Page 1

Issue 2 | Volume 6 | 2018

On the Move








Coatings for Africa Review



18 YO U R

Chemical Pollution


Protea Chemicals is all around you, from the coating of paint on the wall to the brush that painted it, and from the glue in your child’s school project to the solvent you used to clean your hands after helping to build it. Inside every coating, adhesive, and sealant is Protea Chemicals.


EDITORIAL EDITOR Johann Gerber Tel: 011-713-9042 Email: johann.gerber@newmediapub.co.za DEPUTY EDITOR Johann Stadler Tel: 011-877-6178 Email: johann.stadler@newmediapub.co.za


SUB EDITOR Gill Abrahams Email: gill.abrahams@newmediapub.co.za LAYOUT & DESIGN Nazreen Bhyat Email: nazreen.bhyat@newmediapub.co.za

Issue 2 | Volume 6 | 2018

ADVERTISING ADVERTISING EXECUTIVES Natalie Sanders Tel: 082-450-2317 Email: natalies@intekom.co.za Justin Lavers Tel: 083-376-3171 Email: justin.lavers@newmediapub.co.za PHOTOGRAPHS

Unless previously agreed in writing, Coatings SA owns all rights to all contributions, whether image or text. SOURCES Shutterstock, supplied images, editorial staff.

DISTRIBUTION & SUBSCRIPTIONS Felicity Garbers Email: felicity.garbers@newmediapub.co.za UPDATE YOUR DETAILS HERE Email: register@media24.com Web: www.diytradenews.co.za PUBLISHING TEAM GENERAL MANAGER Dev Naidoo PUBLISHING MANAGER Johann Gerber Email: johann.gerber@newmediapub.co.za PRODUCTION MANAGER Angela Silver





Heubach: Commissions new production facility


Innovatint: Expanding possibilities


Feature: Chemical pollution


Coatings for Africa Review


Coatings review: Synthetic Polymers – Here to stay!


On the Move


Technical: 4 Steps to effective pigment dispersions


Technical: Lead chromate replacement – Old hat but still a long process?


ART DIRECTOR David Kyslinger Johannesburg Office:

Ground floor, Media Park, 69 Kingsway Avenue, Auckland Park, 2092 Postal Address: PO Box 784698, Sandton, Johannesburg, 2146 Tel: +27 (0)11 877-6111 Fax: +27 (0)11 713-9024 Email: www.diytradenews.co.za

PRINTING Printed and Bound by CTP Printers - Cape Town Published on behalf of Media24 by New Media Publishing (PTY) Ltd.

MANAGING DIRECTOR Aileen Lamb CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER Bridget McCarney EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR John Psillos NON EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Irna van Zyl Head Office: New Media House, 19 Bree Street, Cape Town 8001 Postal Address: PO Box 440, Green Point, Cape Town 8051 Tel: +27 (0)21 417-1111 Fax: +27 (0) 417-1112 Email: newmedia@newmediapub.co.za

While precautions have been taken to ensure the accuracy of its contents and information given to readers, neither the editor, publisher, or its agents can accept responsibility for damages or injury which may arise therefrom. All rights reserved. © DIY Trade News. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, electronic, mechanical or otherwise without the prior written permission of the copyright owners.

ed’s note

Alive with colour!


hat an incredible couple of months it has been since our last issue. I have been blown away with the energy and direction that we are heading towards. The Coatings for Africa show, while not perfect, was definitely an indicator that we are all riding a momentous wave. I cannot recall the last time I witnessed this amount of new technologies, developments and opportunities and to top it all, I met wonderful industry representatives and legends! If you missed this year’s Coatings for Africa show, Coatings SA provides extensive coverage in our Review on pages 20-28. We even managed to steal a couple of valuable

two! And we are thrilled to let you know we have already sourced a core technical paper for our September issue. Another hot talking point at the moment is what we can do to help limit our impact on the environment. In our search we have uncovered Green Chemistry and bring Coatings SA readers some insights into Green Chemistry. Please read the article on pages 18 and 19. Finally, SAPMA celebrates 80 years! This Association is doing immense work on behalf of its members and the industry. We will be bringing readers highlights of their history throughout the year, but I think

minutes from Sanjeev Bhatt who gave us his view on the show, the industry and creating a platform to discuss industry topics. One topic to keep escalating is the need of more education. With that as a core focus at Coatings for Africa and the SAPMA AGM, we are excited to bring our readers not just one Technical paper – but

it is appropriate to wish the team at SAPMA a happy 80th from everyone involved in the coatings industry! c

Johann Gerber



Deryck Spence, executive director of SAPMA and Kedibone Maroane, Acting CEO of CHIETA.

