N. Lemke, MD, Richard K. Dortz bach, MD

358

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14. Topical 5-Fluorouracil in the Treatment of Conjunctiva! Squamous Cell Epithelial Dysplasia & Carcinoma R. Patrick Yeatts, MD,]. G. Ford, MD (I) 15. Fibroblast Inhibition in Traumatic Ptosis Surgery Bhupendra C. Patel, FRCS (I), Peng Khaw, FRCS (I), Richard Collin, FRCS

FREE PAPERS: SESSION TWO

16. Pain Control Post Enucleation / Evisceration Using an Indwelling Orbital Catheter for Local Anesthetic Injection Mu"ay D . Christianson, MD 17. Hydroxyapatite Orbital Implants: Enucleation, Evisceration, & Secondary Implantation Roger A. Dailey, MD, Peter B. Marsh, BS (I) 18. Rate ofHydroxyapatite Vascular Ingrowth Donald A. Hollsten, MD, David R. Rivera, MD (I) 19. Mineral Density Determination oflmplanted Coraline Hydroxyapatite Spheres: Study by Quantitative Computed Tomography Bryan S . Sires, MD, PhD (!),john B. Holds, MD, Carol R. Archer, MD (I) 20. Rehydration of Alcohol Preserved Sclera Arthur C. Perry, MD, Phillip A. Perry, MD (I) 21. The Use ofVicryl Mesh to Implant Hydroxyapatite Orbital Implants David R.Jordan, MD, Lirry H. Allen, MD (I), Anna Ells, MD (I), Steve Gilberg, MD (I), Steve Grahovas, MD (I), Franfois Raymond, MD (I) 22. Speakers and Panel: Questions & Answers

OCULOPLA STIC SURGICAL ROUNDS SESSION ONE: INNOVATIONS

Moderators:Jan W. Kronish, MD, Frank A. Nesi, MD

23. Transcaruncular-Transconjunctival Approach to Medial Orbit & Orbital Apex Nom,an Shorr, MD, Henry I. Baylis, MD 24. Comment on the Previous Paper Michael Patipa, MD 25. Combined Orbital Decompression & Upper Blepharoplasty/Eyelid Recession for Treatment of Thyroid-Related Orbitotomy John W. Shore, MD , Jurij R. Bilyk , MD (I), Peter A.D. Rubin , MD (I) 26. Comment on the Previous Paper Mark R. Levine, MD

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27. Cross Eyelid Composite Dermis-Muscle-Fat Grafts Richard L. Anderson, MD, Bhupendra C. Patel, MD , FRCS (I) 28. Comment on the Previous Paper Allan M . Puttem1an, MD 29. Orbital Varices-A New Method of Treatment with Intralesional Injections of Platinum Coils Milton Boniuk, MD , Barry L. Horowitz, MD (I) 30. Comment on the Previous Paper John D . Bullock, MD

ASOPR S THESI S SECTION

3 I . Introdu ction to the ASOPRS The sis Section Robert G. Small, MD 32. Fused Eyelids in Prematur e Infants Kathleen M . Du erksen, MD (I), William E. Barlow, PhD (I), Orkan G. Stasior, MD 3 3. Evaluati on & Clinical Significan ce of the Me chani cal Properties of Various Palpebral Springs M ont]. Cartwright, MD (I), Bartley R. Frueh, MD 34. Relations of the Superficial Musculoaponeuroti c System to the Orbitomalar Ligament D on 0 . Kikkawa , MD (I) , Bradley N. Lemke, MD , Ri chard K. Dortz bach, MD 35. The Marvin H. Quickert Thesis Award Presented by Kenn eth V. Cahill, MD[* to Don 0. Kikkawa , MD] 36. Speakers Panel

FEATURED GUEST SPEAKER

37. Introdu ctio n of Featured Speaker Jack Rootman , MD William B. Stewart, MD 38. Orbital Inflammation-Evolving Co ncepts Jack Ro otman, MD , FRCS 39. Speakers Panel : Question s & Answers

FREE PAPERS: SESSIO N THRE E

M oderators: Edward H. Bedrossian, MD , J ohn]. McGetrick, MD 40. Electri c Bum of th e Eye & Orbit Irene Gottlob, MD (I), Mary A. Stefanyszyn, MD

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41. Presentation & Management of Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomas of the Orbit Joseph P. Shovlin, MD (I), Richard K. Dortzbach, MD, Bradley N. Lemke, MD, David B. Lyon, MD, Efrain M. Cancel, MD (I) 42. Subperiosteal Abscess of the Orbit: Age as a Factor in the Bacteriology & Response to Treatment Gerald]. Harris, MD 43. Early Surgical Intervention for Orbital Cellulitis Elizabeth A. Maher, MD, Mark H. Weiner, MD (I), Elsa M. Raskin , MD (I), Robert C. Della Rocca, MD 44. Macular Changes in Pseudotumor Cerebri before & after Optic Nerve Sheath Fenestration Susan R. Carter, MD (I), Stuart R. Sei.ff, MD 45. Optic Nerve Sheath Fenestration via Lateral Canthotomy Approach Robert C. Kersten, MD, Dwight R. Kulwin, MD 46. Management and Prophylaxis of Infected Alloplastic Orbital Floor Implants Joseph A. Mauriello,Jr ., MD , Sylvia Hargrave, MD (1), Shawyin Yee, MD (I) Ramine Mostefavi, MD (I) 47. Subarachnoid Pressure of the Optic Nerve: Measurement in Live Patients Don Liu, MD 48. The Lester T. Jones Anatomy Award Presented by Leo Koomneef, MD, PhD [* to Jonathan]. Dutton, MD, PhD] 49. ASOPRS Past President Award Presented by Albert Homblass, MD, to John A. Bums, MD 50. Speakers Panel: Questions & Answers

PERSPECTIVES AND HORIZONS

IN OCULOPLASTIC

SURGERY

SESSION TWO: ENDO SCOPIC ORBITAL SURGERY

5 r. Endoscopic Transnasal Orbital Decompression Daniel L. McLachlan, MD, David D. Caldrelli, MD (I) 52. Endoscopy & Biopsy of the Orbit Richard E. Braunstein, MD (1), Michael Kazim , MD 53. Endoscopic Approach to Decompression of the Optic Canal Allan E. Wulc, MD,Jill A. Foster, MD (1), Donald C. Lanz a, MD (I), David W. Kennedy, MD (I) 54. Enhanced Endoscopic Transnasal / Transantral Orbital Decompression Utilizing 3D Imaging Technology Scott R. Hobson, MD

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36 I


55. Orbital Decompression in Thyroid Eye Disease David W. Kennedy, MD (I), Allan E. Wulc, MD, Donald C. LAnza, MD (I), Jill A. Foster, MD (I) 56. Should I Be Using an Endoscope for Orbital Surgery? William B. Stewart, MD

FREE PAPERS: SESSION FOUR

Moderators:Jonathan]. Dutton, MD, Susan M. Hughes, MD

57. Anti-Botulin um A Toxin Formulation with Repetitive EyelidBotulinum Toxin Injections Gary E. Borodic, MD, Robert Fmante, MS (I), Bruce Pearce, PhD (I) 58. Orbicularis Extirpation-A T echnique Richard P. Ca"oll, MD 59. Dysthyroid Orbital Discomfort & Its Relief J emshed A. Khan, MD,Jolm F. Doane, MD (I), Marc M. Whitacre, MD (1) 60. Orbital Decompression for Non-Graves' Proptosis Robert A. Goldberg, MD, Mark V. Garbutt, MD (I) 61. Traumatic Optic Neuropathy: Steroids , Fenestration, Canal Decompression & Complications John G. McHenry, MD (I), Thomas C. Spoor, MD,Jo/111 M. Ramocki, MD (1), Donna M. Corder, MD (I), Rick Edward Bendel, MD (I) 62. Int ernal Orbital Reconstruction with Metallic Mesh Plating Systems John B. Holds, MD 63. Trans-Nasal Flap For Medial Canthal Reconstruction Phillip L. Custer, MD 64. Speakers Panel: Questions & Answers

OCULOPLAST IC SURG ICAL ROUNDS SESSION TWO: DIALOGUE

65. Globe Ptosis Secondary to Maxillary Sinus Disease: Discussion of the Etiology, Pathology, & Surgical Management Perry F. Garber, MD, Allan L. Abramson, MD (I), Paul T. Stallman, MD (I) 66. Comment on Previous Paper Jam es R. Patrinely, MD 67. Myectomy, Tarsal Tightening & Canthal Reconstruction in Primary and Recurrent Involutional Entropion Repair George Charonis, MD (I), M. Douglas Gossman, MD 68. Comment on the Previous Paper Steven C. Dresner, MD

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69. Orbital Reconstruction

Using Porous Polyethylene PeterA. Rubin, MD (l),Jurij R. Bilyk, MD (l),John W. Shore, MD 70. Comment on the Previous Paper James W. Karesh, MD 71. Dacryocystorhinostomy in Trachoma CharlesD. Rice, MD, Robert C. Kersten, MD 72. Comment on the Previous Paper John L Wobig, MD

FREE PAPERS : SESSION FIVE

73. Lacrimal Resistance Measurements John V. Linberg,MD, Susan M. Tucker, MD (I), Loar1K. Nguyen, MD (I), Jill D. Burdette (I), CharlesF. Stanley, PhD (I) 74. Hydroxyapatite andExpanded-Polytetraflourethylene (Gortex) Conduits for Lacrimal Drainage Dale R. Meyer, MD,John V. Linberg,MD, MonicaM . Dweck, MD (1), Todd Jorgenson,MD (I) 75. Blepharoptosis Repair by Supraorbital Rim Periosteal Flap Rotation

Joel M. Leibsohn, MD 76. Blepharoplasty "Touch Up"

Stuart R. SeiJJ,MD 77. Management of Dark Circles around the Eyes Cynthia Boxrud, MD (I), Norman Shorr, MD 78. Speakers Panel: Questions & Answers

FEATURED VIDEO INTERVIEW

79. Introduction

of the Featured Video Intervi ew Michael]. Hawes, MD 80. Memories & Reflections of an Ophthalmic Plastic Surgeon: Alston Callahan, MD Interviewedby Thomas C. Naugle, MD

ADJOURN BUSINESS MEETING

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Appendix 5 ANNUAL SPRING MEETINGS

David M. Reifler The Annual Spring Meetings have benefitted from an informal setting and a high level of collegial interaction. The Spring Meeting format has been designed to discuss unusual and complex cases, and associated issues of diagnosis and treatment. Special topics of interest such as CPT coding have also been highlighted in mini symposia. The Annual Spring Meeting locations are listed in Table 5. The establishment and evolution of the Annual Spring Meeting is specifically reviewed in Chapters 2 and 12. From 1973 to 1975 , the Executive Committee gathered for an Annual Spring Meeting (Figs. 133-135). Thereafter the Annual Spring Meetings were open to all members of the Society. Over the past few years, the meeting has also been open to all members of the European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ESOPRS), and many ESOPRS members have attended . TABLE 5. ANNUAL SPRING MEETrNG LOCATIONS

1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

1990 I 991 1992

1993 1994

Wilken s' Bayside Residence, Galveston, TX Harvard Univ ersity, MEE!, Boston , MA Doral Hotel, Miami Beach, FL Tan-Tar-A Re sort, Osage Beach at the Lake of the Ozarks, MO Greenbriar Inn, White Sulphur Springs, WV Marriott Hotel , Philadelphia, PA Tanque Verde Guest Ranch , Tucson, AZ Salishan Lodge, Glenen Beach, OR Pierre Marquez Hotel, Acapulco, Mexico Amelia Island Plantation, FL Silverado Resort & Country Club, Napa Valley, CA Pinehurst Resort and Country Club , NC Long Boat Key Club , Long Boat Key, FL Tanque Verde Guest Ranch , Tucson, AZ Southampton Princess Hotel, Bermuda The Breakers, Palm Beach, FL The Cloister, Sea Island, GA Ahwahnee Hotel, Yosemite National Park, CA Chatham Bars Inn, Chatham, MA Inn at Spanish Bay, Monterey, CA Sagamore Re sort, Bolton Landing, NY Silverado Re sort & Country Club, Napa Valley, CA ANNUAL

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FIG. 133. First Annual Spring Meeting, Galveston, TX (1973). Left to right: Bartley F~eh, MD ; Marvin Quickert, MD; Laurie Dryden, MD; Robert Dryden , MD ; and Charles Beyer . Photograph courtesy of Robert Wilkins, MD.

Fig. 134. Second Annual Spring Meeting , Boston, MA ( 1974). Left to right : Robert Wilkins, MD ; Charles Beyer , MD ; and Richard Tenzel , MD . Photograph courtesy of Robert Wilkins, MD.

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Fig. 135. Third Annual Spring Meeting , Miami Beach, FL ( I 97 5). Front row, left to right: Henry Baylis, MD ; Robert Dryden , MD; and Robert Wilkins, MD . Back row, left to right: Charles Leone , Jr. , MD ; Bartley Frueh , MD ; Richard Tenzel, MD ; David Soll, MD ; and George Buerg er, Jr . MD . Photograph courtesy of Robert Wilkins , MD .American Society of Ophthalmi c Plastic and Re constructi ve Surgery (ASOPRS) :Annual Spring Meetings

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Appendix 6 THE WENDELL L. HUGHES LECTURES David M. Reifler

The contributions of Wendell L. Hughes and the establishment of this annual named le cture by the American Academ y of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology (AAOO) are detailed in Chapters 1, 5 and 7. As mentioned, Dr . Hughe s passed away on February ro, 1994, as this book was in its final stages of revision and publi cation. Thi s book has been dedicated to his memory as will be future presentations of the Wendell L. Hughes Lecture .. From l 970 through 1977, the Wen dell L. Hughes Lectures were presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Ameri can Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology under the auspices of the Committee on Plasti c ReconstructionOphthalmology. In 1978, the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO ) emerged from the splitting of the AAOO into two groups. From 1978 to the present, the Wendell L. Hughes Lectures have been presented at Combined Meetin gs of the ASOPRS and the AAO . All papers presented at the Combined meetings from 1978 through 1993, including the Wendell L. Hughe s Lectures ar e listed in Appendix 7, Part r. Following a specific reque st by Dr. Hughes, the selectio n of the Wendell L.Hughes Lecturer has been made by a standi ng commit tee of th e ASOPRS, specifically entrusted with this duty (see Dr. McCord' s comments in Chapter 11 ). The functioning of the Wendell Hughe s Lecture Committee is outlined in the Bylaws of the ASOPRS as amended, Article IV, Section 16 (Appendix 9) . At the most recent meetin g of the Executive Commit tee following the passing of Dr. Hughes, there was unanimous informal conse nsus to seek placement of future Wendell L. Hughes Lectures within the Annual Scientifi c Symposia of th e ASOPRS, rath er than in the Combined M ee ting with the AAO . A formal decision has not been made at the time of the printing of this commemo rative boo k. The many accomplishments of each of the individual Wendell L. Hughes Lecturers are undoubtedly of great significance in the history of ophthalmolo gy, ophthalmic plastic surgery , and the ASOPRS . When the AAO met in New Orleans in 1989, Alston Callahan arranged for a special dinner party at Antoin e's with sixteen of the Wendell L. Hughe s' lecturer s attending (Fig. 136).

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F1G. 136. Assemblage of Wendell L. Hughe s Lecturers in New Orleans (1989). From Row (L to R ): Joseph Flanagan, Wendell L. Hughes, Alston Callahan, Byron Smith; Second Row : j.R .O . Collin , John Wright, Orkan Stasior, Crowell Beard , Arthur Grove , Clinton McCord , Jr ., David Soll, John Simonton, A. Jan Berlin; Back Row : Charles BeyerMachule, Robert Wilkins, Allen Putt emun , Ri chard T enzel. Ph otograph courtesy of Dr. Alston Callahan.

In the fall of l 994, the twenty-fifth Wen dell L.Hughes Lecture will be given at the Combined Meeting of the ASOPRS and the AAO in San Francisco, California by Richard L. Anderson. A chronological listing of the first twenty-four Wendell L. Hughes Lecturers and the titles of their presentations appear s below . As listed in Appendix 7 (beginning with Dr. Wilkins ' lecture in 1978), an abbreviated citation is given denoting the appearance of che lecture in the Combined Meeting co-sponsored by the ASOPRS. The citation is given in the style used in the indices of this book . For example, Dr . Wilkins ' lecture is listed as Combined Meeting 78[ 16]. The citations of the Academy's publi shed program abstracts are also listed as are the literature citations of subsequent publications ifknown . The main sources for the preparation of this list were the Annual Meeting Programs of the AAOO and the AAO, Index Medicus, and the Ophthalmic Plasticand ReconstructiveSurgery Bibliography, 1993 Edition [Ophthalmic Plast ReconstrSurg 1993; 9(Suppl)].

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WENDELL L. HUGHES LECTURES AND SUBSEQUENT PUBLICATIONS 1970

ALSTON CALLAHAN, MD

First Wendell L. Hughes Lecture.The SurgicalCorrectionofEndocrineMalfunction of the OcularAdnexa. Presented in Las Vegas, NV, October 6, 1970. AAOO Program Listing, Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol1970;74:929. Published, in part, by Callahan MA, Callahan A: Surgery for endocrine ophthalmopathy. In Callahan MA, Callahan A: OphthalmicPlasticand OrbitalSurgery.Binningham, AL, Aesculapius, 1979, PP 145-150. 1971

BYRON SMITH, MD

OculoplasticSurgery:Recollections,Reflectionsand Projections.Presented in Las Vegas, NV, September 21, 1971. AA.OO Program Listing, TransAm Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol1971;75(4):935. Published, in part, by SmithB: Reflections in ophthal mic plastic surgery. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 1985;1:5-8 (Dedication of the first issue of the Journal); Also abridged version published by Smith BC: (Foreword) Reflections on ophthalmic plastic surgery. In Smith BC et al (eds): OphthalmicPlastic and ReconstructiveSurgery.St Louis, CV Mosby, 1987, pp viii-ix. 1972

CHARLES E. ILIFF, MD

Listed in the ASO PRS Executive Committee Minutes, October 8, 1974. Wendell L. Hughes Lecture not listed as part of the AAOO Program. In 1972, there was a Special Scientific Program: The Committee on Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, Otolaryngology , Combined with Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, Ophthalmology, Dallas, TX, September 26, 1972. The presented topic was TreatmentofFrontal Sinusitis with a CombinedExternal and IntranasalApproach.The presented technique was analagous to a simplified DCR with nasal cathe ter insertion (Charles E. Iliff, MD, personal communication). (Program "Non-Listing") TransAm Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol1972;76: 1112.

1973

MERRILL REEH, MD

Some Aspects of the Pathology of Endocrine Ophthalmopathy. Presented in San Francisco, CA, Septembe r 18, 1973. AAOO Program Listing, Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol1973;77:OP-513, 545.

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1974 CROWELL BEARD, MD

Observations on TreatmentofBasalCell CarcinomaoftheEyelids. Presented in Dallas, TX, October 8, 1974. AAOO Program Listing, TransAmAcad OphthalmolOtolaryngol 1974;78:oP-643, 66r. Published by Beard C: Observations on the treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the eyelids. Trans Am Acad Ophthalrnol Otolaryngol 1975;79:664-'70. I 97 5 ORKAN GEORGE STASIOR , MD

Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery.Presented in Dallas, TX , September 23, 1975. AAOO Program Listing , Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1975;79:O P- 124,139. Published by Stasior OG: Complications of ophthalmic plastic surgery and their prevention . Trans Am Acad Ophthalrnol Otolaryngol 1976;81:543-52 . 1976 LESTER T. JONE S, MD

New Anatomic Conceptsin Eyelid Surgery.Presented in Las Vegas, NV, October 7, I 976. AAOO Program Listing, TransAm Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol l 976; 8 r: OPI I 6, r 3o. Published by Jones LT, W obigJL: Newer concepts of tear du ct and eyelid anatomy and treatment . Trans Am A cad OphthalrnolOtolaryngol 1977;83:603- 16. 1977 JOHN T. SIMO NT ON, MD

PradicalPtosis Surgery.Presented in Dallas, TX, O ctober 4, 1977. AAOO Program Listing, Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol1977;83:O P- 148,164. Published by Simont onJT: Practical pto sis surgery. The Wendell L. Hu ghes Lecture. Ophthalmology1978;8 5:763-5 . 1978 ROBERT B. WILKINS, MD

Wound Healing. Presented in Kansas City, MO, O ctober 25, 1978. ASOPRSAAO Co mbined Meeting 78(16]. AAO Program Listing and Abstract, Ophthalmology r978 ;85(Suppl) :r5 , 80. Publi shed by Wilk.ins RB, Kulwin D : Wound healing . Ophthalmology1979;86:507-ro. 1979 R ICHARD R . TENZEL, MD

Treatment ofComplications of Lid R econstruction. Presented in San Fran cisco, CA, November 8, 1979. ASOPRS -AAO Combined Meeting 79(19]. AAO Program Listing and Abstract, Ophthalmology1979;86(Suppl):r4, 95.

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1980 CHARLE S K. BEYER, MD

Wendell L. Hughes Lecture: The Use and Fate of Fascia l..Ata and Sciera in Ophthalmology.Presented in Chicago, IL, November 3, 1980. ASOPRS-AAO Combined Meeting So[14]. AAO Program Listing, Ophthalmology1980;87(Suppl ). Published by Beyer CK, Albert DM: The use and fate of fascia lata and sclera in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. The 1980 Wen dell Hugh es Lecture. Ophthalmology1981;88:869-86 . 1981 DAVID B. SOLL, MD

WendellL. HughesLecture.Presented in Atlanta, GA, November 4, r 98r. ASO PR SAAO Combined Meeting 81[ 14]. AAO Program Listing (without specific title or abstract), Ophthalmology 1981;88(Suppl):8 ,60. Published by Soll DB: The anophthalmic socket. Ophthalmology1982;89:407-23 . 1982 JOHN E. WRIGHT, MD

Orbital VascularLesions. Presented in San Francisco, CA, November 2, 1982. ASOPRS-AAO Combined Meeting 82(10]. AAO Program Listing, Ophthalmology 1982;89(9Suppl) :128. 1983 CLINTON D . MCCORD, JR., MD

OrbitalDecompression.Presented in Chicago, IL, November 2, 1983. ASOPRSAAO Combined Meeting 83[21]. Program Listing, Oph thalm ology 1983;90(8Suppl):69 . Published by McCord CD, Jr : Current trends in orbital decompression. Ophthalmology1985;92:21-33 . 1984 ALLEN M. PUTTERMAN, MD

Muller's Musclein the TreatmentofUpper Eyelid Retractionand Ptosis. Presente d in Atlanta, GA, on November 13, 1984. ASOPRS-AAO CombinedMeeting84[ro). AAO Program Listing, Ophthalmology1984;91(9Suppl):83. Published by Putterman AM , Fett DR: Miiller's muscle in the treatment of upper eyelid ptosis: A ten- year study. Miiller's muscle in the treatment of upper eyelid retraction: A 12-Year study. OphthalmicSurg 1986;1T354-60, 361-'7. 1985 CARL CORDES JOHNSON, MD

Canthal Abnom,alities. Presented in San Francisco , CA, September 30, 1985. ASOPRS-AAO Combined Meeting 85[11). AAO Program Listing, Ophthalmol-

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ogy r985;92 (8Suppl):59. Published by Johnson CC: De velopm ental abnormalities of th e eyelids. The r 98 5 Wendell Hughe s Lecture . OphthalmicPlast R econstrSurg I 986;2(4) :2I 9-3

2. 1986 FREDERI C K A. JAKOBrE C, MD

The Lymphocyte; Its OphthalmicEvolution; Problems in Diagnosis and Management. Presented in New Orleans , LA, November r3, 1986. ASOPRS-AAO Combined Meeting 86[10]. AAO Program Listing, Ophthalmology 1986;93:(8Suppl);roo. Publi shed by Jakobiec FA, Neri A, Knowle s DM II: Genotypic mon oclo nality in immunoph eno typically polyclonal orbital lymph oid tumors . A model of tum o r progre ssion in the lymphoid system. The 1986 W endell Hughe s Lecture. Ophthalmology1987;94:98<>-94. 1987 A. JAN BERLIN, MD Essential Blepharospasm Revisited. Pre sented in Dallas, TX, Nov ember 12, 1987. ASOPR S-AAO Combined Meeting 87[ r 5]. AAO Progr am Listing, Ophthalmology 1987;94(8Suppl):98. 1988 J.R.O . COL LIN , FRCS Blepharochalasis. ASOPRS-AAO Co mbined Meeting 88(11]. AAO Progr am Listing , Ophthalmology1988;95(9Suppl):126. Published by Collin JRO : Blepharochalasis. A review of 30 cases. OphthalmicPlast R econstr Surg 199 r ;T 153-7. 1989 ROBERT R. WALLER, MD Optic Nerve Meningoceles. Pre sented in Ne w Orleans, LA, November 2, 1989. ASO PRS-AA O Combined M eeting 8 9 [12]. AA O Pro gam Listing, Ophthalmology 1988;96(9Suppl) : l I O. 1990 ARTHURS.

GROVE, JR., MD

Beyond the Hughes Greft-E volution of LowerLid Reconstructionby TarsalGrefting. Presented in Atlanta, GA, October 3 I, 1990. ASOPRS-AAO Combined Meeting 90[10]. AAO Program Listing, Ophthalmology1990;97(9Suppl);u5.

374

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I 99 I LORENZ E. ZIMMERMAN,

MD

The SpectrumefMelanocytic Tumorsefthe Orbit.Presented in Anaheim , CA, October r4, r99r. ASOPRS-AAO Combined Meeting 91[9). AAO Program Listing, Ophthalmology1991;98(8Suppl):142. 1992 JOSEPH C. FLANAGAN, MD

Tumorsefthe LacrimalSac.Presented in Dallas, TX, November r r, I 992. ASOPRSAAO Combined Meeting 92[9). AAO Program Listing , Ophthalmology r 992;99(9Suppl) :99. 1993 BARTLEY R. FRUEH , MD

A Test to SupersedeLevatorFunctionin EvaluatingPtosis.Presented in Chicago , IL, November 16, 1993. ASOPRS-AAO Combined Meeting 93[9). AAO Program Listing, Ophthalmology1993;100(9ASuppl):80.

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Appendix 7 SYMPOSIA, COURSES AND EXHIBITS SPONSORED BY THE ASOPRS AT THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF OPHTHALMOLOGY

ANNUAL MEETINGS

David M. Reifler As Chairman of the Committee on Reconstructive Plastic Surgery-Ophthalmo logy, Wendell L. Hughes was responsible for organizing annual scientific symposia and courses for the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology (AAOO). After Hughes' retirement in 1970, Alston Callahan succeeded as the second Chairman from 1971 to 1978. The split in the Academy that was ratified at the 1978 meeting became effective on January 1, 1979. Orkan G. Stasior succeeded as the third and last Chairman within the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) until the Committee was dissolved after 1981. Stasior organized the Committee to include the President-Elect of the ASOPRS , the Chairman of the Oculoplastics Section of the AAO Basic Sciences Course, the ASOPRS Program Chairman , and an ASOPRS Member-at-Large. Following Stasior's tenure, educational liaison activities between the ASOPRS and the AAO were divided between A. Jan Berlin 0oint Meeting Program) and J. Earl Rathbun (ASOPRS-sponsored Instructional Courses). Although numerous ASOPRS members have presented, and continue to present, many excellent papers , posters, courses and exhibits (Fig. 137) at the AAO Annual Fall Meetings, only ASOPRS-sponsored program s, courses , and exhibits are abstracted in this appendix.

PART I. COMBINED MEETINGS OF THE ASOPR S AND AAO

During Orkan Stasior's tenu re as Chairman of the AAO Committee on Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, each joint meeting within the Academy was designated in the program as CombinedMeetingwith theAmericanSocietyof Ophthalmic Plasticand ReconstructiveSurgery. This has continued to the present time . Also continuing the format as set by the Committee on Reconstru ctive Plastic Surgery, the annual ASOPRS-AAO symposia have concluded with the Wendell L. Hughes Lecture (see Appendix 6). The Symposium and Hughe s Lecture have generally been followed by free papers on related oculoplastic and orbital subjects . A. Jan Berlin served as Program Coordinator from 1982 through 1988. During this time, Berlin succeeded in further developing good relations betwe en the

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FIG. 137. The ASOPRS Booth, Ask the Experts. ASOPRS Fellow s (standing behind the table) , John M . Nassif, MD (left) and Richard Lisman, MD (right), answer questions posed by attendee s of the Annual Fall Meeting of the Ameri can Academy of Ophthalmology . Videos were also available for viewing by attendees (to the left in the photo) . McCoanick Place Convention Center, Chicago , IL, November , 1993. (Photo supplied by Edwin Augu stat, MD. )

Program Advisory Committee of the AAO and the ASOPRS . Each year, Berlin selected Program Chairmen and topics for each year, and assisted these chairmen in getting the programs on the stage. In 1989,John W . Shore succeeded as Program Coordinator. Jonathan J. Dutton begins his five-year tenure as Program Coordinator in 1994. The Chairperson chosen for 1994 is Ted H . Wojno. Subject to approval by the Program Advisory Committee, the 1994 program will be entitled, Malignant Neoplasms of the Eyelids. Modern Concepts of Treatment. The 1994 Combined Meeting will conclude with the presentation of the rwenty-fifth Wendell L. Hughes Lecture by Richard L. Anderson. In the Index of Personal Names and the Index of Subjects , Combined Meeting presentations are cited with the year of presentation followed by the consecutively numbered location in the program in brackets. For example, the first presentation by Arthur S. Grove, Jr., MD, in 1978 is listed in the indices under a subheading "Combined Meetings: 78[ 1]." Citations for the Annual Fall Scientific Symposia of the ASOPRS (Appendix 4) are listed in a similar fashion in the indices.

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OCTOBER 25,

1978,

KANSAS CITY, MO: TUM ORS OF THE LIDS AND ORBITS

Chairperson: Bartley R. Frueh, MD Ophthalmology 1978;85(Suppl):15;75-80 1.

Orbital Diseases: Examination and Diagnostic Evaluation Arthur S. Grove,Jr., MD

Radiology of the Orbit Galdino R. Valvassori, MD 3. Computerized Tomography and Orbital Tumors Sadek K. Hila/, MD; Stephen L. Troke/, MD 4. Ultrasound in Orbital Diagnosis D .Jackson Coleman, MD , Ri chard L. Dallow, MD 5. Perspe ctive of Orbital Tumor Evaluation All en M. Futterman, MD 6. Orbital Septa: Anatomy and Function Leo K oornneef, MD 7. Diagn ostic Modalitie s and Natural Behavior of Optic Nerve Gliomas William H. Spencer, MD 8. Lesion s of the Fossa of the Lacrimal Gland William B. Stewart, MD 9. Vascular Problems in the Orbit J oseph C. Flanagan, MD IO. Lymphangioma of the Orbit W. Jackson Iii.ff,MD; W. Richard Green, MD 11. Metastati c Tumors of the Orbit John D . Bullock, MD I 2. Surgical Approaches to the Orbit Charles R. Leone, Jr., MD 13. Radiati on Treatment of Orbital Lymphoid Hyperplasia John S. K ennerdell, MD; Bruce L. J ohnson, MD; Melvin Deutsch, MD 14. Clinical Outcome of Orbital Lymphoid H yperp lasia Freden·ck A . Jak obiec, MD ; I. Mclean, MD ; Ramon L. Font, MD I 5. Indi cations and Surgical Te chniques of Orbital Exenteration R obert E. K ennedy, MD 16. Wend ell L. Hughe s Lecture: Wound Healing . R obert B . Wilkin s, MD 2.

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NOVEMBER

8, 1979, SAN FRANCISCO, CA: EYELID TUMORS Chairman: Not Listed Ophthalmology 1979;86(Suppl):91-5.

Overview of Lid Tumors Joseph C. Flanagan, MD; GerardM. Shannon, MD 2. Photography for Lid Lesions Bernd Silver, MD 3. Microscopic and Biologic Behavior of Eyelid Neoplasms Clinton D. McCord,Jr., MD; H. Dwight Cavanagh, MD, PhD 4. Biopsy and Frozen Sections Robert M. Dryden, MD; Frank Meronk, MD s. Complications and Results of Lid Cryosurgery John R. Wood, MD; Richard L. Anderson, MD; James]. Edwards, MD 6. Discussion Crowell Beard, MD 7. The Role of Cryotherapy in Eyelid Malignancie s Frederick T. Fraunfelder, MD 8. Tumors of the Eyelids: Their Treatment by Radiotherapy G.A . Thompson, MD; PJ. Fitzpatrick, MB; M. Easterbrook, MD; B.L. Callie, MD 9. Complication of Radiation Treatment of Eyelid Tumors Robert E. Kennedy, MD 10. Combined Excision and Fresh-Tissue Histographic Technique for Recurrent Basal Cell Epithelioma A. Jan Berlin, MD; Philip A. Bailin, MD I I. Eyelid lntradermal Nevi Allen M. Futterman, MD I 2. Benign Tumors of the Eyelid David B. Soll, MD I 3. Partial and Total Reconstruction of the Lower Eyelid Charles E. fliff, MD; Nicholas T. fliff, MD 14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Upper Eyelid Tumors Byron Smith, MD r 5. Eyelid Reconstruction with an Island-Pedicle Myocutaneous Flap Charles M . Stephenson, MD 16. Discussion W. Hughes, MD 17. Lower Lid Reconstruction with the Mustarde Rotational Cheek Flap Alston Callahan, MD; Michael Callahan, MD I.

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18. Complications of Lower Eyelid Reconstruction Charles K. Beyer, MD r 9. Wendell L. Hughes Lecture: Surgical Treatment of Complications of Lid Reconstruction Richard R. Tenzel, MD

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NOVEMBER

3,

1980, CHICAGO, IL: THYR O ID DISEASE- SURG ICAL MANAGEMENT

C hairman: A. Jan Berlin, MD 1.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. IO.

1 1.

12.

1 J.

14.

382

Eyelid Retr action in Thyroid Ocular Disease Arthur Sanders Grove, Jr., MD Treatment of Upper Ey elid R et raction Allen M. Futterman, MD The Apo neuroti c Approa ch to Eyelid Retraction John T. Harvey, MD; Ri chard L. And erson, MD Treatment of Eyelid Retraction with Scleral Grafts R obert M . Dryden, MD Ear Cartilage Autograft in Thyr oid Lower Eyelid Retr action H enry I Baylis, MD ; No nnan Sh orr, MD ; Carl Shibata, MD Diagnosis and Surgical Man agement of Motility Probl ems William Scott, MD ; Jill A. 111alacker Orbital Decompression Through the Inferi or Cul-de -sac Ap pro ach Clinton D . M cCord, MD; William R. Nunery, MD Inferior Orbital Decompres sion Charles R . Leone,Jr., MD ; Frank]. Bajandas, MD Transantral Orbital De compr ession l.Awrence D eSanto, MD Underc o rrection of Tr ansantral Orbital De compre ssion : Re ope ration of Two Cases No rman Shorr, MD ; H enry I. Baylis, MD Combined Orbital and Transantral Approach R obert G. Small, MD Complications ofTransantral Orbital D ecomp ression for the Treatmen t of Graves ' Ophthalmopathy Brian R. Younge; MD , R obert R. Waller, MD Overview of Orbital Decompre ssion Alston Callahan, MD Wendell L. Hughes Lecture : The Us e and Fate ofDonor Sciera and Fascia Lata in Ophthalmo logy Charles K. Beyer, MD

APPENDIX

S.EVEN


NOVEMBER4, 1981, ATLANTA,GA: TRAUMA Chairman: Clinton D. McCord, MD Ophthalmology 1981;88(9Suppl):58-60.

r.

The Use of Digital Subtraction Angiography in Orbital Trauma A.Jan Berlin, MD; Michael T. Modic, MD 2. Management of Ophthalmic Burns Through the First Eight Weeks Dwight R. Ku/win, MD 3. Management of Orbital Trauma with Visual Loss Melvin G. Alper, MD; Jennifer M. Seal 4. Optic Nerve Blindness Following Blunt Forehead Trauma Richard L. Anderson, MD; William R. Panje, MD; Cordell E. Gross, MD 5. Discussion Jonathan D. Trobe, MD 6. Update on the Acute Management of Blowout Fractures Robert B. Wilkins, MD 7. Late Problems After Orbital and Ocular Adnexal Trauma Robert G. Small, MD 8. Traumatic Enophthalmos Orkan George Stasior, MD; Janet L. Roen , MD 9. Complications of Orbital Roof Fractures Joseph C. Flanagan, MD; Daniel L. MclAchlan, MD; Gerard M. Shannon., MD IO. The Management of Tissue Loss Following Acute Eyelid Trauma Richard R. Tenzel , MD I I. Lacrimal Trauma Update John L. Wobig, MD 12. Naso-Orbital Fractures Charles K. Beyer, MD 13. Computed Tomography in the Management of Orbital Trauma Arthur S. Grove, Jr., MD I 4. Wendell L. Hughes Lecture David B. Soll, MD

S YMP OS IA,

CO UR S ES

AND

EXHIBITS

S P O NS O R.ED

BY

THE

ASO PR. S

3 83


NOVEMBER 2, 1982,

SAN FRANCISCO , CA

Chairman: Richard R. Tenzel, MD Ophthalmology 1982;89(9Suppl): 127-8.

1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

9. 10.

384

The Preoperative Evaluation: The First Step in Preventing Complications of Eyelid Surgery William B. Stewart, MD Prevention of Complications of Brow Lift Allen M. Puttemian, MD Prevention of Complications in Blepharoplasty of the Upper Eyelids Robert B. Wilkins, MD Discussion of Previous Paper A. Jan Berlin, MD Avoiding Complications in Lower Lid Blepharoplasty Richard K. Dortzbach, MD Prevention of Complications of the Malar Fat Pad with Lower Lid Blepharoplasty Rob ert G. Small, MD Blindness Associated with Blepharoplasty Michael A . Callahan, MD An Alternative in the Management ofSteatoblepharon in Cosmetic Blepharoplasty Orkan George Stasior, MD Discussion of Previous Paper Mark R. Levine, MD Wendell L. Hughes Lecture: Orbital Vascular Lesions John E. Wright, MD

A P P EN D IX

SEVE N


NOVEMBER 2,

1983, C HICAGO,

IL: UPDATE IN OPHTHALM IC PLASTIC AND

RECONSTRUCTIVE

SURGERY

Chairman: Orkan George Stasior, MD Ophthalmology 1983;90(8Suppl):66-9.

r.

Eyelid Re construction-Introduction of Topi c Ri chard L. Ander son, MD 2. Aponeurotic Approach to the Management of Ey elid Mal positions Richard L. Anderson, MD 3. Eyelid Reconstruction Charles K. Beyer, MD 4. Management of Aberrant Eyelashes and Conjunctiva! Shrinkage Mark R. Levine, MD 5. Lacrimal Update-Introduction of Topic Janet L. Ro en, MD 6. Nasal Endoscopy in Lacrimal Surgery John V. Linberg, MD 7. Nasol acrimal Silicone Intubation in Children ]. S. Crawford, MD 8. Silicone Intub ation in Canalicular Trauma Richard K. Dortzbach, MD 9. Silicone Intubati on-An Appraisal John L. Wobig, MD IO. Microsurgical Canalicular Reconstruction David B. Soll, MD 1r. Orbital Update-Introduction of Topic Arthur S. G rove, MD 12. New Imaging Te chniques for Orbital Diagnosis A. Jan Berlin, MD ; Mi chael T . M odic, MD ; M eredith A. W einstein, MD; Rob ert L. Tomsak, MD l 3. Management of Ophthalmi c Graves' Disease C harles R. Leone,Jr. , MD 14. New Co ncepts in Orbital Pathology W . Ri chard Green, MD I 5. Cosmetic Blepharoplasty - lntrodu ction of Topic Henry I. Baylis, MD 16. Recent Advances in Upper and Low er Eyelid Bleph aroplasty ]. Earl Rathbun, MD 17. Eyebrow Lift Norman Shorr, MD

SYMP O SI A ,

CO URSES

AND

EXH I B IT S

SP O N SO RED

BY

THE

A SO PR S

385


18. Posterior Eyebrow Fixation Bradley N. Lemke, MD 19. Upper Eyelid Crease Fixation Ri chard R . Tenze l, MD 20. Offi ce -Based Cosmetic Bleph aroplasty Ru ssell W. Neuhaus, MD 21. Wendell L. Hughes Le cture : Orbital Decompression Clint on D. McCord,Jr., MD

386

APPENDIX

SEVEN


NOVEMBER

13, 1984,

ATLANTA, GA: THE ORBIT AND SYSTEMIC DISEASE

Chairman: Arthur S. Grove, Jr., MD Ophthalmology r984 ;9r(9Suppl) :81-3.

I.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ro.

Orbital Involvement by Systemic Disease Arthur S . Grove, Jr ., MD The Orbit as a Target Organ: Topographic and Pathologic Considerations Frederick A . Jakobiec, MD Orbital Vasculitis and Associated Pseudotumors Melvin G. Alper, MD , Lorenz E. Zimmerman , MD The Orbit and Systemic Disease: Sarcoidosis Neil R. Miller, MD Histio cytoses and Xanthogranulomatous Disorders Lorenz E. Zimmem,an., MD ; M elvin C. Alper, MD Orbital Involvement by Lymphoma and Leukemia R. Patrick Yeatts, MD ; Robert R. Waller, MD;Jam es A . Garrity, MD Metastatic Tumors to the Orbit Mark R. Levine, MD ; Kathleen Lamping, MD Orbital Infections in the Immuno co mpromised Patient John D. Bullock, MD Some Parasitic Diseases of the Orbit and Ocular Adnexa Ramon L. Font, MD Wendell L. Hughes Lecture: Muller's Muscl e in the Tr eatm ent ofUpper Eyelid Retraction and Ptosis Allen M . Puttemtan, MD

SYMP OSIA,

COU RSES

AND

EX HIBIT S

SPONSO

R.ED

BY

THE

ASOPR.S

3 87


SEPTEMBER 30,

1985,

SAN FRANCISCO, CA: TECHNICAL ADVANCES IN OCVLOPLASTIC SURGERY

Chaim1an: A. Jan Berlin, MD Ophthalmology I 985;92(8Suppl): 57-9. I.