SAPMA’S NEW EXCO SAPMA’s new executive committee, elected at the Association’s recent 80th annual meeting. PICTURED (FROM LEFT) FRONT ROW: Sanjeev Bhatt, vice-chairperson (Synthetic Polymers); Aggie Argyrou, chairperson (Warrior Paints); Terry Ashmore, outgoing chairperson (Honorary Member); and Shaun Benn, vice-chairperson (Dulux). MIDDLE ROW: Danny Grady (OCCA), Jag Kayan (Ferro Coatings Resins), Salvan Govender (Medal Paints), Bobby Bhugwandin (Kansai Plascon), Madeleine du Toit (Prominent Paints), Lynn de Beer (Nampak Food Division), and Nadine Pretorius-Makan (Kansai Plascon). BACK ROW: Tertia Kahts (Acti-Chem), Simon Stekoven (Duram Paints), Patrick Johnson (Stoncor), and Debajit Shome (Union Colours). EXCO MEMBERS ABSENT AT THE AGM: Johan Joubert (Promac Paints), Willem van Heerden (Beckers Industrial Coatings), Philip Green (Mirmac), and Paul Hadjiapostolou (Rhine Ruhr).

MEMBER APATHY TOWARDS INDUSTRY STATS ‘APPALLING’ Don’t expect SAPMA to provide important market indicators for your company’s future planning if you don’t supply meaningful statistics for SAPMA to analyse, Deryck Spence, executive director of SAPMA, warned members. Both Spence and his UK counterpart, Tom Bowtell, chief executive of the British Coatings Federation (BCF), spelt out the immense value of annual individual company statistics to help the two associations provide a comprehensive service to members. But, whereas British members appreciated this give-to-receive situation when it comes to statistics, SAPMA members are still leaving its official industry body in the dark. “It is, frankly, an appalling and potentially self-destructive apathy that we are experiencing in South Africa,” Spence commented. He told the AGM that only 13 of 45 SAPMA members approached for statistical input on their companies’ performance had bothered to respond. “And then SAPMA could see that in many cases the responsibility for

providing annual statistics seemed to be lodged with junior staff members. “The annual statistical input we receive is so repetitive that it is virtually of no value for an accurate assessment of market trends or other informative aspects. Without statistics, SAPMA cannot answer members’ questions, nor can we disseminate information that could, for example, help members identify gaps in the market,” he stated. Bowtell said members should remember that at both SAPMA and the BCF, the statistical information provided remained confidential and did not provide strategic information to the suppliers’ competition. “At the BCF, I personally do not even see the stats provided – the analysis is done by an independent body. But the market feedback we subsequently provide to members is regarded as valuable by no fewer than 78% of our members,” said Bowtell. “Statistical analysis of the annual performance of the coatings sector shows individual companies if they are operating intelligently or merely groping in the dark,” Bowtell added.

4 | Coatings SA

The SA Paint Manufacturing Association (SAPMA) has, in collaboration with the Chemical Industries Education and Training Authority (CHIETA), embarked on a major initiative to alleviate unemployment by not only providing paint application training but also helping to find work for certificated students. The core of the scheme, which will be funded by the CHIETA, will be an accredited nine-day training course in the correct preparation and application of paint provided by SAPMA’s training arm, SA Paint Industry Training Institute (SAPITI). “The names of students who have successfully completed the training will then be placed in a Skills Bank from which the certificated painters can be traced and their new expertise made available to SAPMA paint contractor members who will provide them with employment,” SAPMA executive director, Deryck Spence, explained. “CHIETA has generously agreed to also provide funding for the work experience that job placement of the accredited paint applicators will bring,” he added. He believes the new initiative is a win-win situation for all involved. Spence says CHIETA’s funding will enable SAPMA to immediately start on the training of an ultimate total of 50 previously disadvantaged and unemployed men and women who would, through classroom and practical training, acquire new skills that could provide employment for the rest of their lives and even spawn new small business enterprises to advance the government’s BBEEE objectives.

In Focus: Your first choice yellow HEUCODUR® complex inorganic pigments show an outstanding performance in terms of chemical, temperature and weathering resistance and are the first choice to formulate durable colors in all kind of technical applications. HEUCODUR® Yellow Pigments (PBr 24 and PY 53), combine these well known properties with excellent hiding power and low dispersant demand. Smart combinations of HEUCODUR® Yellow with organic pigments enables formulators to achieve brilliant shades with extraordinary hiding power for e.g. lead pigment replacement while keeping the organic pigment concentration on a low level for higher cost effectiveness.

www. heu ba c hc o l o r. c o m


Terry Asmore (right), who has retired after eight years as chairperson of SAPMA, pictured wishing his successor, Aggie Argyrou, well in his new post.

Aggie Argyrou has been elected as chairperson of the SA Paint Manufacturing Association (SAPMA) at the association’s recent 80th annual general meeting. Aggie succeeds Terry Ashmore who has retired from the post after eight years in the chair. The new SAPMA leader has served as vice-chairperson of SAPMA since 1999. He spent his school years in Benoni and qualified as a Chartered Accountant at the University of the Witwatersrand in 1974. The

entrepreneurial side of his career started with a partnership with his brothers in a major fast-food outlet before becoming a founding shareholder and financial director of Warrior Paints in 1987 - a position he still holds. SAPMA SALUTES ITS ADMIRAL SAPMA annual general meetings will, from next year, have one significant change: Terry Ashmore will not be in the chair. The respected SAPMA stalwart has, in what he calls an admiral-capacity, decided to call it a day. In his final Chairman’s Report, Terry took leave of his beloved association: “It has been a great honour and privilege to serve and protect this industry, but it’s now time for me to hand over the reins.” “Over 50 years ago I began my career in this industry as a humble lab assistant with great ambitions of changing the world. Well that didn’t happen. But along the way I did discover that I could have some influence in the ‘World of Paint and Coatings’. Dedication, no matter what position one holds in a company, and tackling challenges with enthusiasm, is my secret to success. Let principles and ethics be your guidelines while honouring the SAPMA Code of Conduct,” said Ashmore.

6 | Coatings SA

“If this industry has been good to you, consider giving something back: get more involved in SAPMA and SAPITI – you’ll be surprised how spiritually rewarding it will be. I will never totally walk away from SAPMA and the many friends that I have made over the years. I carry my Honorary Membership with great pride and will continue to serve this Industry wherever I can add value.” “I am so grateful to Deryck Spence for accepting the position of SAPMA executive director, although I am not sure he was fully aware of the consequences at that time. Deryck is a real mixture of bulldog and terrier, when he gets his teeth into a project he does not let go! Deryck has been the Captain of the SAPMA /SAPITI ship for the last eight years with my position more like an Admiral, watching progress through binoculars from the shore. The entire SAPMA team is enthusiastic, energetic and an absolute credit to our industry. I thank each one for making my position sustainable,” Terry added to tumultuous applause. SAPMA wishes Terry decades of happiness as he now has a little more time to pursue one of his passionate pastimes – travel. Bon Voyage, Admiral!

PERFORM FORMULATED TO PERFORM, EVERY TIME Chromaflo colorants deliver optimal results every time, whatever the coatings application might be. Whether it’s an industrial or architectural coating, Chromaflo has the technology and expertise to deliver vibrant color that lasts for years.

Phone: +27 11 084 1600 E-Mail: adminSA@chromaflo.com Chromaflo Technologies Africa 17 Crusher Road, Crown Ext. 3 Johannesburg 2095, South Africa WWW.CHROMAFLO.COM

news SAPMA has created new certification badges and stickers for retailers and their staff who have successfully completed SAPMA’s new online training for retail sales personnel.

SAPMA brands certify retail staff


raining will culminate in the paint and hardware store. Assistants who become Certified Paint and Coatings Advisors will wear a badge showing that they are a SAPMA-certified paint advisor. The hardware storeowners will also be able to show a sticker in their shop windows proclaiming that there is a ‘Paint Advisor in Store’. Deryck Spence, executive director of SAPMA, says there has been substantial interest and support for the new training initiative set to be rolled out in force this year. “Most paint retailers recognise the benefits that staff training can provide but national chains, for example, which operate throughout South Africa, face immense logistical problems to provide this tuition because of loss of income

SAPMA’s new certification badge and sticker for retailers and their staff who have successfully completed the Association’s new on-line training for retail sales personnel.

while the staff is away for training, as well as related travel and accommodation costs. SAPMA’s special video online webinar training programme will eliminate these obstacles. “The online training will be open to all retailers, including non-SAPMA members, and can be downloaded from the SAPMA website. Individual retailers can purchase the use of the training video under licence for a year, affording the retailer an opportunity to train multiple staff members. After each module is viewed, the trainee must pass an on-line assessment of the lesson before being allowed to proceed to the next of a total of 10 modules. “Once the trainee has successfully completed the 10 modules, he or she must

pass an overall assessment of the modules studied before SAPMA issues a Certificate of Competence. The training videos acquired under licence are not transferable to other parties,” Spence explained. Mandy Linossi, SAPMA’s Training Administrator, says the modules were formulated in collaboration with the Chemical Industries Education and Training Authority (CHIETA) and will be hosted and directed by experienced SAPMA trainer, Toni Stella, on behalf the SA Paint Industry Training Institute (SAPITI), the training arm of SAPMA. Registration for the course is now open. c For more information, visit www.sapma.org.za