Three-Dimensional CT Imaging James A. Katowitz, MD

2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Orbital Contents Myron Yanoff, MD 3. Oncology: Major Trends in Pathogenesis, Diagnosi s and Therapy jack Rootman, MD 4. Limitations of Histopathologic Diagnosis in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery FrederickA. jakobiec, MD 5. The Use of Argon Laser in the Treatment of Eyelid and Orbital Vascular Tumors J oseph C. Flanagan, MD, A . Jan Berlin, MD 6. Lower Eyelid Reconstruction with Full Thickness Upper Eyelid Flaps Ri chard L. Anderson, MD 7. The Role of Vitamin A in Tear Deficiency Syndromes Scott M . MacRae, MD ; john Ubels, PhD; John L. Wobig, MD 8. Botulinum Toxin Use for Essential Blepharospasm: Current Status Bartley R. Frueh, MD ; David C. Musch, PhD 9. Eyelid Tattooing: Indications, Technique , Complications Mi chael Patipa, MD ro. Permanent Eyelid Enhancement: Historical Perspective and Contemporary View William B . Stewart, MD I I. Wendell L. Hughes Lecture: Canthal Abnormalities Carl C. Johnson, MD

388

APPENDIX

S EVEN


NOVEMBER 13,

1986, NEW ORLEANS, LA: MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO OCULOPLASTIC AND ORBITAL PROBLEMS

Chairman: William B. Stewart, MD Ophthalmology 1986;93: (8Suppl);99-roo. I.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

ro.

Thyroid Eye Disease: Current Management Jonathan D. Trobe, MD Advances in Immunology: Applications in Periocular and Orbital Diseases Leslie S. Fujikawa, MD; Dhi-Chao Chan, MD; Robert B. Nussenblatt, MD Tissue Transplantation in Oculoplastic Surgery Richard L. Anderson, MD; Louis Morales, MD; James R. Patrinely, MD Perspective on Management of Facial Nerve Palsy/ Paresis Da"ell E. Wolfley, MD Multidisciplinary Approach to Management of Complex Bony and Soft Tissue Orbitocranial Neoplasms Bryant A. Toth, MD; William B. Stewart, MD; David DiLoreto, MD Interdisciplinary Surgical Management of Post-Traumatic Orbito-Cranial Deformities James E. Zins, MD ; A. Jan Berlin, MD Combined Neuro-Surgical-Ophthalmologic Approach to Apical Orbital Tumors John S. Kennerdell, MD Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Carotid Cavernous Sinus Fistulas John L. Keltner, MD, Arthur B. Dublin, Benjamin C.P. Lee, MD Microsurgical Revascularization of the Ophthalmic Artery for Ischemic Ocular Disease Daniel L. Ba"ow , MD; Lewis D. Friedlander, MD; Robert H. Spector, MD Wendell L. Hughes Lecture: The Lymphocyte; Its Ophthalmic Evolution; Problems in Diagnosis and Management Frederick A. Jakobiec, MD

SYMP O SIA ,

C OUR SES

AND

EXHIBIT

S

S P O N SO RED

BY

THE

A SO PRS

389


NOVEMBER 12,

1987, DALLAS, TX:

COS METIC OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC SURG ERY

Chairman: Henry I. Baylis, MD Ophthalmology I 987;94(8Suppl) :97-8. 1.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. ro. r 1. r 2. r 3. r 4. r 5.

390

Introdu ctio n to Cosmetic Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery: Con to ur Evaluation and Surgical Planning H enry I. Baylis, MD Forehead and Brow Lift Clinton D . M cCord, MD Surgi cal Anatom y of the Upper Eyelid Relati ve to Blepharopla sty J ohn L. Wob(g, MD Local An esthesia for Blepharopla sty Ru ssell W . Neuhaus, MD Design of the Upper Blepharoplasty Incision All en M . Puttem1an, MD Ex cision of Skin , Orbicularis, and Fat in Upp er Blepharopl asty ]. Ju stin Older, MD Hemostasi s in Blepharopl asty ]. Earl Rathbun , MD Suturing and the Upper Ey elid Crease in Blepharoplasty Ri chard R . T enz el, MD Complications of Upper Blepharoplasty Richard P. Ca"oll, MD Asian Blepharopla sty William P. Chen, MD The Repair of Pcosis During Upp er Blephar oplasty Charles R. Leone, Jr., MD Tr anscutaneous Lower Blepharopla sty Robert B. Wilkin s, MD Lowe r Eyelid Retra ction Following Blepharoplasty Norman Sho", MD Bleeding and Visual Loss Following Blepharopl asty T. David I . Wilk es, MD W endell L. Hughe s Lectur e: Essential Blepharospasm Revi sited A. Jan Berlin, MD

APPENDIX

SEVEN


OCTOBER 9,

1988, LAS VEGAS, NV: BLEPHAROPTOSIS SURGERY:

THE PROBLEMS, THE CONCEPTS-HONORING

CROWELL BEARD, MD

Chairman:]. Earl Rathbun, MD Ophthalmology 1988;95 (9Suppl): 126.

I. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. IO.

I I.

Apo neurosis Repair in Congenital and Involutional Ptosis John L. Wobig, MD Treatment of Severe Unilateral Congenital Ptosis Robert M. Dryden , MD Congenital Ptosis: The Posterior Surgical Approach John H. Sullivan, MD Newer Approaches to Ptosis Surgery Richard L. Anderson, MD Traumatic Ptosis Darrell E. Wolfley, MD Pseudoptosis: Beware Glen 0. Brindley, MD Does Ptosis Cause Amblyopia? Eugene M. Helveston, MD Eyelid Retraction: Mueller's Muscle Approach Robert R. Waller, MD Eyelid Retraction : Levator Aponeurosis Approach Arthur S. Grove, Jr, MD Ptosis: The Future Crowell Beard, MD Wendell L. Hughes Lecture: Blepharochalasis j.R. 0. Collin, FRCS

SYMPOS IA ,

CO UR S ES

AND

EXH IBIT S

S P O NS OR ED

BY

THE

AS O PR S

39 1


NOVEMBER 2,

1989, NEW ORLEAN S, LA: LACRIMAL EXCRETORY PROBLEMS Chairman:John L. Wobig, MD Ophthalmology r988 ;96(9Suppl):r

I.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

I I.

r2.

39 2

IO .

Anatomy and Physiology of the Lacrimal System John W. Shore, MD Evaluation of the Tearing Patient Russell W . Neuhaus, MD Punctal Disorders T. David I. Wilkes, MD Canalicular Problems and Disorders Bartley R. Frueh, MD Lacrimal Sac and Nasolacrimal Duct Disorders Robert B. Wilkins, MD Congenital Disorders ofLacri.mal Excretory System James A. Katowitz, MD Radiography of the Lacrimal System Timothy W . Doucet, MD Lacrimal System Scintillography Jeffrey]. Hurwitz, MD Minimal Morbidity in Lacrimal Surgery Roger A . Dailey, MD Nasal Endoscopy in the Failed Da cryocystorhinostomy A. Jan Berlin, MD, Howard L. Levine, MD Naso-Ethmoid Region Trauma : Effect on the Lacrimal System Orkan G. Stasior, MD Wendell L. Hughes Lecture: Optic Nerve Meningoceles Robert R. Waller, MD

APPENDIX

SEVEN


OCTOBER

3 I , I 990 , ATLANTA,

GA: FRONTIER S OF OPHTHALMIC

AND ORBITAL

PLASTIC

SURG ERY

Chairperson: Gerald]. Harris, MD Ophthalmology 1990:97(9Suppl); I 1 5. I.

Orbital Imaging Update : Should I Order an MRI , CT, or Ultra sonogram? Jonathan]. Dutton, MD

2.

Immunopathology of Orbital Inflammatory Disease: Therapeuti c Implications Rob ert B. Nussenblatt, MD

3.

Opti c Nerve Sheath Fenestration in Pseudotumor Cerebri David T. T se, MD

4. Opti c Nerv e Glioma: Is a Mor e Aggressive Approach Indicated ? Steven Lofton, MD

Expandable Orbital Implants for Congenital Anophthalmos l..ArryH. Allen , MD 6. Current Technique s for the Repair of Complex Orbital Fractur es: Miniplate Fixation, Cranial Bone Grafts Ralph E. Wesley, MD 7. New Autografts in Eyelid Re co nstruction 5.

Robert C. Kersten, MD

8. The Anatomic Basis oflnvolutional Eyelid Malposition : Implications for the Repair of Ptosis, Encropion and Ectropion Marcos T. D oxanas, MD 9. The Histopathological Correlates of Acquired Dacryostenosis: Implications for Therapy John V. Linberg, MD IO. Wendell L. Hughes Lecture : Beyond the Hughe s Graft-Evolution of Lower Lid Re construction by Tarsal Grafting Arthur S. Grove, Jr., MD

SYMPOSIA,

COURSES

AND

EX HI BITS

SPO N SORED

BY

THE

.

ASOPRS

393


OCTOBER

14 , 1991 , ANAHEIM , CA: ORB ITAL AND OCULO PLASTIC EMER GENC IES

Chairperson:John V. Linberg, MD Ophthalm ology I 99 I ;98 (8Su ppl) : r 42.

ACU TE VISUAL LOSS WITH FACIAL INJURY I. 2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

7.

Traumatic Optic Neuropathy: Di agnosis and Managem ent Strategies Robert A. Goldberg, MD Orbital Hem o rrhage : Manag ement, Conservative versus Surgical Gregory B. Krohel, MD Orbital Foreign Bodies: Is Rem oval Ne cessary? Jam es C. Orcutt, MD Orbital Cellulitis: Evaluation and Therapy Perry F. Garber, MD Orbital Abscess: Is Emergency Drain age N ecessary? Gerald]. Harris, MD Acute Dacryoc ystitis: Inpatient versus Outpatient Tr eatment Jeffrey]. Hurwi tz, MD Animal Bite s: Medical and Surgical Man agement Ru ssell S . Gonnering, MD

PERI OCU LAR BURNS-EMERGENT

CARE

8. The Ophthalmologist as a M ember of the Burn Team D wight R . Ku/win , MD 9. Wendell L. Hughes Lecture: Th e Spectrum of Melano cytic Tumors of th e Orbit Lorenz E. Zimmerman, MD

394

APPENDIX

S E V EN


NOVEMBER I I, 1992 , DALLAS, TX: CURRENT

THOUGHTS

ON LACRIMAL

DISORDERS

Chairperson: Stuart R. Seif[, MD Ophthalmology 1992;99(9Suppl) :98-9.

PEDIATRIC LACRIMAL OBSTRUCTION

When to Probe, How to Probe , and Success Rates Peter D. Fries, MD 2. Indications, Techniques , and Results of Lacrimal Intubation Michael G. We/sit, MD 3. Pediatric DCR: Indications, Techniques, and Results Richard A. We/ham, FRCS I.

EVOLVING TECHNIQUES

FOR MANAGING LACRIMAL OBSTRUCTION

4.

The Endoscope and Laser in DCR Surgery Bradley N. Lemke, MD 5. New Thoughts on the Standard DCR (The Laser in Perspective) Mary A. Stefanyszyn , MD 6. Management of the Failed DCR Jeffrey C. Popp, MD

ADDITIONAL TEARFUL TOPIC S

7. Management of ~analicular Lacerations John]. Woog, MD 8. Techniques of Punctal Occlusion: When and How? John A . Long, MD 9. The Wendell L. Hughes Lecture : Tumor s of the Lacrimal Sac Joseph C. Flanagan, MD

SY MP OSI A ,

CO U RS E S

AN D

E X HIBIT S

S P O N SO R.E D

BY

THE

ASOP R.S

39 5


NOVEMBER

16, 1993,

CHICAGO, IL: OCULOPLASTIC AND ORBITAL SURGERY IN THE 2 I ST CENTURY

Chairperson: Christine C. Nelson, MD Ophthalmology 1993; 1oo(Suppl9A) 79-80. I. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

396

To Drill or Not to Drill Hydroxyapatite Implants? William R. Nunery, MD Should Hydroxyapatite Implants be Used in Children? John W. Shore, MD Osseous Integration Jeffrey A. Nerad, MD Guidelines for Orbital Fracture Repair Deborah D. Shennan, MD New Laboratory Tests in Orbital and Lacrimal Disease Marilyn Coburn Kincaid, MD Pulsed Dye Laser in the Treatment of Cutaneous Pediatric Vascular Lesions Jerome M. Garden, MD Long-Term Local and Systemic Effects ofBotulinum Toxin Jonathan]. Dutton , MD, PhD Antitoxins Use in the Treatment ofBotulinum Toxin Complications Alan B. Scott, MD Wendell L. Hughes Lecture: A Test to Supersede Levator Function in Evaluating Ptosis Bartley R. Frueh, MD

APPEN D IX

SEVEN


PART II. IN STRUCT IONAL COURS ES SPONSO RED BY THE ASOPRS AT AAO ANNUAL MEETINGS

One of th e final transferences of responsibilities between the AAO 's Reconstru ctive Plasti c Surgery Committee was in th e sponsorship of instructional courses at the AAO Annual Meetings. The last in stru ctional co urses of the AAO Committee we re coordina ted by Chairman Orkan G. Stasior, w ith Wendell L. Hughes and Alston Callahan serving as cons ultan ts. Th e last courses under the auspices of this Committee were given as a two-year cycle in 1980 and 1981. Th e Senior Instru ctor s in 1980 were Charles K. Beye r and David B . Soll- each course pre senting 6 hours of in stru ction divided over a two-day span . The organization and faculty largely carried over to subsequent cour ses th at were sponso red by the ASOPRS. Beginning in 1982, J. Earl Rathbun served as a liaison between the ASOPRS and the AAO , chairing an Acade my Course Committee and serving as one of the Senior Instru ctors . From 1982-1991, the AAO program listings of the multiple ASOPR S-spon sore d co urses for a given yea r stated , "T he series is designed as a co ntinuum , but each co urse may be taken separate ly." B egi nning in 1986, th e co urses were officially listed as "Jointl y sponsored by the Acade my's Instru ction Advisory Committee and the Ameri can Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and R econs tru ctive Surgery." Beginning in 1992, th e AAO Instructi on Advi sory Committee limited the sponsored co ur ses to one ne w multi- session instructional cours e each year. A full listing of co urs e titles and Senior Instru ctors for ASOPRS- sponso red course s app ears below followed by a listing of Assistant In stru ctors and the years of their parti cipation : R efinements in Surgi cal Te chnique s of Ptosis, Entropion, and Ectropi on ]. Earl Rathbun , MD, et al (1982-1991 ) Ophthalmic Plastic and Re const ructi ve Surgery Charles K. Beyer, MD, et al (1982-1983 ) Current Concepts in Cos meti c Blepharop lasty, Thyroid Orbital D isease and Blepharo spasm Ri chard R. Tenzel, MD, et al (1982-19 85) Mark R . Levine, MD , et al (1986- 1990) Special Te chnique s as Appli ed to Eyelid and Nasolacrimal Re cons tru ctions David B. Soll, MD, et al (1982-1991) The Anatomi c and Phy siologic Appro ach to Lacrimal and Adnexal Surgery R obert M . Dryden, MD, et al (1984) Current Concepts in Enucl eation, Evi sceration, Socket Diffi culties , Orbital Di sease, Fracture s and Trauma R obert M . Dryd en, MD , et al (1985- 1991)

SYMP O SIA,

COURSES

AND

EXHIBITS

SP O N SORED

BY

THE

AS O PR S

39 7


Ophth almic Plastic and Re con stru ctive Surgery Updat e: Eyelid Surgery Gerald]. Harris, MD , et al (1992) Ophthalmi c Plastic and Recon stru ctive Surgery Updat e: Orbital , Eyelid and Lacrimal Traum a Gerald]. Harris, MD, et al (1993) IN STRU CTI O NAL CO URSE FACU LTY (AND YEAR S O F PARTIC IPATI ON)

Jam es L. Adams, MD H enry Baylis, MD C row ell Beard , MD A. Jan Berlin, MD Th omas A. Bersani, MD C harles K. Beyer-Ma chul e, MD Glen 0 . Brindl ey, MD Berni ce Z . Bro wn , MD Ri chard P. Carroll, MD J. Ri chard Co llin , MD Howard Conn , MD Mar cos T . D oxanas, MD R obert M . Dryden , MD Joseph C. Flanagan, MD Jam es C . Flemin g, MD Bartley R . Frueh, MD Perry F. Garber, MD Paul T. Gavaris, MD Arthur S. Gro ve, Jr ., MD Kurt W .L. Gu elzow, MD Gerald J. Harri s, MD Michael J. H awes, MD Albert Hombla ss, MD Jame s W . Karesh, MD Leo Koo mn eef, MD Jan W . Kro nish, MD Joel M Leibsohn , MD Bradley N. Lemk e, MD C harles R. Leone, Jr ., MD Mark R . Levine, MD Ri chard D . Lisman , MD R odney W . M cCa rthy, MD Clint on D. M cCo rd, Jr. , MD Willi am R . Nun ery, MD J. Ju stin Old er, MD James R. Patrin ely, MD Jeffrey C. Popp , MD

398

APPEN

D IX

SEV E N

(1989-1990) (1984) (1982) (1982-1 98 6, (199 3) (1982- 1983, (1982-1 991) (1982- 1990) (1982- 1984, (1985) (1985) (1992) (1984- 199 1) (1982-1 986) ( 1987- 1988) (1983-1 99 1) (199 1) (1982- 1983) ( 198 2-19 90 , (1988- 199 1) (1992- 1993) ( 1992) (1982- 1983) (1993) (1982) (1993) (1984-1 985) (1982-1986) (198 2- 1991) ( 1982-1 99 1) (1987-1 99 1) (1983) (1982) (199 2) ( 1987- 1991) (1993) ( 1984-1 986)

1988-1 99 1) 1985-1 989)

1992)

1992)


Allen M. Putterman, MD J . Earl Rathbun, MD David H . Saunders, MD Arthur J. Schaefer, MD Rona Silkiss, MD Byron Capleese Smith, MD David B. Soll, MD Orkan George Stasior, MD John H . Sullivan, MD Ri chard R . Tenzel, MD Robert R . Waller, MD Richard Welham, MD T . David I. Wilke s, MD Rob ert B. Wilkins, MD John L. Wobig, MD D arrell E. Wolley, MD John E. Wright, MD Allan E. Wul c, MD

(1989--1990) ( 1982- 199 1) (1982-1983) (1982-1991) (1993) ( 1985-1990) (1982-1 99 1) (1982-1991) (1983) (1982-1985) (1983-1985) (1982) (1986- 199 1) (1982, 1991) (1982-1991) (1986-1991) (1985-1991) (1990-19 91)

PART Ill. ASOPRS SCIENTIFIC EXHIBIT

In 1978, M ark R . Levine developed an exhibit that was designed to be shipped to several meetings such as the AAO , the AMA, and the Ameri can College of Surgeons. The main purpose was "to let phy sicians know what an oculoplastic surgeon is, and what he does ." Upon request, the exhibit was made available to ASOPRS members for display at local society meetings . In 1986, Albert Hornblas s studied the feasibility of re-developing a Societysponsored exhibit for the AAO Annual Meeting . The committee developed the exhibit und er the chairmanship of Paul T. Gavaris and the first showing was at the I 987 AAO Annual Meeting in Dallas. This exhibit, generally entitled Ask theExperts, has since been pre sented annually and has developed and expanded in stages under the subsequent chairmanships of Michael A . Callahan and Edwin C. Augustat . The current form of the exhibit, developed by Callahan and Augu stat, was first displayed in 1990. Each year, the exhibit has been staffed in shifts by volunteering Society members who provide oculoplastic consultations and information about the ASOPRS (See Fig. 137, p. 378). Video tapes and illustrated po sters have further added to the exhibit. A series of mini-lectures was also featured during some of the years. While th e location on the exhibition floor has sometimes been suboptimal, the AAO always provided the space to the ASOPRS without charge. The following chronological listing of ASO PRS Informational Exhibit s and the names of Exhibit Committee members was deriv ed from the ASOPRS minute s and AAO Annual Meeting Programs:

SVMPOS l h,

COURSES

hND

EXH IBIT S

SP ONSORED

BY

THE

hSOPRS

399


ORIGINAL ASOPRS EXHIBIT-COMMITTEE

MEMBERS

1978-1979 Mark R . Levine, MD (Chairman); Albert Homblass, MD ; George F. Buerger, Jr ., MD; and Richard K. Dortzbach, MD 1980-198 2

No references found .

198:r1986

Albert Homblass , MD (Chairman )

ASOPRS EXHIBIT COMMITTEE MEMBERS (CONT.): OC ULOPLASTI C CO NSULTATIONS-A

SK THE EXPERTS

1987

Paul T. Gavaris, MD (Chairman); AlbertHomblass, MD; Russell Neuh aus, MD; and Edwin Augustat , MD

1988

Paul T. Gavaris, MD (Chairm an); Edwin Augustat, MD ; and Michael Callahan, MD

1989

Paul T. Gavaris, MD (Chairman); Edwin Augustat, MD ; Michael Callahan, MD; Ru ssell Neuhaus, MD ; Dwight R . Kulwin, MD ;John V. Linbe rg, MD ; and Don Liu, MD

1990

Mi chael Callahan, MD, and Edwin Augustat , MD (Co -Chairmen ); Paul T. Gavaris, MD; Russell Neuh aus, MD ; Dwight R . Kulwin, MD ; John V . Linberg, MD ; and Don Liu, MD

1991

Mi chael Callahan , MD , and Edwin Augu stat, MD (Co -Chairm en); Bradley N . Lemke , MD ; and Arthur S. Grove Jr. , MD

1992

Edwin Augu stat, MD (Chairman ); Ru ssell W . Neuhaus, MD; Paul T. Gavaris, MD;JohnB . Holds,MD ; Myron Tanenbaum, MD; and John A. Bum s, MD

1993

Edwin Augustat, MD (Chairman) ; Russell W. Neuhau s, MD; Paul T. Gavaris, MD; J ohn B. Holds , MD ; Myron Tanenbaum , MD ; Albert Homblas s MD; and Murray Chri stianson, MD

4 00

APPENDIX

SEV EN


Appendix 8 ASOPRS AW ARDS

David M. Reifler

INTRODUCTION

The following descriptions of awards, their history, and the lists of the recipients has been collated from past programs of the Annual Scientific Symposia (Appendix 4) and archived minutes of meetings of the Executive Committee. This body of archival material has some deficiencies: (1) Incomplete or missing reports from various award committees; and (2) the policy of not listing names of most award recipients in programs of the Annual Scientific Symposia. Perhaps the final decisions were not always made prior to printing of the programs. The se names were sometimes purposefully withheld from the minutes with the specific comment that the "name of the recipient will be held secret until announced at the symposium." While adding an element of suspense and anticipation to the annual programs, these practices posed obstacles in collating a complete list of names of award recipients. The author apologizes for any misinformation contained in this appendix. Corrections can be included in future minutes and programs of the Society so that future histories will be more accurate. The awards of the ASOPRS that are mentioned in the current Society Bylaws are the Lester Jones Anatomy Award, the Marvin Quickert Thesis Award, the Merrill Reeh Pathology Award, and the Wendell Hughes Lecture Award (Appendix 9, Article VI). Recently, the Awards Committee has been responsible for selecting the recipient of the Lester Jones Anatomy Award. In 1987, the Thesis Committee was made responsible for selecting recipients of the Marvin Quickert Thesis Award, the Merrill Reeh Pathology Award, and the ASOPRS Research Award. (The ASOPRS Research Award was not included in the latest major revision of the Bylaws.) At the Annual Scientific Meeting, the Immediate Past-President also receives the Society President Award. (A listing of Society Presidents is found with a Chronological Listing of Officers in Appendix 2.) One award that has been discontinued is the Marvin H. Quickert Fellowship Award that offered financial support to fellows-in-training. Finally, Awards for Guest Lecturers, Honorary Fellow s, and Awards of Appreciation for distinguished service are also presented at the Annual Scientific Symposia. The history of the Wendell Hughes Lecture and the mechanism for selection of honored lecturers are detailed elsewhere (Chapters 1, 5, and 7, and Appendix 6).

ASO PR S AWAR DS

40 1


Following presentation of the Hughes Lecture , it has been customary for the current President of the ASOPRS to present the honored lecturer with the Wendell Hughes Lecture Award.

PART I. THE LESTER JONES ANATOMY AWARD

The career ofLesterT.Jones (1894-r983) and his contributions to the ASOPRS are described in several places in this commemorative volume (Chapters l and lo). In recognition of his contributions to the study and teaching of surgical anatomy, the Society established an award named in his honor . As stated in the current Society Bylaws, the Lester Jones Anatomy Award is given to an individual who "has contributed significantly to the study of surgical anatomy in the field of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery" (Appendix 9). The recipient need not be a member of the Society. The date of presentation of the first Lester Jones Anatomy Award has been incorrectly printed in several ASOPRS Annual Fall Meeting Programs. The first Award was actually presented by Orkan George Stasior, MD, to Marvin H. Quickert, MD , at the Third Annual Scientific Symposium in Dallas, Texas on September 22, 1972. Although the award was listed as having an "annual" presentation, it was not presented again until l 97 4. The current Society Bylaws also do not require an annual presentation. The last Award was presented in 1993 by the previous year's recipient (Fig. 138). All known recipients of the Lester Jones Anatomy Award are chronologically listed in Table 6. The appearance (or non-appearance) of the presentation of awards are cross-referenced with the Annual Scientific Symposia program listings that appear in Appendix 4. Abbreviated citations include the year followed by the consecutively numbered location in the program within brackets. For example, the first presentation of the award to Marvin H. Quickert in 1972 is cited as 72[16]. In the years without a program citation, the recipients received their awards at either a lun cheon or an evening banquet. TABLE

4 02

6. LESTER JONES ANATOMY AWARD RECIPIENTS

Year

Program Number

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982

72 ( 16]

APPENDIX

-Not 74(13] 75 (20] 76(26]

79 (52] 8 I [ 17] 82[46]

EIGHT

Recipient Marvin H. Quickert, MD

givenOrkan George Stasior, MD (Recipient unknown) Richard R . Tenz el, MD Robert M. Dryd en, MD Crowell Beard , MD John L. Wobig, MD James L. Hargiss, MD Bernic e Z. Brown, MD Richard K. Dortzba ch, MD


Fie. 138. Presentation of the Lester Jones Anatom y Award by Leo Koomneef, MD , PhD to Jonathan]. Dutton , MD , PhD . November 13, 1993, Fairmont Hotel, Chicago, IL. (See Appendix 4, Sciemific Symposium 93 (48).)

1983 1984 1985 1986

83[43 ) 84[24) 85[44) 86[23)

1987 1988 1989

-Not

Ri chard L. Anderson, MD Clinton D . McCord . Jr ., MD Marcos T. Doxanas , MD Glenn W . Jelks, MD given-

1990

88[74) 89[23] 90[20 )

1991

-N ot given-

1992

92 [47)

1993

93 [48)

John V. Linberg, MD Bradley N . Lemke , MD Robert C. Della Rocca, MD Leo Koomneef, MD, PhD Jonathan]. Dutton , MD, PhD

PART II. THE MARVIN QU IC KERT THESIS AWARD

Inclu sion of a thesis present ation in the program of Society's Annual Scientific Symposium is an honor that has been given to many candidate s for membership. The co mpiled listing of these programs (Appendix 4) includes the designation of thesis (T) next to the authors' name. In 1970 , the First Annual Scientific Symposium included a thesis present ation by Sanford Hecht. Each year the Thesis Committee evaluates all theses that have been accepted. As stated in th e Society Bylaw s, "If a sufficiently outstanding paper has been submitted, th e The sis Committee may reco mmend to the Executive Committee

A SOP R.S AWAR.D S

4 03


that the author-applicant for membership be named the recipient of the Marvin Quickert Thesis Award." A list of all recipients of the Marvin Quickert Thesis Award appears in Table 7. The presentation of each thesisis cited (rather than the presentation of the award) with a cross-reference to the Annual Scientific Symposia program listings that appear in Appendix 4. Abbreviated citations include the year followed by the consecutively numbered location in the program within brackets. For example, the thesis of the first Marvin Quickert Thesis Award recipient , Lewis M. Lauring , is cited as 74[ 25].

TABLE

7. MARVIN

Year

ProgramNumber

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

74(25) 75(26) 76[5] 77(24)

86[ 16] 87[ 16) 88(47) 89(46) 90[7] 91(39) 92[55]

1993

93 [34)

-Not

Michael A. Callahan, MD Bradley N. Lemke, MD Michael]. Hawes, MD Russell S. Gonnering, MD givenJohn]. McGetri ck, MD

84(42)

-Not

Recipient LewisM. Lauring, MD John D . Bullock, MD James R. Boynton, MD Robert R. Waller, MD

given-

79(24) 80(48) 81(18) 82(71)

-Not

QUICKERT THESI S AWARD RECIPIENT S

givenAllan E. Wulc, MD Christine C. Nelson, MD James B. Dickson, MD Jan W . Kronish, MD David B. Lyon, MD Peter J. Sakal, MD Harvey P. Cole, III, MD Don Osami Kikkawa, MD

PART Ill. THE MERRlLL REEH PATHOLOGY AWARD

At the I 98 3 ASO PRS Spring Meeting, the Executiv e Committee approved the establishment of the Merrill Reeh Pathology Award for the best paper presented at the Fall Meeting on ophthalmic pathology. The minutes describe a donation of $2,000 to fund individual certificates and awards of$ roo. The original co mposition of the selection committee consisted of the Program Chairman, the Assistant Program Chairman, and Dr. Reeh. Examination of the programs reveals that the actual presentation of the first few awards was not synchronous with the year of the author's presentation of the paper. The Reeh Pathology Award Committee was subsequently merged with the ASOPRS Research Award Committee.

404

APPENDIX

EIGHT


In 1988, this combined committee was dissolved and responsiblity for selectio n of recipients of the Merrill Reeh Pathology Award was transferred to the The sis Committee. In that year, the Thesis Committee , chaired by John N . Harrington , proposed standards for this award that were approved by the Executive Committee and the general membership. As outlined in the current Society Bylaw s, "Each year the Thesis Committee shall evaluate papers submitted to the committee as theses or by members of the Soc iety which concern pathology in the field of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. If a sufficiently outstanding paper has been submitted, the Thesis Committee may recommend to the Exe cutive Committee that the author be named the re cipient of the Merrill Reeh Pathology Award. " A list of recipients of the Merrill Reeh Pathology Award appears in Table 8. Th e presentations of papers (rather than th e presentation of the award) are crossreferen ced to the Annual Scientific Symposia program listings that appear in Appendix 4 in a similar fashion as the other awards listed above .

TABLE

Year 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993

8. MERRILL

ProgramNumber 83[3] 84[8] 84[40] -Not given-Not given-Not given-No t given91[47) 92[45] -Not given-

REEH PATHOLOGY AWARD RECIPIENT S

R ecipient Janet Roen, M.D . John D. Bullock, MD Albert Homblass, MD

George 0 . Stasior, MD Deborah D. Shemian, MD

PART IV. THE ASOPR S RESEARCH AWARD

The American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Research Award was established in 1980 at the recommendation of Arthur S. Grove, Jr. Originally, selectio n of recipients was handled by the Research Committee. After 1987, the selection process was handled through the Thesis Committee. The ASOPRS Research Award was not included in the latest revision of the Bylaws and has not been given since 1991. Acco rding to the minutes of Society Meetin gs and past program s of Annual Scientific Symposia, the ASOPRS Research Award was given to a qualified individual w ho submitted "the most outstanding paper describing original research conducted in the field of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery." To be qualified for this award, an individual was required to "submit the paper for consi deration during his or her residen cy in ophthalmology or within twenty-four months after completing a resid ency in ophthalmology."

ASOPRS

AWARD S

405


A list of recipients of the ASOPRS Research Award appears in Table 9. The presentation of both thepaperand the awardare cross-referenced to the programs of the Scientific Symposia that are listed in Appendix 4 in a similar fashion as th e awards listed above. TABLE 9- ASOPRS RESEARCH AWARD RECIPIENTS

ProgramNumber Presentation of Paper Unknown 81(65] 82(71) 83[2] -Not given-Not given 86(34] -Not given-Not given89(50] -Not given91(20)

Year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 199 1

Program Number Presentation of Award 80[ Io] 8 I [64) 82(70) 83(13)

R edpient R ecipient Unknown Elaine L. Chuang, D Rus sell S. Gonnering, MD Stephen G . Slade, MD

86[3 5]

John]. Woo g, MD

89(64)

Victor M . Elner, MD, PhD

91[2 I]

Mark A . Cepela, MD

PART V. THE MARVIN H. QUICKERT FELLOWSHIP AWARD

Although now discontinued, the Marvin H . Qui ckert Fellowship Award has significant importance in the history of the ASOPRS. It is especially important to the indi vidual s who were so honored and ben efitted from its financial support . T he award was founded in 1976 through the generosity of Dr. Quickert's widow, Geneva, who remained active in the selection pro cess. Acco rding to archived minutes and programs , this award was given beginning in 1978, and consisted of a grant to fellows-in -training within ASOPRS-sp o nsored programs. A total of $3,000 was available per year. The award was sometime s divided equally among mor e than one recipient (Table rn). In r983, Mrs. Quickert and th e Award Chairperson, Dr. John Harringt o n, decided that the Marvin H. Qui ckert Thesis Award was by itself a satisfactory memorial. The Marvin H. Qui ckert Fellowship Award was discontinu ed and deleted from th e Society's Bylaws.

406

AP PE NDIX

EIGHT


TABLE IO . MARVIN H . QUICK.ERT FELLOW SHIP AWARD RECIPIENTS

Year

Program Number

1977

77 (38)

1978 1979

78[ 17] 79[ 17)

1980 1981

80(21) 81(51)

1982

82(56 )

R ecipient Arthur C. Perry , MD Robert C. Pashby, MD Jack Chalfin, MD Earl Kidwell, MD Francis C. Sutula, MD Craig E . Berris, MD Jame s C. Fleming , MD D on Liu, MD David R . Segrest, MD R ecipient unkn own

A 5O PRS

AWARO

5

407


Appendix 9 BYLAWS AND RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE

SURGERY, INC.

PART I: BYLAWS ARTICLE I NAME AND PURPOSE SECTION

I

The nam e of the organization shall be the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY, INC., referred to in these Bylaw s as the "Society".

SECT ION 2

The purpose of this Society is to advance education, research , and the quality of clinical practice in the fields of plastic and reconstructive surgery involving the eyelids, orbits , and lacrimal system. ARTICLE II MEMBERSHIP SEC TION I

Membership in the Society shall be limited to physicians who practice ophthalmolo gy; who are committed to the practic e, research and teaching of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery; who are of good moral character, reputation, and professional standing ; who are diplomate s of the Ameri can Bo ard of Ophthalmology and are Fellows of the Ameri can Academy of Ophthalmology or who have been certified by and are members of equivalent organizations; or who meet such other qualifications as a.re described in these Bylaws and in Rules and Regulations of the Society.

BYLAW

S /

RULE

S AND

REGULATIONS

409


SECTION 2

The members of the Society shall be known as Fellows, and the y shall be categorized as follows: Founding Fellow, Charter Fellow, Fellow, Life Fellow, Honorary Fellow .

SECTION

3

Founding Fellow: A. Shall have participated in the founding and organization of the Society . B. Shall pay dues and other assessments and shall have the full rights and privileges of Fellows as otherwise defined. SECTION 4

CharterFellow: A. Shall have been a member prior to or at the time of the first annual meeting of the Society held on O ctober I I , 1969. B . Shall pay dues and other assessments and shall have the full rights and privileges of Fellows as otherwise defined . C . Shall attend at least one Society meeting every three (3) years.

SECTIO N

5

Fellow: A. Shall have met all requirem ents for membership as described in these Bylaws and in Rules and Regulations of the Society. B. Shall have completed training and demonstrated experience in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery as described in the se Bylaws and in Rule s and Regulations of the Society . C. Shall pay due s and other assessmentsand shall have the rights to attend Society meetings , vote, and hold office. D . Shall attend at least one Society meeting every three (3) years. SECTION 6

Life Fellow: A. Shall be a member who requests and is granted designation as a Life Fellow by the Executive Committee based upon having reached sixty-five (6 5) years of age or having retired from the full-time practice of ophthalmology .

410

APPENDIX

NINE


B. Shall not be required to pay dues but may be assessed for activities related to the Society. C. Shall have the rights of Fellows to attend Society meetings, vote, and hold appointive office .

SECT ION 7

HonoraryFellow: A. Shall be an individual of outstanding accomplishments who not need be an ophthalmologist and who has been proposed as an Honorary Fellow by a twothirds (2/ 3) affirmative vote of the Executive Committee and elected by a threefourths (3/ 4) affirmative vote of the member s present at any meeting of the Society. B. Shall not be required to pay dues but may be assessed for activities related to the Society. C. Shall have the right of Fellows to attend Society meetings but shall no t have the rights to vote or hold elective or appointive office.

SECT ION

8

Applicationfo r Membership: A. An individual who meets the qualifications in Article II of these Bylaws, and who has successfully comp leted the full term of a Society-sponsored fellowship training program as defined in Article V of these Bylaws, may apply for membership as a Fellow. B. The application must be received by the Executive Secretary of the Society within one (1) year after the comp letion of such Society-sponsored fellowship training program. C. The application must be accompanied by such supporting documents, photographs, fees, and letters of recommendation as are required by these Bylaws , the Executive Committee, and Rules and Regulations of the Society. D. The applicant must submit a th esis which conforms to standards set by the Thesis Committee and is approved by the Executive Committee. ¡ E. The applicant must satisfactorily comp lete an oral examination administe red by two or more Fellows of th e Society and must pass a written examination . If one or both of these examinations is failed, an opportunity to take a similar examination will be given during the following calenda r year. If the examination is failed a second time, the entire application process may be repeated after a one (I) year waiting period. F. All requirements described in Paragraphs (B) through (E) of this Section including acceptance of a satisfactory thesis and passing both oral and written examinations must be met within three (3) years from the date of application for

BYLAWS

/

RULES

AN D

REGULATIONS

41 l


membership. An extension of this time requirement may be granted by the Executive Committee for reasonable cause. G. [f the application is not received within one (I) year after completion of a Society-sponsored fellowship training program or if all requirements are not met within three (3) years after the date of application and if an extension has not been given by the Executive Committee, then the applicant must follow the procedures provided in Paragraph (H) of this Section. H. An individual who meets the qualifications in Article II of these Bylaws, but who has not completed a Society-sponsored fellowship training program, may apply for membership as a Fellow as described in this Paragraph. These provisions also apply to those individuals who have failed to comply with the time requirements described in Paragraph (G) of this Section. An application will be considered if the applicant has been practicing and teaching ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery for at least five (5) years after completing an ophthalmology residency and is distinguished in this field. The application must be accompanied by such supporting documents, photographs , fees, and letters of recommendation as are required by these Bylaws, the Executive Committee, and Rules and Regulations of the Society. The application will be considered by the Executive Committee and if the qualifications are considered suitable, the individual will be invited to submit a thesis which conforms to standards set by the Thesis Committee. This thesis must be submitted within two (2) years after the invitation is extended and must be found acceptable by the Executive Committee. If the thesis is rejected, the applicant may revise that thesis or submit a new thesis within one (r) year. After the thesis is found acceptable, the applicant will be invited to take the oral and written examinations described in Paragraph (E) of this Section. I. The names of applicants who have satisfactorily completed all requirements for membership and who have been approved by a two-thirds (2/ 3) vote of the Executive Committee shall be presented for consideration by the members at the annual fall meeting of-the Society. A three-fourths (3/ 4) vote of the members present at that meeting shall constitute the applicant's election as a Fellow of the Society.

SECTION

9

ApplicationReview: An applicant who has been rejected for membership in the Society because of failure to meet criteria specified in these Bylaws or in Rules and Regulations of the Society may request a review by the Executive Committee. Such request must be submitted in writing and must be sent by certified mail to the Executive Secretary of the Society within thirty (30) days after the applicant has been notified of such rejection. Such request should detail the reasons which the applicant considers to be the basis for review and the applicant may request a personal hearing before the Executive Committee.

412

APPENDIX

NINE


SECTION

IO

Resignation, Expulsion, and Reinstatement:

A. Any member may resign from membership in the Society by filing a letter of intent with the Executive Secretary. The member must return the certificate of Society membership to the Exe cutive Secretary and must pay any outstanding dues, assessments, and charges owed to the Society prior to such resignation , including nonattendance of meetings and nonpayment of dues. B . A member may be expelled from the Society and the individual's membership terminated for either: wilful, or repeated negligent , violation of the se Bylaw s or of Rules and Regulations of the Society; or conduct which brings dishonor to the Society. C. A complaint against a member for such violation or misco nduct must be submitted in writing to the Executive Secretary and must then be delivered to the Executive Committee for co nsideration. If the Executive Committee detennine s by a two-thirds (2/ 3) vote that there is cause for expulsion, the Executive Secretary shall notify the member in writing. The member shall have the opportunity , within thirty (30) days after receiving such notic e, to submit a written response to this decision or to request a personal hearing before the Executive Committee. If the Executive Committee, after considering such written response or personal hearing, determines by a two-thirds (2/ 3) vote that there is still cause for expulsion, then membership may be terminated upon a three-quarter (3/ 4) vote of the members at an annual meeting of the Society. D. A former member of the Society may be reinstated to membership by submitting a written request to the Executive Secretary followed by a rwo-thirds (2/ 3) vote of the Executive Committee and a three- quarters (3/ 4) vote of the members at an annual meeting of the Society. ARTI CLE III OFFICERS SECT ION I

The officers of the Society shall be the President, President-Ele ct, VicePresid en t, Exe cutive Secretary, Secretary of Meetings, Secretary of Education, Treasurer, Program Chairman, and Chairman of the Advisory Board. These officers shall co nstitut e the Exe cutive Committee of the Society.