The magic of colour

Exterior colour is a process that requires both inspiration and knowledge. Vast numbers of variables affect the outcome of a project and with the right selection, the results can be incredible.


olour is an appearance phenomenon that interacts with form, scale, material and light to create a visual experience. An analytical, pragmatic and emotional attitude to colour all contribute to a colour attuned architectural experience. To think in colour, use colour as a means of attaining a certain goal and to see colour as a key architectural property is essential. A façade colour is likely to be seen by many people, and this is often a large surface so it makes sense to get it right the first time.

With that in mind, here are considerations to get the colour right for the project: • The relationship between colour and architecture • The colour identity of the area and its surroundings • Consider the traditional historical colour palette • How the colour sample looks when applied outside.

ANALYSING WITH NCS NCS Resins has been tracking data for years. They report that there has been a move towards classic colours – the most common colours used in modern colouring. However, the current trend is based on traditional inexpensive, sustainable and environmentally friendly pigments in all façade materials. Deep colours are based on pigments, which are harder to create using render and plaster, but still easy to apply as a paint coating, and also works well in glass and powder coatings.

It has been shown that when a colour is used outside, its appearance to a viewer often changes, due to the inherent and perceived properties of colour. It can appear much brighter and more chromatic when viewed in the exterior environment in comparison to a small colour sample. It is recommended to choose a slightly darker colour to allow for this change and therefore achieve the desired result.

These deep colours are where future trends are moving. Are you noticing more buildings with dark reds and the complementary dark historical green? The perception of a colour of a façade is not constant. It changes depending on the observation situations, the distance, the weather, the season and light, but using the rules and guidance as discussed in this article can prevent disappointment. For more information, call 082-900-7909.

8 | Coatings SA





The polymer that creates colour Synthetic Polymers produces high-quality polymers for various myriad sectors such as decorative coatings, automotive coating, medium to heavy industrial coating and wood coating etc. Solvent based polymers are Synthetic Polymers core focus; however, our plant also has the capability of producing water-based polymers. A wide variety of resins including acrylics, aminos, saturated polyesters and the more popular alkyd resins as well as some specialist resins are produced using the strictest quality standards in our plant. Research and development take place in our state-of-the-art laboratory with the latest equipment and highly qualified polymer chemists. Convenient delivery with our twenty-metric ton bulk delivery vehicle with lead times between twenty-four and seventy-two hours.

• Long oil alkyds • Medium oil alkyds • Short oil alkyds • Short & Medium chain stopped alkyds • Urethane alkyds & Oils • Styrenated alkyds • Hydroxy functional acrylics • Thermoplastic acrylics • Specialty alkyds • Amino resins • Thermoset acrylics • Saturated oil free polyesters

010 596 4444 | sgb@syntheticpolymers.co.za | www.syntheticpolymers.co.za


COLOUR SELLS AND THE RIGHT COLOUR SELLS BETTER The Paint section of any hardware store should be the center of attention. The meeting place and a profit section of the store. It is the feminine side of what has been seen to be a masculine pastime! The world of colour is changing daily and what worked yesterday will have your competitor selling more paint tomorrow.


his is where NCS Colour Centre South Africa comes in. We are the experts and can help you widen your customer base and enhance sales. Our on-line training keeps retailers up to date on new technology and how to effectively use colour. Sign up for free on www.ncscolour.co.za. Once the client is in the store any colour advice has to be instantaneous. The last thing you want is for your customer to return home with a colour chip never to return. Working with the NCS system which is based on how the human being sees colour will ensure the customer leaves the store with the paint they came in to buy. THIS IS ALL DONE THROUGH THE PURCHASE OF 1 OF THE 3 NCS COLOUR READERS

1. NCS Colour Scanner which was launched in 2009 - R12500.00* 2. NCS Colourpin II - R1850.00* 3. Colorix Colorcatch Nano - R8500.00* *subject to Euro/Rand exchanges

WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH THESE? 1. Capture colour onsite – pin it with the NCS Colourpin, check the colour in the NCS index and e-mail the notation straight from your smartphone to the retailer or manufacturer. Your customers paint can be delivered before you are at your next appointment. 2. Accurately measure the colour of smooth, structured or patterned surfaces to determine the corresponding colour of the preselected swatch. This can be done with the pocket sized Colorix Colorcatch Nano which reads and measures 50000 pixels separately automatically eliminating non-dominant colours such as shade effects and dirty surfaces. The Colorix Colorcatch Nano works with either the IOS or Android visualizer apps which can be downloaded for +/_R 150-00 – check out colorix.com for more info. Using the app gives the retailer the ability to match a colour from a fabric or paint sample to NCS in 2 seconds flat and by using the NCS atlas the customer can see the different colour combinations. This ensures immediate buy in from your client. NCS also offer the NCS colour course – this empowers your staff who, once trained in colour, are far more confident to approach the customer. Taking the course gives you access to accredited NCS colour consultants – a drawcard for new customers.

HOW THE NCS COLOUR SYSTEM CAN MAKE YOU MONEY: A customer comes in with floor tiles for her dining room. You can find the colour by using one of the 3 NCS colour readers. Immediately she can see the colour on the page of the Colour Atlas and all the combination possibilities. One happy client who leaves with a full colour scheme for her house from her living area to her passage to bedrooms and bathrooms and the product to make it happen!

10 | Coatings SA

PRODUCTS OFFERED BY CURECHEM Calcined kaolin, Titanium dioxide, Driers, Defoamers, Barium Sulphate, Alkyd resins, MEKO (methyl ethyl ketoxime) Butyl oxitol Cellosize thickeners, Methylene Chloride, NP9 Soya Lecithin, Sodium hexametaphosphate, Zinc phosphate MEG (mono ethylene glycol) Calcium carbonate Viscogel Dispersing Agents Singel and Combination Driers Mono Propylene Glycol N-Butanol Phosphoric Acid




67 Webb Road Jet Park Tel: +27 11 397 6364


Heubach commissions new production facility Heubach GmbH has completed and commissioned its new production plant for anticorrosive pigments at its United States location near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


his state-of-the-art plant is increasing the group’s global production capacity by approximately 4 000 tons. “The implementation of the new production plant in the USA will strengthen Heubach’s market position in the area of anti-corrosive pigments over the long term and is part of a comprehensive growth plan. Initially, Heucophos ZPA, Heucophos ZPO and Heucophos ZCP Plus will be produced at the plant in the USA in addition to zinc phosphate. Further products in our portfolio will follow during the second phase,” said Birgit Genn, managing director, Heubach GmbH. The Heubach Group has continuously invested in the optimisation and automation of its production processes as well as the expansion of its production capacities in recent years. The Group aims to continue driving its growth by implementing further investment projects at its locations in India and in the USA. c

The implementation of the new production plant in the USA will strenghthen Heubach's market position in the area of anti-corrosive pigments over the long term and is part of a comprehensive growth plan

12 | Coatings SA


Imagine Chemistry 2018 finalists announced! AkzoNobel Specialty Chemicals has selected 20 finalists for the 2018 edition of its Imagine Chemistry challenge.


magine Chemistry was launched to help solve real-life chemistry-related challenges and uncover sustainable business opportunities. The 2018 edition generated no less than 150 innovative ideas from start-ups, scale-ups, scientists and others. “This is the second year of Imagine Chemistry, and if anything, we had upped the challenge for potential partners, putting forward harderto-solve problems,” said Peter Nieuwenhuizen, chief technology officer at AkzoNobel Specialty Chemicals, adding, “The number and quality of ideas again surpassed our expectations and we have a list of finalists that we believe hold great potential to address customer needs and contribute to a sustainable future.” AkzoNobel Specialty Chemicals finalists for the 2018 edition of its Imagine Chemistry challenge will participate in a three-day event that takes place in June at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden. The finalists will be supported by RD&I and business development

experts to further develop their business ideas and concepts. The challenge is a key part of AkzoNobel Specialty Chemicals’ innovation strategy, said Nieuwenhuizen. “We believe that effective R&D aiming for breakthrough solutions requires collaboration across the value chain. Imagine Chemistry shows the value in that thinking. We look forward to working with the eventual winners to turn their ideas into a commercial reality with real global impact,” he said. To meet its sustainability and growth ambitions, AkzoNobel Specialty Chemicals continues to forge an innovation ecosystem around a model of collaborative innovation. This is built on its global network of RD&I centres including its S/park open innovation centre in the Netherlands, partnerships with leading universities and institutes, participation in venture capital funding, collaborations across the value chain and the company’s Imagine Chemistry challenge, which is organised in partnership with KPMG. c