SECT ION 2

Election of officers shall take place at each annual fall meeting of the Society. Nominees for office shall be proposed as described in Article IV, Section 3 of these Bylaw s. Officers shall be elected by a majority vote of the memb ers pre sent .

BYLAW S

/

RULE S AN O

R EGU LATI ONS

41

3


SECTION

3

The term of each officer shall commence on the first day of January. SECTION 4

The President: A. Shall be Chairman of the Executive Committee. B. Shall preside at all meetings of the Society and of the Executive Committee. C. Shall be responsib le for the annual spring meeting of the Society. D. Shall have served as Vice-President and President-Elect in sequence, unless assuming the office of President under other provisions of these Bylaws. E. Shall cause to be reported all Society business transacted during the current year at the annual fall meeting of the Society. F. Shall have a term of office of one (1) year, which may be preceded by part or all of the previous President 's term if the individual assumes office under the vacancy provisions of these Bylaws.

SECTION

5

111e President-Elect : A. Shall be a member of the Executive Committee. B. Shall preside at all meetings of the Society and of the Executiv e Committee in the absence of the President . C. Shall succeed to the office of President at the expiration of the term of the former President, and shall succeed to the office of President if the office of President becomes vacant. D. Shall have served the pre ceding year as Vice-President . E. Shall have a term of office of one (1) year. SECTION 6

The Vice President: A. Shall be a member of the Executive Committee. B. Shall preside at all meetings of the Society and of the Executi ve Committee in the absence of the President and of the President - Elect. C. Shall have previously served on the Executive Committee as Ex ecutive Secretary, Secretary of Meetings, Secretary of Education, Treasurer , or Program Chairman. D . Shall succeed to the office of President-Elect at the expiration of the term of the fonner President-Ele ct, and shall succeed to the office of President if the office

414

A PPENDIX

NINE


of President becomes vacant and if th e current President-Elect is unable to serve as President. E. Shall provide medical journals and appropriate organizations with informa tion concerning Society activities and newl y elected officers. F. Shall arrange and continue adequate liability insurance in an amount determined by the Executive Committee, to protect the Society officers, committee member s and other members acting on behalf of the Society from claims arising from their actions in the reasonable and justified performan ce of their duties. G. Shall have such duties as assigned by the President and the Executive Committee . H. Shall have a term of office of one (r) year.

SECTION

7

The Executive Secretary: A. Shall be a member of the Executive Committee. B. Shall record the minutes of all meetings and proceedings of the Society and of the Executive Committee. Shall send a printed summary of these meeting minutes to each Society member within two months of th ese meetings. C. Shall maintain a record of all Society Rules and Regulations enacted by the Executive Committee, including the date and meeting location of enactment. These enactments shall be reported in the minutes sent to all Society members. D. Shall bring to each meeting of the Society and of the Executive Committee copies of the Society Bylaws, Society Rules and Regulations, minutes of all meetings from th e previous five (5) years, a current edition of Roberts Rules of Order, and a current list of Society members. E. Shall keep copies of all Society correspondence and cop ies of all meeting minutes which have been maintained by previous Executive Secretaries , and shall make th ese documents available for review by members of the Society. F. Shall receive and evaluate each application for membership in the Society, request further verification as necessary to determine the qualifications and eligibility of the applicant, and correlate the process with the Education and Thesis Committees. Shall present completed membership applications to the Executive Committee for co nsiderati on. G. Shall maintain a cu rrent list of Society members along with addresses and telephone numbers. Shall send this list to members of the Executive Committee each year and shall send to all m embers of the Society each alternate year. Shall send a list of members and a copy of the Society Bylaws and Rules and Regulations to each new member of the Society. H. Shall arrange for printing of Society let terhead tationery with names and addresses of officers and shall arrange for printing of certificates of memberhip and award certificates. I. Shall keep a list of all former officers of the Society.

BYLAWS

/

RU LES

AND

REGULATION

S

4 15


J. Shall keep

the Corporate Seal of the Society. K. Shall have a term of office of two (2) years and shall be eligible to be elected to one additional term of two (2) years. Each term shall comme nce in January of an even-numbered year.

SECT ION

8

The Secretaryofthe Meetings: A. Shall be a member of the Executive Committee . B. Shall make arrangements for the annual fall meeting of the Society and shall submit an estimate of major expenses to the Executive Committee at the spring meeting of the same year. C. Shall supervise and be responsible for registration of those attending meetings of the Society . D. Shall record and keep a list of Society members attending the annual Society meetings. E. Shall record the minutes of all meetings and proceedings of the Society and of the Executive Commi tte e in the absence of the Executive Secretary. F. Shall assure that certificates documenting continuing medical education credits are provided to attendees of Society-sponsored courses, programs, and symposia. G. Shall be a member of the Program Committee. H . Shall have a term of office of two (2) years and shall be eligible to be elected to one additional term of two (2) years. Each term shall commence in January of an odd-numbered year.

SECTION 9

The SecretaryofEducation: A . Shall be a member of the Executive Committee. B. Shall be C hairman of the Education Committee. C. Shall have served for no less than two years in one or more of the following capacities: member of the Education Committee, member of the Thesis Committee, or examiner of applicants for Society membership. D . Shall not be a current director or co-director of a fellowship training program in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery, including but not limited to Society -sponsored fellowship training programs . E. Shall advise individuals inquiring about fellowship training and shall provide information regarding application to Society-sponsored fellowship training pro grams. Shall send membership applications and requirements to accredited trainee s for a Society -sponsored fellowship.

416

APPEND IX

NINE


F. Shall maintain a list of Society-sponsored fellowship training programs along with the names and addresses of the current trainees in each program . G. Shall supervise the preparation and administration of written and oral examinations given to applicants for membership in the Society. H. Shall receive applications from members who wish to become preceptors of Society-sponsored Fellowship training programs and shall present these completed applications to the Executive Committee for consideration. I. Shall annually review Society-sponsored fellowship training programs and the performance of training fellows. J . Shall arrange for approval of medical education credits to be given for attending Society-sponsored courses , programs, and symposia. Such approval shall be provided by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education or by such other organization as may exist for this purpose. K. Shall prepare, administer, and review program evaluation questionnaires as required for medical education accreditation. L. Shall have such other duties as assigned by the President and the Executive Committee. M . Shall be a member of the Program Committee and the Preceptor Committee. N. Shall have a term of office of two (2) years and shall be eligible to be elected to one additional term of two (2) years. Each term shall commence in January of an even-numbered year.

SECTION

IO

The Treasurer: A. Shall be a member of the Executive Committee. B . Shall collect dues from Society members on an annual basis. C. Shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Society, and shall deposit all funds and other valuable effects to the credit of the Society, in such depositories as shall be designated by the Executive Committee. D. Shall disburse the funds of the Society for purposes necessary and proper for the functioning of the Society, taking appropriate vouchers and documentation for such disbu rsements. Checks for disbursement of Society funds must be personally signed by the Treasurer or by another officer of the Society. E. Shall utilize an accountant or a firm, to be selected with the approval of the Executive Committee , for purposes of ascertaining the financial condition of the Society and for providing appropriate financial documentation and for aid in filing ne cessary financial reports . F. Shall annually, or more often if required, give to the President and to the Executive Committee an account of all transactions as Treasurer.

BYLAW S

/

RULE S AN D

R EGU LATI O N S

417


G. Shall, at the annual fall meeting, give a com plete statement of the financial co ndition of the Society to the Exe cutive Co mmittee and to all Society mem bers in attendance. H . Shall have a term of office of two (2) years and shall be eligible to be elected to one additional term of two (2) years. Each term shall commence in January of an odd-numbered year.

SECTION I I

The ProgramChainnan: A. Shall be a member of the Executive Committee. B. Shall be Chairman of the Program Committee. C. Shall arrange publicity for the annual fall meeting. D. Shall notify members of the Society of the annual fall meeting. E. Shall have such duties as assigned by the President and the Executive Committee. F. Shall have served for one (r) year as assistant to the previou s Program Chairman before assuming office as Program Chairman. Shall not be an officer or a member of the Executive Committee while serving as assistant to the Program Chairman. G. Shall have a term of office of one (r) year.

SECTION 12

The Chaim1anof the Advi sory Board: A. Shall be a member of the Exe cutive Co mmitte e. B . Shall have served the pre ceding year as President and shall be designated as Immediate Past-President . C. Shall condu ct meetings of the Advisory Board as necessary and shall report reco mmendations of the Advisory Board to the Executiv e Co mmitt ee. D . Shall be Chairman of the Nominatin g Committee. E. Shall have a term of office of one (r) year.

SECT ION 13

Resignation and Vacancies: A. Any officer may resign by giving noti ce in writing delivered by certified mail to the Exe cutive Secretary. Unless a resignation shall state otherwise, it shall become effective on the date of receipt . B. Vacancies occurring in offices other than that of President , President-Ele ct, and Vice- Pr esident betwee n annual meetin gs shall be filled through appointment

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by the President for the remainder of the unexpired term. Vacancies in the offices of President-Elect or Vice-President shall be filled by the process described in Article IV, Section 3 of these Bylaws at the next scheduled meeting of the Society. C. If the office of President becomes vacant, the President-Elect shall succeed to the office of President. If the President-Elect is unable to serve , the then VicePresident shall succeed to the office of President. In either case, the succeeding individual shall complete the unfinished current term as President and shall then also serve an additional full term as President at the expiration of the previous President's term. ARTICLE IV COMMITTEES AND APPOINTMENTS

Unless otherwise stated, members of Committees and individuals appointed to act on behalf of the Society shall be selected by the President subject to review and approval by the Executive Committee. Each Committee shall have a Chairman and may have one or more additional members. A Chairman may serve for three (3) years or less, unless otherwise seated in these Bylaws orin Rules and Regulations of the Society. The Standing Committees of the Society shall be: Executive Committee, Advisory Board, Nominating Committee, Program Committee, Education Committee, Thesis Committee, Preceptor Committee, Journal Committee, Bylaws Committee, Ethics Committee, Archives Committee, Exhibit Committee, Directory Committee, Public Information Committee, Awards Committee, and Wendell Hughes Lecture Committee.

SECTION I

Executive Committee:

A. Shall be composed of the Society officers described in Article III, Section 1 of these Bylaws. B. The Chairman shall be the President. C. Shall have the right to review and approve appointments to committees and to positions of responsibility on behalf of the Society made by the President, the Nominating Committee , and by other individual officers and committees . D. Shall be concerned with all business and affairs of the Society and shall hold whatever meetings are necessary to transact such business and affairs. E. Meetings of the Executive Committee shall be held at least two (2) times per year as designated by the President. Special meetings may be called at any time by the President or any four (4) officers of the Executive Committee. No notice shall be required provided all the officers of the Executive Committee are present or in writing waive notice thereof Six (6) officers of the Executive Committee shall constitute a quorum.

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SECTION 2

Advisory Board: A. Shall be composed of the ten (ro) most recent living Past-Presidents. B. The Chairman shall be the Immediate Past-President who shall serve for a period of one (1) year and who shall concurrently serve as a member of the Executive Committee. C. Shall advise and counsel the Executive Committee through the Board Chairman.

SECTION

3

Nominating Committee: A. Shall be composed of five (5) Society members , including the Immediate Past-President. The current President shall select the four additional members , no more than one of whom may be a current member of the Executive Committee and at least one of whom shall have been a member of the Society for ten (10) years or longer. B. The Chairman shall be the Immediate Past-President. C. Shall prepare a list of recommended nominees for the office by discussion among all five committee members , either in person or by telephone conference call, at a time prior to the Annual Spring Meeting. D . Shall submit the list of recommended nominees for office to the Executive Committee at the annual spring meeting. The Executive Committee may request alternate nominees before submitting the names to the Society memb ers for consideration. E. Shall propose the nominee s for office to the Society members at the annual fall meeting, at which time additional nominations may be made by any member. All nomine es shall fulfill the qualifications for their offices as described in these Bylaw s. SECTION 4

Program Committee: A. Shall be composed of the Program Chairman, the assistant to the Program Chairman, the Secretary of Meetings, and the Secretary of Education. B . The Chairman shall be the Program Chairman. C. Shall plan the scientific and educational program at the annual meetings of th e Society.

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SECTION 5

Education Committee:

A. Shall be composed of the Secretary of Education, the Chairman of the Thesis Committee, the Chairman of the Preceptor Committee, and such other members as are appointed by the President. B. The Chairman shall be the Secretary of Education. The President shall appoint at least one Assistant Chairman, who shall serve for a period of two (2) years. C. Shall assist the Secretary of Education in performing the duties described in Article III, Section 9 of these Bylaws. D. Shall receive applications for accreditation of fellowship training programs from prospective preceptors and present these to the Executive Committee. E. Shall convene at the spring and fall meetings of the Society to plan and discuss issues of educational importance.

SECTION 6

Thesis Committee:

A. Shall be composed of three members , each of whom shall serve for three 3) year. Each year the President-Elect shall appoint a new member to the ommittee. B. The Chairman shall be the senior member of the Committee and shall serve for one (1) year and be on the Education Committee. C. Shall evaluate the theses submitted by applicants for membership in the Society and shall recommend the recipients, when appropriate, of the Marvin Quickert Thesis Award and of the Merrill Reeh Pathology Award . The criteria for these awards and the procedures for selecting recipients are described in Article VI of these Bylaws . D. Shall determine that theses conform to standards of form and content as described and published by the Society. E. At least two of the Thesis Committee members must find a thesis to be acceptable in order for it to be approved by the Society as fulfilling membership criteria. A thesis shall not be evaluated by a Thesis Committee member under whom the author-applicant for membership has trained. If necessary, the Secretary of Meetings shall review such a thesis in place of that Committee member who is excluded. F. If a member of the Thesis Committee is unable to objectively evaluate a thesis orif an applicant feels a member of the Thesis Committee cannot objectively evaluate their thesis, the Secretary of Meetings may be requested to evaluate that thesis in place of that Committee member who is to be excluded.

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SECTION 7

PreceptorCommittee: A. Shall be composed of a Chairman; the Secretary ofEducation, who shall not be a voting member; and the directors of the Society-sponsored fellowship training programs. Each program shall have one vote. B. The Chairman shall currently serve as, or shall have previously served as, the director of a Society-sponsored fellowship training program. C. The President shall appoint the Chairman to serve for a period of two (2) years and the individual shall be eligible to be appointed for one additional term of two (2) years. D. The Chairman shall serve as liaison between the Society and organizations utilized for matching of applicants to Fellowship Training Program s. E. Shall consider issues which are relevant to fellowship training programs and shall make recommendations to the Executive Committee regarding such programs, including but not limited to selection of trainees and educational standards. F. Shall convene at the annual spring and fall meetings of the Society.

SECTION

8

Journal Committee: A . Shall be composed of the Editor and Co-Editors of Ophthalmic Plasticand R econstructiveSurgery (the "Journal") and such other member s as are appointed by the President. B. Shall be responsible for editing the Journal and for soliciting submission of manuscripts for publication.

SECTION 9

Bylaws Committee: A. The Chairman shall have previously served on the Executive Committee. B. Members shall serve for a period of three (3) years and shall be eligible to be reappointed for one additional term of three (3) years . C. Shall be concerned with review and interpretation of the Bylaws and with preparation of amendments to the Bylaw s whenever reque sted by the Executive Committee.

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SECTION

IO

Ethics Committee: A. The Chairman shall have been a m ember of the Society for ten (10) years or longer. B . The Chairman shall serve for period of three (3) years and shall be eligible to be appointed for one additional term of three (3) years. C. Shall be concerned with issues involving behavior and professional conduct of members of the Society and shall report through the Chairman to the Execu rive Committee.

SECTION

I I

Archives Committee: A. Shall regularly communicate with the Exe cutive Secretary and with other Society officers to assure that copies of all meeting program s, minut es, and do cuments of importance are kept for review by members of the Society. B. The Chairman and other members shall serve for a period of three (3) years and shall be eligible to be reappointed for one additional term of three (3) years. C. Shall be responsible for maintaining documents , records, photogr aph s, and memorabilia of the Society and for cataloging these items as appropriate and as dire cted by the Exe cutive Committee.

SECT ION 12

Exhibit Committee: A. Shall be responsible for the creation , maintenance, and use of an exhibit or exhibits to be utilized for edu cational purpo ses or for such other purposes as may be directe d by the Executive Committee. B. Shall mak e recomme ndation s to the Executive Co mmittee co ncerning the exhibit or exhibits of the Society and shall fulfill the exhibit requir ements for the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

SECT ION 13

DirectoryCommittee: A. The Chairman shall regularly communi cate wit h the Executive Secretary to assure that curr ent reco rds of membership status, addresses, and other data are maintained for inclusion in the M emb ership Directory. B . Shall be responsible for the organization and publication of a M embership Directory to contain information regarding and for th e use of th e members of the Society , as dire cted by the Executive Committee.

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SECTION 14

PublicInformationCommittee: A. Shall be responsible for the dissemination of information regarding both the Society and the general field of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery, as directed by the Executive Committee. B. Shall cooperate with officers or other committees in the preparation and distribution of informational publications on behalf of the Society.

SECTION 15

Awards Committee: A. Shall be composed of three members, each of whom shall serve for three (3) years. Each year the President shall appoint a new member to the Committee. B. The Chairman shall be the senior member of the Committee and shall serve for one (1) year. C. Shall decide whether any individuals have fulfilled the qualifications for awards as directed by these Bylaws and by Rules and Regulations of the Society. D. Shall recommend to the Executive Committee the names of individuals, if any, who are qualified to receive such awards. E. Committee members shall not be eligible to receive such awards during their tenure on the Committee.

SECTION 16

Wendell Hughes LectureCommittee: A. Shall be composed of three Society members w ho have delivered a Wendell

Hughes Lecture. B. Each Committee member shall serve for a period of six (6) years and shall not be reappointed to the Committee. One new appointment shall be made every second year. C. The Chairman shall be the senior member of the Committee and shall serve for two (2) years. D. Each year the Committee shall recommend to the Executive Committee through the Chairman the name of an individual to deliver the Wendell Hughes Lecture three years in the future.

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SECTION 17

Special Committees: The Executive Committee may appoint special committees for specific purposes. Such committees shall not persist for more than five (5) years, although committees may be renewed for one additional period of not more than five (5) years by approval of the Executive Committee.

SECTION 18

Appointments: The President and/ or the Executive Committee may appoint a Society member or members to serve on behalf of the Society for specific purposes. Such an appointment shall not persist for more than three (3) years, although an individual may be reappointed for additional periods of three (3) years by approval of the Executive Committee. Action s taken by such appointees shall be reported to and approved by the Executive Committee. ARTICLE V FELLOWSHIP TRAINING SECTION I

A. The Society will encourage, authorize, and supervise training programs in the field of ophthalmic plastic and reconstru ctive surgery. A training program which is specifically sponsored under the provisions of these Bylaws shall be known as a "Society-sponsored fellowship training program". B. The director of a Society-sponsored fellowship training program shall be known as a "pre ceptor" . C. The trainee in a Society-sponsored fellowship training program shall be known as a "training fellow".

SEC TION 2

Authorization and supervision of Society sponsored fellowship training programs and designation of preceptors shall be made by the Executive Committee through the Education Committee and the Preceptor Committee.

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SECTION

3

Society-sponsored FellowshipTrainingPrograms: A. Shall each be directed by a single preceptor who is designated by the Executive Committee. Continued sponsorship of a training program is contingent upon the continued active supervision and clinical participation by the originally designated preceptor. Other physicians may participate in a fellowship training program, so long as the active supervision of the training program is directly under the direction of the designated preceptor. B. Shall provide clinical experience to a training fellow of atleast 250 ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgical procedures each year. C. Shall be at least twelve (r 2) months in duration, or longer if approved by the Executive Committee. For the purpose of qualifying for Society membership, completion of a training program shall be defined as serving the entire period which has been approved by the Executive Committee for the specific training program in which the training fellow was enrolled. D. Shall have only one training fellow at any time. E. Shall provide educational programs which have been determined by the Executive Committee in conjunction with the Education Committee and the Preceptor Committee.

SECTION 4

Preceptors: A. Shall have been Fellows of the Society who have been practicing and teaching ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery for at least five (5) years and are distinguished in this field. B . Shall personally direct , actively supervise, and clinically participate in the training program. C. Shall interview and accept training fellows in accordance with schedules determined by the Preceptor Committee and approved by the Executive Committee. D. Shall adhere to the policies regarding fellowship training as defined by the Executive Committee. A Society-sponsored fellowsLp training program may be placed on probation and sponsorship may be withdrawn by the Executive Committee because of failure to adhere to such policies.

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ARTICLE VI AWARDS SECTION I

The Society may establish Awards to be given upon recommendation of the Executive Committee and approved by the members of the Society at an annual meeting. A. Marvin Quickert Thesis Award: Each year the Thesis Committee shall evaluate all theses which have been accepted. If a sufficiently outstanding paper has been submitted, the Thesis Committee may recommend to the Executive Committee that the authorapplicant for membership be named the recipient of the Marvin Quickert Thesis Award. An Award certificate shall be presented to the recipient at a meeting of the Society. B. Merrill Reeh Pathology Award: Each year the Thesis Committee shall evaluate papers submitted to the committee as theses or by members of the Society which concern pathology in the field of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. If a sufficiently outstanding paper has been submitted, the Thesis Committee may recommend to the Executive Committee that the author be named the recipient of the Merrill Reeh Pathology Award. An Award certificate shall be presented to the recipient at a meeting of the Society. C. Lester Jones Anatomy Award: Each year the Awards Committee shall decide whether any individual , who need not be a member of the Society , has contributed significantly to the study of surgical anatomy in the field of ophthalmic plastic and recon structive surgery. The Committee may recommend to the Executive Committee the name of that individual to receive the Lester Jones Anatomy Award in recognition of such contributions. An Award certificate shall be presented to the recipient at a meeting of the Society . D . Wendell Hughes Lecture Award: The Wendell Hughes Lecture shall be given each year by an individual, who need not be a member of the Society, who is recommended by the Wendell Hughes Committee as described in these Bylaws, and who has been approved by the Executive Committee. An Award certificate shall be presented to the recipient after delivery of the Wendell Hughes Lecture. E . Society President Award: In recognition for service as President of the Society, an Award certificate shall be presented to the Immediate Past-President at a meeting of the Society.

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ARTICLE Vll MEETINGS SECTION

I

Meetingsof the Society: A. Two meetings, to include education and business, shall be held annually, the first known as the spring meeting and the second as the fall meeting, at such time and place as designated by the Executive Committee. The spring meeting and all business meetings shall be attended only by members of the Society except that members of the European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery may attend the spring meeting. The fall educational meetings will be open to all interested physicians and allied personnel. B. Special meetings shall be held at any time and at any place upon the written request of one-fifth (r/5) of all voting members, which request shall be delivered to the Executive Secretary. C. Written notice of every meeting of the Society shall be given or mailed to each member at least thirty (30) days before the date of the meeting. No notice shall be required provided all members of the Society either are present at the meeting or in writing waive notice thereof prior to the meeting. Notice of every special meeting shall contain in general terms a statement of the business to be transacted. D. One-fifth (1/ 5) of all voting members shall constitute a quorum for any meeting of the Society. E. Any parliamentary questions shall be governed by the latest edition of Robert's Rules of Orders. ARTICLE VIII AMENDMENTS A. These Bylaws may be amended at any regular or special business meeting of the Society by vote of two-third~ (2/ 3) of all members present at such meeting provided that notice of the proposed amendment shall have been mailed to all members as provided herein. B. Proposed amendments to these Bylaws shall be submitted to the Executive Committee in writing and signed by at least ten (r o) Society members at least sixty (60) days before a scheduled business meeting of the Society. Amendments to these Bylaws may also be proposed by two-thirds (2/ 3) affirmative vote of the Executive Committee. C. A copy of any proposed Bylaws changes or amendments shall be sent to all Society at least thirty (30) days before they may be voted upon.

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ARTICLE IX RULES AND REGULATIONS SECTION I

The Executive Committee, by majority vote of the members, may enact Rules and Regulations to conduct the affairs and business of the Society so long as those Rules and Regulations do not contradict or conflict with these Bylaws.

SECTION 2

Any Society Rules and Regulations enacted by the Executive Committee must be presented to the members at their next meeting following enactment. Society Rules and Regulations must be reported in the minutes sent to all Society members.

SECTION

3

The Executive Secretary shall maintain a record of all Society Rules and Regulations enacted by the Executive Committee, including the date and meeting location of enactment. A copy of the Society Rules and Regulations shall be provided to any member upon request. SECTION 4

A Society Rule and Regulation may be revoked by majority vote of the members present at any meeting of the Society. ARTICLE X DUES AND FEES SECTION I

Funds shall be raised by annual dues and, if necessary, at the discretion of the Executive Committee and endorsed by a majority of members voting at any meeting, by special assessment of all members of the Society. A member who fails to pay the yearly dues and/ or special assessments for one (1) year after notice of non-payment has been sent by certified mail shall have Society membership revoked.

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SECTION 2

A non-refundable application fee shall be submitted with application for membership in the Society. Such fee shall be determined by the Executive Committee.

SECTION

3

Fees for all meetings for non-members of the Society shall be determined by the Executive Committee. ARTI CLE XI SEAL

The Society shall have a seal circular in shape and with the following inscription within the circle: AMERICAN SOCIETY OF OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY, INC. Washington • Corporate Seal • 1978

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PART II: RULES AND REGULATIONS I. REIMBURSEMENT

OF OFFICERS:

The Treasurer of the Society shall reimburse Officers of the Society, as listed in Article 3, Section I of the Bylaws, for the following expenses related to the performance of their duties: A. Transportation: Including cost of coach air-fare, car rental, associated travel costs, or of comparable transportation to and from the annual spring meeting. B . Room and meals: Four days/nights of room, meals, and associated tax / tips at the annual spring meeting; and one day/ night of room, meals, and associated tax/ tips at the annual fall meeting. C. Office expenses: Use of telephone charge card, postage, delivery, FAX , and miscellaneous minor supplies. D. Secretarial expenses: Shall not be reimbursed except as performed outside of usual and regular office hours. Such secretarial expenses shall not exceed (per year ) $1,500.00 each for the Secretary of Meetings and for the Program Chairman, or $250.00 for any other officer unless specifically approved by a majority of the Executive Committee. E. All such expenses shall be documented by suitable receipts, vouchers , or memoranda submitted to the Treasurer prior to reimbursement. Rule adoptedMarch29, 1992 at the Inn at Spanish Bay, Monterey, California. 2. PROGRAM

CHAIRMAN

The Program Chairman shall remain on the Program Committee for one year after the chairmanship to assist in setting up the program in accordance with ACCME guidelines, and in the event that the succeeding Program Chairman becomes unable to complete such term. Rule adoptedNovember6, 1992, at Loews Anatole Hotel, Dallas, Texas.

3. AAO COUNCILLOR Effective January I , 1992, the individual chosen to represent the Society at the AAO Council will be nominated by the Nominating Committee, accepted by the Executive Committee and voted on and elected by two-thirds (2/ 3) majority of the voting members of the Society general membership. The term of office will be for three (3) years . Rule adoptedNovember6, 1992 at the LoewsAnatole Hotel, Dallas, Texas.

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4. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM MANUAL I. INTRODUCTION

The purpose of the American Society of Ophthalmic. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc., as stated in Article I, Section 2 of the Bylaws "is to advance education, research and the quality of clinical practice in the fields of plastic and reconstructive surgery involving the eyelids, orbits and lacrimal system." The Secretary of Education and the Education Committee as established under Article III, Section 9 and Article IV, Section SC and 5D of the Society Bylaws are responsible for the following: r. Prepare and administer the written and oral examinations for applicants for Society membership. 2. Evaluate each fellows educational experience. 3. Review existing fellowship programs . 4. Receive applications for new fellowship programs and present them to the Executive Committee for consideration. It is the purpose and goals of the Society to continue as a leader and innovator of oculoplastics fellowship training in ophthalmology. As a sponsor of oculoplastic training programs, the Society will approve only the best programs capable of providing broad clinical experience and laboratory research with no limit to the number of fellowships to be considered. In addition, ASOPRS members are encouraged to be involved in fellowship training. With these responsibilities in mind and with a desire to establish a set of consistent criteria for fellowship training , it is necessary to develop a set of rules and regulations regarding ASOPRS sponsored fellowship training programs. This document should serve as a guideline for members who desire to be actively involved in training fellows. The rules and regulations have been established on the basis of the experience of the Executive Committee , Education Committee and Preceptors Comrnitte~ since the establishment of the Society and two surveys conducted of the membership.

II. APPLICATION S FOR NEW ASOPRS SPONSORED FELLOWSHIP PROGRAMS

A . Applications An applicant for a Society sponsored fellowship training program shall file an application, with two copies, to the Secretary of Education. The application shall be reviewed by the chairman, assistant chairman and one senior member of the Education Committee appointed by the Chairman. The Secretary of Education shall present these applications to the Executive Committee at the Spring and Fall meetings with recommendations . The final decision will be made by the Executive Committee by secret ballot. Each application will be voted on separately. Proposed fellowship programs that receive a majority vote of the Executive Committee will

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commence on July r on the year beginning a minimum of six months later, to allow time to obtain a suitable candidate. (NOTE: Approval at spring meeting will therefore start I year from July unles s otherwise directed by the Executive Committee.) B. Requirements Program Director a. Member of ASOPRS b. Minimum of five years experience in oculoplastic surgery. c. Practice predominately ocu loplastic surgery . d. Affiliated with an academic institution. 2. Clinical Requirements: a. Must be able to provide a wide experience in clinical disorders of the eyelids, lacrimal system and orbit. b. Must be able to provide a multidisciplinary experience to include exposure to dermatology, head and neck surgery, neurophthalmology, neurosurgery, onco logy , oral/plastic surgery, oto laryngology, pathology and radio logy . c. Must have availability of clinical and/ or laboratory research facilities. 3. Minimum Fellowship Requirements a. All new fellowships shall be 24 months in duration. Fellowships in existence prior to 1988 may contin ue as a one year training programs. b. Fellows must finish the full duration of the fellowship they entered to be fellowship eligible for Society membership. 4. Minimum Didactic Requirements a. roo lecture / discussion hours. b. Dissection of r orbit c. IO hours patho logy slide review with clinical correlation . d. Exposure and/ or rotation in related medical and surgical specialties. e. Research project. 5. Minimum Surgical Experience a. Scrubbing on 350 cases (as determined by current approach, I eyelid= r procedure) of which, b. 75 cases performed by the fellow under supervision (at least 50% of the cases). 6. Favorable consideration will be given for the following: a. The principle preceptors practice is 100% Oculop lastic surgery. b. There are multiple ASOPRS members involved with the program. c. T he proposed fellowship training program is not involved in the training of fellows at the time its application for an ASOPRS Sponsored fellowship is considered. 7. The preceptors must agree to abide by the established Bylaws, Rules and Regulations of the Society and directives of the Executive Committee. I.

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III. PRECEPTORS

The Society strongly encourages fellowship programs to involve multiple ASOPRS members in the training of the fellow . A member may not be involved in more than one fellowship program or the training of more than one fellow at a time. A. Director/Principle Preceptor The fellowships shall be assigned to a principle preceptor that is an active ASOPRS member who shall be responsible for the fellowship and for fulfilling all ASOPRS requirements. The principle preceptor may be in private practice or university based, and must have an active academic affiliation. B. Co-director/ Associate Preceptor A fellowship program may have a co-director (associate preceptor) that is an ASOPRS member, who takes an active role in the running of the fellowship, including fulfilling ASOPRS requirements, monitoring the fellow's activities and spending up to 50% of the didactic and surgical time with the fellow. C. Assistant Preceptors A fellowship program may have an unlimited number of assistant preceptors who are ASOPRS members with whom the fellow assists examining patients and perfonning surgery. The assistant preceptors may also participate in formal lectures and discussions. D. Preceptor Emeritus A retired preceptor may continue teaching in a new fellowship program established in the same locale when approved.

IV. RULES REGARDING

ESTABLISHED FELLOWSHIPS

A. Fellowships may be based at an institution or a primary preceptor's office. B. The Director / principle preceptor is responsible for insuring that the fellow-

ship is in accordance with the rules and regulations of the society and that the minimum requirements are met . C. The fellowship program may have one co- director / associate preceptor that helps in the administration of the program. In addition the program may have assistant preceptors participating in the didactic and surgical aspects of the program . D. Fellowships may only train one fellow at a time. E . A principle preceptor, associate preceptor or assistant preceptor may not be involved in more than one training program or the training of more than one fellow at a time . F. The fellow must comp lete the designated duration of the fellowship to be eligible for society membership as an ASOPRS sponsored fellow . The fellow may not stay longer than the designated duration of the fellowship, except for an orientation overlap, not to exceed two month, so as not to detract from the training of the next fellow.

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G. The fellow should not be involved in significant non-oculoplastic activities. The preceptor may not rely on the fellow for the functioning of the practice. H. Fellowships may exchange fellows for a period of time with other ASOPRS sponsored training programs. I. The Director shall: 1. Involve the fellow in a research project which upon its completion may serve as the required membership thesis. 2. Advise the fellow of the obligation to complete the fellowship questionnaire upon completion of the fellowship and submit it to the Education Committee. 3. Encourage the fellow to apply for membership into the Society at the conclusion of the fellowship. 4. Advise the fellow of the requirement to take the written and oral examinations at the fall meeting following the fellowship. J. The preceptors must abide by the established Bylaws, Rules and Regulations of the Society, and directives of the Executive Committee. K. A preceptor not abiding by the above rules, shall be notified in writing by the President of the Society to appear before the Executive Committee at the next spring or fall meeting immediately following the discovery of the infraction. Failure to appear, or not complying with the¡ Executive Committee directive shall result in the program being placed on probation. L. A program placed on probation will be reviewed by the Education Committee yearly and the findings presented to the Executive Committee. A program may be on probation for two reasons. I. Failure to meet educational requirements. If the program does not meet the educational requirements within two years it will lose its sponsored status. 2. Failure to comply with the Bylaws, Rules and Regulations or directives of the Executive Committee. If the program does not comply within one year it will lose it's sponsored status.

V. FELLOWSHIP REVIEW S

A. PeriodicReviews The Education Committee shall review the fellowship programs every three years as follows. I. Every two years the preceptor shall fill out and submit to the Secretary of Education a Summary of Fellowship Form. This will be requested on even years from the one year fellowships and the fellowships commencing on even years , and on odd years from the fellowships commencing on odd years. If this form is not returned by the fall meeting, the fellowship will be placed on probation until it is received. If it is not received within one year, the fellowship will lose sponsored status.

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2. Fellows graduating from ASOPRS sponsored fellowship programs will take the written and oral examinations at the fall meeting following completion of their fellowship. A compilation of grades for each fellowship program will be kept by the Secretary of Education.If a graduate cannot take the examination they must request an extension in writing from the Secretary of Education stating the reason. 3. The Secretary of Education with the Assistant Chairman and other members of the Education Committee, asappointed, shall review the Summary ofFellowship, Fellows Evaluation of Fellowship and the fellows examination grades. Every three years the director and/ or co-director shall meet with a member of the Executive Committee and Education Committee to discuss the findings of the fellowship review. This shall be a forum and mechanism of discussing various educational aspects of the fellowship programs with the preceptors and exchanging educational ideas as are occurring in the fellowships programs .

B. Deficiences If the fellowship does not meet the minimum standards or if two consecutive fellows describe an inadequate fellowship experience or do poorly in the examinations, a telephone review of the fellowship will be instituted. I. The Secretary of Education will contact the preceptor by telephone to discuss the deficiencies. 2. The Secretary will also make telephone contact with the two previous fellows to discuss the fellowship program in detail. 3. The information will be presented at the next Executive Committee meeting. 4. If the program is found to be deficient it will be placed on probation for two years with yearly monitoring by the Education Committee and the Executive Committee. If the fellowship remains deficient after two years, it will lose sponsored status.

VI. TRANSFER OF FELLOWSHIPS

The fellowship is assigned to a principle preceptor. If the principle preceptor moves, the fellowship moves with this preceptor with the following provisions: As the preceptor would already have an active fellow, or have committed to a fellow under the matching program, the fellowship will follow the principle preceptor on a special status for two years. Each year this preceptor will fill out an Application for Fellowship Form. When all the criteria for a sponsored fellowship are fulfilled and documented , the fellowship will be taken off special status. If the criteria are not fulfilled within two years, the fellowship will lose sponsorship. Preceptors a.re encouraged to plan a one year sabbatical in training if the fellowship is relocated, to organize the fellowship training and acquire the required surgical volume.

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The fellowship shall not continue at the original site. However, if there are Society members present interested in having a fellowship, they may apply for a new fellowship in accordance with new fellowship program requirements. The application may be submitted prior to the relocation of the principle preceptor.

VII. THESIS REQUIREMENTS

A. An application for membership into the Society must be filed with the Executive Secretary prior to submitting a thesis. B. An updated copy of"Thesis Standards For Membership" should be obtained from the Chairman of the Thesis Committee prior to-choosing the topic and starting the thesis. C. The thesis must be received by the Secretary of the Thesis Committee May I of any year to be considered for membership in the calendar year. If a thesis is received after May rst it will be held for the following year. D. The thesis may be submitted during the fellowship. E. Thesis topics can include original investigations, significant modifications of techniques, comprehensive review of the !iterative or epidemiological studies. Refer to the Thesis Standards or the Chairman of the Thesis Committee for more information. F. The thesis should be in publishable form and adhere to the publication requirements of the official ASOPRS Journal "Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery." G. The thesis may not be submitted for publication or presented at any national or international meeting until after it has been found acceptable and officially approved by the Thesis Committee, including the performance of required revisions as requested by the Committee. Publication or presentation of the thesis prior to acceptance will jeopardize the acceptance of the thesis. If accepted to be presented at the Annual ASOPRS Symposium it may not be published or presented elsewhere first. H . The Secretary of the Thesis Committee is the immediate past chairman who does not take part in the evaluation of the thesis. Questions regarding the thesis should be directed to the Secretary . I. All theses will be reviewed anonymously. In order to accomplish this four copies should be sent to the Secretary of the Thesis Committee. ONLY ONE COPY SHOULD HA VE ALL THE AUTHORS NAMES, THE NAME OF THE INSTITUTION, AND THE PRIMARY AUTHORS ADDRESSES AND TELEPHONE NUMBERS. THE OTHER THREE COPIES SHOULD NOT HA VE LISTED ANY AUTHORS, INSTITUTIONS OR IDENTIFYING MATERIAL. The Secretary of the Thesis Committee will distribute the three anonymous copies to the members of the Thesis Committee to review. The Committee will complete its evaluation within two months after which it will notify the applicant of the result.

BYLAWS

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R U LES

AND

R EGULA T I O N S

43 7


J.After acceptance

of the thesis, the Secretary of the Thesis Committee will send the thesis abstract with the names of all the authors to the Program Chairman and the Editor of"Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery".

VIII. APPLICATIONS FOR MEMBERSHIP

As summarized from Article II Section 8 of the Bylaws: A. An individual who has successfully completed the full term of a Societysponsored fellowship may apply for membership in the Society within one year of completing the fellowship by filing an application with the Executive Secretary. The examinations should be taken at the fall meeting following the conclusion of the fellowship. If a graduate cannot take the examination at that time an extension must be requested in writing from the Secretary of Education. B. An individual who has completed an ASOPRS-sponsored fellowship but does not fulfill the requirements within three years, or an individual who did not complete an ASOPRS-sponsored fellowship, may apply for membership as stated in Article II Section SH: If the applicant has been practicing and teaching Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery for at least five years after completing an ophthalmology residency and is distinguished in the field, a completed application will be considered and reviewed by the Executive Committee. If the qualifications are considered suitable the applicant may be invited to submit a thesis. After the thesis is accepted, the applicant must take the oral and written examinations.

IX. FELLOWSHIP MATCH

All ASOPRS sponsored fellowships must register with and participate in the National Resident Matching Program, 2450 N StreetN.W., Suite 201, Washington DC 20037 - 1141, (202) 828--0676. The preceptors must abide by the rules of the matching program and may not approach a prospective fellow for a commitment or make a commitment prior to or outside of the match. The chairman of the Preceptors Committee will be in charge of the matching program .

X. FELLOWSHIP LISTIN G

ASOPRS-sponsored fellowship should be listed in the American Academy of Ophthalmology Fellowship Guide. Other listings must first be approved by the Executive Committee or the Chairman of the Preceptors Committee . Advertising for fellowships must be acceptable to the ASOPRS Executive Committee, the Ethics Committee and the Preceptors Committee .

438

A PPE NDIX

NI NE


XI. FELLOWSHIP PROGRAMS NOT SPONSORED BY ASOPRS

The fundamental purpo se of ASOPRS 's fellowship progr am is to ensure chat tho se fellows who successfully co mplete its stringent requirements exem plify the finest standards in oculoplastic surgery. The long term value and prominence of ASOPRS 's fellowship program depends upon the supp ort of ASOPRS's members through their active parti cipation in , and sponsorship of, the program and it stand ards. The value of ASOPRS Fellow ship Programs is dimini shed if ASOPRS members offer un sponsored fellowship program s which may o r may not meet the stringent requirements set forth by the Society, or if ASOPRS members who have sponsored program s also parti cipat e in non-ASOPRS Sponsored fellowship training . In thi s regard, ASOPRS encourages its members to fully support and particip ate in ASOPRS- spon sored fellowship programs . Members who desire to establish an oculoplastic surgery fellowship training program should apply to the Education Committee for an ASOPRS- spon sored fellowship in accor dance with the guidelines established for new fellow ship progr ams. ASOPRS mem be rs who participate or have involveme nt in oculoplastic fellowship training prgrams other than tho se sponsored by ASOPRS may not also parti cipat e or have involvment as a member of ASOPR S's Executive Commit tee, as a member of other ASOPRS ' Committees invol ving or related to ASOPRS's fellowship program or its admini stration , or as a preceptor in an ASOPRSspon sored fellowship program. Such members may file a written request wit h the Executive Secretary seeking a waiver of this pro vision which the Executive Committee may, in its sole discretion, grant or deny.