THE FINALISTS FROM THE CHALLENGE CATEGORIES ARE: Sustainable small particle technologies Edinburgh Napier University FineCell Sweden RMIT University Univeristy of Nottingham Waste water-free chemical sites Arvia Technology Model engineering Water Knight Intelligent chemical plants Fero Labs Invert Robotics Europe RISE Semiotic Labs Serious VR Revolutionising chlorate production FaradPower Wageningen University & Research Sustainability liquid-to-power technologies MicroSpray Technologies Zero footprint surfactant platforms Fraunhofer UMSICHT Green Lizard Technologies Royal Cosun VTT Technical research Centre of Finland Open Idea box Solugen Inc.

AkzoNobel to sell speciality chemicals AkzoNobel recently announced the sale of 100% of its Specialty Chemicals business to The Carlyle Group and GIC for an enterprise value of €10.1bn. This transaction creates two focused and high performing businesses – Paints and Coatings, and Specialty Chemicals as part of its strategy announced in April 2017.


oday is a key milestone in creating two focused, high performing businesses, to generate value for all stakeholders. We delivered on our commitment to separate the Specialty Chemicals business and did so ahead of schedule,” said Thierry Vanlancker, CEO, AkzoNobel. “We are very pleased to announce the sale of Specialty Chemicals to The Carlyle Group and GIC. We believe

the business is well positioned to capture growth opportunities and further improve performance. Carlyle has significant experience in the chemicals industry and a proven track record when it comes to health, safety, innovation and sustainability,” he said. “We are happy to invest in the Specialty Chemicals business and proud to support a business with such a strong heritage. We are committed

13 | Coatings SA

to growing the business, and building upon its innovation capability, high quality work force and asset base, as well as its world-class sustainability and environmental practices. We look forward to working with the management team to transition the business to a successful independent company,” said Martin Sumner and Zeina Bain, managing directors, The Carlyle Group. c


Expanding possibilities

When producing colourants for the coatings and thermosets industries, quality control and colour matching are critical. Chromaflo has its own software development team and its family of programmes can help producers save time and money.


hromaflo Technologies’ Innovatint system has opened the market by supplying additional information and possibilities to users. Although the word ‘tint’ indicates the programme is for tinting purposes only, the family of programmes covers an array of applications besides driving tinting machines. POINT OF SALES While driving the tinting machine to produce cans of paint is the main goal of point-of-sales software, Innovatint takes this to a new level by providing different versions that serve all market needs. The programme can instantly receive recipe updates via the Internet, provide product information, perform in-store colour matching and save customer details, greatly improving the customer experience. Lead times shrink, the correct information is always available and the best recipes are loaded without hassle. With links to multiple databases and tinting machines, users can quickly switch among them, making this a powerful tool. LAB Database management and colour matching have never been simpler. With the clearly structured Lab software users can easily build databases, read in colour cards and maintain products. The system’s matching engine means full-colour matching projects are easily performed. It also allows users to characterise all of the components, set up

matching rules and calculate full colour cards within seconds. Innovatint Lab gives the user full control of products, colours and point-ofsales software. QUALITY CONTROL (QC) Consistency is very important in the production process, without stable base material, colours will not be accurate. The Innovatint QC tool has been created as a complete system to monitor the production of batches and compare them to previously produced materials. Not only is it possible to measure and calculate deviations based on colour properties, the tool also saves results from other properties, physically and chemically. Users can define their own parameters and set up working procedures that allow the tool to act as a complete quality control archive. STATISTICS There is so much market information available, but without proper analysis tools, the numbers may not make much sense. By offering several levels of statistical tools, tinting information can be retrieved and sorted to create numerous reports. Providing statistical information throughout an organisation allows all departments to benefit from this valuable information and use it to their benefit. SERVICE The system allows monitoring of tinting

14 | Coatings SA

machines online. This will immediately notify the user of issues and whether a service engineer should be sent. This allows for more efficient maintenance and reduces the loss of revenue through broken machines. The system also shows historical maintenance performed, spare parts used and any weak points. SALES Customers are becoming more demanding especially in the age of instant gratification. Innovatint allows users to react to customer price requests faster and thus sell more products. The system offers a tool for making price calculations, giving internal sales department’s access to the latest formulas and prices, allowing them to quote using the correct templates to send to the customer. ERP Linking Innovatint to an ERP system improves data security and allows team members to share knowledge. The system offers standardised tools, but also custommade solutions, depending on the needs of the customer. It offers total integration within a company’s structure and will contribute efficiency resulting in better service and control of the company’s process, from price request to production of products. For more information, visit www.chromaflo.com

26 2015

You have the ideas


pigment preparations and dyes, used in applications such as Automotive Coatings, Decorative Coatings and Industrial Coatings. We make modern paints and coatings not only safer, but also significantly more colourful and long-lasting. WWW.CLARIANT.COM

An addi(c)tive tool to find YOUR PERFECT MATCH Discover our new paint additive app for paints, colorants and emulsion polymerization.


PAINT ADDITIVES Our paint ingredients and formulation expertise will support your growing need for sustainable solutions. We provide solutions with our additives for paints, additives for colorants and emulsifiers for polymerization. View all products in the app with a short description – MSDS and TDS files are available to view and download, too. Don’t wait any longer – scan your code and find the right paint additive for your formulation on both the Apple Store and Google Play Store.




Chemicals and the environment

The presence of toxic compounds in the environment is one of the main causes of chemical pollution. Coatings SA looks at some of the major causes of chemical pollution and how green chemistry can transform it.


uring the manufacturing process of raw materials and coatings, chemical reactions lead to gasses being released into the environment (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and particle pollution. These can have a severe impact on the environment, the health of manufacturing staff and the community. Some of the largest risks include mixing and cleaning operations and the pigment grinding and milling operations. Both of these processes can lead to harmful substances being released into the environment. With these issues coming to light in the early 1990s, the industry has made great strides to work on methods to lower the impact on the environment. However, heavy metals, and volatile organic compounds remain some of the leading concerns in the coatings industry. Many of the raw materials used in the manufacturing process can lead to harmful substances released into our environment.

These materials include: • Crude oil and petroleum refined products • Solvents used in industry • Chlorinated solvents utilised in industrial degreasing processes • Polyaromatic hydrocarbons found in petroleum products and oil • Alcohols such as ethanol, methanol and isopropanol. Substances which the SA Paint Manufacturing Association are very concerned about • Detergents.  CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS A society at risk! When chemicals are released into the atmosphere it creates an immediate risk for all forms of life. However, not all effects are immediate and in most instances, exposure might be too low to cause any major health risks or even risk to life.  The risk to this type of exposure over time is known as bioaccumulation and is

18 | Coatings SA

the effect when low-levels of exposure build up through the tissue and bodily fluids. This may lead to long-term health concerns. Mercury is an example of such build-up. Another type of high-risk exposure is through chemical spills. A spill of this nature places our soil at risk and could potentially cause harm for generations. Contaminated soil might affect agriculture, future water supply and pose serious risk to humans.  Chemicals spills can also penetrate through the soil and contaminate the water table. The effects of such contamination can be disastrous as the area affected can be extremely large.  For further reading, kindly visit: https://sciencing.com/shortterm-longtermeffects-chemical-pollution-23662.html

WHAT CAN INDUSTRY DO? Dr Alex C Bissember, senior lecturer in Chemistry at the School of Natural Sciences – Chemistry, University of

feature Tasmania, wrote an article, Green chemistry is key to reducing waste and improving sustainability The link is available at the end of the article. He explored the theory around Green Chemistry. It was not until the 1980s that the environment became a priority for the chemical industry. This was prompted largely by stricter environmental regulations and a need to address the sector’s poor reputation, particularly due to pollution and industrial accidents. However, today, the industry is rapidly improving and this changing mindset has provided the backdrop for the emergence of green chemistry. WHAT IS GREEN CHEMISTRY? Sustainability is becoming increasingly important in almost every industry and chemistry is no different. Green chemistry aims to minimise the environmental impact of the chemical industry. This includes shifting away from oil to renewable sources where possible.  Green chemistry also prioritises safety, improving energy efficiency and, most importantly, minimising (and ideally) eliminating toxic waste from the very beginning. Important examples of green chemistry include phasing out the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigerants, which have played a role in creating the ozone hole, developing more efficient ways of making pharmaceuticals, including the well-known painkiller ibuprofen and chemotherapy drug Taxol and developing cheaper, more efficient solar cells. A SECRET TO CLEANER CHEMISTRY Catalysts are substances that accelerate reactions, typically by enabling chemical bonds to be broken and formed without being consumed in the process. Not only do they speed up reactions, but they can also facilitate chemical transformations that might not otherwise occur.  In principle, only a very small quantity of a catalyst is needed to generate copious amounts of a product, with reduced levels of waste.  The development of new catalytic

reactions is one particularly important area of green chemistry. As well as being more environmentally friendly, these processes are also typically more cost effective. Catalysts take many forms, including biological enzymes, small organic molecules, metals, and particles that provide a better surface for reactions to take place. Roughly 90% of industrial chemical processes use catalysts and at least 15 Nobel Prizes have been awarded for catalysis research. This represents a tremendously important and active area of both fundamental and applied research. Source: http://theconversation.com/greenchemistry-is-key-to-reducing-waste-andimproving-sustainability-70740