XII. LIMITED OCULOPLASTIC TRAINING

A. Foreign Ophthalmologist. The Society enco urages ASOPRS memb ers to train foreign fellows particularly from thir d wo rld co untri es who will return to their countri es to practice oculoplastic surgery . Members must obtain approval from the Secretary of Edu cation prior to starting the training. The Society wants to be apprised of all foreign oculopl astic trainees . B . Any ASOPRS members havin g a physician-ophthalmologist or other specialist, American or foreign, observe surgery shall: I. M ake it clear to the observe r that they have not comp leted an oc ulopl astic fellowship. 2. Issue a letter , if requested , stating the duration of the observat ion period.

BYLAW S

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R. U L ES

AN D

R.E G ULATI

O NS

439


XIII . RETIREMENT

The principle preceptor must notify the Secretary of Education well in advance of plans to decrease the practice, or involvement with the fellow or fellowship in anticipation of retirement. If associate or assistant preceptors involved in the fellowship program would like a fellowship to continue in the area, they must submit a new application at least two vears prior to the termination of the fellowship . The application will be considered as a new fellowship with a new principle preceptor by the Education Committee and the Executive Committee and must fulfill all the requirements of a new fellowship. The retired preceptor may continue teaching in the new fellowship, when approved, as a Preceptor Emeritus . These rules and regulations may be changed or amended as needed by majority vote of the Executive Committee. Rule adoptedby the Executive Committee on December30, 1993by mail ballot.

44 0

APPEN D I X

NI NE


INDEX OF PERSONAL NAMES [Note: In this index page numbers in italic type refer to figures or tables. Footnotes are indi cated by n, as in I 33n, and bibliographic refer ences by r, as in 95r. Papers pre sented at the ASOPRS annual Scientific Symposia are indicated as such: Scientific Symposium/Symposia: 93 (65]:362, where 93 is the year the meeting was held, [65] is paper numb er 65 on the program agenda, and :362 is th e page number in the text where th e com plete reference is located. Presentation s at the combined meetings of the ASOPRS and the American Academy of Ophthalmology are listed in a similar manner under the subhe ading, Combined Meeting(s).] Abramson, Allan L. Scientific Symposium: 93(65]:362 Acker , Jerry Scientific Symposium: 89(28] :338 Acosta, Daniel T ., 133n Actis, Gianpiero Scientific Symposium: 82 (27]:300 Adachi, Masazumi Scientific Symposium: 74(5]:268 Ad ams, James L., 212, 243, 250, 398 Scien tific Symposium: 84(7]:311 Adams, William (1783-1823), 28, 44, 95r Addison, David J. Scientific Symposium : 92(2] :352 Aetius of Arnida (6th cen tury ), 6, 44 Aguilar , Gary L., 162,212,228,241,245, 248,250,252 Scientific Symposia: 80(44]:292, 86(27]:322 Ahl, Nonnan C. , 212,241 , 251 Scie ntifi c Symposium: 78(4]:281 Ahn , James, 246 Aijian, Karl, 246 Alber t, Daniel M., 97r, 373 Albu casis (963-1013 AD), 8 Alcarez, Vincente, 253 Scientific Symposium: 8 1[36):296 Alexander the Great , 4 Algun, Talat, 246 Ali ibn Isa of Baghdad (940- 1010 AD), 7, 8, 8n, 9 Alibert, J.L. , 3 5, 96r Allen,J.H., 102r Allen , Kerry M . Scientific Symposium: 87 (62]:330

Allen, Larry H. Combined Meeting : 90(5] :393 Scientific Symposia: 89(27]:338, 93(21]:359 Allen , Lee , 77, 102r, 134,1 Allen, Scott E. Scientific Symposium : 89(17] :338 Alper , Melvin G . Combined Meetings : 81 (3):383, 84 (3,5):387 Alt, Adolph (185 1-1920), 47, 98r Altarirano, Rene, 246 Alter, George, 250 Altman, A.J., 97r Amdur, Joseph , 246 Ammon, Friedrich August von. See von Ammon, Friedri ch August Anderson, Jack, I 56 Scientific Symposium : 71 (10):261 Anderson , Richard L., 51, 61, 98r, 135n, 185, 192, 193,204,212 ,2 30,236 , 240, 245 , 248, 249, 253, 370, 378, 402, 405 Co mbined Meetings : 79(5]:380, 80(3):382, 81 [4):383, 83(1):385, 83(2]:385, 85(6):388, 86(3) :389, 88[4]:391 Scientific Symposia : 77 (3):277, 78(2, 15):281, 78 (34):283, 79(12]:285, 79(28):286, 79(44]:287, 80[9]:290, 80[23]:29 1, 80(45]:292, 81 (5]:294, 81(24,27] :295, 82(5]:299, 82(38):301 , 82 (81]:304, 83(28,32 ):307, 83(43):308, 83(50):309, 84(19,24):312 , 85(6):316, 85(34):318, 87(8]:326, 87(50):329, 88(7]:331, 88(45,53]:334, 88(74]:336, 89(24] :338, 90(54]:34 5, 91(12]:347 , 92(39]:354, 92(61.69]:356, 93[27):360

INDEX

OF

N AM ES

441


Anel , Dominique (1679-<.1730), 13, 15, 37, 94r Angris, Giora G. Scientific Sympos ium : 85(45]:319 Angrist, Richard C ., 212, 242, 249 Scientific Symposia: 85(57):319, 86[11):321 Antyllus (ca. 2nd century), 6, 44 Apt , Richard , 251, 253 Archer, Carol R. Scientific Sympo sia: 93(19):359 Archer, Kathleen F., 127,2 12,2 29,2 43,2 51 Archigenes (2nd century ), 6 Argumosa y Obregon . See de Argumosa y Obregon , Die go Arlt , Carl Ferdinand von (1812-1887), 39 Armeno , Davide, 8, 8n Arrington , G., 92r Arterberry.Joe F., 199,2 12,23 0,2 42,24 6, 249 Arthurs, Brian , 247, 249 Scientific Symposium: 87(23):327 Ashenhurst, Michael, 251 Aston, Sherrell]., 8011,91r, 92r, 137r Scientific Symposium : 87(13):326 Aub ert . See Obear, Margaret F. Augsburger, J ames Scientific Symposium : 78(47):284 Augustat , Edwin C., 198, 212, 229, 240, 246, 345, 378, 399, 400 Scientific Symposium: 75 (29):272 Auran, James A. Scientific Symposium: 87(58):330 Axelrod, Robert, 248 Axenfeld , 64

Bader, Charles (1825- 1899), 36, 96r Bailin, Philip A. Combined Meetin g: 79(10):380 Bajandas, Frank J. Combined Meeting : 80[8):382 Baker, Thomas J. Scientific Symposia: 71(11):261, 74(19]:269 Balacco-Gabri elli, C . Scientific Symposium: 82(79]:304 Ballen , Peter H . (b. I 92 5), 70, 7011,1o Ir, 212, 239, 243, 246 Scientific Sympo sia: 72[ 19):264, 73[21):266, 74(12):268, 77[10):277 Ballinger , W.R . Scientific Symposium : 83 (37):308

44 2

INDEX

Of

NAMES

Banister , Ri chard, 10 Barbour, Holly , 250 Scientific Symposium: 92[68]:356 Barlow , William E. Scientific Symposium : 93 (32):360 Barna , Nicholas]. , 212, 243, 247, 249 Scientific Symposium : 91[41):349 Barr , Daniel , 247 Barraquer, J.,62, 1oor Barrett, Lynn Scientific Symposia: 89(52):340, 91 (64):351 Barrow , Daniel L. Combined Meeting : 86(9):389 Barrows , David L. Scientific Symposium : 85(3 5):3 18 Barth , Joseph , 14 Bartisch, Georg (c.1535-c .1606), 9, 9, 14, 15, 94r Bartlett, Scott Scientific Symposium : 86[61):325 Bartley, George B., 93r, 198, 212,230,243, 248 Scientific Symposia : 86(55]:324, 91(46):350, 92(41,45):355, 93(6]:J58 Bashizadeh-Fakhar, P. Scientific Symposium : 82(104]:305 Bathrick , Mary , 249 Batti sta, Arthur F. Scientific Symposium : 80(55):293 Baum, Alan, 254 Baumgarten, Moritz (18 13- 1849), 28, 30, 95r Baylis, Henry I. , 2911,132-133, 13411,137r, 151, 175,2 02,2 12,230, 234,235,2 39, 247, 248,3 67,390,398 Combined Meetings : 80(5, t0) :382, 83[15):385, 87(1]:390 Scien tific Symposia: 70(6):259, 70(21):260, 72(3):263, 73[6):265, 74(28,31):270, 75(8):271, 75(30):273, 76(4):274, 76[20):275, 76[36]:276, 77(29,42):279, 78(18):282, 78(36]:283, 79(10]:285, 79(38]:287, 80(38):292, 81(60]:298, 82(36):30 1, 82(58):302, 83(21):307, 83[74]:3I O, 84(63):3 I 5, 85(64):320, 86[70,71):325, 88[21]:332, 88(80):336, 89(34):339, 90(73):346, 91(53):350, 93(23]:359 Beale, Ho ward L., 13411,245, 246, 249 Beard, C.H . (1855- 1916), 35, 37


Beard, Crowell (b.1912), 1, 5, 49n, 6on, 67, 68, 70n, 73, 77, 78, 79, 82, 86-87, 87, 88, 89, 91r, 92r, 96r, 101r, 102r, 103r, 104r, 108, 109n, uo , 134n, 137r, 140, r45, 155, 159-162, 160, 171, r76, 178, r95, 201,207,213,232,234, 237,239,243, 245-2 46, 248,370,372,398, 402, 405 Comb ined Meetings : 79(6):380, 88(10):391 Scientific Symposia: 70(25) :260, 71(5):261, 71(22):262, 72(26):264 , 73(33):267, 74(27):270, 75(14):271, 75(21,24,28):272, 75(33,34,36):273, 76[8):274, 76 (38,39):276, 77(8):277, 77(49):280, 78(5):281, 78(38):283, 79(33):287, 80(8):290, 8 I [15):294, 82[21) :JOO, 89(36):339 Beannan , Mark G. Scientific Symposium: 89(68):341 Beatty , Barbara . See FitzGerald -Be atty, Barbara Beatty , Randall L., 213,243,251 Scientific Symposia: 89(38):339, 90[4]:342 Beck, Kar!Josef(1794-1838), 29, 95r Becker , Bruce B ., 213, 242 Beckman , H . Scientific Symposium: 83 [48):308 Beckoven, Robert, 246 Bedrossian, Edward H., Jr ., 65, 91r, 213, 228, 242,247,253,360 Scientific Symposia: 90[52) :345, 91[5]:347 Beer, Georg J osef(1763-1821), 14, 15- 16, 15, 15n, 17,94r Bellows, John, 159 Bendel, Rick Edwa rd Scientific Symposium: 93(61):362 Benger , Ross S., 2 13, 242, 243, 250 Benne tt, C . Scient ific Symposium: 85(37):318 Bennett,James E., 2 13,239,241 Bennett , J.P. , 19, 94r, 97r Bennett , R ic hard Scientific Sympos ium : 8 1(26) :295 Bensinger, Ri chard, 134n, 245, 249 Berard, Thomas M ., 249 Scientific Symposium: 86 (42):323 Berg, Bru ce 0 . Scientific Symposium: 89[21) :338 Bergen, Don, 252 Bergen, Michael Scientific Sympos ium : 82(72):303 Berger , Pau l, 32

Bergin, Donald]., 213, 242 Scientific Sympo sia: 83(59):309, 84(17):312, 85(51):319, 86(15) :321, 87(46):329, 92(60):356 Berke, Raynold N . ( 1901- 1986), 21, 49 , 55, 55, 56, 7011,99r, 134n, 171,2 11,239,242 B erlin, Allisonjan , Jr ., 111, 124, 167, 175, 178,183,184,213,232 ,23 4,235,23 8,239 , 247, 334, 370, 374, 377-378, 382, 388, 398 Combined Meetings: 79(10):380, 81 [1):383, 82(4):J84, 83[12):385, 85(5):388, 86(6):389, 87(15):390 , 89[10]:392 Scientific Symposia: 74(16) :269, 76(11):274, 77(41):279, 79(8) :285, 80(7):290, 80[34):292, 81(57):297, 82[1]:299, 82(47,56):302, 83(52):309, 87(62):330, 88(3 r]:333, 88(51):334, 88(58,65):335 Berlin , Louise A. Scientific Symposium: 88[31]:333 Berlin , R udolf(r833- 1897), 37, 96r Berman, Wal ter E. Scienti fic Symposium : 74(20):269 Berris, C raigÂŁ., 213,241 ,25 4,407 Scient ific Symposia: 79(17):286, 80[18]:29 1, 87(6):326 Berry, Francis Dean, 213, 243 Berry, Gerald]. Scientific Symposium: 89[46):340 Bersani, Thomas A., 21 3, 229, 242, 250, 398 Scientific Symposia: 86(61):325, 88(66):335, 89[18):338 Bethel, Walter , 25 1 Bettman , Jerome W., Sr. Scientific Symposi um : 78 (57):284 Beyer, Todd L., 213,242,250 Scientifi c Symposiwn: 87[61):330 Beyer-Mach ule (Beyer), Charles K., 49n, 8 I, y1r, y3r, 106-107, 109, 134n, 143, 144, 146, 146n, 14y-r50, 151, 155, 167, 170-171 , 171, 178,201 , 213,230 ,233 ,237 ,239,24 4,247, 249 ,3 66,370 ,373,3

97,39 8

Combined Meetings : 79( 1SJ :381, 80(14):382, 81 [12]:383, 83(3):385 Scientific Symposia: 70[27):260, 72[29):264, 73(1):265, 73(25):267, 75[19) :272, 76( 12) :274, 77(2):277, 78(58) :284, 8 I [25]:295, 82( I 8] :300, 85(12) :316, 86[42):323 Bible, Harold Scie ntific Symposium: 89[67):341 B ick, Malcolm W., 28, 95r Biesman , Brian S., 213,2 44,251 Bigham , William, 250

I NDEX

OF NAMES

44 3


Bilyk , Jurij R ., 252 Scientifi c Symposia: 92[27]:354, 92[42]:355, 93 [25] :359, 93 [69] :363 Bishop, Da vid W., 213, 239, 246 Bitran , J. Scientific Symposium: 85[37]:318 Blandin , Philippe Frederi c (1798- 1849), 31, 96,

Blaskovic s, Laszlo d e (1869--1938), 54, 55, 99, Blaylock , William K. Scientific Symposia: 90[58]:345, 91[60]:351 Bleeker , Gabe M ., 13511 , 138,, 303 Blodi , Frederick C., 13, 92r, 175 Blue, Jason A . Scientific Symposium: 86[47]:324 Bluestone, Daniel L. Scientifi c Symposium: 89[21]:338 Blumber g, J.M ., 97, Bodian , Martin , 213,23 9, 242 Scientific Symposia: 70[14]:259, 70[18]:260, 72[30]:264, 74[23]:269, 75(10):271, 79(30):286, 80(50):293, 8 1(34):296, 82(49):302 Bonavolonta , Giulio, 8, 91 r Scientific Symposia: 82(96):305, 88[30]:333 Bond, John, 246 Bonham , Roger Scientific Symposium: 84(29]:312 Boniuk, Milton , 213, 239 Scientific Symposia : 72(24):264, 79(35):287, 8 1[39] :296, 81[54]:297, 84(47):314, 85[32]:318, 86(30]:322, 87[42]:329, 89(56):341, 90(72):346, 91[13]:348, 93(29):360 Bonnet , Amed ee (1802-1858), 35-36 Borda ch, J. Scientifi c Symposium: '71)[ 12]:285 Borge s, A.F., 35, 96r Bor ghouts , J.M.H.M. Scientific Symposium: 82[89]:304 Bor odic, Gary E., 21 3, 243 Scientific Symposium: 93 [57):362 Bortz, John, 253 Bosniak , Stephen L., I, 48n, 63, 64, 65, 8 I , 83, 9 Ir, I 33, 213, 241, 247, 253 Scientific Symposia: 82[88):304, 82(95):305, 83[26):307, 85[40]:318, 86[13):321, 87(2):326, 87(59):330, 88[11]:33 I , 89(28) :338, 90(40):344, 9 1[43]:350 Bourguet,Julien (1876--1952), 57, 58, 58, 98,, 99, Bourguet, (M .?), 57, 99,

444

INDEX

O F NAMES

Bowden , Bert, 213, 243, 253 Bow ers, David G.,Jr. Scientific Symposium: 79 [ 16] :286 Bowman , C. Bradley Scientific Symposium : 92(17) :353 Bow man , Sir William (1816--1892), 36--37, 38, 39, 39, 49, 54 , 96, Boxer , Michael Scientific Symposium : 84(36):313 Boxrud, Cynthia, 253 Scientific Symposium: 93 [77]:363 Boyden, G.L. , 99r, 103r Boynton, Jame s R., 176, 213, 228, 240, 253, 4o4

Scientific Symposia: 76(5):274, 76(38):276, 83(36):308, 86(2):321, 87(19):327, 92(46):355 Bra ckup, Alvin H ., 213,239,246 Scientific Symposium: 78 [11]:28 1 Braley, A.E. , 102r Bran ca, Antoniu s (14th century), 5, 9-10 Branca the Elder (14th century), 9- 10 Braslow , R ebecca A. Scientific Symposium: 91 [18] :34 8 Braunstein, Ri chard E. Scientific Symposium: 93(52) :36 1 Brennan , Martin Scientific Symposium: 7 I [3]:261 Brenner, R . Larry, 214, 240 Briggs , James, 16, 94, Brindle y, Glen 0., 214,241,246,249,39 8 Combined Meeting : 88(6):391 Scientific Symposia: 80(8):290, 90[ 14):343 Brouman , Neil D . Scientific Symposium: 88(25):332 Brown , Berni ce Z ., 87, 103,, I 11, 120- 123 , 125, 133, 134n, 167, 194,195,214,227,228, 229, 231,2 35,236, 238,2 40,24 5, 246,248, 398, 402, 405 Scientific Symposia: 77[49]:280, 78(6):281, 79(18) :286, 81(17,21):295, 82(30):300, 83(29):307, 86(45):323, 87(52):329, 90(1):342, 90(13,20):343, 91(63):351 Browning , Carroll W. (19 16-1 992), 211, 240, 241, 243 Browns tein, S. Scientific Symposium : 83[49]:308 Bruckner, H owar d , 253 Bu ckman , Gila Scientific Symposia: 85(21):317, 86[31]:323, 88[4]:331


Buerger, George F., Jr., 81, 106-107 , 109, I l l , 130, 143-1 47, 149,155,167,170, 171, 173-174 , 175, 176-178, 177, 195,214,233, 234,238 , 239, 247,339, 367,400 Scientific Symposia: 70[23):260, 75[24):272, 77( 1):277, 77(40):279, 77(52):280, 78(46):283, 79(34) :287, 80[22) :291, 86(25) :322, 88(12):332 Buffam, Frank V., 214, 240, 253 Scientific Sympos ium : 76[31):275 Bulgarelli , David , 13411 Scientific Symposium: 89(39):339 Bullo ck.John D ., 93r, 104r, 125, 13511,193, 198, 214, 230, 240, 245, 249, 404, 405 Comb ined Meetings: 78[11):379, 84(8):387 Scientific Sympos ia: 73[2]:265, 75 (26):272, 75(34):273, 77(14):278, 78(47):284, 79(50):288, 80[2]:290, 81(23):295, 81(69) :298, 82(70):303, 82(76):304, 83(41):308, 84(8):3 I I, 85(28):317, 85[55):J19, 86(35) :323, 86(55):324, 87(43) :329, 88(29):333, 89(16):338, 90(15) :343, 91[38]:349, 92[21):353, 93(30):360 Biinger, H einrich Christian (1782-184 2), 2425, 42, 95r Burdette, Jill D. Scien tific Symp osium : 93 [73):363 Burin g, J., 27 Burks , William R . Scientific Sympos ium: 85 [23]:317 Bums , JohnA ., 125,126,127, 127, 128, 13411, 167, 191, 192, 193, 196- 198, 197, 198, 201205, 205, 21 I , 214, 228, 230, 236, 237, 238, 240, 245, 247, 317, 324, 400 Scien tific Symposia: 76(10):274, 83(7):306, 84(30):312, 86(1):321, 87(26) :327, 88(44):334, 89(57):341, 91(17) :348, 92(1):352, 92(48):355, 92(78):357, 93(49):36 1 Burow , Car l August (1809- 1874), 29, 3 1, 41, 54, 67, 95 r Busse, H . Scientific Sympos ium : 82(5 1]:302 Buus , Delyse R. Scientific Sympos ium: 91 (42):350 Buxt on, 175 Byars, Steph en, 250 Byrd , William A., 254 Scientific Symposium : 85(36):318 Byrne , Sandra Scientific Symposi um: 82(74):303

C ahill, Kenneth V., 109n, 127,214,229,231, 242 Scientific Symposia: 86(25) :322, 87(9) :326, 88(44) :334, 89(57):341, 91 (17):348, 92(56):355, 92(78) :357, 93(35):360 Calcaterra, Thomas C. Scientific Symposia: 72[3] :263, 76(23):275, 9 1(56):350 Caldrelli, David D . Scientific Symposi um : 93[51) :361 Caldwe ll, E.H. Scientific Symposi um : 83 [36):308 Caldwell, G.W., 57, 99r Calk ins, Larry, 246 C all, N. Branson , 214, 241, 248 Scientific Symp osia: 8 I [56) :297, 82[103) :305, 89(13):337 Callahan, Alston (b.1911), 70n, 71, 74, 79, 80, 82- 84, 83, 86, 89, 93r, 101r, 102r, 103r, 106107, 13411,140, 144-146, 152, 155-158, 156, 157, 15811,159, 160, 171, 178,199,201,21 4, 237, 239, 243, 245, 246, 256, 369, 370, 371, 377, 397 Co mbin ed Meetings : 79(17):380, 80(13):382 Scientific Symposia: 70 (16):259, 70[32]:260, 7 1(27):262, 72[6,8] :263, 73[15]:266, 74 [21):269, 75[10):27 1, 75(36,39):273, 76(3 9] :276, 77 (20] :278, 78 (30] :282,

79[53):288, 80(25,30):291, 82(99):305, 88(49):334, 89(48):340, 93(80):363 C allahan , Michael A . (b.1946), 1, 74, 84, 89, 92r, 93r, 103r, 10911,126, 128, 134n, 198, 214, 237,241,246,344 ,37 1,399, 400, 404 Combined Meetings : 79[17) :380, 82[7]:384 Scientifi c Symp osia: 77(20):278, 78(30):282, 79(25):286, 79(33):287, 80(25):291, 82(15) :300, 84(43) :313, 84(49):3 14, 86(57):324, 89(14):337, 90(63) :346, 91(50):350 Callister, David, 246 Campbe ll, Charles B., III , 214, 241, 250, 335 Scientific Symposia: 72 (20):264, 82(62) :302, 83(35):308 Campbe ll, R. J ean Scientific Symposium: 84[8]:3 II Campbe ll, Thomas E., 10911,214,240,241, 246 Cance l, Efrain M. Scientifi c Symposi um: 93 (41):361

I NDEX

O F NAMES

445


Caputo, Anthony R . Scientific Symposium: 92(6):352 Caravella, Louis P. Scientific Symposium : 87[26):327 Carey, Timothy P., 214, 243, 254 Camey, J Aiden Scientific Symposium: 86(6):321 Carney, John E. Scientific Symposium: 84(46):314 Carpue, J oseph Constantine (1794-1846), 19, 21, 22, 23, 31, 94, Carraway, J ames H . Scien tific Symposium: 85(20):317 Carroll, John M . Scientific Symposium: 73 [25):267 Carroll, Richard P., 111-115 , 124, 134n, 167, 185-187, 186,194 ,202,2 14,228 ,230,231, 234, 235, 238, 240, 254, 315, 398 Combined Meeting: 87(9):390 Scientific Symposia: 74[10):268, 75(37):273, 76(33):275, 78(22):282, 8 1(31):296, 82[2]:299, 84(1):311, 84[50):314, 85(18):317, 85(44):318, 86(29):322, 87[5]:326, 89(17):338, 90(28):343, 93(58):362 Carroll, William, 240 Carter, Keith D . Scientific Symposium: 89(39):339 Carter, Robert Brudenell, 46-47 , 47n Carter, Susan R . Scientific Symposium: 93 (44):361 Cartwrigh t, Mont]., 214, 244, 250 Scientific Symposia: 92(3):352, 93(33):360 Carry, James, Jr., 247 Cassidy, Bruce, 249 Casson, Phillip Scientific Symposium: 92(74):357 Castaiiares, Salvador, 21, 78n Castiglioni, A. , 92, Castren , Jorma , 246 Cavanagh, H . Dwight Combined Meeting: 79(3):380 Celsus, Aulus Cornelius (25 BC-50 AD ), 4, 4, 5-6, 5, 10, 16, 39, 50, 54, 93, Cepela, Mark A. , 214, 243, 252, 406 Scientific Symposium: 91 [20,21):348 Ce .rise, Donald, 253 Chalfin,Jack, 214,241,252,407 Scientific Symposia: 77(38):279, 78(32):283 Chamikles, Saebett, 246 Chan, Alex C. Scien tific Symposium: 91[64):351

446

INDEX

OF

NAMES

Chan, Dhi-Chao Combined Meeting: 86(2):389 Chandeysson, P. Scientific Symposium: 88(67):335 Chandler, Art, 55 Chang, John , 246 Chao, Gung Mei Scientific Symposium: 90(58] :345 Char, Devron H. , 162, 214, 241, 246, 249, 252 Scientific Symposia: 77(8):277, 80(8):290, 82( I 05):305, 83 [56]:309 Charonis, George Scientifi c Symposium: 93 [67):362 Charpy, ZI Chavis, Richard M ., 214, 242 Chen, William P., 127,215,229,241,251 Combined Meeting: 87[10):390 Scientific Symposia: 81(68):298, 82 [39]:301, 83[67]:309, 85(60):320, 90[27):343 Cherubini, Thoma s D., 81, 93r, 106-107, 143,144,149 ,155, 17~ 23~ 241,247 Child, H ., 91r Chin-Sang, Hyacinth Scientific Symposium: 86(68):325 Chisholm, Donald, 246 Chong, Byron, 245, 249 Christenbury, Jonathan D., 215, 242, 252 Scientific Symposia: 87[55):329, 88(24):332 Christensen, Frank H., 215,231,241,252 Scientific Symposium: 82[48):302 Christianson, Murray D., 136,215,241,253, 354,400 Scientific Symposia: 88[42):333, 91(14):348, 93(16):359 Chu, Alfredo Scientific Symposium: 89(25):338 Chu, Hsua-Ho Scientific Symposium: 82[4):299 Chuang, Elaine L., 406 Scientific Symposium: 81 (64,65) :298 Cies, William Andrew , 215, 240, 248 Scientific Symposia: 75[8):27 1, 76[4):274, 79(48):288 Cioffi, George A. Scientific Symposium : 91 (2):347 Cirincione, Guiseppi, 4711 Clark, Clement, 79 Clowry, L. Scientific Symposium: 83(66):309


Coden, Daniel)., 215,243,251 Scientific Symposium : 93[7):J58 Code re, Fram;:ois, 248 Scientific Sympos ia: 82(81):304, 83[49):308, 84( 54) :314, 93 (12):358 Cohen, I. Kleiman Scientific Symposi um : 87(65):3 30 Cohen, Mar c S., 215,243,253 Cole, Harvey P ., III , 215, 244,254,404 Scientific Symposia: 90(16):343, 92(53 ,55]:3 55 Cole, J. Gordon (1908-1984), 70, 70n, 7 1, 140, 152, 155,171 , 211,241,242,246 Coleman, D. Jackson Comb ined Meeting: 78(3):379 Scientific Symposium: 71 (17):262 Collin,). Richard 0., 36, 37n, 91r, 13511,215, 230, 240, 241, 243, 245, 249, 370, 374, 398 Combined Meeting: 88 (11):391 Scientific Symposia: 77 (43) :279, 78[5]:28 1, 79(20,23 ):286, 8 1(67):298, 82(7) :299, 82(22):3 00, 83(23) :307, 84(2):311, 85[5] :316, 86 (3):321, 88 (72):336, 89 (27):338, 92(7):352, 92(75):357, 93(15):359 Collins, Edward Trea cher ( 1862-19 19), 3711, 92r

Collis, M.H ., 47, 97r Colvard, D. Mi chael Scientific Symposium: 78 (42):283 Conahan, J ames B . Scientific Symposium: 90(14) :343 Conley, John Scientific Symposium: 72(9):263 Conlon, Ronan , 252 Conn, H oward, 2 15,2 42 ,253,398 Scientific Symposia: 87(21):327, 89(12):337 Connelly, F.J., 10ir Conne Uy, Patrick). Scientific Symposia: 84(8] :31 1, 89( 16):338 Converse,John Marquis (1909-1981), 4, 23, 79-80, Son, 92 r, 94r, 102r, 106, 137r, 143, 170 Co nway , Stephen T ., 215,241,247 , 253 Cooper, Sir Astley Paston (1768- 184 1), 27 Co peland , Rob er t, 246 Corde r, Donna M . Scientific Sympo sium : 93 (6 1]:362 Cor des, Frederick, 162 Co rin, Scott M. , 215,231,2 42,25 1 Scientific Symposium: 90(5):342 Corin, William J. Scientific Symp osium : 90(5):342

Co rriveau, Christine Scientific Symposi um : 84(54): 3 14 Couvillion, John T. Scientific Symposium: 90(16):343 Cowen , D avid, 251 Cramer, Lester M. Scientific Symposium : 75(10) :271, 75(24 ):272, 75(35,36,39 ):273 C rane , Robert D. Scientific Symposium: 92(16) :353 Crawfo rd, Brooks J., 245, 248 Scientific Symposium: 79(4):285 C rawford , C .J. Scientific Symposium: 83(23) :307 Crawfo rd . John S. (1913-1990), 52, 9 1r, 98r, 136, 138r, 171, 211,233 , 239,2 43 Co mbined Meeting: 83(7):385 Scientific Symposia: 72(21):264, 73(10):265, 76(35):276 , 79(21):286, 80(39):292, 88(52): 334 Crawford, Kathryn Scientific Symposium: 86( 11]:32 1 Critchett, George (1817- 1882), 36, 39 Cullen, Gerald, 250 Cusick, P.L. , 99r Custer, Philip L., 215,2 42 ,253 Scientific Sympo sia: 89[52]:340, 89[65):341 , 90 (55):345, 91(49):350 , 92(9):352, 93(63):362 Cutle r, Norman L., 5, 77, 86, 87, 102r, 103r, 160 Cytry n, Albert , 252 Czervionke, Leo F. Scientific Sympo sium : 92(40):354

Dailey, Roger A., 215,2 31,243,254 Co mbin ed Me eting: 89(9):392 Scientific Sympo sia: 90(56):345, 93(17):359 Dale, Danie l, 254 Dallow , Ri chard L. Co mbined Meetin g: 78 (4):379 Scientific Symposia: 84(39):3 13, 92(35):354 Dalrymp le, John (1804-1 852), 18-1 9 Dandy, Walter E . (1886- 1946}, 47n Danz, Willi am A., 134n Darwin , Sir Franci s (1848-1 925), 4 1 Daubert, J .S. Scientific Symposium : 88 (67):335 Daviel,Jacques ( 1693 -1 762), 14, 15, 15, 94r Davis, David Scientific Sympos ium : 82 (68):303

INDEX

OF

NA M ES

447


Davis,John Staige (1872-1946 ), 35, 65, 92r, 96 r

Dayall, Y ., 251 de Argumosa y Obregon, Diego (1792-1 865), 5, 35, 54 de Blaskovics, Laszlo. See Blaskovics, Laszlo de De Damborenea , Antonio Scientific Symposium: 88 [13]:332 de Lapersonne, F. (1853- 1937), 50, 52, 53, 98r de l'Aulnoi t, H ouze. See Hou ze de l'Aulnoit de Saint-Yve s, C harles. See Saint-Yves , C harles de de Vincentiis , Carlo ( 1849- 1904), 34 de Wecker , Louis (1832-1906), 45, 46-47 , 47n D eans, Robin, 251 D echelboim , Gary Scientific Symposium: 88[71] :335 De ck, Michael Scientific Symp osium : 88[33] :333 Deitch, Rob ert D ., 215,239,246 Della Rocca, Robert C., 93r, 215, 228, 230, 240 , 247, 249,253,403,405 Scientific Symposia: 82[97]:305, 83[65):309, 85(40) :3 18, 86(67) :325, 87(37]:328, 88(63):335, 90 [8] :342, 90 [20] :343, 92(30,37):354, 92 (47):355, 93(43) :361 Delpech,Jacques Mathieu (1777-1832), 31, 32 DeLuca, Joseph Scientific Symposium : 91 (8] :347 Denonvilliers, Charles Pierre ( 1808-1 872), 5, 35, 37, 96r Derby, George S. (1875-1931), 52, 53, 98r DeSanto, Lawr en ce Combined Me eting: 80(9):382 Desavit, 23 Descartes, Rene (1596- 1650), 12 Desjardin, Laurence, 247 De smarres, Lou is Augu ste (1810- 1882), 39 Deuts ch , Mel vin Co mbined Meeting : 78 (13]:379 Devine, Richard, 294 Scientific Symposium : 81[5] :294, 81 [24]:295 D eVoe, Arthur G., 70n, 215, 240, 241 Devore, Dale P . Scientific Symposium: 92(74):357 Diamond , Gary R. Scientific Symposium : 86[61):325

448

I N D EX

Of

NAMES

Dickey, C.A., 52, 98r Di ckey, David Scientific Sympo sium: 86(40] :323 Dickson, James B ., 215, 242, 250, 404 Scientific Symposia : 87(38) :328, 88(47,48) :334 Di eckart , John Paul Scientific Symposia: 86(52) :324, 90(14):343 Dieffenbach, Johann Friedrich (1792-1847), 2, 5, 25-27 , 27, 28, 28, 31, 3 5, 41, 43 , 44, 45, 62, 95r

Dillman , Drew, 248 DiLoreto, Da vid Combined Meeting: 86(5):J89 Dittmar, Susan J. Scientific Symposium: 83(47):308 Divack, Steven Scientific Symposium: 82 (49):302 Dix on, Ray S. Scientific Symposia: 78[2):281, 79(37):287, 79 [54):288, 81 [62):298 Doane, John F. Scientific Sympos ium : 93(59):362 Dollin ger, J.,60, 100, Dolman, Peter]. , 215, 243,251 Scientific Symposium: 92 (52):355 Do lphin , Kip , 251 Donders , Franciscus Comelis ( 18 18-18 89), 21, 37- 38, 47 Dortzbach, Richard K., 105, 109n , 126, 128, 133, 135n, 136, 137r, 155, 175, 177,191 , 202, 215,230,234 ,2 36,237,240,246,249 , 314, 36 1, 400, 402, 405 Com bined Meetings : 82(5):38 4, 83 [8):385 Scientific Symp osia: 73(34):267, 74(3):268, 76(19]:275 , 78(20):282, 79(24):286 , 80[4]:290, 80[36]:292, 81[2]:294, 81(18):295, 82(46):30 1, 82[71]:303, 82(92,106) :305, 83(16):307 , 83[42]:308, 84[53) :314, 85(10):316, 85[57]:319, 86[11):J21 , 86(66) :325, 87[16]:327, 88[6) :331, 88(41):333, 88[56) :334, 89[46]:340, 90 [59]:346, 9 1[1I] :347, 9 1[23]:348, 91 [47):350, 92[4] :352,93 (2,3):358, 93[34] :360, 93(4 1):361 Douc et, Timothy W ., 21 5, 241, 251 Com bined Meeting : 89[7]:392 Scientifi c Symposia: 8 I [6] :294, 82[4]:299 Douge, C . Scientific Symposium: 83 (65):309 Dougherty , Miri am, 249


Doxanas, Marcos T., 215, 241, 250, 398, 403, 405 Combined Meeting : 90(8]:393 Scientific Symposia: 81[10] :294, 82(25]:300, 85[11]:316, 85(44]:318, 86(23]:322, 90(34]:344 Dransarr , H .N. , 49, 50, 51, 98r Dranz, W ., 101r Dresner, Steven C ., 2 I 6, 229, 23 1, 243 Scientific Symposia: 84(54]:3 14, 91(18]:348, 93(68]:362 Dryden, Laurie, 366 Dryden , Robert M ., 86, 104r, 134n, 167, 171, 176, 178-r80 , 179,202,216,230,234,238, 239,245 , 248,250,366,367 , 397,398,402,405 Combined Meetings: 79[4):380, 80(4):382, 88(2]:391 Scientific Symposia: 71[1]:261, 71(21]:262, 75(11]:271, 76(28]:275, 77(12]:278, 77(28,38]:279, 78[17]:282, 78(53):284, 79(1]:285, 79(17]:286, 79(46]:287, 79[55]:288, 80(48,54,56]: 293, 81[10]:294, 81[43]:296, 82(8]:299, 82(54]:302, 84(7] :3 I I , 85[9] :316, 86(32]:323, 87(61]:330,88(2]:33 I, 88(22]:332, 90[60]:346 Dubbs, Paul, 246 Dublin , Arthur B . Combined Meeting : 86[8]:389 Duchesneau, Paul M . Scientific Symposium: 80(7]:290 Duerksen, Kathleen M., 216, 244, 253 Scientific Symposium: 93 [32]:360 Duke-Elder , Sir Stewarr, 1, 33n, 45, 47n, 57, 57, 92r

Duncan , George, 247 Dunham , Theodore, 48 Dunn , M . Scientific Symposium: 87(60]:330 Dunne , Peter Scientific Symposium: 81 (13]:294 Dunnington, J .H ., l oor Dupuis , C., 32, 34, 96r Dupuy-Dutemps, Louis (1871-1946), 5, 57, 57, 58, 68, 99r, IOtr , 140 Dupuy-Ducemps, Pierre Louis (1905-1964), 57 Dupuytren, Baron Guillaume (1777-1835), 35, 96r Durette, Jean-Franc;:ois Scientific Symposium: 84(54] :314

Dutton,Jon achanJ. , 216,227,230,241 , 248, 250,362,378,403,405 Combined Meetings: 90[1]:393, 93(7]:396 Scientific Symposia: 83(51]:309, 87(57]:330, 88(77]:336, 89(32]:339, 91(16):348, 91(70]:351, 92[13]:353, 92(68]:356, 93(48]:361 Duvemey,Joseph G. (1648-1730) , 35n Dweck, Monica M . Scientific Symposium: 93 (74]:J63 Dzondi , Carl Heinri ch (177er1835), 5, 23, 95r

Easterbrook, M . Combined Meeting : 79(8):380 Edelstein, Jefffrey P., 216, 228, 242, 250 Scientific Symposia: 86(32]:323, 88(10]:331, 91 (59]:35 1 Edwards, James J. Combined Meeting: 79(5]:380 Scientific Symposium : 79(12]:285, 79(28] :286 Edwards, Jon A. Scientific Symposium: 84(36]:313 Ege, Gunes N . Scientific Symposium: 86[68):J25 Eggert .Janice E., 216,242,251 El-Aswad, Mohamed Ali Scientific Symposium: 82(44]:301 Elder, B. Laurel Scientific Symposium: 90(15]:343 Eliasoph, Ira, 216, 240 Elking, Cynthia F. Scientific Symposium: 91 [38]:349 Elliott, L. Franklin Scientific Symposium: 87[7] :326 Ellis, Don S. Scientific Symposia: 90(71]:346, 92[38]:354 Ells, Anna Scientific Symposium: 93 [2I] :359 Elner , Victor Maurice , 2r6 , 242, 249, 250, 406 Scientific Symposia: 87(16]:327, 89[50]:340, 89(64]:341 Elschnig, Ant on ( 1856-1906), 66n Elwyn, Hennan , 246 Emperor Joseph II, 14 Enzer, Yoash, 253 Epstein, Gilberr A., 216, 230,231 , 241, 252 Scientific Symposia: 82(14):299, 84(6):3 l 1, 87(28]:328 Esser,Johannes F.S. (1877-1946), 5, 48, 48n

INDEX

OF

NAMES

449


Everbu sch . See Eversbusch Eversbu sch, Os car (1853-1912), 49, 49r1,50, 5 1, 54, 98r Eviatar, J oseph , 251

Fagien, Steven, 216, 243, 252 Scientific Symposium: 92[74]:357 Failor, Martin , 248 Fant, Emily Scientific Symposium: 84[13):3 1I Farrior, Ri chard T . Scientific Symposium : 7 5[2] :27 1, 75[39] :273 Farris, Stuart R ., 216, 244 , 251 Fasanella, Rocko M . (b. 1916), 49, 54, 66--67, 67, 68, IOir, 216, 239, 243 Scientific Symposia: 70(5):259, 70( I 7):260, 78(23]:282 Fasano, Carl , 7or1 Faucett, Donald C. Scientific Symposium: 88(77]:336 Fearon , Jeffrey A . Scientific Symposium: 90( 18):343 Fein, William, 2 16, 240 Scientific Symposia: 78(54]:284, 91(69]:351 Felch, W.C., 137r Felder , David S. Scientific Symposia: 87(43):329, 88(29):333 Feldman, Kenneth A ., 216,243,252 Feldstein, Morri s, 216, 239, 243 Scientifi c Symposium : 75 (13] :271 Felker, Gary E. Scientific Symposium: 74(32):270 Fells, Peter Scientific Sympos ium: 79(20] :286 Felt , Douglas P., 216, 242, 250 Scientific Sympos ia: 83[6]:306, 84(20]:312, 86(4):32 1 Fergu s, Freeland, 52, 98r Fernande z, Enrique Scientific Symp osium : 88(45):334 Ferrante, Robert Scientific Symp osium : 93 (57):362 Ferro ne, Phillip J. Scientific Symposiu m : 9 1[16]:348 Ferry, Andrew P . Scientifi c Symposium: 92[46]:355 Fett, Dav id R. , 252, 373 Scientifi c Sympo sium: 85(15):316 Filatov, Vladimir Petrovi ch (1875- 1956), 5, 62, ,oar

450

INDEX

Of

NAMES

Findling , Jame s W. Scientific Symposium : 91 [31):349 Finlay, Joh n R. , 216, 239, 244 Scientific Symposium: 73 [28]:267 FitzGerald-Beatty , Barbara , 127,198,211, 228 Fitzpatri ck, P .J. Combined Me eting: 79[8] :380 Flagg, Stephen V. Scientific Symposium: 73[2]:265 Flaharty , Patrick M, 248 Scientific Sympos ium : 92[6 1):356, 92[69):356 Flanagan.Jos eph C., 9 1r, 111, 132, 134r1, 135r1, 167, 183, 185, 187- 188, 188,202,216, 228, 230,235,238,239,247,250,305,319, 370, 375, 398 Comb ined Meetings: 78 (9):379, 79 [1]:380, 81[9]:383, 85[5]:388, 92[9):395 Scientific Symposia: 70[8]:259, 71 [3] :261, 73[17] :266, 74[11]:268, 75(33):273, 76[21]:275, 77[5):277, 79[9,11]:285 , 80(44):292, 80[53) :293, 81 (59):298, 82[67):303, 82(roo]:305 , 83(35):308, 83[53]:309, 83[71]:310, 84[62]:3 15, 85[1]:316, 86[46):323, 87[38):328, 87[47):329,88 (36) :333, 88[47]:334, 88(76):336, 90[45):345, 91(57) :350 Fleishman , John A . Scientific Symposi um: 8s [5s]:JI 9 Fleming ,Jan1es C., 125, 190- 191, 196, 199, 211, 21~ 231,233,237 ,24 1, 25~ 33~ 39l 407 Scientific Symposia: 79[17):286, 80[54):293, 87[20):327 Flowers, Robert S. Scientific Symposi um : 90 [36) :344 Fogg , Steven G. Scientific Symposi um: 89[24):338 Folberg, Robert Scientific Symp osia: 85[13]:316, 91(42):350 Font, Ramon L. Combine d Meet .ings: 78(14):379, 84[9]:387 Scientifi c Sympos ium : 91 [12):347 Forbes, Glen S. Scien tific Symposium : 92 [41):355 Ford, E., 102r Ford,J.G. Scientifi c Symposi um : 93[14]:359 Foster . Jill A., 251 ,257 Scientific Symposi um : 93(53) :361, 93 [5sl:362


Fournier, G.A., 97r Fox, Sidney A. (1898-1983), I , 7, 19, 21, 33n, 44, 46, 49n, 50,53, 67, 70n , 77--'79, 78n, 87, 89, 92r, 95r, 102r, 155, r6o, 171, 21r , 239,241 France, Thomas Scientific Symposium: 81 [2]:294 Frank, Helena , 246, 249 Frankel, Joshua, 249 Fraunfelder, Frederick T . Combined Meeting : 79(7]:380 Fredricks, Simon Scientific Symposia : 74(18]:269, 75(37]:273 Freedman , Sheldon Scientific Symposium: 80(13]:290 Freeman , L. Neal, 216, 243, 246, 249 Scientific Symposium: 89(2 1]:338 Freidlander, Lewis D. Scientific Symposium: 85(35]:3 18 Freud , Sigmund (1856- 1939), 41 Fricke.Johann Karl George (1790-1 841), 2, 3, 5, 25, 26, 93, Friedenwald, Jonas S. ( 18!>7-1955), 52, 98r Friedlander , Lewis D. Combined Meeting: 86[9]:389 Fries, Peter D., 251 Combined Meeting: 92(1]:395 Frohman , Larry Scientific Symposia : 90(11]:342, 91(8]:347 Frost, Williams Adams (1853- 1935), 47, 98r Froula, Paul D. Scientific Symposium: 92[41]:355 Frueh, Bartley R., 75, 102r, !IO, 134n, 135n, 146, 147, 167, 171, 173-176 , 174, 177,216, 229, 23~ 233, 234,238 , 239,246,250,348 , 366, 367, 375, 379, 398 Combined Meetings: 85[8]:388, 89(4]:392, 93[9]:396 Scientific Symposia: 72[23]:264, 74(32]:270, 75[24]:272, 76(1]:274, 76[16]:275, 77[19]:278, 78(14) :281, 79(19):286, 81[37]:296, 82(19):300, 83[6]:306, 84(20]:312, 86(4,8]:321, 86(22]:322, 87(15]:327, 88[66]:335, 89(18]:338, 92(3,5]:352, 93(33]:360 Fuchs, Ernst (185 1-1930), 33n, 64, 98r Fuerste, F. Hunter Scientific Symposium : 86(43] :323 Fujikawa, Leslie S. Combined Meeting: 86(2]:389 Fung, Wayne, 192

Gaedcke, Friedrich,41 Gage, A. Scientific Symposium: 83[22]:307 Galbraith, Dennis] ., 217,242,251 Scientific Symposium: 86(58]:324 Galen. See Galenus, Claudius Galenus, Claudius (129-199 A.D.), 6, 7, 9 Gallie, B.L. Combined Meeting: 79(8]:380 Galloway, Jerry E. Scientific Symposium: 84(26):312 Garber, Perry F., 9rr, 126,126,127,128 , 190191,19 6,200, 201-205, 205,211,217,228, 229,233,237,241,245,247,253,349,398 Combined Meeting: 91 [4]:394 Scientific Symposia: 84(36]:313, 86(33] :323, 89[66]:341, 90(64]:346, 92(64):J56 , 93[65]:362 Garbutt, Mark V. Scientific Symposium: 93 (60):362 Garcia, George, 192 Garden, Jerome M. Combined Meeting: 93(6):396 Garland, Paul E. Scientific Symposium: 88(75]:336 Garner, Alec Scientific Symposium: 82(22]:300 Garrison, Fielding H . (1870-1935), 12, 24, 91 r, 92r Garrity, James A. Combined Meeting: 84[6]:387 Scientific Symposium : 92[41]:355 Gausas, Roberta, 249 Gavaris, Paul T., 125,199,217,228 , 229, 236, 240,247,337,353,398,399,400 Scientific Symposia : 77(6):277, 81 [12):294, 82(53]:302, 85(24] :317, 86[53]:324, 89(41]:339, 90(1]:342, 90(32,35]:344, 90[50]:345, 91 (36):349 Gavin, Todd Scientific Symposium: 92(44):355 Geggel, Harry S. Scientific Symposi um : 92(16]:353 Geist, Craig E. , 217, 243, 250 Scientific Symposium: 89 [54]:340 Gerguson, E.C. , III, 102r Gersten, Martin Scientific Sympos ia: 84(37] :313, 85(40) :318 Giampapa, Vincent Scientific Symposium: 86[59]:324 Gibson, T ., 35, 96 r

INDEX

OF

NAMES

45

I


Gilbard, Steven M., 217, 243, 247, 253 Scientific Symposium: 83 [54):309 Gilberg, Steve, 254 Scientific Symposium: 93(21):359 Gilbert, Marilys Scientific Symposium: 92 [19):353 Gilbert-~amess , Enid Scientific Symposium: 93(2):358 Gillet de Grandmont, Anatole-Pierre-Loui s (1837- 1894), 51, 51, 52, 54, 54n, 67, 98, Gillies, Sir Harold D . (1882- 1960), 5, 65, 89, lOIT

Gilliland, Grand, 254 Gillis, Jack F. Scientific Symposium: 88[39]:333 Gillissen,Jan P.A. , 135t1 Gillum, William N. Scientific Symposium: 80(23):291 Gilroy, Regina, 246 Gingo ld, Mi chael P., 217,244,251 Scientific Symposia: 88(33):333, 89(63):341 Gio ia, Vinc ent Scientific Symposium: 85[4]:3 16 Gladstone, G .C. Scientific Symposium: 83 [48]:Jo8 Gladstone, Geoffrey J., 2 17, 243, 252 Scientific Symposium: 92(57):356 Glaser, Joel Scientific Symposium: 82 (74) :303 Glatt, Herbert )., 217, 243, 252 Scientific Symposia: 89(52):340, 90(69):346 , 91(64):351 Glove r, Arthur Tyrone, 217, 242, 250 Scientific Sympos ia: 87(41):329, 89(10):337 Gnudi, M.T. , 94r ¡ Goethe,Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749-1832) , 13-14 , 90 Go ldberg, M. Scien tific Symposi um : 83 [55):309 Go ldberg, Robert Alan, 127, 199, 217, 229, 23 1, 242, 248, 252 Com bined Meeting : 9 1[1]:394 Scientific Symposia: 88(68):335, 90(6):342, 9 1(18):348, 91(44,53):350, 92 (59) :356, 93(60):362 Go ldb erg, Stuart H . Scientific Sympos ium : 89(16):338 Goldberger, Sam, 217,243,25 1 Scient ific Symposium: 89(12):337 Goldey, Stacia, 248

452

INDEX

OF

NAMES

Goldstein, Isadore, 64, 101, Goldwyn, R.M ., 95r, 96r Gonnering, Russe ll S., 127, 134n, 217, 229, 241, 249, 404, 406 Combined Meeting: 91 [7):394 Scientific Symposia: 81[2):294, 82[70,71):303, 82(85):304, 83(57):309, 84(44):314, 85(18):3 17, 86(11):321, 86(56):324, 87(31):328, 87(59):330, 89(22):338, 89(46):340, 91[30):349, 91 [66,67):J51, 92[4):352 Gordy, Dennis Scientific Symposium: 78(34):283 Gorin, G., 27, 36, 45, 49n, 92, Gossman , M. Douglas, 200, 217, 230, 242, 252 Scientific Symposia : 89(15):337, 93(67):362 Gottlo b, Irene Scientific Symposium: 93 [40) :360 Gouglernann, H .P., 101r Gradenigo, Pietro (1831-1 904), 70 Gradle, H arry, 139 Graefe, Albrecht von. See von Graefe, Albrecht Graefe, Car l Ferdinand . See von Graefe, Carl Ferdinand Graf, D., 35, 96, Grahovas, Steve Scient ific Symposium : 93(21):359 Grandmont. See G illet de Grandmont Gran t, William, 246 Gratiot, James B. Scientific Sympos ium : 80(5):290 Gray, LeRoy, 246 Green,John ( 1835- 1913), 47, 49, 98r Green, Robert P. Scientific Symposium : 89(51):340 Green, W. Richard Combined Meetings: 7 8 [, o]:J 79, 83(14):385 Scientific Symposi um : 82(25):300 Greenwald, Herbert , Jr ., 250 Griffiths, J ohn D., 217,2 43,247 Grimes, Cec il Scientific Symposium : 82(77):304 Gross, Co rdell E . Combined Meeting : 8 1(4):383 Gross, Nei l D., 217,229,243,25 1 Scientific Symposium : 87(58):330 Grossniklaus, Hans E. Scientific Sympos ia: 84 (38):313, 93[4]:358


Groth, Michael, 248 Grove, Arthur Sanders.Jr., 124, 125, 126, 135n, 167, 175, 179, 195-196, 197,2 02, 204, 217,228, 231,235,236,238,2 40, 245,2 47, 248, 250-25 I , 313, 327, 342, ]70, 374, 387, 398, 400, 404 , 405 Com bined Meetings : 78[ 1):379, 80[1]:382, 81[13]:383, 83 [n]:J8 5, 84[1]:387, 88(9):391, 90[10] :393 Scientific Symposia: 73 (24):266, 76[7]:274, 77 (15,22):278, 78[40]:283 , 79[36]:287, 80[10]:290, 80[35]:292, 81 [30]:296, 81(61,64]:29 8, 82[10]:299, 82(23) :300, 83[68] :3 10, 84(55]:314, 86 (54):324, 87[29]:328 , 87[53]:329, 88[ 15l:332, 89[54]:340, 9 1[1]:347, 9 1[63] :351, 92[4 8]:355 Gruening, Emil C. (1843- 1914), 51, 52, 54, 98,, 99, Gruss, J.S. Scientific Sympos ium: 86(58]:324 Guberina, Carmen, 217, 242, 247 Scientific Symposium : 83(9]:306 Guelzow , Kurt W .L., 217, 240, 250, 254, 398 Guibor, Pierre, 2 17, 239, 247, 262 Scientific Symposia : 7 1[18]:262, 72 [5] :263, 73[ 16] :266, 74[17]:269, 81(63]:298 Gu illemeau,Jacq ues (1560- 1613), 4, 10 Guillie, Sebastian (1780- 1865), 29n Guthri e, George James (1785-185 6), 16-17, 18, 19, 51, 94r Guyton .Ja ck S. (1914- 1987), 52, 5211,54-55 , 98,

Haas, Brian Scientific Sympo sium: 93(7]:358 Habakuk , S.W ., 94, Habri ch , Di ana, 254 Hacker, H enry D. Scientific Symposium: 90(24):343 Hahn, Fred Scientific Sympo sium: 90(67] :346 Hahn , Kurt , 246 H aik, Barrett D. Scientific Sympos ium : 90[16]:343 H alstead, Jud y Scientific Sympo sium : 86[69]:325 Halstead, Robert F. Scientific Symposium : 86(69]:325 Hamako , Conrad K., 217, 240, 248 Scientific Symposia: 77[42]:279, 78(36) :283

Hamdi, Bashar Scientific Symposium: 79(50] :288 Han , K.H . Scientific Symposium : 84(48] :3 14 Han afee, William Scientific Symposium: 71 (16]:262 H ancock, William , 254 Handler, Lawren ce, 251 Hani g, Carl, 2 5 1 Hargiss,James L., 130, 165, 195,201,202, 205,2 17, 228,234,239,402, 405 Scientifi c Symposia: 70[ 12]:2 59, 70[20 ,3 I ] :260, 71 [20]:262, 72[28]:264, 73[27]:267, 79(26]:286, 81[55]:297, 86[12]:321, 88[20]:332 Hargrave , Sylvia Scientific Symposium : 93 [46):361 Harlan, George Cuvier ( 1835-1914 ), 51 Harley, R obison D. Scientific Symposium: 73 [23]:266 Harper, R .F., 93, Harrington,John N., 90, 124n, 126, 192, 193, 199, 217, 230, 23 I, 236, 237, 240, 245, 249, 403,4 05, 406 Scientific Symposia: 74[34] :270, 82[31] :301, 83[40]:308, 84[5]:Jrl, 85(16] :317, 88(48):334, 89[59]:341 Harris, Gerald ]., 125, 126, 135n, 194,2 18, 227,23 1, 236, 237, 241, 247,25 1, 347,393 , 398 Combined Meeting : 91[5]:394 Scientific Symposia: 82[78]:304 , 83[66]:309, 85[29]:3 17, 86(43) :323, 86(56):324, 87(48) :329, 88(30):333, 89(38):339 , 90[4] :342 , 91[39):J49, 91(66):35 1, 92[40] :354 , 93[42]:361 Harris, Steven E. Scientific Symposium: 86[37]:323 Hartel, Walter C. Scientific Symposium: 90[ 10]:342 Hartman , Deane C. (1908-1 973), 7011, 155, 2 12,239,2 40 H arvey. John T., 2 18, 242, 251 Comb ined Meeting : 80[3]:382 Scientific Symposia: 85[33]:318, 89(37):339, 9 1(45):350, 92(26):354, 92(45):355, 93[8]:3 58 Hass, Andrea , 250 Hatt, Martin U . Scientific Symposia: 78[7]:281 , 82(90):304 Haug, Gary A. Scientific Symposium : 76(19) :275

I NDEX

O f NAMES

453


Haugwitz Von, T . See Von H augw itz, T . Havins, Weldon E. , 218,241 , 254 Scientific Symposium: 82 (50]:302 Hawes, Michael ). , 105,126,127, 128, 13411, 136, 137,, 157, 15811,199,204 , 205,2 18,2 29, 231 ,2 37, 241 ,249, 25611,350,398,404 Scientific Symposia: 80[4]:290, 8 1[18]:295, 8 I [52] :297, 82[92]:305, 85[7]:3 16, 88[32]:333, 89[67] :34 1, 92[ 19]:353, 93[1] :358, 93(79]:363 Hayreh , Sohan Singh , 21 Hays, Tim othy, 175 Hecht, Sanford D . (1932-1987), 212,239, 242, 403 Scientific Symposia: 70 [26]:260, 71[26]:262, 72[4]:263, 75 (36] :273, 77[26]:278, 78[10] :281, 79[29] :286, 81(63]:298 H ecker, Gerald, 247 Heffernan,). Timothy , 218,2 43 ,253 Scientific Sym posium : 92(16]:353 Heher, Katrink a, 251 H eimer , Jeffrey Scientific Symposium: 86[2]:321 Heinz , Grant W., 252 Scientific Symposia: 90[6):342, 92[44):J5 5 Hel veston , E ugene M. Combined M ee ting: 88(7):391 Hend erson , Jo hn W . Scientific Symposium : 73 [36):267 He nderson, Peter Scienti fic Symposium: 82(61):302 H enle , Friedrich G.J. (1809"--1885),21 H erder, Johann Gottfried (1744-1 802), I 4 Hermsen , V ernon M. Scientific Symposium: 90(14):343 Herophilu s of Chalcedon (344- 280 BC), 6 Hers chorn , Brian J., 2 5 1 Scientific Symposi um : 83[4,9) :306 Hervouet, Frarn;:ois, 54, 67, 99r Hess, Carl von ( 1863-1923 ), 49, 98r Hewe s, Eva H ., 5, 218,230,2 40 ,2 45,2 49 Scientific Symposium: 75 [21):272 Hil al, Sadek K. Combined Meetin g: 78 (3):379 Hild ebrand, Lloyd, 254 Hill .Jo seph C ., 70, 7011, 136,1 40, 145,155, 171,201,2 18, 237,239, 243, 246,251 Scient ific Symposia: 70 [3, 16):259, 75[16 ):272 , 77 (46):280, 78(48):284 Hill, Kevin, 178 Hillel, Allen D . Scientific Symposium: 89(55):341

4 54

INDEX

OF

NAMES

Himl y, Karl (1772- 1832), 2911 Hipp ocra tes (460-380 BC), 4 Hirsch, 0., 60, 62, 100, Hirschber g.Juliu s (1843- 1925), 7, 811,10, 13, 14, l 5- 16, 17, 34, 4911, 90, 921 Hnele ski, Ignati us, Jr. , 250 Hob son, Scott R., 127, 2 18, 229, 243, 250, 257

Scientific Symposia: 90[2) :342, 93(54) :36 1 H ofman.Jeffrey, 254 Hofmann , Rob ert )., 218,243 Ho gan, Michael, 162 Hold s, John B ., 218,229,242,2 48,400 Scientific Symposia: 89(24):3 38, 90(54):345, 91 [12):347, 92( 16):353, 93[19):359, 93(62) :362 H olland, M onte, 246 Hollander , Eug en , 60 Hollsten , Don ald A., J r., 218, 229, 242, 251 Scientific Symposia : 88(16):332, 89[10):337 , 90(24):343, 90[26):343, 9 1[51]:350, 92(76):357, 93( 18):359 Holme s, Oliver Wendell (1808- 1894), 41 H omer, 4 Hoo ver , Larry A. Scientifi c Symp osium: 91 [25):348 Hop e, Th omas, 15, 94, H ombl ass, Albert , 9, Son, 8 1, 90, 921, 93,, 126, 127,128 , 134n, 137, , 167, 191, 198-200, 199,2 18,228,230,231, 235, 236,237,238 , 240,247 , 251,312,319,326 , 347,398,399, 400, 405 Scientific Symposia : 74[5):268, 75[ 14):271, 77 [4):277, 79(58,60 ) :288, 80(31):292, 82 [77):304, 83(4,9) :306, 84(40] :3 13, 85 [1, 14):316, 86(24):322, 86(63):325, 87 [12):326, 87(58):330,88 [4]:331, 88 (33):333, 89 (63):341, 90( 19):343, 92 [12):352, 92[7 1):357, 93(1,7):J 58, 93(49):36 1 H omer . Johann Friedrich (183 1- 1886), 35n H orner , William E. (1793-1853), 5, 21, 35, 3 511, 36, 37, 4811, 96r Ho rowitz, Barry L. Scientific Symposium : 93 (29):360 H orowitz , Talya K. Scient ific Symposium: 92(5] :3 52 Houze de l'Auln oit, 43, 97r H oyle, Th omas, III, 245 , 248 Hsiao, William C., 12511 H su, Wen Ming Scientific Symposia: 84[14]:311 , 87(45):329 Hu bner, H . Scientifi c Sympos ium: 82(28):300


Hughes, Susan M., 91r, 218, 229, 241, 249, 362 Scientific Symposia: 82(60):302, 83[5]:306, 85(53]:3 19 Hu ghes, Wendell L. (1900-1994), 3, 5, 25, 27, JI, 40, 62, 64, 67-72, 69, 7011,71, 72, 79, So, 81, 83-84, 86, 9 1r, 92r, 97r, 101r, 106-107, !JI, 13411 , 139-141, 140, 145, 149, 151, 152, 153, 155, 161,167 , 169, 170, 171, 177, 193, 201,211,212,233,237,239,244,245,246, 369, 370, 370, 377, 397 Combined Meeting: 79(16):380 Scientific Symposia: 70[1]:259, 73(7):265 Hull, Barbara E . Scientific Symposium: 91 [38]:349 Huneke, John W., 218, 239 Scientific Symposium: 70(7):259 Hunt , H.L., 65, 101r Hunt, R .T., 35, 51, 96r Hunt er , Gerard, 254 Hunts, John H . Scientific Symposium: 92(39):354 Hurley , Leo D. Scientific Symposium: 92(8):352 Hurtig, Richard Scientific Symposium: 89(39):339 Hurwitz, Jeffi:ey J. Combined Meetings: 89[8]:392, 91 [6]:394 Scien tific Sympos ia: 83(8]:306, 84(11]:311, 84(28):312, 85(50):319, 86(58):324, 86(68):325, 90[5):342 Hut chinson, Jonathan (1823-191 J), 42, 43, 97 r

Hyde.James Scienti fic Symposia: 90(6):342, 91(44):350 Hyd e, Kenneth). , 218,2 43, 247,249 Scientific Symposium : 89(7):337 Hyman, Roger A. Scientific Symposium: 84(36]:313 Hysem y Molleras , Joaquin (1804- 1883), 5, 35, 96r

Iliff, Charles E.(b .1911), 56, 70n, 93r, 99r, 13411 , 140, 144-145, 155, 171, 175, 178,201, 2 18, 234, 237, 239, 241, 371 Combined Meeting: 79 (13):380 Scientific Sympos ia: 70(16):259, 73[19]:266, 74[22]:269, 75[14]:271, 75(33,36):273, 76[39]:276, 77[23]:278

Iliff, Nicholas T ., 56, 93 r Combined Meeting: 79(13):380 Iliff, W . Jackson , 56, 93 r Combined Meeting: 78[10) :379 Illing, 43, 97r lmmediata , A.R., 185 Scientific Symposium: 83 [2):306 Imre,Joseph , Jr. (1884-1945), 54 Ingis, Theodore Scientific Symposium: 77[4):277 Itani, Kamel , 250 Ivy, R.H., 96r, 137r Izzo, Domenic C. Scientific Symposium: 84[10]:311

Jackson, Ian T., 218, 243 Scientific Symposia: 82(87]:304, 89(30):338 Jackson, Steven T ., 218, 241 Jacob , Arthur ( 1789-1874), 17, 19, 20, 94r Jacobs, J . Wynn, 253 Jaeger, Edward ( 1818- 1884), 1511,39 Jaeger, Friedri ch ( 1784-1971), 1511 , 32, 39 Jahrling, Ray, 13411 Jakobiec, Frederick A., 374 Combined Meetings: 78[14]:379, 84[2]:387, 85[4]:388, 86[10]:389 Scientific Symposia: 84[40]:313, 85[38]:318, 88(4] :33 I , 91(41]:34y Jan1es, R .R ., 96r Jampel , Rob ert Scientific Symposi um : 74(7):268 Jansen, Donald, 246 Jardon, Fritz, 76 Jedrzynsk.i, Michael S. Scientific Symposia: 89(60):341, 90( 15):343 Jelks , Glenn W. , 72, 101r, 247, 403, 405 Scientific Symposium: 86(23):322 Jenkins, Daniel , 245, 249 Johnson, Bru ce L. Combined Meeting: 78(13):379 Scientific Symposium: 86[25] :322 Johnson, Carl Cordes, 13411,145,1 71,218, 234, 237, 239, 242, 373-374 Combined Meeting : 85[11]:388 Scientific Sympos ia: 70(16]:2 59, 70(25):260, 73[13]:265, 76[34] :276, 80(60):293, 82(18):300 Johnson , Th ., 94r Johnson, Walter)., 13311 Jone s, Charles, 246

INDEX

OF

NAMES

45 5


Jones, Ira Snow, 70n, 92r, 218, 234, 239, 244, 247 Scientific Symposium: 76(22):275 Jones, Lester T . (1894- 1983), 21, 57, 6on, 70n, 79, 84-86, 85, 86, 88, 89, 89, 93,, 99,, 103,, 134, 134n, 155, 163,163,185,212,237,239, 241,372,402,405 Scientific Symposia: 70(11,16) :259, 70(25):260, 71(6):261, 71(19):262, 73(12]:265, 74(6):268, 75(19,20):272, 76(26]:275, 77(39) :279, 78(38):283, 79(52):288 Jordan , David R ., 218, 230, 242, 248 Scientific Symposia: 87(8):326 , 92(2):352, 93 (21):359 Jorgenson , Todd Scientific Symposium: 93 (74):363 Joseph , Michael P. Scientific Symposium : 92(42):355 Jurkiewi cz, Maurice J. Scientific Symposium : 81 [20):295

Kaden , Karen Scientific Symposium : 86(3):321 Kahanic, David A., 219, 243, 250 Kalokbe, U. Scientific Symposium: 85(37) :3 I 8 Kaltreider, Sara A ., 219, 230, 242, 249, 349 Scientific Symposia : 86(66):325, 87[31):328, 92(46):355 Kamin, David F., 219, 241 Scientific Symposia: 76[20) :275, 79[32) :286, 80(12):290 , 81(45):297, 82[20) :300 Kapustiak , James F., 219, 242, 250 Scientific Symposia: 86[8):321, 87(15):327 Karesh,James W., 125,200 , 219,228,230, 23 I, 232, 242, 252, 356, 398 Scientific Symposia: 84[4):31 I, 85(37):3 18, 87[39):328, 91 [2):347, 93 [70):363 Kass, Lawrence G., 219,228,242,251 Scientific Symposia: 86(24):322, 87(22):327 Katchuia, Sajeev, 2 5 1 Katowitz,JamesA., 111, 116--119,188,219, 228,231,235,236,240,251,314,318,324 Combined Meetings: 85[1):388, 89(6) :392 Scientific Symposia: 79( 15):285, 80(32):292, 8 l [53):297, 82(55):302, 82(85):304 , 83(12):306, 84( 1):311, 86(61):325, 87(54):329, 88(16):332, 88(70):335, 89[3):337

456

INDEX

OF NAMES

Katzen, Lawrence Barry, 91r, 127 , 219, 241, 252, 345 Scientific Symposia: 81 [40):296, 82(68):303, 85(56):319 Kaufinan, Brenda L. Scientific Symposium : 90(37):344 Kavalec, Conrad, 25 I Kavic, Thomas A. Scientific Symposium: 84(26):312 Kazdan, Martin S., 219, 23 1, 240, 246, 251 Scientific Symposium: 90[5]:342 Kazim, Michael, 219,231,243,251 Scientific Symposia: 89[3):337, 93(52):361 Kelley,Jo hnJ., Sr., 134n Kelman, Charles D. Scientific Symposium : 92(74) :3 57 Kelmer , John L. Combined Meeting : 86(8):389 Kemp , E.G. Scientific Symposium: 85[5):3 16 Kennedy, David W. Scientific Symposium: 93 (53):361, 93[55) :362 Kenned y, Robert E., 219, 240, 243 Combined Meetings : 78[15):379, 79(9]:380 Scientific Symposia : 77[50):280, 79(13) :285, 82[102):305, 86(65):325, 88[38):333 Kennedy, Robert H., 219, 242, 250 Scientific Symposium: 86 (6]:321 Kennerdell , John S. Combined Meetings: 78(13):379, 86[7):389 Scientific Symposium : 88 (59):335 Kerrigan, Robert E. Scientific Symposium : 86 (48):324 Kersten, Robert C., 219, 229, 242, 248 , 361 Combined Meeting: 90(7):393 Scientific Symposia : 83[32):307, 83(50):309, 87(44):329, 89(9):337, 89(31):339, 90[9):3 42, 90(33 ,39):344, 91 [33):349, 91 [46):3 so, 92[25):353, 93 [45):36 1, 93[71] :363 Kesty, Kenneth , 253 Kezirian, Guy M., 219, 243, 253 Khan,Jernshed A., 97,, 127,219,229,242, 250 Scientific Symposia: 88[15):332, 91 [25):348, 93[59):362 Khaw , Peng Scientific Symposium: 93 (15):359 Kheyrieth, A. Scientific Symposium: 82[104):305


Kidwell, Earl, 253, 407 Scientific Symposium: 77(38):279 Kikkawa, Don 0., 219, 244, 249, 404 Scientific Symposia: 92(18):353, 93 [34,35) :360 Kim, Danny, 253 Kim, Man K., 219, 242, 246, 249 Scientific Symposium: 88(5) :331 Kim, Yoon-Duck Scientific Symposium: 88(28):333 Kincaid, Marilyn Coburn Combined Meeting: 93[5]:396 Scientific Symposium: 91(12):347 King, E.F., 80, 102r King, John Harry , Jr., 55, 6911,78 Kleiner, Franklin Scientific Symposium: 91 (33):349 Klett, Zachary, 252 Knapp , H ermanJacob ( 1832-1911), 46, 47 Knight, Carol, 245, 248 Knowles, D.M., II, 374 Ko, Wilson Scientific Symposium: 91 [43):350 Kocher, Theodor, 47 Kock, Douglas D . Scientific Symposium: 89(58):34 1 Koethe, Susan Scientific Symposium: 91 [39]:349 Kohn, Roger, 219, 240, 246, 249 Scientific Symposia : 78(8):281, 80[13):290, 85[8]:316 Kolle, Frederick Strange (1871-1929), 58, 59, 60, 99r Koller, Carl (1857- 1944), 41 Kolodner, Harry, 249 Kolodny, Nancy H . Scientific Symposium: 86(54) :324 Koomneef, Leo, 135, 13511,398, 403, 405 Combined Meeting : 78(6):379 Scientific Symposia: 78(44):283, 82[22):300, 92[47):355, 93(48) :361 Koornneef, Marijn, 135 Kopelman, Joel, 252 Scientific Symposium: 84[21]:312 Korn, Elliot, 253 Koss, Neal Scientific Symposium: 73[2):265 Koverman, James Scientific Symposium: 73(8):265 Kramer, P. Scient ific Symposium: 87(60):330

Kramer, Steven, 162 Krause, 21 Krei ger, Abbott, 342 Scientific Symposia: 9o[u):342 , 91[8):347 Krimmer, Burton, 219, 239, 241 Kristan, Ronald W., 219, 228, 242, 253 Scientific Symposium: 85(2):316 Krahe!, Gregory B. Combined Meeting: 91(2):394 Scientific Symposia: 84(4 1):313, 89(62):341 Kronish,Jan W., 127,219,229,242,249,359, 398, 404 Scientific Symposia: 88(41):333, 89(46):340, 89(59):341, 90(59,62):346, 92[17) :353 Kronlein, RudolfUlrich (1847-1 910), 47, 4711, 48, 49, 55, 60, 97r Kroon, F.H.M . Scientifi c Symposium: 82(94):305 Kropp, Thomas M., 219, 242, 251 Kuhne, Hermann (1850-1925), 44, 45, 46, 5657, 97r, 99r Kullhesthra, 2 5 1 Kulwin, Dwight R. , 127, 220,231, 241, 254, 361,372,400 Combined Meetings: 81(2):383, 91(8):394 Scientific Symposia: 80[20):29 1, 82(41):301, 86(18):322, 87[36]:328, 88(78):336, 89[9]:337 , 89[31):339, 90(9):342, 90(33,39):344, 91 [33]:349, 92(25):353, 93(45):361 Kurumety, Usha R. Scientific Symposium: 92(3):352 Kushner, Burton J. Scientific Symposia: 81 [2):294, 82(66):303, 91[24]:348

Labay, Gerald Scientific Symposia: 73(28]:267, 83(65):309 Ladenheim, Jacob, 7011,93r Lagrange, Felix (1852-1 927), 4, 60, 91r Lamping, Kathleen Combined Meeting: 84[7]:387 Lance, Scot E., 220, 243, 254 Landolt , Edmund (1846-1926), 5, 6611,68, 6811,IOJr Lando lt, Marc L., 6811 Lane, Carol Scientific Symposium : 86(3):321 Lane, Lynda Scientific Symposi um : 83[11]:306

INDEX

O F NAM ES

457


Lang, Basil T. ( 1880-1928), 48n Lang, W illiam (1863-1 937), 47-48, 48n, 80, 102' Lange, Johannes (1485-1 565), 48n Langenbeck, Bernh ard Rudolph Conrad van, 5

Langer, Paul , 248 Langham, James, 162, 175, 220, 234, 240, 245, 247, 248 Scientific Symposium: 8 1(11):294 Lanza, Donald C. Scientific Symposium: 93 (53): 361, 93 (55]:362 Lapersonne , F. de. See de Lapersonne , F. (1853-1 937) LaPiana, Francis G., 220, 240 Scientific Symposia: 78(3):28 1, 80(33):292, 82 (88,91]:30 4, 85(25]:317 Larned, David C., 220, 243, 250 Larson, Paula Scientific Symposium: 89(22]:338 Lass, Jonat han H . Scientific Symposium : 84(38] :313 Laubheimer , Hu gh W., 13411 Laukaitis, Steven, 2 54 l'Aulnoit, Houze de. See Houze de l'Au lnoit Lauring, Lewis M. , 220, 240, 245, 248, 403, 4o4 Scientific Symposia: 74(25,27]:270, 77 (31]:279 Laws, E .R., Jr. Scientific Symposium: 82(87 ):304 Lawson, Geo rge (1831-1902), 42, 97r Le Fort, Leon C. (1829-1 893), 42, 97r Le Fort , Rene (1869-1951) , 60, JOOr Lee, Benjamin C.P. Combined Meeting: 86(8):389 Lee,J.P. Scientific Symposium: 84(2]:3 11 Leggett, Cary, 246 Leib, Martin L., 127, 220, 229, 243, 247 Leibowitz, Steven, 220, 242, 250 Scientific Symposium : 86(54]:324 Leibsohn, J oel M., 220, 240, 250, 398 Scientific Symposia: 77(12 ]:278, 78 [53] :284, 80(11) :290, 81[23]:295 , 82[6]:299, 83(24):307, 86(26) :322, 87 [3 5]:32 8, 88[22] :332, 90[67]:346, 93 [75]:363 Leismaa, Martti, 246

458

INDEX

OF

NAMES

Lemke, Bradley N., 126,127, 134n, 220,228 , 229, 230, 236, 241, 249, 253, 328, 338, 342, 398 , 400, 403, 404 Combined M eetings: 83[18):386, 92[4):395 Scientific Symposia: 80(16):291 , 80[48] :293, 82[24):300, 83[18]:307, 83[57]:309, 86(56]:324, 87(3] :326, 88(6):33 I, 88[41):333, 89[8]:JJ7, 89(23] :338, 91 [1]:347, 91(47] :350, 92(4] :352, 92[18] :353, 93(13):358, 93(34]:360, 93(41]:36 1 Lemoine, Jean Pierre, 247 Lensink, Daniel B. Scientific Symposium: 90 (10]:342 , 90[37]:344 Leonardo, R .A., 92r Leone, Cha.rles R .,Jr., 13511,151,1 83,220 , 229 ,23 4,2 35,239,246,247,367,398 Combined Meetings : 78[12]:379, 80(8]:382 , 83(13):385, 87(11]:390 Scientific Symposia: 70(28] :260, 72(17]:264, 73(5] :265, 74[9]:268, 75(39]:273, 77(45]:280 , 78(37] :283, 80(58):293, 81(14):294, 82(32) :301, 82(84]:30 4, 83[60):309, 84[45,52]:31 4,86(9] :32 1, 87(49]: 329, 92[8] :352, 92(76) :357 Leonidas (?2nd century BC), 6 Lesser, Geo rge R. Scientific Symposium: 79(37) :287 Lessner, Alan M ., 220, 243, 253 Scientific Symposia: 89(19):338, 92(14):353 Levin, Peter S., I 3411, 220, 244 Scientific Symposia: 86(60) :325, 87(40):329, 89(32] :JJ9, 91(70) :351 Levine , Arnold Scientific Symposiu m: 82 [22):300 Levine , How ard L. Combined Meeting: 89(10):392 Levine, Mark R ., 12411,13311,167, 179, 183, 185, 188-189, 189,220 , 228,235 ,236,238, 247, 253, 397, 398, 399, 400 Combined Meetings : 82[9]:384, 83(4):385, 84(7] :387 Scientific Sympo sia: 75[6] :27 1, 76(13):274, 77[27):279, 78(39):283, 79(43):287, 79(56):288, 80(14):291, 81(58):297, 82(42) :301, 83(73):310, 84(38):313 , 85(21]:317, 86[ 1]:321,86(3 I ,46):323, 86[52] :324, 87[10, 11]:326, 88(28):333 , 89[25]:338, 91 [9]:347, 93 (26):359


Levine, Robert E., 220, 229, 241 Lexer , Erich, 60 Liebersk.i.nd, Arie Scientific Symposium: 87[37]:328 Liebesk.ind, Arie L. Scien tific Symposium: 84(37]:313 Linbe rg. John V., 61, 93r, 127,185,220,229, 242,350,394,400 , 403,405 Combined Meetings : 83 (6]:385 , 90[9) :393 Scientific Sympos ia: 79(12):285, 80[9]:290, 83[2]:306, 83(46):308, 85 (4]:3 16, 85 (54]:319, 87[24) :327, 87[33):328, 88(73,74 ]:336, 89(4):337, 89[23):J38 , 90[22] :343, 90[58] :345, 9r [60] :351, 93[ 11]:358, 93(73,74 ) :363 Lindner, Karl (1883- 1961), 64 Linggood, Rita Scientific Symposium: 92(33):354 Linn, M. , 103r Lisfran c, J. ( 1790-1847), 35 Lisman, Jack V., Bon, 220, 239, 243 Scientific Sympos ium: 75 (18) :272 Lisman, Richard D., 93r, 1orr, 220 , 242, 247, 249, 253,343 , 378, 398 Scientific Sympos ia: 85[42]:318 , 86(44]:323, 87(23):327, 88(4]:33 I, 90(21]:343, 91 [41]:349 Lissner , Gary S., 220, 241 , 251 Scientific Sympos ia: 80 (46] :292, 91 (61]:351 Lister,Joseph (1827- 1912), J I , 41 Liu, Do n , 220, 241, 253, 307, 400, 407 Scientific Symposia: 80[21]:29 1, 81[33]:296 , 83[ 15]:306, 84[14]:31 1, 85[59] :319, 86(38]:323, 87(45):329, 89[33]:339, 91[7]:347, 93(47]:361 Liva, Edward L. , 220, 239, 243 Lloyd, William C., III Scientific Symposium : 84[52]:314 Lobstein . Johann Friedric h ( 1736--1784), 14 Loeb, Robert , 209 Loe ffler, Michael , 25 1 Scientific Symposium : 90(19):343 Lofton, Steve n Combined Meeting : 90 (4):393 Long, Crawford W. ( 1815-1878), 40, 41 Long.John A., 220,242 ,248 Combined Meeting : 92[8]:395 Scientific Symposium : 91 [35]:349 Lopacynsky , Marta 0. Scientific Symposium: 89(62] :34 1 Lorusso , Vincenzo Scientific Symposium: 82 [79]:304 Low.Joanne , 251

Lowde r , Careen Y. Scientific Sympos ium: 88(31] :333 Lubkin, Virginia , 4, 70, 93r, 155,221,239 , 243,246 Scientific Symposia: 71 [9):261 , 72[2]:263, 73(9]:265, 74 [8] :268, 75 (17) :272, 78(55):284, 79[3]:285, 79[40] :287, 80(51):293 , 81[4]:294 , 82[12]:299, 83(45):308, 84(37]:313, 85(40):3 18, 86[14]:32 1, 87(60):330 Lucas, Colley Lyon (1730-1797 ), 21 Lukash, Frederick N. Scientific Sympos ium: 86(33]:323 Lyon, David B., 221, 230, 23 1 , 243, 249, 404 Scientific Sympos ia: 90[7]:342, 90(65 ) :346, 91(67]:351, 92[4]:352, 93(2]:358, 93[41] :36t Lyons , C.J. Scientific Symposi um: 91 (62]:351

Ma , Lih Scientific Symposium: 86(62] :325 McCall, Laurie, 248 McCartby,J.G. , 131, t37r McCarthy , Rodney W ., 221,2 4 1,2 49,398 Scientific Symposia: 80[41]:292, 81[19]:295, 83(30):307 M cCord , Clinton D ., Jr., 167, 176, 192- 194, 193, 194, 202, 204,221. 228, 235, 236, 238, 239 , 247,251 ,3 15,36 9,370,373,38 3,398, 403, 405 Combined Meetings: 79 [3] :380, 80[7] :382, 83[2 1] :386, 87[2] :390 Scientific Symposia : 70(2):259, 75(3):27 1, 76 (24):275, 77[16]:278, 77(35):279, 79[2,7]:285,79(42]:287, 80 [6]:290 , 8 1(68):298, 82[ 17]:300 , 82[39]:301, 82[75]:303, 83 [19] :307, 83(63) :309 ,84 (17,24 ]:3 12, 84 (56,6 1]:314, 85[35]:318, 86[15]:32 1, 86[2 I ] :322, 87(4):326, 87(46,5 1) :329,88 (34) :33 3, 89[ I , II ) :337, 90[13]:343, 90(34):344 M cConnick , Steven A. Scientific Symposia: 85[4]:316, 85(54) :3 19, 90[22] :343, 92[37]:354 McDem1ott, M . Scientifi c Symposium: 85(33]:3 18 MacDonald , Donald , 247, 253 McDowell , Frank, 95r McFaden, Patrick W. Scientific Symposium: 91 [39]:349

I NDEX

Of

NAMES

459


McFarland, Joan E. , 221, 242, 252 MacFaul, P.A., 57, 92r McGehee, Frank, 246 McGetrick , JohnJ. , 221,242,249,360,404 Scientific Symposia : 83(16]:307, 84(42,43]:313 McGuire, Thomas W . Scientific Symposium: 90(15]:343 McHenry, John G. Scientific Symposium: 93(61] :362 McKenzie , Thomas, 246 Mackenzie, William (1791-1868), 15n, 17-18 , 20, 34-35, 39, 51, 94, McKerricher , Donald, 246 McK.instry, Mary (Polly), 248 McLachlan , Daniel L., 221,228 , 236, 241, 250, 257, 329, 33 I Combined Meeting: 81(9]:383 Scientific Symposia: 79 (9, 11]:285, 80 [53):293, 88[1 ,8]:33 l , 93[5 1]:361 MacLean , Angus L., 239 McLean , I. Combined Meeting: 78[14]:379 McLeish, William M ., 248 Scientific Symposia : 90[54]:345 , 92[61 .69]:356 MacRae, Scott M. Combined Meeting : 85[7]:388 Mafee, M.F. Scientific Symposium : 83 [54]:309 Magn ate , David Scientific Symposium : 91 [19]:348 Mahanti, Robert L. Scientific Symposium: 90[2 8] :343 Maher , Elizabeth A., 221,243 ,2 47 ,2 49 Scientific Symposia: 90[8]:342, 92[37) :354, 93[43]:361 Mallory, Donna JR. Scientific Symposium : 87 (24):327 Mamalis, Nick Scientific Symposi um : 91 [12):347 Mangum, William Scientific Symposium : 80[11]:290 Mannor, Geva E., 254 Scientific Symposia: 91[65) :35 1, 92[20]:353 Mantilla , M ., 9rr Marcus, Leslie, 1 1 o Marecki, Rufin Scientifi c Symposium: 70[10]:259 Maris, Charles S.G., 70, 221, 239, 246, 261

46o

INDE

X O F NAMES

Markovitz, Andrew S., 239, 243, 245 , 248 Scientific Symposia: 78[12]:281, 79 [59]:288, 90[31):344 Markowitz, Gary D . Scientific Symposium: 91 [37):349 Markus, Lesley, 170 Marple , WilburB . (1855-?), 51, 54, 99' Marquez, M., 96r Marrone , Alfred C., 109n, 221, 230, 240, 253 Scientific Symposia: 77[47]:280, 91[21]:34 8, 92[50]:355 Marsh, Peter B. Scientific Symposium: 93(17]:359 Martin,John L., Jr. , 221, 243 , 253 Scientific Symposium: 90(57) :345 Martin, Ronald T ., 221, 243, 252 Scientific Symposia: 89[40]:339, 90[17):343, 91 [20):348, 92[44]:355 Masri, Fawsi A. Scientific Symposium: 91[60]:351 Massaro, Bru ce M. Scientific Symposium: 91 [39]:349 , 91[66]:351 Mather , Thomas R. , 221, 242, 250 Mathers , William D . Scientific Symposium: 92[20]:353 Mauriello.Joseph A., Jr., 127,221 , 229,241 , 250 Scientific Symposia: 84[48) :314, 85(19]:3 17, 86[59] :324, 87[47]:329, 88(17):332, 89[49):340, 90[3,11):342, 91[8] :347 , 92(6):352, 93[46):361 Maus, Marlon, 221,244,251 Mausolf, Frederi ck A., 221, 240, 246 Scientific Symposium : 77 [48):280 Maxwell, Hal, 246 May , Charles H., 139 Mazzoli, Robert, 250 Meecham , William, 252 Meekins, Bettina Scientific Symposium : 87(57):330 Mehrlof, Austin Scientific Symposium: 87 [65):330 Meller, Josef (1874- ?), 44 Meltzer, Murray A., Son, 93,, 127, 137r, 221 , 229, 239, 249, 352 Scientific Symposia: 8 l [42):296, 86(36):323, 88[7 1):335, 89 [7]:337 Meronk, Frank,Jr ., 221 , 241,25 0 Com bined Meeting : 79(4):380 Scientific Symposium: 79[46) :287, 79(55]:288


Merriam, George R., 7011,242 Merriam , John C., 221 Scientific Symposium: 83(56]:309 Merritt, James H ., 13411,254 Meshel, Leroy G. Scientific Symposium : 90[23) :343 Messina, Albert Scientific Symposium: 84[37]:313 Merson, Ralph A . Scientific Symposia : 91[68) :35 1, 92(66) :356 Meyer, Dale R., 221,228,231,243,254 Scientific Symposia : 89(4):337, 90[22):J43, 93(9):35 8, 93(74]:363 Meyerhof, M., 93r Meyers , Joel, 250 Migliori , Michael E., 221, 243 , 252 Scientific Symposia: 87(64):330, 92(77]:357 Mikhail , George R. Scientific Symposium: 79(54) :288 Mili c, Milorad, 246 Miller , C harles Conrad (1850- 1950), 58, 59, 60, 99r

Miller, Elizabeth A. Scientific Symposium: 87(19]:327 Miller, F., 99r Miller, Go rdon R., 10911 , 221, 239, 247 Scientific Symposia: 74(33]:270, 76(5):274, 76(31):275 Miller, Marilyn Scientific Symposium : 72(13]:263 Miller , M .L. Scientific Symposium: 81 [46):297 Miller, Neil R. Combined Meeting : 84[4]:387 Millett, Fay E ., 10911,222, 235, 239, 246 Scientific Symposia: 73 [3]:265, 79(39]:287, 80[3]:290 Millman , Arthur L., 222, 242, 252 Scientific Symposia : 84(37):313, 85(40]:318, 87(37):328, 88(46):334, 90(66]:346, 91 (65] :35 1, 92(37] :354 Minatoya , Carl, 246, 249 Mines, Jonathan H. Scientific Symposium : 84(40) :3 13 Mishkin , Steve, 251 Moazed, Kambiz, 24 7 Modic , Michael T., 290 Combined Meetings : 81[1]:383, 83[12]:J85 Scientific Symposium: 80(7):290 Moll . Jacob A. (1832-1914), 21 Mondshine , Robert B., 222, 241, 252

Monks, George H., 5, 48, 4811 Montandon , D. , 1, 4, 6, 43, 60, 6811, 97r Moore, Charles A. Scientific Symposium: 88 (73]:336 Moore, M.B ., 91r Moore, Rutheva Dizon , 250 Morales, Louis Combined Meeting: 86[3):J89 Scientific Symposium: 88(45]:334 Morax , Serge, 13 5 Scientific Symposium : 82[101):305 Morax , Vctor (1866-1935), 5 Morestin, Hippolyce, 60, 1oor Morton, William Thomas Green (18191868), 41 Moses,Jame s L., 222,240,251,340 Scientific Symposium: 78(4 1):283 Mostafavi , Ramine Scientific Symposium: 93 (46]:361 Motais, Ernst (1846--1913), 51, 51, 98r Moy, Ronald Scientific Symposium : 92(59):356 Muchnick, Richard S., 222, 240, 245, 249 Mules , Philip H enry (1843-1905), 47, 49, 65, 98r Millier, Heinrich (1820-1864), 21, 4011 Muller, Leopold (1862-1936), 4711 Murphy, Brant, 254 Murray , David L. Scientific Symposium : 86(49):324 Murrell, John W. , 222, 243 Murrell, Wal ter, 254 Mu sch , David C. Combined Meeting: 85(8]:388 Scientific Symposia: 88(66):335, 89(18):338, 92(3,5):352 Mustarde, John Clark, 5, 73, 74, 75, 83, 84, 93r, 101r, 103r, 135-136, 222,241 Scientific Symposium: 79[65]:289

Naffziger, Howard Christian ( 1884-1961), 60, 100, Nagashima , Koji Scientific Symposium: 82[52]:302 Naquin, Howard , 47, 7011,98r, 140, 155 Nasr , Amin M ., 222, 243, 249 Nassif, John M ., 222, 243, 247, 249 , 378 Scientific Symposium: 89[7]:337 Nateilla, J. Scientific Symposium: 83 [22] :307

INDEX

OF

NAMES

461


Naugle, Thomas C., Jr., I 58n, 222, 23 1, 241, 246,247,256,344 Scientific Symposia: 81 (48]:297, 83 (64):309, 86(64):32 5, 87(7):326, 89(6):337, 92( I 5):353, 93(80]:363 Neetens, Adolphe Scientific Symposium: 82[59]:302 Negr~y. John, Jr., 250 Nelson, Christine C., 222, 230, 23 1, 242, 246, 249, 250, 338, 396, 404 Scientific Symposia: 87(15,17,r8]:327, 92 (3):352 Nelson, David, 249 Nelson, Earl, 246 Nelson, Eric R., 222, 243, 248 Scientific Symposium: 91 [53]:350 Nerad, Jeffrey A., 13411,13511 , 222, 229, 231, 24~ 248,252, 33~ 35~ 35~ 356 Combined Meeting : 93[3):396 Scientific Symposia: 89(39):339, 91 (46]:350, 92(9):352, 92(62):356 Neri, A., 374 Nesi, Frank A., 81, 82, 93r, 102r, 137r, 222, 243,247,359 Scientific Symposia: 78(56):284, 82(88):304 , 92(57):356 Nestor, Jeffrey, 247 Neuhaus, Russell W., 127, 222, 229, 241, 248, 400 Combined Meetings: 83[20):386, 87(4):390, 89(2):392 Scientific Symposia: 82(36):301, 82(58):302, 83[r7):307, 84[3):3u, 86(5):321, 87(34):328, 88[69):335, 89(61):341, 90(47):345, 91(58):350 Nevins, William, 253 Newell, Frank W., 222, 239, 243 Newton, B.A. Scientific Symposium : 81 [46]:297 Newton, Sir Isaac, r Nguyen, Loan K. Scientific Symposium : 93 [73]:363 Nicolitz, Ernst, 222, 240, 250 Scientific Symposium: 78(9] :281 Nik, Narieman A., 222,242,251,343 Scientific Symposia: 83[8]:306, 86(40]:323, 88(67) :335 Noble, Ray, 251 Noel, A. Suzanne, 58, 60, 99r Nofsinger, Kent on Scientific Symposium: 80[13]:290 Noreika, Joseph, 246, 249

462

I N D EX

OF

N A M ES

Norman , John Scientific Symposium : 82(82]:304 Norris, John Scientific Symposium: 82(86]:304 Norris, William F. (183!r 1901), 42, 51 Nowinski, Thaddeus S., 222, 242, 248 Scientific Symposia: 85(6]:316, 85(34]:318, 88(7):33 I, 90[53):345, 91 (57):350 Noyes, Henry D . (1832-1900), 42, 97r Nunery, William R., 13411,192, 204 , 222, 231, 23~ 241,251, 25~ 322,326,327,398 Combined Meetings: 80[7]:382, 93[1]:396 Scientific Symposia: 80[6]:290, 84[5.1]:314, 85[40]:318, 86(63]:325, 87[1]:326, 88(62):335, 89[40):339, 90[17):343, 90[46):345, 91[20):348, 92[11]:352, 92(44):355 Nussenblatt, Robert B. Combined M eetings: 86[2):389, 90 (2):393

Obear, Margaret F., 81, 101r, 102r, 106- 107, 10611,109, 143-147, 149, 151, 153, 155, 157, 167, 169-170, 171, 222,233,237 , 239 , 240, 247, 255, 263 Scientific Symposium : 70[22):260 Obear, William (d.1988), 10611 O'Bear. See Obear O'Dair, Robert, 188, 222, 241 Odell, Peter, 247 O'Donoghue, Hugh N., 222, 241, 243 Scientific Symposia: 79(6):285, 79[57]:288, 8 1(49):297, 85[3):316 Odom, J. Vernon Scientific Symposium: 87[24):327 Oei, T.H ., 13511 Oestreicher, James H., 223, 243, 250, 25 I O'Ferrall,Joseph Michael (179~1877), 3536, 96r Offutt, William N., IV, 223, 243 Scientific Symposium: 92[54):355 Ogura,Joseph H . (b. 1915), 62, 10or Ohm,J., 56-57, 99r Older,Jay Justin , 124n, 125, 132, 167, 185, 18!rl90, 191, 195, 197, 223,22 7,228,230, 235, 236, 238, 240, 245,249,319, 398 Combined Meeting: 87(6):390 Scientific Symposia: 75 [32):273, 77(34):279, 78[25):282, 79[5]:285, 80[43] :292, 81[13]:294, 82[16]:300, 83(70]:310, 85(63]:320, 87[1,11]:326, 87(56):330, 88[18,27]:332, 90[29):344, 91(28) :349


Oliver, Charles Augustus ( 1853-1911), 51 Oilier, Leopold X.E. (1830-1900), 42-43, 97, Olson, Jean , 252 Orcutt.James C., 127, 13511,223,229,242, 356

Combined Meeting : 9 l [3):394 Scientific Symposium: 89[55]:341 Ossofsky, H.J., 99, Ossoinig, Karl Scientific Symposium : 82[73):303 Otto , A.J. Scientific Symposium: 82[89]:304 Owen, David Scientific Symposium: 82[83]:304

Packer, Samuel Scientific Symposium: 84(36):313 Padgett, Earl Calvin (1893-1946), 43, 79, 97r Pagenstecher , Arnold (1837-1913), 49, 98r Palu , Richard, 250 Palydowycz , Severin Scientific Symposium: 90[3]:342 Panas, Photinas (1832-1903), 50, 51, 52, 98r Panje, William R . Combined Meeting : 81[4):383 Scientific Symposium: 79[12]:285 Papale, John Scientific Symposium: 82[18):300 Pare, Ambroi'se (1509-1590), ro, 11, 16, 94r Parinaud, Henry (1844-1905), 51, 51, 98r Paris, George L., 90,126,128,159,200, 207209, 20~ 223 , 235 , 236, 23~ 24~ 245,248 Scientific Symposia: 74(4):268, 76(14):274, 78(52,57):284, 81[32]:296, 85[30]:318, 88(3):331, 90(68):346, 92(58):]56 Parker, Willard (1800-1884), 45 Parkes, Maury L. Scientific Symposium: 73 [37):267 Parsons, Sir John Herbert (1868-1957), 91r Pashby , Robert C., 223,240,246,249 ,251, 407

Scientific Symposia : 77(38):279, 78(27):282, 80(39):292 Passavant, 45 Patel, Bhupendra C., 248 Scientific Symposia: 92(73):357, 93(15):359, 93[27):360

Patipa, Michael, 198, 223, 228, 231, 241, 254 Combined Meeting : 85(9):388 Scientific Symposia: 81(41):296, 83(31):307, 84[12):31 I , 85[46):319, 88[40):333, 90[43]:344, 93(24):359 Patrinely, James R., 13411, 223, 242, 248, 398 Combined Meeting: 86(3):389 Scientific Symposia: 87(25):327, 88(45):334, 89(58):341, 90[39):344 , 90[53]:345, 91(6):347, 92[39]:354, 93[66):362 Patterson, T.J.S., 92r, 95r Patton, George (General), 153 Paulus of Aegina (625 A.D.-?), 6, 44 Payr, E. (1882-1967), 52, 53, 98r Payton, 175 Pearce, Bruce Scientific Symposium: 93(57):362 Peeters , H.J.F., 13511 Penne, Robert B., 223, 243, 250 Scientific Symposium : 9 I (57]:J 50 Pepe , Leonard, 228 Perez, Luis, 246 Perman, Kevin I., 223, 230, 242, 248 Scientific Symposia: 86(70):325, 91(37):349 Perry , Angela, 250 Perry , Arthur C., 111, 116-119 , 13411,223, 228,240,250,407 Scientific Symposia: 77(38):279, 78(50):284, 88[43):333, 89[45):340, 91(15] :348 , 93(20):359 Perry, Phillip A. Scientific Symposium : 93(20):359 Peters , Daniel R . Scientific Symposium: 89(51):340 Peters, E.O ., 3, 93r Peterson, Hugh Scientific Symposium: 82(91):304 Petrelli , Richard L., 67, 80, 92r, 223, 240, 247, 2 54 Scientific Symposia: 80[40):292, 83[58):309 Phemett, Terren ce M . Scientific Symposium: 89[46):340 Philip II of Macedon, 4 Pico , Guillermo, Sr., 177, 223, 240 Scientific Symposium: 77[40):279 Pidde , William] ., 81, 106, 136, 144,149,155, 223,239 Piest, Kenneth , 251 Pilet , Jean-Claude, 250 Pincus, Jack H., 223, 240, 246

INDEX

O F NhMES

463


Pirouz , M.S . Scientific Symposium: 82[104):305 Pitts, William C . Scientific Symposium : 89(46]:340 Plamer . Johannes Zacharias ( 1694-1747), 13, 94r Poggenpohl , Sharon Helmer, 107n, 108, 116119

Popham, Jerry K. Scientific Symposium: 91 (19]:348 Popoff, 21 Popp, Jeffrey C., 223, 230, 242, 250, 398 Combined Me eting: 92(6]:395 Scientific Symposia: 89(20]:338, 90(25] :343, 90(38]:344 Potter , W . Scientific Symposium: 87(60]:330 Prasad, Amyia , 2 54 Pratt, Steven G., 223, 241, 249 Scientific Symposia: 82( 18] :300, 84(39]:J 13, 89[60]:341 Pressly, James P., 223, 240, 254 Promesberger , H . Scientific Symposium: 82(5 1]:302 Puliafico, Carmen A . Scientific Symposia: 91(68]:351, 92(66):356 Purdy , Eric P. Scientific Symposium: 91 (38]:349 Purgason , Polly A., 223, 229, 243, 251 Scientific Symposium: 92(71):357 Pumam, James R. , 251 Scientific Symposium: 83(19):307 Futterman, Allen M., 91,, 93r, 132, I35n , 167, 176, 18 1-183, 182,20 2, 22_3,231,232,234, 235,238,240,247, 25~37~ 373,399 Combined Meetings : 78(5]:379, 79[11]:380, 80(2]:382, 82 [2]:384, 84(10]:387, 87(5]:390 Scientific Symposia: 70(15]:259, 70(19]:260, 7 I (7]:261, 73(1 I ] :265, 74(2]:268, 75 [7]:271, 76(15) :274, 77[32]:279, 77(44]:280, 78(28):282, 78[35]:283 , 79(27]:286, 80 [29]:29 1, 81(1):294,81(4 0]:296, 81[50]:297, 82 (14):299, 82(34,46):301, 82(47,48]:302 , 82(69]:303, 83(34):308, 83( 55] :309, 84[4]:3 ll , 84(15] :312 , 84( 57] :3 15, 85(15):316, 85(37,39]:318, 86(7]:32 1,87(28] :328, 87[64]:330, 88(46,50]:334, 89[26]:338, 90(49]:345, 90(66,69]:346, 93(28):360

Quencer, Rob ert R . Scientific Symposium: 92(17]:353

464

INDEX

O F N A M ES

Quenvill, Noel Scientific Symposium: 82(83]:304 Quickert, Geneva, 406 Quickert, Marvin H . (1929-1974) , 6on, 70, 86--87, 88, 89, I03r, I04r, 109, !IO, 134, 134n, 137,, 162, 171, 174, 176,185,195,212,234, 239, 240, 245, 246, 248, 255n, 261,366, 402, 404-4 05 Scientific Symposia: 70(24):260, 71(21]:262, 72(16,31):264, 74(4]:268, 80(54):293 Quist, Lawrence H ., 223, 243

Raflo , Gary T ., 223, 241, 251 Scientific Symposium : 84(26]:312 Rakes , Steven M . Scientific Symposium : 87[43]:329 Ramocki, John M . Scientific Symposia: 88(25]:332, 91(10):347, 93(61]:362 Rampona, Douglas , 253 Ramsey, Bruce R ., 224, 239, 246 Randall, J. Scientific Symposium: 83 (66] :309 Randall, Peter Scientific Symposium: 7 5 [5] :27 I Randolph, Robert L., 57 Rankin .J ohn H .G. Scientific Symposium: 89 [46]:340 Raskin, Elsa M . Scientific Symposium : 93 (43]:361 Rath , Roger Scientific Symposium: 79(8]:285 Rathbun , J.Earl, I 11, 124, 124n, 162, 167, 183-185, 184, 191, 202,224,230 ,23 4, 235, 238,2 40 ,245,2 48,252 ,3 15,377,39 1,397, 399

Combined Meetings : 83(16] :385, 87(7]:390 Scientific Symposia: 71[2]:261, 77(43):279, 78(26):282, 79[4]:285, 82(93]:305, 83(1]:306, 83(69]:310, 84(50,60]:3 14, 88[5]:331, 88(54):334, 89(35):339 Ratliff, C . Der ek Scientific Symposium: 93(9):358 Raymond , Fran~ois Scientific Symposium: 93(21) :359 Recant, M . Scientifi c Symposium: 85(37]:318 Redovan, Edward G. Scientific Symposium : 88(14]:332 Reed , Stephen Scientific Symposium: 91(61):351


Reeh, Merrill]. (b.1906), 70n, 84, 93,, 103,, 134n, 140, 145, 155, 165-166, 166, 171, 191192, 224,234,237,239,264,371, 403-404, 406 Scientific Symposia: 70(16):259, 70(25,32):260, 72[22]:264, 76(32) :275, 79(41):287 Rees, Thomas D., 32, 34, Son, 96r, 137r Scientific Symposia: 71(12]:261, 85(26]:317, 85(61) :320 Reese, Algernon B. (1896--1981), 55 Regan, William, 80, 81, 102r Reibald, A. Scientific Symposium: 82(79):304 Reich, Raymond, 249 Reid , Deborah L. Scientific Symposium: 89(46):340 Reifler, David M., 1, 54, 54n , 93r, 103,, 105, 126, 127, 193, 196, 197, 198,199,200,211, 224,228,229,231,233,237,242,251,255, 365, 369, 377, 401 Scientific Symposia: 84(40):313, 85( 14):316, 92[67):356 Re isberg, DJ., 94, Reiss, George Scientific Symposium: 91 (59]:351 Reitman, H oward S., 224, 240, 246 Renland, William R. Scientific Symposium: 87(26):327 Reny, Andre Scientific Symposium: 82[11]:299 Reverd.in, Jacques-Louis (1842-1929), 25, 42, 97' Reynolds, D. Richard Scientific Symposium: 74(14):269 Rhazes (860-932 A.O.), 6 Rice, Charles D., 224, 243 Scientific Symposium: 93(71) :363 Rich, Leonard Scientific Symposium: 79(8):285 Richards, James Scientific Symposium: 86 (64):325 Riedel, K.G., 91r Rinaldi, Brent Scientific Symposium: 93(12):358 Risius, Barbara Scientific Symposium: 80[7]:290 Rivera, David R. Scientific Symposium : 93 [ 18]:359 Rizzuti, A. Beneclict, 240 Scientific Symposium: 7 5 (38] :273

Robinson, James , Jr., 246 Rodgers, I. Rand, 127, 224, 229, 243, 251 Scientific Symposium: 88(33):333 Rodriguez-Sains, Rene S., 100,, 224, 243 Rodrique , David, 25 1 Roen, Janet L., 127, 224, 229, 230, 241, 253, 383, 385, 405 Combined Meetings: 8 l (8]:383, 83[5]:J85 Scientific Symposia: 83(3):306 , 83 (65):309, 84[25]:312 Rogers, Blair 0., 10, 24, 25, 44, 58, 59, 8011, 92,, 94r, 9 5 r Rogers, Peter A., 91r, 224, 239, 244, 247 Roller, Etienne, 4711 Rootman, Jack Combined Meeting: 85[3):388 Scientific Symposia: 82(83):304, 93[38] :360 Roper-Hall, Gil Scientific Symposium: 89(65):341 Rose, Geoffrey E. Scientific Symposium: 92[43) :355, 92[73):357 Rosen, Nachum, 248 Scientific Symposium: 82(20):300 Rosenberg, Paul N., 253 Scientific Symposium: 87[3]:326 Rosenstock, Ted, 251 Ross, Joseph J., 224, 243, 250 Rosser, P.M. Scientific Symposia: 91(62):351, 92[7] :352 Rougier, J., 136 Rubbens, M . Scientific Symposium : 82[59]:302 Rubenzik, Rob ert, 224 Scientific Symposia: 74(33):270, 75[9]:271 Rubin, Peter A.O. Scientific Symposia: 89(63):341, 91(19):348, 92(27):354, 93[25) :359, 93(69) :363 Ruchman, MarkC., 224 , 241,250 Scientific Symposia: 82(67):303, 83[53]:309 Rue, Rodney, 245, 248 Ruedemann, Albert D ., Jr., 240, 241 Ruedemann, Albert Darwin, Sr. (1897-1971), 73, 76 , 76, IOir , 155,212,239 Ruff; Tibor Scientific Symposium : 90(14):343 Rufus of Ephesus (1st century AD), 36 Rutherford, S. Scientific Symposiwn: 85(50):319 Ryan, Terry, 246 Rycroft , Sir Benjamin W., 47, 73, 92r, 98r

IND

EX

O F NAMES

465


Sachs, Stephen A. Scientific Symposium : 89(66]:341 Sacks, Evan Scientific Symposium: 9 1[41):349 Sacks, M .E. Scientific Symposium : 83 (26]:307 Sadun, Alfred Scientific Symposium : 91(7] :347 Saint-Yves, Charles de ( 1667-1736), 13, 14,

Schimek, Rob ert A., 99,, 224 , 239, 243 Scientific Symposia: 70[13):259, 71(8):261, 72(20):264, 74(15):269, 75 (31):273, 78(19):282, 79(31]:286, 80(52):293, 8 I (8):294, 82(43]:301, 83(62]:309 Schmidt.Johann Adam (1759-1809), 14, 2911 Schmidt-Rimpler, Hermann (1838-1915), 21, 3311

51, 94,

Schmitt, Mich ael A. Scientific Symposium: 88(31):333 Schne ck, Gideon , 252 Schoenganh, Lowell, 245, 249 Scientific Symposium : 81 [37):296 Schulder, Michael Scientific Symposium : 91 (8):347 Schumann, Robert (1810- 1856), 2911 Schwartz, Ferdinand R . Scientific Symposium: 75(5):271 Schwartz, Gehart S. Scientific Symposium: 73(8):265 Schwarze, Fred, 253 Scott, Alan B. Combined Mee ting: 93(8) :396 Scientific Symposium : 83 (20):307 Scott, Kevin R . Scientific Symposium: 90(62):346 Scott, R obe rt, 7011 Scientific Symposium : 76( I 5) :274 Scott , William Combined Meeting : 80(6) :382 Seal, Jennifer M . Combined Meeting: 8 1(3):383 Searl, Steven Scott Scientific Symposia: 83(36):308 , 86(2):321,

Schachne, Lewis, 9u Schaefer, Arthur J., 13411,167, 188, 190- 192,

Segrest, David R .,

15

Sako!, P eter J., 224, 243, 251, 404 Scientific Symposia: 90(4]:342, 9 1(39,40):349

Salcedo, Guillermo, 224, 243 Scientific Symposium: 92(29) :354 Sarnesh.ima,Stephen, 249 Samuel, E ., So Sanchez, J.A., 91 r Sang, Chin Scientific Symposium: 83(8]:306 Sanke, Robert Scientific Symposium: 81 (67):298 Sanz, A.F., 91, Sanz, L.F., 91 r Saunders, David H ., 224, 240, 250, 399 Scientific Symposia: 77[5] :277, 78[9]:281, 79(49]:288, 80(47):292

Saunders.John Cunningham (1773- 18 10) , 31 Savar, David E ., 224, 240, 251 Scientific Symposium: 78(48):284 Savino, Peter Scientific Symposium: 88(64]:335 Scarpa, Antonio (1756- 1832), 16-17, 17, 39,

199,2 24,2 28,23 4,2 35, 236,238,2 40, 247,399 Scientific Symposia: 76[29):275, 78(13]:281, 82(3):299, 83(22) :307, 88 [1]:331, 88 (18):332, 88(35] :333, 89(11]:337 Schaefer, Daniel P ., 9", 126, 126 , 127 , 192, 224,229 ,2 42,250,348 Scientific Symposium : 88 (76):336 Scharf. Robert, 245, 248 Scheie, Harold Glendon (b. 1909), 7011,73 Schietroma, John J., 224, 242, 253 Scientific Symposia: 86(69]:325, 88(26) :332 191,

Schiller, Jeffrey Scientific Symposium : 91(43):350

466

IN D EX

OF

N A M ES

92(46):355 12 7,

13411,224,229 ,2 41,

249,358, 407

Scientific Symposia: 8 1[51):297, 83(42):308, 84( 53]:3 14

Seiff, Stuart R ., 162, 225,2 3 1, 242, 245, 248, 252, 354, 361, 195

Scientific Symposia: 85(52]:319, 88[37] :333, 89(21):338, 90(12):342, 91 (4):347, 93(44):361, 93(76):363 Serrano, Frederico, 247 Serre, Michel ( 1799-18 49), 32, 96r Servat, Javier, 54, 67, 68, 91,, 101r Sessions, Ro y B. Scientific Symposium: 72(7):263


Sewell, E.C., 60, 1oor Shagets, Frank W . Scientific Symposi a: 84(45] :314, 88(39]:333 Shah, Lopa Scientific Sympo sium : 90 [ 12):342 Shanidar I., 3 Shannon , Gerard M . (1924-1 98 1), 93r, 10 1r, 201, 212,239, 24 1,25 0 Combined Meetings : 79 (1):380, 81(9):383 Scientific Symposia: 71(25):262, 75[19):272, 77(5):277, 78(9):281, 78(5 I ):284, 79(9, l 1):285, 79(49):288, 80(26):291, 80(44):292, 80[53):293 Shapiro, Amiram , 249 Scientific Symposium: 83 (55):309 Shapiro , C. Scientific Symposium: 85(37):318 Shaver, R obert Scientific Symposi um : 86(64):325 Shayegan, Mustapha, 253 Sheehan, J. Eastman, 65, 1o 1r Sherman,Arthur , 16o Sherman, Deb orah D ., 225, 228, 243, 249, 405

Combined Meeting: 93(4):396 Scientific Symposia : 91 [ 11):347, 91 [48):J50, 92 [5 I ,56]:355 Shibata, Carl S., 225, 241, 248 Combined M eeting : 80(5):382 Shipman, Sara Scientific Symposium: 90(8):342 Shoch, David, 175 Shore.Jo hn W ., 109n, 126, 193,225 , 231, 237,241,251, 25~ 329 Co mbined Meetings : 89[1):392, 93[2):396 Scientific Symposia: 8 1(14):294, 82[17):300, 83(19):307, 83(47):308, 84(4 5):314, 85(23):3 17, 86[52]:324, 87[18]:327, 88(39):333, 89(51]:340, 90 (18):343, 90 (46):345, 91 (19):348, 92(1):352, 92[27,34):354 , 93(25):359, 93(69):363 Shorr, Norman, 225, 23 1, 240, 248, 252 Combine d Meetings: 80(5, 10):382, 83[17):385, 87[13):390 Scien tific Symposia: 76(36):276, 79(10):285, 80(19]:291, 81(47):297, 82(35]:301, 83[33]:307, 84[9):3 I I , 84[21]:312, 85[52):319, 86(10):32 1, 87(55):329, 88(24]:332, 88(68]:335, 89[19):338, 90(44):345, 91(27):348, 91(55):J50, 92(14):353, 93(23):359, 93(77):363 Shotton, Frank T ., 225, 241, 246

Shovlin , Joseph P., 249 Scientific Symposium: 93(4 1):361 Shulman, Elaine , 247 Shumrick , Kevin Scientific Symposium : 90(9):J42 Sichel, A.W ., 42, 97r Sichel.Jules {1802-1868) , 5, 32, 34, 39, 96r Siddens, John D . Scientific Symposium : 92(57):356 Siegel, Richard Scientific Symposium : 85[58):319 Silkiss, R ona Z ., 225, 227, 242, 248, 352, 399 Scientific Symposium : 88(21):332 Silva, Daniel , 225, 234, 239, 242 Scientific Symposia: 70(4):259, 70[30]:26o, 72[14):263 Silver, Bernd , 93r, 155,180,202,203,203, 205, 225, 235,239,247 Co mbin ed Meeting: 79(2):380 Scientific Symposia: 75[39]:273, 82[13):299 Silver, Harold Scientific Symposium : 71[ 13):26 1 Silver, Robert A., 225, 239 Silverber g, Jo seph D . Scientific Symposium : 79(13):285 Silverstone, Philip, 38, 91r, 247, 253 Scientific Symposium: 86[67):325 Simmons , Kenn eth B. Scientific Symposium : 91 [39]:349 Simont on . John T. , 9rr , 177, 202, 225, 240, 243, 246,253,370 , 372 Scientific Symposia: 7 1[4):261, 73(8):265, 75(24):272, 82(97):305 Simp son, Sir James Young (1811-1870), 41 Sims, Leslie, 249 Singer, David]., 225, 240 Sires, Bryan A. Scientific Symposia: 92[16):353, 93(19):359 Sisler, Hampson A., 225, 239, 246 Scientific Symposia: 72(27]:264, 73(28]:267, 78(21):282, 80(17):291, 81(9):294 , 82(57]:302, 83(27]:307, 86(39]:323 Sivak, Mark Scientific Symposium : 80(5 1):293 Slade, Clifton, 251 Slade, Step hen G., 185, 406 Scientific Sympo sium : 83(2, 13):306 Slavin , Andrew Scientific Symposium : 88(40):333 Slonim, Charles B. Scientific Symposia: 87(56):330, 88(27):332

I ND E X O F NAM

ES

467


Small, Robert G.,

109n, 134n, 200,225,231

,

239, 247

Combined Meetings: 80[11):382, 81(7):383 , 82(6) :384

Scientific Symposia: 72[25):264, 73(29):267, 75(15):272, 75(37) :273, 77(25) :278, 78(29):282, 79(22) :286, 80( 15):291, 81 [44]:297, 82[9]:299, 83 [25] :307, 84(29]:312 , 85[22]:3 17, 86(28):322, 86{64]:325, 88[19]:332, 89[5]:337, 90(61) :346 , 91(29):349, 91(48):350, 92(55) :355, 92[63) :356, 93(31]:360 Smith, Barry R. , 225, 243, 249 Scientific Symposium: 87 (32):328 Smith, Byron Capleese (1908-1990), 1, 70, 7011,71, 73, 77, 7g-81, 80, 81, 82, 83, 89, 91r, 93r, IOir, 102r, 106- 107, 133, 134, 134n, 140, 143, 144- 145, 147, 149, 151-152, 153,153, 155, 156, 160, 169 , 170,17 1, 201, 202,212 , 235,23 7 ,239,24 3, 245, 24~ 24~ 253,37~ 371,399 Combined Meeting : 79(14):38 0 Scientific Symposia: 70(1 6):259, 70(32):260, 71(23 ):262, 72(5,I0]:263, 74(5) :268, 74(36 ):270 , 75(12):27 1, 75(19):272, 75(36,39):273, 76(27):275, 76[39] :276, 77[9]:277, 78 (56):284 , 79[3]:285, 81(35):296, 82(45) :301, 82[88):304, 82(95) :305, 85(42]:3 18, 86(44):323, 87(23):327, 88[13]:332, 89(70):341, 90(21):343 Snead,John W ., 225,241,246,249 Scientific Symposium: 79 (4):285 Sneed, Peter , 250 Snellen, Herman (1834-J9 08), 38, 39, 40, 97r Snydacker, 5 Snyder, Charles , 92r, 94r Sobol, Steven Scientific Symposium: 84(29] :312 Sofinslci, Sandra J. Scientific Symposium : 86(45):323 Solecki, R alph S., 3, 93r Soll, David B., 93r, 111, 134n, 155, 167, 175, 178, 179, 202, 225, 234, 238, 239, 247, 253, 373, 380, 383, 385, 397, 399 Combined Meetings : 79[12] :380, 81(14):383, 83{10]:385 Scientific Symposia: 73 (20]:266, 74(24):27 0, 75(36):273, 75[39]:273, 76[6]:274, 77 [13):278, 77[47]:280, 78 [1]:281, 78{43,45):283, 79(14):28 5, 80(5):290, 81(70):298, 82(63):302, 83(39):308, 84(10]:3 I I, 86(20):322, 86(51):324, 88 (14):332, 90[30] :344

367,370,

468

l NOE X OF

NAMES

Soll, Stephen, 253 Soper, J oseph W ., 134n Southren, L. Scientific Symposium: 87[60]:33 0 Spaeth, Edmund B. ( 1890-19 76), I , 5, 47n, 48n, 64-66, 65, 66, 66n, 67, 70 n, 71, 72, 73 , 92r, 155, 161,17 1,21 2,239, 240 Spaeth, G.L., 101r Speakman, George , 246

Spector, Robert H . Combined Meeting: 86[9]:389 Spector, Scott Scientific Symposium: 87[37]:328 Spencer, W.G., 93r Spencer , William H . Combined Meeting: 78(7):379 Spinelli, Henry Scientific Symposium: 85(42):318 Spivey, Bruce , 134n, 192 Spoor , Thomas C., 225, 242 Scientific Symposia: 88(25):332, 89(2) :337, 89{44]:340, 90(10):342, 90(37):344, 91[10] :347, 93(61):362

Sprengnether, Michele Scientific Symposium: 86[54]:324 Sramek, Stephen J. Scientific Symposium: 91[11] :347 Stabile, John , 247 Stahl, Georg Ernest (1660-1734 ), 12, 94r Stallard, Hyla (H enry) Bristow (190 1- 1973), 47n, 73, 73 11, 74

Stallman, Paul T. Scientific Symposium : 93 (65]:362 Stanley, Charles F. Scientific Symposium: 93 (73) :363 Stasior, George 0., 225, 244, 249 Scientific Symposium: 91 (47]:350 Stasior, Orkan George, 70, 106-107, 109, 134n, 144-145, 149, 155, 157, 167 , 168, 169, 171, 188, 19 1,201,22 5,2 3 1, 233,237, 239, 246, 247,253,370, 372, 377, 385, 397, 399, 402, 405

Combined Meetings : 8 1 (8]:383, 82(8) :384, 89(11]:392

Scientific Symposia: 71(14):261, 72(15):263, 72 (16) :264, 73(22]:266, 74( 13]:268, 75 (39):273,76 (17]:275 , 76(39) :276, 77(18):278 , 79 (45) :287, 79(66):289, 80[16,27):291, 81(29]:296,82(24) :300 , 82(64):303, 83(3,15) :306, 83(18) :307, 85(2):316, 85(48):319, 87(3):326, 87(63):330, 88(57):335, 91(72):351, 93(32] :360


Stefano, Joseph A. Scientific Symposium: 80(3 1):292 Stefanyszyn, Mary A., 135n, 225, 242, 250 Combined Meeting: 92(5]:395 Scientific Symposia: 87[38):328, 88(79):336, 91 [57):350, 93[40):360 Stein, Harry L. Scientific Symposium: 84(36):313 Stein, Paul Scientific Symposium: 80(8):290 Steinkogler, F .J. Scientific Symposium: 92(23):353 Steinsapir, Kenneth , 253 Stem, Kathleen Scientific Symposium : 82[77):304 Stephenson, Charles M., 127,225,230,231, 236,240,245,248,334 Combined Meeting : 79[15):380 Scientific Symposia: 74(29):270 , 76(3):274, 79(47):287, 80[42):292, 82(30):300, 82(98):305, 83[61):309, 85(17]:317, 86(27):321, 88[55):334, 88(61):335, 92(72):357 Stephenson, Christopher B. , 226, 243, 246, 249, 322 Stewart, Larry, 253 Stewart, William B. , 93,, 109n, 134n, 135n, 193, 226, 235, 236, 240, 253, 299, 389 Combined Meetings : 78(8):379, 82(1):384, 85[10):388, 86 (5):389 Scientific Symposia: 77(11):277, 78(33):283, 80(5):290, 81[u]:294, 82(40):301, 83(1):306, 84[25):312, 85(28):317, 85(31):318, 86(60):325, 87(40):329, 88(60):335, 89(68):341, 90(71):346, 92(38):354, 93(37):360, 93(56):362 Stiles, William, 253 Stillman, Eric , 246 Stokes, J. Parker Scientific Symposium: 76[21):275 Stone, R. Scientific Symposium: 83 (56):309 Stormo-Gipson, Justin Scientific Symposium: 91 (70):351 Stout, Warren , 253 Stow, M. Noel, 70n, 140 Straatsma, Brad, 175 Stracher, Michael A. Scientific Symposium: 89(54):340 Streatfeild,John Fremlyn (1828-1886), 37, 37n, 38, 47, 96,, 97' Streatfield. See Streatfeild

Strecker, Richard Scientific Symposium: 86(40):323 Strickland, Samuel, 246 Sullivan, John H., 5, 104,, 109n, 132, 162, 226, 240, 245, 248, 249, 252, 399 Combined Meeting: 88[3):391 Scientific Symposia: 75(21,27):272, 91[40):349 Sullivan, Timothy Scientific Symposium: 92(75):357 Susruta, 7 Sutcliffe, R. Toby , 226, 241 , 248 Scientific Symposia: 83(21):307, 85(43) :318, 90(42):344 Sutula, Francis C., 109n, 124, 202 , 203, 22 6, 241,249,407 Scientific Symposia: 78(17):282, 79(24):286, 80(4):290, 80(37):292, 81 [46):297, 83(11):306, 84(13):311, 86[17):321, 91(26):348, 92(24):353, 92(42):355 Swann, Russell E . Scientific Symposium: 91 (58):350 Sym, William George , 56 Syracuse, Victor , 226, 240, 241 Szymanowski.Julius von (1829-1868), 27, 43-44, 45, 46, 95'

Tadras, Mak.ram A. Scientific Symposium: 73(31]:267 Tagliacozzi, Gaspare (1545-1599), 5, 10-11, 11, 14, 21, 94' Taira, James Scientific Symposium: 89[22):338 Tanenbaum, Myron, 226, 229, 230, 242, 252, 400 Scientific Symposia: 87(4):326, 87(14):327, 90(70):346 Tansley , J.O., 50, 51 Tardy, M . Eugene , Jr. Scientific Symposia: 80(28):291, 88[9]:331 Tasman , William, 192 Taylor, Carol L. Scientific Symposium: 91(3):347 Taylor, Jack, 175 Teimourian,Bahman Scientific Symposium: 90 (51):345 Tennant, Gerald L., 240, 242 Scientific Symposium: 74(35):270 Tenon,Jacques Rene (1724-1816), 21, 36 Teazel, David, 253

INDEX

OF

NAMES

4 69


Tenzel, Richard R. , 5, 110, 134rz, 146, 153, 155, 167, 172-173, 173, 174, 175, 178, 201, 226, 233,23 4,237 ,239, 243, 247, 253, 262, 281, 366,367 , 370, 372, 384, 397, 399, 402, 405 Combined Meetings: 79(19):38 1, 81[10):383, 83(19):386, 87(8):390 Scientific Symposia: 71 [24):262, 72(12):263, 73(4):265, 73(14):266, 74[33]:270, 75[ I ,4]:27 l ,7 5[28):272, 7 5[33,36] :273, 76(5]:274, 76(26,31]:275, 76(37,39]:276, 77(n]:277 , 77(36,37):279, 78[16]:282, 78[33]:283, 79(63):289, 81[28]:295, 81(36):296, 82[33):30 1,82[68]:303, 84[27):312, 85(41):318, 86(69):325, 87[27]:327, 88(23 ,26]:332, 89[43]:339,89 [69]:341, 90(48):345 Terezakis , Nia K. Scientific Symposium: 89(42):339 Terrero , Angel, 246 Terson , Alfred (1838-192 5), 44 Tessier, Paul, 3, 54, 67, 89, 93r, 99r Thalacker , Jill A . Combined Meeting: 80(6):382 Thaller, V.T., 36, 91r Thiersch, Carl (1822-1895) , 42, 43, 97 r Thomas , 0. Scientific Symposium : 8 1[46) :297 Thomas, Robert A., I 34rz Thompson, G.A. Combined Meeting : 79(8]:380 Thomson , William (1833-1907), 42, 97r Thygeson , Phillips , 160 Tibble, Dennis, 254 Tiedeken, Patrick, 254 Tobin, Daniel R . Scientific Symposium : 84(41):313 Tomsak, Robert L. Combined Meeting: 83[12):385 Toth , Bryant A. Combined Meeting: 86(5]:389 Scientific Symposia: 85(31):318, 86(60):325, 87[40]:329, 90(71):346 Toti, Addeo (1861-?), 56, 99r Toti, M.A ., 99r Townsend , Daniel]. , 226 , 228, 243, 249 Scientific Symposia: 92(32]:354, 93(5):358 Travers , Benjamin ( 1783-1 858), 31 Tripier , Leon (1842-1891), 5 Trobe , Jonathan D . Combined Meetings: 81 [5]:383, 86[1]:389

470

INDEX

OF

NAM ES

Troke! , Stephen L. Combined Meeting : 78[3]:379 Scientific Symposium: 71 [15]:262 Troutman, Richard C. (b.1922), 7orz, 77, 102r Tse , David T. , 226, 232, 241, 248, 254 Combined Meeting : 90[3] :393 Scientific Symposia: 82[5]:299, 83[28,32]:307, 83(50]:309, 85[13]:316, 89[9]:337, 90[62]:346, 91 (42]:350 Tso, M. Scientific Symposium : 83 [55]:309 Tucker, Nancy Scientific Symposium : 93 [12]:358 Tucker, Susan M. Scientific Symposium : 93 [11]:J58, 93 [73]:363 Turo ck, David, 253 T yers, Tony , 249

Ubels , John Combined Meeting : 85(7):388 Uhde , C.W.F., 43-44 Urist, Martin J. Scientific Symposia: 71[7]:261, 73(11]:265, 74[2]:268 Urso , Richard, 254

Vail, Derri ck T ., Jr. (1898-19 73), 76, 79 Valauiri , A.J., 94r Valvassori, Galdino R . Combined Meetin g: 78[2]:379 van den Akker, H .P. Scientific Symposium: 82(94):305 Van Gemert,John V ., 190-191, 196,2 26, 228,233,2 42 Scientific Symposia: 81[14]:294, 86[9]:32 1 Van Putt en, Douglas J. Scientific Symposium: 91 [13]:348 Van Rens, Erik Scientific Symposium: 91 [3]:347 Vannini, Angelo Scientific Symposium: 82[27]:300 Vasquez , Rob erto J. Scientifi c Symposia: 87(33]:328, 89(4):337 Vastine, David Scientific Sympo sium: 82 (40]:301 Veirs, Evere tt R . (b. 1908), 84, 86, 103r, 137r, 226, 241, 302 Scientific Symposium: 80(59) :293


Veith, I., 92r Veloudios, Angela , 226, 243, 251 Velpeau, Alfred Armand Louis Marie (17951867), 3, 32, 93r Verhoeff, Frederick H . (1874-1968), 54 Vesalius, Andreas (1514-1564), Sn Vestal, Ken neth P., 226, 243, 246, 249 Victor, W. Scientific Symposi um : 84( 11):311 Vincentiis de , Car lo. See de Vincentiis, Carlo Vistnes, Lars M., 226, 240 Scientific Symposia: 76(14):274, 77(21):278, 78(45):283 von Ammon, Friedri ch Au gust (1797-1869), 2, I 511 , 25, 28-29 , 29, 2911,JO, J l, 62, 95T, 13211 von Arlt . See Arlt, Carl Ferdinand vo n von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. See Goe the, Jo hann Wolfgang von von Graefe, Albr echt (1828-1870), 39-40, 4On, 5 1, 54, 97r vo n Graefe, Carl Ferdinand (1787-1840) , 2, I 5n, 21, 23, 24, 24, 25, 28, 2911 , 3 I , 38-39, 62, 6611,93r, 95r Von Haugwitz, T. , 92r vo n H ess, Carl. See H ess, Carl von vo n Langenbeck, Bernhard Rudolph Co nrad . See Langenbeck , Bernhard Rudolp h Co nrad von Szymanowski, Juliu s. See Szymanowski, Juliu s von von Walther, Philipp Franz (1782-18 49), 15n, 24, 25, 26, 29n, 95, von Wolfring. See Wolfring, Emilj F. von

Wadsworth, D .F.(1838- 1911), 42, 97r Wadsworth, J.A.C., 55, 6911,78 Wagenrnann, Au gust, 86 Waggoner , Perry, 250 Wagner, David V. Scientific Symposium : 91 (25):348 Walker, Rebecca S. Scientific Symposium : 92[9):352 Waller, Rob ert R ., 13511,183, 194,226, 235, 240,245,248,249,374,399,404 Combined Meetings: 80[12]:382, 84[6]:387, 88(8):391, 89(12):392 Scientific Symposia: 77(24):278, 77(39):279, 78(42):283, 79(62):288, 8 I (23):295, 83(14):306, 83(38):308, 85(62):320, 86(6):321

Wallow, IngolfH.L. Scientific Symposia: 87(31):328, 9 1(47):J50 Walsh, Patrick R. Scientific Symposium: 92(40):354 Walsh , Theodore E ., 62, 1oor Walter, William L., 10911,226, 240, 335 Scientific Symposia: 77(17]:278, 81(3):294, 89(64):341, 90(65):346, 93[3]:358 Walther, Philipp Franz von. See von Walther, Philipp Franz Waltz, Kevin L. Scientific Symposium: 92 (57):356 Warren, Cla ude, III , 253 Warren.John Co llins (1778-1856), 19, 22, 41, 94, Warren, J onathan Mason (181 1-1867), 25, 35, 42 Wayenbo rgh,J.P., 92r Webb, Nancy R. Scientific Symposium: 79(35):287 Weber, Paul Scientific Symposia: 87(60]:330, 90(38]:344 Web ster, J.P. , 94r Webster , Richard C. Scientific Symposium: 79 (51]:288 Wecker. See de Wecke r, Louis Weeks, Webb, 64 Weiner, Mark H ., 249 Scientific Symposium: 93 (43]:361 Weingarten, C harles Z. Scientific Symposium: 85(15]:316 Weinstein, Gary S., 127 , 226, 228, 229, 242, 248 Scienti fic Symposia: 83(28):307, 84(19):3 12, 91(52):350 Weins tein, Joel Scientific Symposium : 86(56):324 Weinstein, Meredith A. Comb ined Meetin g: 83(12):385 Scient ific Symposium : 80(7):290 Weinstock , S.Joseph, 226,241,247,251 Weise , Ri chard A., 25 1 Scientific Symposia: 85(50]:3 19, 86(68]:325 Weiss, Robert A., 226, 244, 252 Welham, Ri chard A.N., 399 Combined Meeting : 92(3):395 Scient ific Symposia: 82(60):302, 83(5):306, 85[5I,53] :319, 88(72):336, 91 [62]:351, 92(73,75):357 Wells, H orace, 40

INDEX

OF

NAMES

471


Welsh, Michael G., 226, 242, 251 Combined Meeting: 92(2):395 Scientific Symposia: 86(61]:325, 88(70):335 Werb, Abraham, 91r Scientific Symposium: 84(32):3 1J Wesley, Ralph E., 128, 192, 199, 204, 226, 228, 231,236,237,241 , 251,254,328,331, 337 Combined Meeting: 90[6]:393 Scientific Symposia: 79(42):287, 81[38]:296, 83[10]:306, 83[37]:308, 84(46):314, 89(1):337, 89(29):338, 92[28]:354 Wesson, Bru ce, 107n, 108 West, J.M., 57, 58, 99r Westfall, Christopher T. Scientific Symposia: 90(46):345, 92(8]:352 Weston, J.M. Scientific Symposium: 83(39):308 Wheeler,John Martin (1879-1938), 31, 6264, 63, 64, 65, 67, 70, 71--72, 73, 79, 8 I, !OOr, IO!r, !JI, 139-140, 151, 161,167,201 Wherry, William, 139 Whitacre, Marc M. Scientific Symposium: 93 [59):362 Whitaker, Linton A., 227, 242 Scientific Symposia: 79[ 15]:285, 84(33] :3 13, 84(58):315, 86(61):325 White , Robert.Jr. , 250 White, William L., 227, 243, 251 Whitnall, Samuel Ernest (1876-1950), 21, 35n, 60, 61' lOOr Whinen, Richard, 245, 249 Wies, Frederick A., 66-67; 70, wrr Wiggs , Eugene 0., w9n, 183,2 27,235,240, 247 Scientific Symposia: 73(30):267, 75[22]:272, 77[30):279, 78(49):284, 80(24]:291, 81(22):295, 81(63):298, 82(26,29):300,84[ 16):312 Wilder, Lowell W., 240,242,247 Wilder, William Hamlin (1869-1935), 49, 51, 98r, 139 Wilke, W .S. Scientific Symposium: 88[31]:333 Wilkes, G. Scientific Symposium: 85(50):319 Wilkes, T. David I., ru, 120-123, 196, 198, 227,241,250,399 Combined Meetings: 87(14):390, 89(3):392 Scientific Symposia: 82(8):299, 82(54):302, 85(47,50]:319, 88(12):332

472

INDEX

O F NAMES

Wilkins, Robert B., 75, 81, 102r, 106-107, 109, 110, 134n, 143, 144, 145, 146, 146n, 149, 151, 155, 157, 167, 170, 171-172, 172, 179, 201,227,231,233,234,237,239,246,247, 254, 312, 366, 367, 370, 372, 399 Combined Meetings: 78(16):379, 81[6]:383, 82(3):384, 87(12):390, 89[5]:392 Scientific Symposia: 70(9):259, 70[29]:260, 73(35):267,74(1, 10):268, 74[30]:270, 75(23]:272,75(37):273, 76[2]:274, 77[51]:280, 79(64):289, 80(18,20):291, 80(49):293, 81(66):298, 82[37]:301, 82(50):302, 83(31):307, 84(18,22]:312, 84(31):313, 85[36]:318, 88(75):336,89(47]:340, 90(41):344 Wilson, Martha C., 227, 243, 248 Wilson, W.A., 103r Winegar, Bradford C. Scientific Symposium: 89[61]:341 Winograd, Lawrence, 183 Wirtscbafter,Jonathan D., 84, 103r Wise.James P . Scientific Symposium: 79(54):288 Wobig.John L., 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 103r, 134n, 163, r67, 180-181, 181,185 ,201,2 05,227, 230,234,235,238 ,2 40,254,372,392 ,399 , 402, 405 Combined Meetings: 81[11 ):383, 83(9):385, 85(7):388, 87[3]:390, 88[1]:391 Scientific Symposia: 73(26):267, 74[6]:268, 75[14]:271, 76(28):275, 77[7]:277, 77[33]:279, 78(31):282, 79(52,61):288, 80[1]:290, 80(21):291, 80(57):293, 81(7]:294, 82(65):303,83[72]:310, 86[19]:J22, 90[22]:343, 92[70]:356, 93[72]:363 Wojno , Ted H., 227, 241, 253 , 378 Scientific Symposia: 84(20]:3 12, 85(41]:318, 86(41]:323, 91(34):349, 93[4] :358 Wolfe, John Reissberg (1824-1904), 42, 44, 47n, 97' Wolff, Hugo, 49, 51, 98r Wol.fley, Darr-:11E., 227, 231, 232, 241, 254, 399

Combined Meetings: 86(4):389, 88[5]:391 Scientific Symposia: 81[63]:298, 92[20]:353 Wolfring, Emilj F. von (1832-1906), 21 Wolincz, Arthur Scientific Symposium: 74(5]:268 Wong, Brian, 254 Wong, Peter, 250 Wong, Randall V. Scientific Symposium: 91 [36):349


Wood, Casey A. (1856--1942), 8n, 94r Wood, Irmgard Scientific Symposium: 78(5):281 Wood,John R. Combined Meeting: 79(5):380 Wood-Smith, Donald, 106, 143, 144, 146 Scientific Symposia: 72(11]:263, 73(32):267, 82(95):305 Woog, John)., 200, 227, 228, 233, 242, 249, 250, 358, 406 Combined Meeting: 92(7):395 Scientific Symposia: 85(ro):316, 86(34,35):323, 91 (68):35 I, 92(66):356 Woolhouse, Thomas (c.165o-c.1730), 13 Workman, Charles, 134n Worth, Claud ( 1869-1936), 64 Wright.John E., 74, 135n, 227,240,243,370, 373,399

Combined Meeting: 82(10):384 Scientific Symposia: 73 [ 18):266, 76(18,25):275, 76(39):276, 81(56):297, 82(80):304, 82( 104):305,83 (59]:309, 87(30):328, 92(43):355 Wright, Martha M . Scientific Symposium : 88(66):335 Wright, Walter W. (1882-1967) , 52, 53, 98r Wu.James Scientific Symposium : 91 (44):350 Wulc, Allan E. , 227, 242, 250, 257, 353, 399,

Yilsnaz, Eyrup, 246 Y ohai, Robert A. Scientific Symposium: 92(21):353 York , Albert T., 245, 248 Scientific Symposium: 72(18):264 Younge , Brian R. Combined Me eting: 80(12):382

Zacarian, Secrag A. Scientific Symposium: 75(25):272, 75(36):273 Zale, Douglas Scientific Symposium: 90(17):343 Zarem, Harve y Scientific Symposium: 76(9) :274, 76(30):275 Zeis, Edward ( 1807-1 868), 2, 3, Ir , 21 , 23, 28, 31-32, 32, 33, 41, 92r, 95r Ziffer, Ann Scientific Symposium: 86(24):322 Zimmerman, L.M ., 92r Zimmerman, Lor enz E., 97r, 375 Combined Meetings: 84(3,5]:387, 9 1(9):394 Scientific Symposium: 91 (36):349 Zins, Jame s E. Combined Meeting: 86(6):389 Zolli, Christine L., 240, 243, 250, 340 Zubero, Jose, 246

4o4

Scientific Symposia: 85(9]:3 16, 86(16, 17):321, 89(20):338, 89(53):340, 90(38):344, 91 (37):349, 93(53):361, 93(55):362

Yaeger, Daniel C ., 134n Yanes, Basel Scientific Symposium: 84(8]:31 1 Yannis , Rex A., 227, 244, 254 Yanoff, Myron Combined Meeting: 85(2):388 Yaremchuck, Michael Scientific Symposium: 90(18):343 Yassin, John G., 227, 240, 247, 250 Yavitz, Edward, 246, 249 Yeates, R. Patrick, 227, 230, 243, 249 Combined Meeting : 84(6):387 Scientific Symposia: 91 (3]:347, 92(45):355, 93(14):359 Yee, Shawyin Scientific Symposium: 93 (46):361

INDEX

OF

NAMES

473


INDEX OF SUBJECTS [Note : In this index page numbers in italic type refer to figures or tables. Footnotes are indicated by n, as in 133n. Pap ers presented at the ASOPRS annual Scientific Symposia are indicated as such: Scientific Symposium / Symposia : 93[65]:362, where 93 is the year the meeting was held, [65] is paper number 65 on the program agenda, and :362 is the page number in the text where the complete reference is located . Presentations at the combined meetings of the ASOPRS and the American Academy of Ophthalmology are listed in a similar manner under the subheading, Combined M eeting(s).]

AAFPRS. See American Society of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery AAO . See American Academy of Ophthalmology AAO Councillors. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and R econstructive Surgery AAO Instru ction Course Cornrruttee . See Am erican Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Re cons tructive Surgery AAO Joint Program Committee . See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Re constructive Surgery AAO Re search Regulatory Agencies and Federal Systems Cornrruttee . See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. AAOO . See Ameri can Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Ablation of the socket surgical techniques 47. Sec also Orbital diseases and surgery ABMS. See American Board of Medi cal Subspecialties ABO . See American Board of Ophthalmology Accreditation Co un cil for Continuing Medical Education 196, 204, 417 Accreditati on Council for Graduate Medical Education 129, 130, 194, 201 Acquired autoimmune deficiency syndrom e (AIDS) . See alsoHum an immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Scientific Symposium: 92[38):354 ACS . See American College of Surgeons

A.D. Ruedemann Lecture 77, 134, 134n Adva,ices i,1 OphthalmicPlastic and Reconstructive S1Jrgery (journal) 81, 133, 135n 136 Advisors. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Aesculapius Publishing Company 83, 89 Aesthetic PlasticSurgery(journal) 131 Ahwahnee Hotel, Yosemite Valley, Californ ia 194,365

Aladdin Hotel, Las Vegas, NV 175, 258, 274 AMA. See American Medi cal Association Amblyopia Scientific Symposium : 86 [24):322 Ambulatory surgery Scientific Symposium : 85 (64):32 0 Amelia Island Plantation, FL 365 Ameri can Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS ) 106, 131, 132, 144, 156

Ameri can Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO ) 81, 105, III, 124,125,126,133,134

,

135,144,152 , 157, 165, 168, 172, 186, 192, 193, 197, 198, 199, 255 Council and Councillors 124, 124n, 129, 129n, 184

Instru ction Program 199 Program Advisory Committee 192 Recertification Cornrruttee 179 Split from otolaryngology 79 American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology 71, 76 , 83, 84, 107, 108, 109, IIO, 111,139 , 144,145,149, 151, 155, 156, 157,161,169,178. SeealsoAmerican

Academy of Ophthalmology

INDEX

OF

SUBJECTS

47 5


Committee on Reconstructive Plastic Surgery 70, 84, 107, 111, 155, 156, 369, 377, 397

instructional courses and manuals 55, 64, 70, 72, 76, 84, 86

Ophthalmology Division Long-Range Planning Conference 175 American Academy ofOtolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 1 56 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 129 American Association of Ophthalmic Pathologists r 29n American Association of Oral and Plastic Surgeons I 3 I American Association of Plastic Surgeons 13 1 American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) 129 American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) 129, 165, 193, 194, 204 American Board of Plastic Surgery 72, 131 American Board of Surgery 72 American College of Surgeons (ACS) 128, 179, 193, 209

American Glaucoma Society 129n Americanjournal of Ophtlia/1110/ogy 47, 86, 132 American Medical Association (AMA) 125, 125n, 131, 186,193,201

Residency Review Committee 201 American Ophthalmological Society 49, 54, 55, 57, 70

American Osteopathic Colleges of Ophthalmology 129n American Ptosis Society 55, 56, 86 American Society of Anesthesiologists 41 American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery 129n American Society of Ocularists (ASO) 76, 133, 133n, 134, 134n, 135n American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) 2311, 79, 89, !05-13 I, 145, 147, 149, l 50, 156, 157, 161, 167-209, 211,233, 255-256, 369, 375376, 409-440 AAO Councillors 227, 43 r AAO Instructi on Course Committee 227, 377

AAO Joint Program Committee 227, 377 AAO Re search, Regulatory Agencies and Federal Systems Committee 227 Ad Ho c Committee on Fellowship Training 187, 188, 201, 202

476

IND EX

OF

SUBJECTS

Ad Ho c Committee on Membership Requirements 184 Ad Hoc Committe on Third Party Reimbursement 125 Advisors 56, 79, 107, 135,237,420 Advisory Board 157, 168, 187, 194, 420 American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) formal role within I 11, 124, 126, 129, 179, 185, 192

Annual Scientific Symposia 83, 84, 106, 107,124,126,

lJ2,

145,401

Archives Committee 158n, 228, 423 Articles oflncorporation I ro awards 132, 401-407, 424, 427 Awards Committee 228, 401, 424 Awards of Appreciation 40 1 Budget Committee 228 bylaws 107, no, 145, 149, 170, 174, 176, 181, 190, 191, 194, 195,196,204, 2ll , 273, 409-430 Bylaws Committee I 30, r 81, 228, 422 Charter Fellows 55, 56, 66, 79, 107, 130, 172, 2 11-2 27, 238, 410

Combined Committee for Society Affairs 192

Combined Meetings with the American Academy of Ophthalmology no, 111, r 24, 369,377,396

Committee Roster (1994) 227-232 Continuing Education Comm ittee 180, 201, 202, 205

continuing medical education (CME) 126 CPT / Third Party Relations Committee 127, 199, 208, 228

Credentials and Thesis Committee . See The sis Committee Directory Committee 196, 228, 423 Education Committee 126, 127, r 30 , 1 So, r85, 186, 190, 191, 193, 195, 196, 201-205, 207, 229, 421 Edu cational Policy Survery 205 Educational Program Manual 248, 432, 440 Ethics Committee 194, 229, 42 3

205,

Executive Board. See Executive Commit tee Executive Committee 110n , 112 , 126, 128, 146, 171,172,177, 178, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 191, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198,201,202,204,208,419 Exhibit 378, 378, 399-400

1 28,


Exhibit Committee 178, 179,181,229, 399-400, 423 Fellows 211-227, 410 fellowship programs 172, 182, 185, 187, 200 founding and early development 79, 8 I, 89, 105-111, IJ9, 141, 143-147 , 149-150, 151152, 153, 157, 161, 165, 168, 172,207 Founding Fellows 81, 105, 106, 130, 239, 410 Governmental Relations Committee 229 Guest Lecturer Award 401 Honorary Fellows l JO, t J 2, 227, 411

incorporation 1 1o informational brochure 111,

112-123,

179,

186, 188, 196

instructional courses at the MO Annual Me etings 397-399 International Fellow 109, 130 international involvement 168 International Meeting 180 International Meeting Committee 180 Journal Committee 229-23 r, 422 Life Fellows 55, 130-131, 211-226, 410 logo 107, 107n, 108, 198 Long-Range Planning Committee 187, 195, 197, 208, 230

Managed Care Committee 199, 230 Membership 41 I bylaws criteria 409-41 J chronology 238-244 roster ( 1994) 212-227 Nominating Committee 174, 175, 180, 195, 230, 420

Officer Procedure Manual i78 officers 81, 107, 233-237, 245, 255, 365, 369,377,4 0 1,409 , 413-419,431

Placement Committee . See Practice Opportunity Committee Practice Opportunity Committee 125, 200, 230

Preceptor Committee 191 , 204, 2 J 0-2 J 1, 422

Preceptors and Their Fellows 245-254 President Award 40 1 Program Advisory Commi ttee 183 Program Committee 180,204,231,420 Public lnformation Committee 198, 208, 231, 424

Recertification Committee r 82 Research Award 179,185,191,401,

40 5-

406, 406

Research Committee 179, I So Rules and Regulations 248, 429 , 43 1-440 Scientific Symposia 108, 109, 124, 146, 157, 158, 167, 172, 174, 175, 177,180,182, 183, 185, 186, 189, 192, 194, 196,197,198 , 199,201,202,204,208 socio-economic activism 173, 189, 192, 197 Special Committees 425 spring meetings 110,136,146,153,167, 170, 173, 175, 176, 180, 181, 183, 184, 186, 187, 190, 192, 194, 196, 197, 199, 204, 208, 365-367 thesis 108, 109, !Io, 124, 161, 168, 172, 178,207,255, 411-412 , 427 , 437-43 8 Thesis and Credentials Committee 108 Thesis Committee 109, 109n, 130, 161, 180,192,200,204,231,421

Third Party Reimbursement Committee 186, 196, 197

Twenty-fifth Year Anniversary Book Committee 231-232 Wendell Hughes Lecrure Committee 232, 424

Anaheim Marriott Hotel, Anaheim , CA 347 Anatomy brow Scientific Symposium: 92[3] :3 52 comparative Scientific Symposia: 78(3):281, 84(42):313, 90[7]:342 dissection 6 eyelid 18, J 1, J 5, 60, 86, 88 Combined Meetings: 87(3):398, 90[8]:393 Scientific Symposia: 86[ 16] :321; 87(3):326, 87(17):327, 87 (25):327, 88(2]:331, 89(50):340, 90(6):342 , 90 (22):343, 90(62):346, 91(47):350, 9r(48]:350, 92(3):352, 93(11):358, 93(12):358, 93(34):360

lacrimal system Combined Meeting: 89[1]:392 nose Combined Me eting: 78[6):379 Scientific Symposia: 71[6]:261, 82(72) :303 orbit 9, 18,

21,

40n, 60, 84, 86

Public Relations Committee. See Public Information Committee Publications Committee 132, 1So

INDEX

Of

SUBJECTS

4 77


Scientific Symposia: 82[73] :303, 84[42] :3 13, 87[3]:326, 87[3 1]:328, 90[7]:342, 90[22]:343, 92[51]:355 sinuses Scientific Symposium : 88 (73]:336 An cient civilizations, ophthalmic plastic surgery in 3-8 Babylon 3 Egypt 4 Greece 4 Hellenic period 6 India 7 Roman Empire 4-5 Ancient Indian method. See Grafts, skin or composite (for nasal reconstru ction) Ane sthesia general 19, 40, 41, 4m , 47 Scientific Symposia: 74( 14]:269, 84(6] :3 ll, 88[2]:331 local 41 , 57, 58 Combined Meeting: 87(4):398 Scientific Symposia: 77(29) :279, 82[11]:299, 86[8] :321, 89[4]:337, 93(16]:359 Animism 12 Anna/es d'Ocu/istique Uoumal) 36 Annals of Plastic SurgeryUoumal) 86 Anophthalmic socket 62, 65, 73, 77, 78, 82, 83, 86 Combined Me etings: 81(14):383, 90(5):393, 93( 1-3]:396 Scientific Symposia: 72(2]:263 , 73[20]:266, 74(32):270, 75[18]:272, 76( 14-1 5]:274 , 76( 16-17):275, 77[17]:278, 77[21]:278, 78(39):283, 80[5]:290, 80(44):292, 81(46):297, 83(39-42] :308, 85(40-41):31 8, :85[43]:3r 8, 86(5 1]:324, 87(31-33 ] :328, 87(35):328, 88 (41-43]:333 . 88(44):334, 89(26):338, 89(39) :39, 89(45-46] :340, 90(17):343, 9 1 [1415]:348, 92 [11-12 ] :352, 92(13- 18):353, 93(17):359 Antibioti cs Scientific Symposium: 92(8):352 Antisepsis 41 Antoine's Restaurant , New Orleans , LA 369 Archives Committee. See American Society of Opthalmi c Plastic and Re constructive Surgery Ard1ives ofOplit/Ja/mology Uoumal) 86, 132

Ard1ivesofOtolary11g ology-Head a11dNeck SurgeryUoumal) 13 1 Argus Uoumal) 193

47 8

INDEX

O F SUB JE CTS

Arion prosthesis Scientific Symposia: 73(32):267, 77(47):280, 90(63--04):346 AR VO. See Association for Re search in Vision and Ophthalmology ASO. See American Society of Ocularists ASOPRS . See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Re constructive Surgery ASPRS. See Ameri can Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO ) 178 Association of University Profe ssors in Ophthalmol ogy 129 Association of Veterans Affairs Ophthalmologists 129n AUPO . See Association of Uni versity Professors in Ophthalmo logy Awards Committee. See Ameri can Society of Ophthalmi c Plastic and Reconstru ctive Surgery

Basal cell carcinoma 15, 17, 18, 42, 43. See also Eyelid tumors metastasis Scientific Symposium : 84(10):311 Basal cell nevus syndrome Scientific Symposium: 83(50):309 Bellevue Hospital, New York. See Hospitals and clinics, general Bell's phenomenon Scientific Symposia: 73(8):265, 74(7):268 Bibliotli~queOplita/1110/ogique Uoumal) 29 Bibliotliekfur Oplitlia/1110/ogie Uoumal ) 29 Blepharochalasis 32 Combined Meeting: 88(n) :399 Scientific Symposium: 86(15):321 Blepharophimosis . See Congenital anomalies Blepharopigmentation . See Tatt oo, eyelid Blepharoplasty 2, 5 complications Combined Meetings: 82(3-']l:3 84 , 87(9):398, 87(13- 14):398 Scientific Symposia: 70(8]:259,70(24):260, 75(6--10):27 1, 79(27) :286, 82(36):30 1, 83(33):307, 83(34):308, 85(62):320, 86(14):321, 90(4449):345 , 91(43):350, 91(53) :350 definition 2, 3, 25 preoperative evaluation


Combined Meeting: 87[1]:398 Scientific Symposia: 89(67):341, 90(24):343, 90(73):3 46 techniques 8, 9, ro, 35, 57, 58 Combined Meetings: 83(15- 17):385, 83(18-20) :386, 87 [1-14) :398 Scientific Symposia: 71(8---9):261, 71[1213):261, 73(37 ):267 , 74(18):269, 75(2-5):271, 75[10):271, 76[30]:275, 77(25):278, 79(6465):289, 80(15):291, 81[8]:294, 82(3435]:301, 83(25]:307, 83(69]:310, 85(2627):3 17, 85(58-59 ):319, 85[6Cr61]:320, 86[2]:321, 86(13):321, 89(31):339, 89(34):339, 90[21]:J43, 91(25-27):348, 91(28-30):349, 91 (36]:349, 91 [38-41 ]:349, 91(42-43):350, 91(52):350, 92[52):355, 93[76-77):J63 Blepharoplasty Society 133n Blepharopoeisis. See Blepharoplasty, definition Blepharoptosis 1 A-frame operation Scientific Symposium : 79[22]:286 amblyopia Combined Meeting: 88[7]:399 complications of surgery 5 1 Scientific Symposia: 70(17):260, 70(19):260, 70(22):260, 79(28):286, 79[32]:286, 80[50]:293, 83[31]:307, 85[18):3 r7, 85(21]:317, 90(60):346 contralateral ("Hering's phenomenon") Scientific Symposium: 80(50):293 electromyography Scientific Symposium : 80(51):293 frontalis sling (suspension) 49, 50, 50, 51, 52, 53,87 Combined Meeting: 88[2):399 Scientific Symposia: 72(21):264, 75(29):272, 76[35]:276, 77[26]:278, 79[20):286, 80(54) :293, 81[u]:294, 81(13):294, 82(12-13):299, 82(15):300, 84(3):31 I, 86(70):325, 87(7-8]:326, 88(52):334, 89[2]:337, 89[12]:337, 90(53):345, 90(55-56):345, 91 [5 I ):3 50, 92(27-28]:354, 93(75):J63 levator or aponeurosis repair 36, 38, 39, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 55, 56, 84, 86, 89, I 34 Combined Meetings: 83[2]:385, 87[ I I ]:398, 88[ I] :399,88(3-4] :399

Scientific Symposia: 72[20]:264, 73[1113):265, 74(3-4):268, 75(30):273 , 77(3337):279, 78[19]:282, 79[23):286, 79[26]:286, 79(62):288, 80(56):293, 81(8-10):294, 82[11]:299, 82(14):299, 82(16):300, 85(1920):317, 85[22]:317, 87[5-<i]:326, 88(54):334, 89[33]:339, 90[59]:346, 91[49]:J50, 92[7]:352, 92[57-58):356 lower eyelid Scientific Symposium: 71 [19-20):262 Marcus Gunn jaw-winking 87 Scientific Symposia: 80[54]:293, 82(1819):300 miscellaneous I 5, 57 Combined Meetings:88[1- rn]:399, 90[8]:393, 93[9]:396 Scientific Symposia: 70[11]:259, 70[14]:259, 70[18]:260, 70(20--24):260, 72[30):264, 74[5]:268, 79(18-26]:286 , 80[52]:293, 81[15]:294, 82[17):300, 83[70]:310, 86[25]:322, 86[27]:322 , 87(910):326, 87(49):329, 88[3]:33 I, 88 [5-<i]:33 I , 88(55]:334, 91 [50]:350, 89(5]:337 , 89(8):337, 89(32):39, 90(22):343, 90(57-58):345 , 92(2) :352, 92[4-5):342, 93[75]:363 Muller's muscle resection Scientific Symposia: 74[2]:268, 77[32]:279, 78(20):282 orbicularis excision 40, 51 orbicularis resection 66 periosteal flap suspension Scientific Symposium: 93 [75):363 pseudoptosis Combined Meeting: 88(6):399 Scientific Symposium: 79[24] :286 skin excision 19, 50, 51 skin excision or destruction 5, 8, 9, 16 superior rectus techniques 51, 51 Scientific Symposium: 75[31]:273 tarsectomy 51, 51, 52, 54, 67, 68, 87 Scientific Symposia: 70[13):259, 70(19):260, 73[10]:265, 76(36):276, 77[30-31):279, 77(35]:279, 78(22):282, 80(53):293, 81[12]:294, 85(17):317, 88(4):331 traumatic 49, 54 Combined Meeting: 88(5):399 Scientific Symposia: 75[32]:273, 93[15]:359 visual field deficit and Scientific Symposia: 87[9]:326, 90[24]:343 Whitnall's ligament suspension

INDEX

OF

SUBJECTS

479


Scientific Symposia: 86(26]:322, 88(53):33 4, 90(54):345 Blepharospasm borulinum toxin injection. See Botulinum toxin surgery Combined Meetings: 85(8]:388, 93(78):396 Scientific Symposia: 70(15]:259, 73(3436]:267, 80(23]:291, 80(55):293, 82(38):30 1, 83 (19-20]:3 07, 84(18-19]:312, 85[15):316, 89(18]:338, 93(58):362 Borulinum toxin 84(2c:r-23]:312, 85(16]:317, 87[ 15):327, 89[21]:338, 89(24]:338, 93[57]:362, BritishJournal of PlasticSurgery 13 I Brow and forehead surgery Combined Meetings : 82[2]:384 , 83( 17]:385, 83(18):386, 87(2):398 Scientific Symposia: 71[10]:261, 74(20]:269, 75(2]:271, 78(53]:284, 80[16]:291, Sr (36]:296, 83 [18]:307, 85(63):320, 87(4]:326 , 87[13):326, 89[28]:338, 90(31-34]:344 Budget Committee. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Burns. See Eyelid, burns Burow's solution 3r Burow's triangles. See Eyelid, reconstruction Bylaws. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Bylaws Committee. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Byron Smith Study Club 81, 133, 173

Caldwell-Luc approach surgical technique. See Orbital diseases and surgery California, University of Medical School 159, 160, 162 Canadian Ophthalmological Society 136 Canadian Society ofOculoplastic Surgery 136 Canaliculus surgery Scientific Symposia: 74(23]:269, 75(16]:272, 76(5] :274, 77[6]:277, 86(19):322, 86(39]:323

480

I N D EX

O F S U BJ E CT S

Carbolic acid 41 Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania officers training at (WWII) 82, 86, 159 Cascroviejo Society 12911 Carotid-cavernous fistula Scientific Symposium: 82[68]:303 Cataract extraction 14 Charter Fellows. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Chatham Bars Inn, Chatham , MA 365 Chemosurgery. See Mohs' surgery Chloroform. See Anesthesia, general Cicatricial (ocular) pemphigoid. See Pemphigoid, cicatricial Civil War 42 CLAO. See Con tact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists CL.AO Journal 186 Cloister (The), Sea Island, Georgia 192, 365 CME. See Continuing Medical Education Cocaine 41, 57, 58. See alsoAnesthesia, local Code of Hammurabi 3 Colby College Ophthalmology Seminar 178 Coloboma . See Eyelid, congenita l coloboma Combined Meetings with the American Acacemy of Ophthalmology 377-396 Committee on Plastic Reconscructive Surgery. See American Academy of Ophthal mology and Otolaryngology Computed tomograph y Combined Meetings: 78(3]:379 , 85(1):388, 90[1]:393 Scientific Symposia: 7 1 [15]:262 , 80[7 ]:290 , 81(62]:298, 84(37):313, 87(36-37):328, 89[52):3 40 Congenital anomalies. See Craniofacial surgery; Eyelid, congenital anomalies Congress of the Ophthalmological Societies of the United Kingdom 73 Conjunctiva contracture Scientific Sumposium: 78(29]:282 lesions and tream1ent Scientific Symposia: 74(16]:269 , 77(27):279, 79(54):288, 80(34) :292, 80(40):292, 81(45):297, 86(5-7]:321, 86(38):323, 88(17):332, 89[36) :339, 90(70]:346, 91(41):349, 91[42):350, 93(14):359 Conjunctivoplasty 2 . See also Conjunctiva


Contac t Lens Association of Ophthalmo logists (CLAO) 12911,186 Continuing Medical Education (CME) 126, 194,201 ,205 Converse Society of General Facial Plastic and Re constructive Surgery 170 Cornea, diseases and treatment Scientific Symposia: 78(21]:282, 81(34]:296, 87(60):330, 89(7]:337, 89(26]:338 Comeo-p lastic surgery 2, 73 Corticosteroid injection. See Hemangioma Cosmetic blepharoplasty. See Blepharop lasty Cosmetic brow surgery. See Brow, surgery Cosmetic surgery 58, 59, 60. See also Blepharoplasty , Brow surgery, etc. Cosmetologic and non-surgical adjuncts to surgery Scientific Symposia: 78(55]:284, 90(23]:343 CPT . See Current Procedural Tenninology CPT / Third Parry Relations Committee. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Craniofacial surgery 52 Scientific Symposium: 85(31]:318 congenital defonnities 89 Scientific Symposia: 72[11]:263, 86[61]:325 traumatic defonnities 90 Combined Meeting: 79(5-7]:380 Scientifi c Symposia: 79( 15] :285, 81[53]:297, 86(60]:298, 89(30]:338 Crow-Segal (management firm) 197, 198, 208 Current Procedural Termino logy (CPT) 125, 12511,126, 127, 157, 186, 190, 193,199,208 Cryos urgery ¡ Scientific Symposia: 75(25-28]:272, 78 [1415]:281, 83(22]:307, 83[51]:309, 91(41]:349

Dacryocystectomy I 3 Dallas Hilton Hotel , Dallas, TX 177, 258, 277 Dapsone Scientific Symposium: 83 [37]:Jo8 Datelines ofOplrtlralmology132 DCNB immunotherapy Scientific Sympos ium: 80[40] :292 Derrnabrasion Scientific Symposium: 82[39]:301 Derrnatochalasis 33, 78n. See also Blepharoplasty

Dennis-fat graft. See Graft, dennis -fat Dibble General Hospital, Menlo Park, CA 160 Directory Committee. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Distichiasis Scientific Symposia: 78(14]:281, 89(13]:337, 89(15]:337 Doctor's Day 41 Doral Hote~ Miami Beach, FL 365 Dortzbach-Hawes bibliography 136 Dry eyes. See Lacrimal system and Corneal, diseases and treatment DublinJ ournalofMedicalScienre 36 Duvemey's muscle. See Homer's muscle

Ebers papyrus 4 Eccropion 1, 3, 4, 6, 17, 27, 28, 28, 37, 37, 38, 39, 42, 44, 45, 46, 82 Combined Meeting: 90(8):393 Scientific Symposia: 70[6]:259, 73(2830]:267, 75(11-12]:271,14, 76(27]:275, 76[31]:275, 77(44]:280, 78(7-8):281, 81(31):296, 82[6]:299, 83(17]:307, 83(23]:307, 83[26-27] :307, 85(2]:316, 85[6]:316, 86(32]:323, 86(36]:323, 88[10]:331, 89(14]:337, 90(70]:346 paralytic Combined Meeting: 86(4]:389 Scientific Symposia : 73(32]:267, 77[4748]:280, 78[34]:283, 79[26]:286 ,79(29]:286, 8 I [37-38 ]:296, 84(16-17]:312, 85(24]:317, 86(20]:322, 88[13]:332, 92(29-30]:354 Education Committee. See Ameri can Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Edu cational Program Manual. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Egressiooculi.See Orbital diseases and surgery, exophtha lmos Electrodessication Scientific Symposium: 79(55]:288 End oscopy Combined Meetings : 83(6]:385, 89(10]:392, 92(4]:395 Scientific Symposia: 79(10]:285, 80(9):290, 87(62):330, 89(55):341, 89(61]:341, 91 [25):348

INDEX

OF

SUBJECTS

4 81


Enophthalmos. See also,Orbital diseases and surgery, fracture causes (including maxillary sinus disease) Scientific Symposia: 80[20):291, 80[47] :292, 84(55]:3 14, 86(57):324, 93 [65--66] treatment Combined Meeting: 81[8]:383 Scientific Symposia: 84(56]:314, 84(5759]:315, 85[42]:318 Entropion 1, 3, 4, 6, 17, 28, 64, 65, 66, 70 Combined Meeting: 90[8]:393 Scientific Symposia: 70[11]:259, 72(2729):264, 73[28]:267, 73(31):267, 74 [33):270, 75(13-14) :271, 76(28-29):275, 77(4243):279, 78(9-12]:281, 79[31]:286, 81 [3940):296, 82(2-5):299, 83[16]:307, 83[30]:307, 84(14]:3 I I, 85[3]:316, 85(5):316, 87(26):327, 89(10):337, 89(17):338, 90(66):346, 90[72]:346, 91[33-34):349, 9 1(45-46 ):350, 93(67--68):362 Enucleation 1, 9, 16, 27, 35, 36, 38, 45, 47, 52,62, 76, 77 Scientific Symposia: 81(67--68):298, 83(73):310, 86[53]:324, 87(34):328, 90(16):343, 91( 13]:34 8, 92(u-12 ]:352, 92(13-15):353, 93(16-22]:359 Epiblepharon Scientific Symposium: 76(35):276 Epi canthus Scientific Symposia: 76(34):276, 78[2):281, 82[20):300, 82[41]:301 ESOPRS . See European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Ether. See Anesthesia, general Ether Day 41 Ethics Committee. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery European Society of Dacriology (ESD) 135 European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ESOPRS) 135, 135n, 136, 136n, 171,190,365,428 Euthanasia 10 Evisceration 47 Scientific Symposia: 82[98]:305, 86[5152):324 Exenterati on 9, 45, 47 Combined Meetings: 78[15):379, 93(3):396 Scientific Symposium: 84(47-4 8):314

482

INDEX

OF

SUBJECTS

Exhibit Committee. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Extirpation of the eye 9, 9, 17, 36, 48 Eye, Ear, Nose and T11roatMonthly Uoumal) 132 Eye-bankin g 73 Eyelid 2, 7, 21 anatomy. See Anatomy, eye.lid burns Combined Meetings: 81[2):383, 91(9):394 Scientific Symposia: 79(16):286, 86[18):322, 93 [40):360 chalazion 17 Scientific Symposium: 87(28):328 complications, surgical Combined Meeting: 82[1]:384 Scientific Symposia: 8 1[31-3 5):296, 87(23):327 congenital anomalies (coloboma, blepharophimosis, etc.) 10, 66n. Combined Meetings: 83(19):386, 87[8]:390 Scientific Symposia: 72[12]:263, 80(32):292, 84(4):311, 87(51):329, 88(7):331, 88(16):332, 89(13):337, 89[27):338, 90(66):346, 91(46):350, 93(32):360 crease 77[25):278, 84[7):311, 84[60]:315, 85[61):320, 88(23):332, 90[66]:346, 92[5):352, 92[61):356 diagnosis Scientific Symposia: 83[14):306, 86[8):321, 90[61):346 laxity Scien tific Symposia: 77[46]:280, 83[15):Jo6 physiology Scientific Symposia: 86(8):321, 86[11]:321, 91 [44]:350 orbital fat herniation 32 radiation therapy Combined Meeting: 79(9):380 reconstru ction 2, 4, 23, 25,26, 28, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 44, 46, 48, 59, 62, 66, 66, 68, 69, 71, 73, 75, 82, 86, 87


Comb ined Meetings: 79(13-17):380, 79 (18-19):389, 81[10]:383, 83[1):385, 83[3):385, 85[6]:388, 90 [10) :393 Scientific Symposia: 70(2):259, 70[4):259, 70(9):259, 70[26):260, 71 (25-27):262, 72(2326):264, 73(3-5):265 , 74 [29-31):270, 74(34):270, 7 5[21-24):272, 76(2-8):274, 78[25) :282, 78[52):284, 78[56):284, 79(4047):287, 79 (48-51):288, 80(45):292, 80[58]:293, 8 I [28) :295, 8 1[29):296, 82(2730):Joo, 82(31-33):301, 83[32):307 , 83(7 1]:310, 84(44):314, 84[63):31 5, 86(33] :323, 87(19):327, 88[20- 22):332, 92(23-25 ) :353, 92 (26):354, 92[59):356 retractio n 64. See alsoOrbital diseases and surge.ry, Graves' disease C ombined Meetings : 80[1-s ]:382, 88(9) :399 Scientific Symposia: 71[7) :261, 74[28):270, 77[24):278, 78(32):2 83, 78[35):283, 79[36) :287, 82(8-10):299 , 83(35) :308, 85(23) :317, 86(3):321, 86[28):322, 87[27):327, 87[39):328, 88(3):33 I , 89(25):337, 89[27):338, 90(68) :346, 91(26-27):348, 91[28-29 ) :349, 91(53):350, 93[ 13):358 retractors, low er Scienti fic Symposia : 8 1[18]:295, 82[5):299, 84[4]:311, 90(66):346 scarring Scientific Symp osium: 76[33):275 sulcus, supr atarsal Scien tific Symposium: 86(9-1 0]:321 trauma 17, 62, 86 Combine d Meetings: 81[7):383, 81[1011):383, 91 [7]:394 Scientific Symposia: 70[5):259, 77(5):277, 88(69) :335, 89[16):338, 89(53):340, 92[53) :355 tumors 15, 15, 17, 22 Comb ined Meetings : 79(1-17 ):380, 79(18-19) :381, 85(3-4):388 Scientific Symposia: 72(19):264, 75[2526):272, 76(5):274, 77(8) :277, 78 (48):284, 79[39):287, 80[31):292, 80(33- 38):292, 8 1[21-28) :295, 81 [29-3 0) :296 , 82[2226]:300, 85(14):316, 85(25]:317, 87(2 122]:327, 88(14-15):332, 89[22):338, 90(69):346, 91(39-40) :349, 93[4):358

Face operat ions nasal reconstru ction 7 , 23, 25, 2511 procedures chemical peel Scientific Symposium: 74(19):269 injectable soft tissue augmentation Scientific Symposium: 92(74):357 surgery Scientific Symposia: 75(35):273, 80[15]:291, 84(33-34):313, 88[9]:331, 89(20]:338, 90[5 1):345 Fairmont Hotel , Chicago, IL 157, 199 , 256, 258, 358 Fairmont Hotel, Dallas, TX 258, 263, 265, 271,326 Fairm ont Hotel, New Orleans, LA I 89, 258, 321 Fairmont H otel, San Franci sco, CA 255 Fasanella-Servat operation. See Blepharoptosis , tarsectomy Fascia lata 52, 53, 77 Combined Meeting : 80 (14):382 Scientific Symposia: 72[21) :264, 76(13) :274, 79(20):286, 83(35] :308, 84(16]:312, 87(78):326, 88[11):331, 90 (52-53): 345, 90(68):346, 91 [5) :347, 91[5 1]:350 Fellows. See American Soc iety of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstru ctive Surgery Fette liemien 3 3n Flaps 5 advancement , skin 4, 4, 32 anerialized pedicle 46, 48 biologic . See Flap s, arterialized pe dicle Celsus. Seeadvancement, skin conjuncti va! Scientific Symposium: 89(26) :338 Cutler-Beard technique 46, 86, 87 delayed pedicle includin g transplanted mu cosa 66, 6611 foreh ead 7, 24 Scientific Symposium: 80(36) :292 full-thickness eyelid pedicle Combin ed Meeting : 85(6):388 orbicularis (mobilization ) Scientific Sympos ium: 85[rr ):316 osteoplastic Scientific Symposium: 76(19):275 pedicle 25, 26, 34 , 54, 65 pericranial

IN DEX

O F SUBJECTS

4 83


Scientific Symposium: 88(45):334 periosteal Scientific Symposia: 83[25]:307, 90(67):346

47):298, 83(47):308, 91 [27]:348, 91 [37]:349

rhomboid Scientific Symposia: 73(2):265, 92(25):353, 92(26):354

semicircular (Tenzel) Scientific Symposia: 84( 15] :3 12, 86(31) :323

Tagliacotian (from upper extremity to nose/face) 32, 3 5 canoconjunctival Scientific Symposia: 79(40):287, 80(42):292, 86(30] :322, 88(20 -22) :332, 92 (59--60):356

cemporalis Scientific Symposium: 83 [26]:307 temporoparietal fascia Scientific Symposium: 90(71):346 transposition 27, 28, 35, 36, 66, 75 tubed pedicle 62 Z-plasty 35, 36, 37 Scientific Symposium: 79[27]:286 Fort Leonard Wood, MO 175 Fondation Ophthalmologique A. de Rothschild 135 Founding Fellows. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery French Congress of Ophthalmology 51 French Society of Plastic Surgery 89 Frozen section techniques Combined Meeting: 79 (4):380 Scientific Symposia: 78(50):284, 90(69):346 Frost-Lang technique 48. See alsoEnucleation

Ghendini Editore, Milan 135 Glands of Zeis 3 1

Grafts Combined Meetings: 86[3]:389, 90(7):393 artificial skin Scientific Symposium: 86(34) :323 auricula r muscle complex Scientific Symposium: 89(6):337 bilayered epithelial Scientific Symposium: 91 (38]:349 bone 60, Bo bone, cranial Scientific Symposium : 86(60] :325

484

INDEX

cartilage 60, 65 Combined Meeting: 80(5):3 82 Scientific Symposia: 80(38):292, 81 [46--

OF

SUBJECTS

cilia Scientific Symposium : 81 (48- 50] :297 composite Scientific Symposia: 77(49) :280, 82[28):300, 84(15):312, 85[7]:316 , 85[12]:31 6, 88[71 ]:335

conjuncciva Scientific Symposium: 82[40]:301 dermis, split-thickness Scientific Symposium: 89[49]:340 dermis-fat (lipo-dermal) Scientific Symposia: Bo[44] :292, 81(69]:298, 82(88):301 , 84(46) :3 14, 85[41]:318, 86[9]:321

dermis-muscle-fat, cross eyelid Scientifi c Symposium: 93 [27-28):36 0 dura, lyophilized Scientific Symposium : 87(38]:328 fascia lata. See Fascia lata fat 62 Scientific Symposium: 86(1 0) :321 hard palate. See mucous membrane mucou s membrane (including hard palate) 43

Scientific Sympos ia: 76(16]:27 5, 82(39) :301, 89(9):337, 91[27]:348 , 91[3536):349 , 92[20]:353 muscle Scientific Symposium: 81(55):297 preauricular Scientific Symposium: 85(9]:316 sclera, homologous Combined Meeting: 80( 14]:382 Scientific Symposia : 79(3 5] :287, 79[40]:287, 79(42):287, 80(34):292 skin 23, 24, 25n, 26, 35, 41, 42, 43, 49, 62,

65, 69 Scientific Symposia: 74(9):26 8, 79(41]:287, 84(46]:J 14, 88(19):332, 88(23]:332 ta.nus Combined Meeting : 90(10 ]:393 Scientific Symposia: 80(58):293, 82(30) :300, 83(29):307, 83(46):30 8, 85[7]:316 trans-nasal Scientific Symposium: 93 (63] :362 Granulation. See Medial canthus


Graves' eye disease. See Orbital diseases and surgery Greenbriar Inn , White Sulphur Springs, WV 176,365

Green's operation. See Ablation of the socket

H C FA. See Health Care Finan cing Administration H ealth Care Finan cing Administration (H C FA) 125, 125n, 127, 197, 198, 208 H ealth Maint enance Organization (HMO ) 189, 209 Hemangioma of eyelid and orbit capillary corticostero id injection Scientific Symposia: 82(66):303, 84[9):3 l I miscellaneous Scientifi c Symposium: 87(52) :329 laser treatm ent (photocoagulation, etc.) Scientific Symposia: 80[39):292, 81[21-22):295, 87(55):329 surgical excision Scientific Symp osium : 92[9):352 caverno us Scientific Symposium: 82(67) :303 Hemato porphyrin -photoirradi ation Scientific Symposia: 83[50) :309, 85[13):316 Hemifacial atrophy Scientific Symposia: 79[3):285, 81[20]:295 Hemifacial spasm Scientific Symposium: 87(16):327 Hilton Hotel , Dallas, TX 258 Hilton Hot el, San Francisco, CA 258, 299 Hi story ophthalmi c plastic surgery Scientific Symposia: 87(2) :326, 90[21):343, 91[72):351, 93(79-80):363 ASOPRS Scientific Symposium: 77[2):277 Honorary Fellows. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Hom er's muscle 35 Scientific Symposium: 78[4]:281 H ome r's syndrome 35n Hospitals and clini cs general Bellevu e H ospital 62, 67, 79, 139 Crile General Hospital 76

Dever Institute , Portland , OR 165 Dibble General Hospital (Menlo Park) 77, 86 First General Ameri can Army Hosp ital (WWII) 79 Good Samaritan Hospital , Portland , OR 165 Henry Ford Hospital 52 Hotel Dieu de Lyon 42 Mayo Clinic 55, 86, 159, 198 New York University Ho spital 145 Northington General Hospital 82 Presbyterian Hospital 62 St. George's Hospital 47 Scott and White Clinic 84 Walter R eed Hospital 64 Yale-N ew Haven Medi cal Ce nter 79, 153 ophthalmic Eye Foundation Ho spital (Birmingh am) 82 Harkness Eye Institute 64 Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary 49 Kresge Eye Institut e 76 Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat H ospital 77, 79, Son, 8 1, 143, 149, 151, 153 Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (ME EI) 365 Moorfields Hospital 31, 36-37, 37n, 48 New York Eye and Ear Infirmary 54, 62 R oy al Wemninst er Ophthalmic Infirmary r 6 Wills Eye Hospital 42, 55, 65, 139, 140, 141, 151, 153 Wilmer Ophthalm ologic Institute 52, 56 H otel International, Las Vegas, NV 258, 261 Hsaio Study. See Re source Based Relative Value Study (RBRVS ) Hughes , Wendell L., Lecture. See Wendell L. Hughes Lecture Human immunodefi cien cy virus (HI V) Scientific Symposium: 90 (52) :345 Hyp erbaric oxygen Scientific Symposium: 84(44):J 14 Hy droxyapatite Co mbined Meeting : 93[1-2):396 Scientific Symposia: 89[54]:340 , 91[1517):348, 91[19):348, 92[11-12):352, 92 [1315):353, 93(17-1 9):359, 93(21):359 , 93[74]:363

I NDEX

OF SUB J E C TS

4 85


!LS. See Internacional Lacrimal Society Incision technique, small Scientific Symposium: 85(10):316 Index Medicus 194 Inglenook Winery, Napa Valley, California 185 Inn at Spanish Bay, Monterey, CA 365,431 Instructional Courses at the AAO Annual Meetings. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Internacional Society for Orbital Disorders (!SOD ) 134, 135,1, 136,255 Internacional Congress of Ophthalmology 37, 86, 135,139,255 Internacional Fellows. SeeAmerican Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Int ernacional Lacrimal Society (!LS) 134, 255, 25811 International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 131 International Society of Refractive Keratoplasty 129 Intern ational Symposia Lacrimal System 86, 135, 25811 Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital 77, So Orbital Disorders I 35 Lacrimal System 135 I ontophoresis Scientific Symposium: 75(17] :272 ISOD. See International Society for Orbital Disorders Italian method . See Rhinoplasty, reconstructive techniques

Jones, Lester T. , Surgical Anatomy Award. See Lester T. Jones Surgical Anatomy Award . See alsoAppendix 8 Jones tube . See Lacrimal system, conjunctivo rhin ostomy J ournal Committee. See American Society of Opht halmic Plastic and Reconstru ctive Surgery Journal der Cltirurgic1111d Auge11/t eilku11de29 journal ofPlastica11dRecomtructiveSurgery131 Journal oftlte AmericanSocietyofOcularists76, 13511

48 6

IN DEX

OF

S U 8 J EC TS

Kronlein procedure 47 . See also Orbital diseases and surgery Kuhne-Szymanowski pro cedure 44

Lacrimal system 2, 12, 13, 21, 61 canaliculitis Scientific Symposium: 89(63]:341 congenital anomalies and stenosis Combined Meeting: 92(1-3]:395 Scientific Symposia: 81 (5]:294, 82(55]:302, 82(59-00]:302, 83[5]:306, 85[5 1]:3 19, 85(53]:319, 88(70]:335, 91 (62]:351 conjunctivorhinostomy 84, 85 Scientific Symposia: 73 [24]:266, 78(30] :282, 80(14]:291, 82(61-63]:302, 82(64-65 ]:303, 84[31]:313, 86(44]:323, 87(63-65]:330, 88(76-78]:336, 89(48]:340 dacryoadenectom y 17 Scientific Symposium: 83 [9]:306 dacryocystectomy 37 Scientific Symposium: 92[76]:357 dacryocystitis Combined Meeting : 91 [6]:394 Scientific Symposium: 93(7]:)58 dacryocystography ScientificSymposia: 7 1[3]:261, 79 (56):285, 84(26] :312 dacryocystorhinostomy 14, 52, 56, 57, 57, 58, Bo

Combined Meetings : 89(10]:392, 92(46]:395 Scientific Symposia: 74(22):269, 79(56]:285, 79 (9]:285, 79 (61):288, 89(43):339, 89(55):341, 90(4):342, 91 (58):350 , 92(6670] :356, 93[6]:358, 93(71-'72]:363 dacryoliths Scientific Symposia : 79(8]:285, 87[59]:330, 89(63]:341 diagnosis 1 drainage 12, 56, 84 Combined Meetings : 83[5]:)85, 89(18] :392, 90 (9):393 Scientific Symposia: 70(8) :259, 72( 18] :264, 80(17):291, 80(46):292, 83(6):306, 83[8]:306, 86(40-41] :323, 88(66-68):335, 90[2-3]:342, 90(5]:342, 91(6o-61 ) :351, 91(64-65] :351, 93(73):363 physiology / pathophysiology


Comb ined Me etings: 89(1-8 ) :392, 93(5) :396 Scientific Sympo sia: 7 1[5):26 1, 73(24):266, 77(4):277, 8 I (4):294, 81(6) :294, 82(48-49 ):302, 85(56):3 19 secretion Combined Meetin g: 85(7):388 Scientific Symp osia: 70( 10) :259, 81(19) :295, 83 (2-3):306 , 87(60] :330 miscellaneou s pediatri c problems Co mbin ed Meetings: 83(7):385, 89(6) :392, 92(1-3 ) :395 Scientific Symp osia: 87(49):329, 88(58) :335 ph ysiology. See Lacrimal system, diagnosis probing and irrigation 13, 15 pun ctum , surgery of Co mbin ed Meetings: 89(3) :392, 92(8) :395 Scientific Symposia: 78(28):282, 79(6):285, 79(29):286, 82(57]:302, 85(52) :3 19, 91 [59]:35 I , 92 (54):355 stems 12, 15, 86 Co mbin ed M eetings: 83 (7--9):385, 92[2]:395 Scientific Symp osia: 71 :(1- 2]:26 1, 73(25) :267, 74(8) :268, 74(23):269, 74(2427):270, 76(11):274, 78(26--27):282, 79(46):285, 8 I [2-3 ):294, 82(5er53 ]:302, 84(2829] :312, 85(57):3 19, 86(42- 43):323, 88(56):334, 88(58):335, 88(69-70 ):335, 89(57):34 1, 93 (8-9 ) :358 surgery 3, 4, 6, 15, 37, 39 Co mbined M eetings: 83(6- 10):385, 89(9-10 ):392 Scientific Symposia: 7 1(4) :26 1, 73(26):267, 78 (25) :282, 80(57) :293, 82(12) :299, 85(50) :3 19, 85(54):J 19, 88(697 1):335, 88(73):336, 88(75) :336, 92 [73) :363, 93(76""'78) :363, 93 [74] :363 traum a Co mbin ed Meet ings: 89(11):392, 92(7):395 n ephine Scientific Symposia: 76(12):274, 86(39):323 tum ors, cysts, inflamm ation lacrimal gland Scientific Symposia: 82(82] :304, 83[4]:306, 85(55):3 19, 86(45) :323, 87(30):87 (6 1] :330

lacrimal drainage system (sac, etc) Co mbin ed Meeting: 92(9):395 Scientific Symposia: 76 [21):275, 80(13) :290, 80(18):291, 83[ 11]:3o6, 87(56):330, 87(57-58):330 , 88(15):332, 88(79) :336, 93 (5]:J58 Lagophthalmo s 3 cicatricial Scientific Symp osium : 84(5):3 11 paralytic Co mbin ed Meeting: 86(4):389 Scientific Symposia: 86(20):322, 88[12):332, 90 (63-6 4):346, 93(33) :360 Laissez-faire. See M edial canthus

Laser ablation of pigme nt Scientific Symposium : 87( 14):327 CO2 Scientific Symposia: 83(48- 49):308, 89[15] :337 dye Co mbined Me eting: 93(6):396 lacrimal (endoca nalicular and endo nasal DC R) Co mbin ed Meeting: 92(4-5 ) :395 Scientific Symposia: 91[66""'70):351, 92(66""'70] :3 56 miscellaneous (Argo n, Holmium , KTP, YAG, etc) Co mbin ed M eeting: 85(5):388 Scientific Symp osia: 88(36):333, 88(47):334, 92(66""'70]:J56 Lateral canthus surgery Scientific Symposia: 76 [31- 32):275, 77( 17):278, 78(13) :281, 8 1(42) :296, 9 1(26):348, 92(63-6 4]:J 56 tendon Scientific Symposia: 8 1(41- 42):296, 85(4):3 16, 86(32) :323, 90(41- 43):344 Lepoi des. See Eyelid, tum ors Lester J ones Anatomy Award 84, 87, 89, 109, 132, 176, 180, 185, 401, 402- 403, 402-403, 427

Life Fellows. See American Society of O phthalmi c Plastic and R econsnu crive Surgery Loews Anatole Hotel, Dallas, TX 258, 352, 431 London Dispensary. See Moo rfields Hospital

I NDEX

OF

SUB J ECTS

487


Long Boat Key Club, Long Boat Key , FL I 87,

Merrill Reeh Pathology Award 84, 132, 191, 40 1, 404-405, 405, 427

365

Long-Range Planning Committee . See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstru ctive Surgery

Macula Society 129 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI ) Combined Meetings : 85 [2]:388, 90[1):393 Scientific Symposia: 84(36):313, 86(37):323 , 88(33):333, 88(68):335, 89(52) :340, 90[6):3 42, 92(72):357

Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Ho spital. See Hospitals and clinics, ophthalmi c Marriott Hot el, New Orleans, LA 337 Marriott Hotel, Philadelphia, PA 365 Marvin Quickert Fellowship Award 401,406 , 407

Marvin Qui ckert The sis Award 176, 185,401,

M ethylmethacrylate Scientific Symposia: 73[21]:266 , 74[35]:270 Middle Ages, Renaissance , and Seventeenth Century 8- 11 Mohs ' surgery Combined Meeting : 79 (10] :380 Scientific Symposia: 7 1[11]:261, 73[6] :265, 80[37]:292, 8 1(26-28] :295, 81[29-30]:296 , 84(49) :314, 88[19]:332, 92(59-60 ]:356

Monatssd1riftfiirMedizin, Augenheilkundeund C/1irnr gie Gournal) 29 Mo orfields Ho spital. See Hospitals and clinics, ophthalmic Mule s' spherical implant 47, 65 Muller' s muscle 51, 67 Combine d Meeting : 88[8]:399 Scientific Symposia: 78[5]:28 1, 8 1[9]:294 , 86(4):321

403-404 , 404,427 Mayo Clinic . See Hospitals and clinics,

general Medial canthus granulation (laissez-fur treatment ) 89 Scientific Symposia: 74(34) :270 , 80(43) :292, 82[31):301

surgery Combined Meeting : 85[1 1):388 Scientific Symposia: 76(2] :274, 79(43):287, 80(25):291, 83(24):307, 84(13]:3 1 I, 86(21]:322, 88[72]:336, 89[3]:337, 92(5):352, 93(63) :362

tendon Scientific Symposia: 75(37]; 273, 77(3) :277, 80[25]:291, 82[43]:301, 83[24]:307, 84(12] :3 II, 84(61-6 2):3 I 5, 88(10]:331, 88(72) :336, 89(50):340, 90(67) :346, 92(6) :352, 92(75] :3 57, 93 [6]:3 58 Medi caid 192

Medi cal literature ophthalmi c plastic surgery 2, 105, 136 Medicare 125, 125n, 127, 180, 189, 190, 192, 193, 196, 197, 199

Medi colegal issues Scientific Symposia: 72 [9]:263, 78(57):284, 86(47-5 0) :324, 89(67) :341, 92[19]:353

Membership transitions . See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Recon stru ctive Surgery

488

IND EX

Of

SUBJECTS

National Examining Board of Ocularists 187 Nati onal Re sident Matching Program 200, 204

N ecrobiotic xanthogranul omatosis (pseudoxanthalasma) Scientific Symposium : 84(8] :3 11 N ew York Eye and Ear Infirmary . See Ho spitals and clinics, ophthalmic Ne w York Uni versity Hospital. See Hospitals and clinics, general Nitrou s oxide. See Anesthesia, general Noli-me-tangere. See Eyelid , tumors Nominating Co mmitt ee . See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society 129

Ocularists 76 Oculoplastic surgery. See Op hthalmi c plastic surgery Officers. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Re constructive Surgery OphthalmicPlasticand ReconstrnctiveSurgery Goumal) 132, 133, 135, 136, 186, 194, 198 Ophthalmic plastic surgery definitions 2 fellowship programs 86


preceptorships 8 1, 83, 84 perspe ctives Scientifi c Sympos ia: 71 [14):261, 89[70]:341 subspecialization within ophthalmology eme rgence of 62, 77, 79 OphthalmicSurgery Goumal) 132, 178 Ophthalmologis che Bibliothek Goumal ) 29 Optic nerve diseases and surgery injury or m echan ical comp ression . See also Orbital diseases and surgery Combined M eeti ngs: 81(3-5 ):383, 82(7) :384, 91[ 1]:394 Scientific Symposia : 88(26-27 ) :332, 89(38]:339, 88(40) :333, 90(10- 11):342, 92(42):355, 93[61] :362 optic canal de compression Scien tific Symposia: 92(42] :35 5, 93[53]:361, 93 (61]:362 subarachnoid pressure Scien tific Sympo sia: 91[7]:347, 93 (47):361 tum ors Com bined M eeti ngs: 78(7):379, 89[12]:392, 90(4) :393 Scientific Symposia: 77 ( l 6]:278, 81(54):297, 85(38):318, 87(42):329 Optic nerve sheath decompression. See Orbital diseases and surgery Orbit Goumal) 134, 135t1, 136 O rbital diseases and surgery 8t1 acq uir ed immunodefi ciency syndrome (AIDS) Scientific Symposium: 92(38]:354 amyl oidosis Scientific Sympos ium : 89(58]:341 arteriovenous malformation Scientific Symposium: 92[40]:354 celluliris and abscess Combine d Meetings: 84(8):387, 91(45):394 Scientifi c Sym posia: 77(14):278 , 82(7678):304, 83(59):309, 85(29):317, 86(56]:324, 90(15]:343, 93 (42-43):361 complications 67 surgi cal Scientifi c Sympos ia: 76[20] :275, 77 (12):278, 78 (42):283, 79 (38):287, 79(60):288, 92(71):357 congeni tal anomalies

Scien tific Symposia : 77(9):2 77, 82(101):305, 87(54):329, 88(32):333 diagno stic studi es. See alsoCom puted tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Ultrasonography, etc. Combined M ee tings: 78 (1-5):379, 81(1):383, 81(13) :383, 83(11-12):385, 85(14):388, 86(2):389, 86(10] :389, 90(1):393, 93(5]:396 Scientific Symp osia: 71(15- 18):262 , 73(16-17):266, 74(17) :269, 80[2]:290, 80[7]:290, 81(62) :298, 82(73-7 4):303, 82(105]:305, 83(64) :309, 86(37):323, 86(54):324, 86(68) :325, 87(36- 37):328, 88(33]:333, 88(68]:335, 89(52]:340, 90(16):343, 91(3):347, 92 (41):355 exenteration Scientific Symposia: 78 (48):284, 82(91) :304, 83(61):309, 85(39] :3 18 exop hthalmo s 16 Scientific Sympo sia: 75(38):273 , 81(63):298, 86(55):324, 88(38) :333, 89(38):339, 90[16]:343, 93(60) :362 foreign body Combined Meeting : 91 [3]:394 Scientific Symposia: 79(14):285, 79(56) :288, 89(52):340, 91 (2]:347 fractu re 3, 60, 79, 80, 81 Combined M eetings: 81 (6-9) :383, 81(12) :383, 86(6) :389, 90[6]:393, 93(4):396 Scienti fic Symposia: 70(27):260 , 71 (23):262, 73(21-23):266, 74(11-12):268, 77 (20) :278, 79(11]:285, 79(13):285, 79(58):288, 80(6):290, 80(26-30):29 1, 82(9294):305, 83(54):309, 84(51- 54) :314, 86(22):322, 86(58-59 ):324, 86[67):325, 87[36-37):328, 88(37):333, 88(39):333, 88[40]:333, 88(46) :334, 88(49- 51) :334, 89[5I] :340, 89(66) :341, 90(8-9] :342, 90(18):343, 91(3) :347, 91 (4):347, 91(6) :347, 92(39):354 Graves' eye disease. See also Eyelid, retraction Comb ined Meeting : 83 [I 3]:385 bromocriptine Scientific Symposium: 89[62):34 1 decompression Combin ed Meetngs: 80(7-13 ) :382, 83(21) :386

I NDEX

OF

SUBJECTS

489


Scientific Symposia: 70(29-32 ):260, 72(3):263, 76(22-24):275, 79(37-38):287, 80(3):290, 8 I (60):298, 83(62-63):309, 85(34):318, 88(34):333, 88(62-63):335, 88(65):335, 89(37):339, 90(25) :343, 9 1(42):350, 92(35):354, 93(51):361, 93(5354):361, 93(55-56):362, 93 (6o]:362 lateral canthal dystopia Scientific Symposium: 9 1[26]:348 medi cal aspects Combined Meeting: 86(1):389 Scientific Symposia: 91 (32):349, 92(44):355, 93(59):362 radiation therapy Scien tific Symposium: 92(33):354 guns hot wo un ds Scient ific Symposium: 83(53):309 hemorrhage Combined Meeting : 91(2):394 implant material 47, 62, 63, 78. See also Anophthalmic socket and Craniofacial surgery Combined M eetings: 90[5] :393, 93( 12):396 Scientific Symposia: 86(59):324, 86(62):325, 88(39):333, 89(54) :340, 91 (5):347, 91( 15-20]:348, 92( 11-12 ) :352, 92(1316):353, 92(18):353, 93(46):361, 93(62) :362, 93(69-'70]:363 implant material , synthe tic 77 inflammation (e.g., pseudo tumor) Scientific Sympos ia: 78(44):283, 82(7680) :304, 83(58):309, 84(38):3 I 3, 85(30):3 I 8, 87(47):329, 88(31):333, 89(56):34 1, 93(38):360 Combined Meetings: 84(3):387, 90(2):393 invasion from contiguous site Scientific Symposia: 85(36]:3 18, 86(64):325 Kimura's disease Scientific Symposi um : 90(19):343 melanosis Scientifi c Symposi um : 9 1[ 11):347 microsurgical/vasculac recons truction Scientific Symposium: 85(31]:318, 85[35] :318 mycosi s (aspergillosis, phycomy cosis, etc.) Scientific Sympos ia: 87[48):329, 92(21) :353

490

I NDEX

Of

SUBJECTS

optic nerve sheath decompression 46-47, 47,r Combined Meeting : 90(3):393 Scientific Sympo sia: 88(25):332, 89(44):340, 90(12):342, 91(8):347, 91(10):347, 92(61):356, 93(44- 45):361, 93[61]:362 o rbital decompression 52,1, 60, 61 radiation Combined Meeting: 78( 13):379 Scientific Symposia: 78(48):284, 88(64):335 septum Scientific Symposium : 86(12]:321 surgical techniques 2, 15, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 5211,53, 55, 55, 61, 7311, 74, 83, 88

Combined Meeting: 78(12]:379, 78(15]:379 Scientific Sympos ia: 73 [ 18]:266, 76(18):275, 76(25):275, 77(10):277, 77(16):278, 78(41):283, 79( 12]:285,79(57]:288,79(59):288, 8 I (54):297, 81(61):298' 81(63):298, 81(65):298, 82(8691):304, 82[92-!00 ) :305, 83(60):309, 84(45):314, 87(40):329, 88[6o-61]:335, 92(61-62) :356, 93(23-26 ):359, 93(45):361, 93(51-54):361, 93(55-56 ):362, 93(6o):362 systemic disease Combined Meeting: 84(1-9]:387 trauma 4 trigeminal nerve function Scientific Symposi um : 92(43):355 tumors (and cysts) 17, 45, 46. See also invasion from contiguous site Combined Meetings : 78(3-5 ):379, 78(7):379, 78( 10- 11):379, 78(13-14):379, 82(10):384, 83(14):385, 84(6-'7):387, 85(3):388, 86[5]:389, 86(7]:389, 86(10]:389, 91(9]:394 Scientific Symposia: 70(4):259, 77( 15):278, 78(40):283, 78 (47):284, 80(4):290, 80(8):290, 80[12]:290, 80[41]:292, 81(5458):297 8 1[59]:298, 82(81-84):304, 82(87):304, 82(102-105):305 , 83(55- 57):309, 83(65--66):309, 84(39-41 ):313, 85(3233):3 I 8, 85(37) :318, 86(54):324, 86(6465):325, 87(41- 47):329, 87(52-53 ):329, 88(29-30 ) :333, 88(33):333, 88(59-61 ) :335, 89(65):341, 9 1[9):347, 91 [12):347, 92(37):354, 92(41):355, 92(46):355, 92(52):355, 93(2):358, 93(41):361, 93(52):361


vascular problems (malformations, varices, venous thrombosis, etc.) Combined Meetings: 78(9]:379, 86(89]:389

Scientific Symposia: 88[29):333, 93(2930]:360 Orbital Society 135, I35n Outpatient Ophthalmic Surgery So.ciety 129

Palmer House Hotel 76, 107 Pan American Association of Ophthalmology 129n, 165

Papilledema surgical creaonent 46 Paukdoctor 24 Peachtree Plaza Hotel , Atlanta, GA 258, 294, 3l

I

Pemphigoid, cicatricial Combined Meeting: 83 (4):3 85 Scientific Symposia : 82[42]:301, 87 [20]:327, 88(17]:332

Photography 42, 58 Combined Meeting: 79(2):380 Scientific Symposium: 73(14]:266 Photomicros copy 42 Physician Payment Review Commission (PPR C) 125, 125n Pick Congress Hotel , Chicago, IL 258, 290 Pierre Marquez Hotel, Acapulco, Mexico

Pre ceptor Committee. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Preferred Provider Organization (PPO ) 209 Prehistory orbital rraumatism 3 Program Committee. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconscructive Surgery Prosthesis ocular or facial IO, 73 Prosthetic eye. See Anoph thalmic socket Psychology Scientific Symposium: 72[7]:263 Pterygium 17 Scientific Symposia: 75[15]:272, 8 1(44]:297 , 93 (3):358

Ptosis. See Blepharoptosis, Brow surgery, etc. Ptosis atonica 33 Pcosis Society 133, 13411 Public Information Committee. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconscructive Surgery Pupillary size and reaction Scientific Symposia: 73 [9]:265, 79(58]:288

Quicken, Marvin H., Thesis Award. See Marvin Qui cken Thesis Award

18 1, 365

Pigtail probe Scientific Symposium: 77(5]:277 Pinehurst Resort and Country Club, NC 187,365

Plasticand Re constructive Surgery Gournal) 178 Plastic surgery definitions 2, J 1 Plastic surgery, general Scientific Symposium: 76[9]:274 Plethora 12 Polyethylene, porous high-density Scientific Symposium: 91(18-19):348 Postope rative dressing Scientific Symposium: 89(68]:341 PPO . See Preferred Provider Organization PPRC. See Physician Payment Review Comrnission Practice Opportunity Commi ttee. See American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Radisson-Muehlebach Hotel , Kansas City, MO 258,281 RBRVS . See Resource Based Relative Value Study Reeh, Merrill]., Pathology Award . See Merrill J. Reeh Pathology Award Residency Review Committee (RRC) for Oph thalmology r 29 Resource Based Relative Value Study (RBR VS) 125, 192, 193, 197 Retina Society I 2911 Revue de ChirurgiePlastiqueGoumal) 13 1 Rhinoplasty definition 2 reconstructive techniques 10, 12, 19, 21, 2J, 23, 24, 25, 27, J l

Ritz-Carlton Hotel , Chicago, IL r 85 , 258, 306 Rodent ulcer. Sec Basal cell carcinoma Royal Academy of Surgery, Paris 14

IND

EX

OF

SUBJECTS

491


Royal Westminster Ophthalmic Infirmary 16 RRC . See Residency Review Committee Ruedemann , A.D ., Lecture. See A. D . Ruedemann Lecture Rules and Regulations . See American Sociery of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Sagamore Resort, Bolton Landing, NY 199, 365

St. Francis Hotel , San Francisco, CA 258, 3 16 Salishan Lodge , Glenen Beach, OR 365 Sands Hotel, Las Vegas, NV 258, 259 Schools of medicine Columbia Universiry 62, 139, 209 Harvard Universiry 52, 171, 365 Johns Hopkins Universiry School of Medicine 56 McGill Universiry 60 New York Universiry School of Medicine 62,79 Oregon Health Sciences Universiry 84 Stanford Universiry Medi cal School 55 United States Anny Medi cal School 64 Universiry of Be rlin 32 Universiry of Budapest 54 Universiry of California San Francisco 52, 86, 110 Universiry of Kansas 79, 153 Universiry of Konigsberg 29, 31 Universiry of Madrid 35 Universiry of Mi chigan 79, 89 University of Minnesota 55 Universiry of Munich 49 Universiry of Oregon Health Sciences Center 163 University of Padua 70 University of Paris 31 Universiry of Pavia 16 Universiry of Pennsylvania 66 University ofRostock 37 Universiry of Toronto 52, 135 Universiry of Utrecht 37 Universiry of Vienna 15 University of Washington 165 University of Western Ontario Medical School 67 University of Wiesbaden 49 Universiry ofWiirzberg 26, 32, 40 Wayne State University 76

492

I NDEX

OF

SUBJECTS

Yale Universiry 66 Sheraton Dallas Hotel , Dallas, TX 258, 268 Silverado Resort and Country Club, Napa Valley, CA 184,365 Silicone Scientific Symposium: 77 [r1] :277 Sinus miscellaneous Scientific Symposium: 91 [56]:350 mu coce le Scientific Symposia: 76[19]:275, 82[97]:305, 88[28]:333 sinusitis Scientific Symposia: 83[1 o]:306, 90(14):343, 91(57):350, 93(65):362 Smith, Byron , Study Club. See Byron Smith Study Club Snellen-Streatfeild operation 38 Sociery of Military Ophthalmologists 129n Southampton Princess Hote~ Bermuda 365 Spider bite Scientific Symposium: 83(37):308 Stapling gun Scientific Symposium: 72[5]:263 Statler-Hilton Hote l, Dallas. See Dallas Hilton Hote l Strabismus Scientific Symposia: 72[12]:263, 79[25]:286, 84(2]:311, 89(65):341, 91(24):348, 91(57):350 Combined Meeting : 80(6):382 surgery 27 Surgical histopathology 42 Suture material and technique s Scientific Symposia: 87[24]:327, 88[6]:331, 89(19):338,89(33]:339 compli cations Scientific Symposium: 92(45]:355 Switch flaps. See Flaps, Z-plasty

Tan-T ar-A Resort, Lake of the Ozarks, MO 175,3 65

Tanque Verde Guest Ran ch, Tucson, AZ I 80, 365 Tattoo cornea Scientific Symposium: 74(15]:269 eyelid Combined Meeting : 85[9-ro]:388


Scientific Symposia: 85(45-49):319, 87(14):327, 88(24):332 Telecanthus 80, 82 Scientific Symposia: 84(62):315, 85(8):316, 92(6):J52 Temporalis fascia Scientific Symposium: 80 (19):291 Tenon's capsule 9, 27, 36, 47, 48 The Breakers, Palm Beach, FL 365 Thesis. See American Sociery of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconscructive Surgery Tissue banking 52 Tissue expander Scientific Symposia: 84( JI ) :311, 86(33):323

Today's Ocularist.Seejournal eftlie Amen¡can Societyof Ocularists Topeka State Hospital I SJ Treacher Collins syndrome 90 Tretinoin (Re tin A) Scientific Symposia: 89(42):339, 90(37):344 Trichiasis 4 Scientific Symposia: 75(27):272, 82(44) :301,

first I 52 Westin Hotel , Atlanta , GA 194, 258, 342 Wheeler's lid-halving technique 62, 64 Whitt1all's ligament 60 Scientific Sympos.ia: 78 (2):28 1, 86(26):3 22, 88(53):334 Wills Eye Hospital . See Hospitals and clinics, ophthalmic Wilmer Ophthalmologic Institute . See Hospitals and clini cs, ophthalmic Women in Ophthalmology 129n Wood Library-Museum of Anesthe siology 4111

World War I 58, 6o, 62, 64, 65, 73 World War II 56, 72, 73, 76, 77, 79, 82, 84, 86 Wound healing Combined Meeting: 78(16):379

Zei1sd1rift far die Op/11/,a/1110/ogie uoumal) 28

91 (34-35) :349 Tropicana Hotel, Las Vegas, NV 258,331 Twenry-fifth Year Anniversary Book Committee. See American Sociery of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Ultrasonography Combined Meetings : 78(4):379, 90 (1):393 Scientific Symposia: 71(17):262, 82(7374) :303

Viemam War 90 Visual field deficits Scientific Symposium: 90(24):343 Vitreous Sociery 129

Walter R. Parker Lecture 79 Wendell Hughes Lecture Award 132, 401, 427 Wendell Hughes Lecture Committee. See American Sociery of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconscructive Surgery Wendell Hughe s Lecture 71, 139, 152, 193, 369-375,370, 399,422

INDEX

Of

SUB J ECTS

49 3