GREEN CHEMISTRY By definition, Green Chemistry is also known as sustainable chemistry. This is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. Green chemistry applies across the life cycle of a chemical product, including its design, manufacture, and use. The core principles behind Green Chemistry are: • Reduce waste • Eliminate costly end-of-the-pipe treatments  • Yield safer products  • Reduce use of energy and resources  • Improved competitiveness of chemical manufacturers and its customers. CHEMICAL COMPANIES LEADING THE FIGHT In 1999, the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI) launched and are a measurement across thousands of companies trading publicly. It gives a benchmark to investors on sustainable business practices. The measurement is a combination of a company’s economic, environmental and social criteria. The Index tracks performance across 60 industries. Table 1 highlights the chemical companies acknowledged on the DJSI for 2017 and the highlighted companies are businesses within the borders of South Africa. c

19 | Coatings SA

THE 12 PRINCIPLES OF GREEN CHEMISTRY 1. Pollution prevention 2. Atom economy 3. Less hazardous chemical synthesis 4. Designing safer chemicals 5. Safer solvents and auxiliaries 6. Design for energy efficiency 7. Use of renewable feedstocks 8. Reduce derivatives 9. Use of catalysis 10. Design for degradation 11. Real-time analysis for pollution prevention 12. Inherently safer chemistry for accident prevention. Source: http://www.saci.co.za/GreenChemistry

TABLE 1: Chemical Companies on the DJSI* Solvay SA Chemicals, Belgium PTT Global Chemical PCL Chemicals, Thailand Praxair Inc Chemicals, United States Novozymes A/S Chemicals, Denmark Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corp Chemicals, Japan Linde AG Chemicals, Germany LG Chem Ltd Chemicals, South Korea LANXESS AG Chemicals, Germany Koninklijke DSM NV Chemicals, Netherlands Indorama Ventures PCL Chemicals, Thailand Givaudan SA Chemicals, Switzerland Evonik Industries AG Chemicals, Germany Ecolab Inc Chemicals, United States DowDuPont Inc Chemicals, United States Clariant AG, Switzerland Braskem SA Chemicals, Brazil BASF SE Chemicals, Germany Akzo Nobel NV Chemicals, Netherlands.

SOURCES AND REFERENCES Sciencing.com theconversation.com/green-chemistryis-key-to-reducing-waste-and-improvingsustainability-70740, Dr, Alex C, Bissember www.saci.co.za/GreenChemistry * yearbook.robecosam.com/companies

conference review

Coatings for Africa Coatings for Africa made its muchanticipated return at the end of May and the buzz within the Sandton Convention Centre was more than enough proof that the three-day event was a sure-fire success.


his year’s event set new standards with over 1 300 visitors, more than 100 exhibitors, 35 countries and 32 speakers. During our visit to the event the overall feedback from exhibitors were mostly positive. Exhibitors acknowledged the overall positive energy at the event; however, international economic pressure remained a concern. The oil price pushing ever closer to the $80 a barrel mark is worrying. The talk on the exhibition floor earmarked this as one of the biggest risks to the coatings industry for the

IMCD - distributor of speciality coatings raw materials.

Chromaflo creates chemistries to solve complex colourant challenges.

20 | Coatings SA


remainder of the year. Also talked about amongst exhibitors was that the event was sold out. The exhibition floor was packed with suppliers, and service providers throughout the industry as well as a good contingent of international exhibitors. It provided the perfect opportunity for delegates to build business relationships and explore new technologies entering the coatings industry. For more information on future events, visit www.dmgevents.com

Don’t follow the herd!

your local partner in colour pigments At Delta Colours we strive to be the leading supplier of an extensive range of high quality pigments and additives from world class manufactures. We offer excellent customer service, technical support, local stock availability and next day product delivery. Our extensive product range includes ultramarine blues, metallics, organics, fluorescence, pearls, glitters, thermo-chromes, cadmiums, lead chromates, iron oxides, CICP’s, phthalo’s, carbon black, buff & grey titanium dioxides, selected additives and cutting-edge technology in anti-corrosive packages. Visit our newly revamped website for more information!

follow an expert pigment supplier

Phone: +27 21 876 4167 · Email: orders@deltacolours.com 71 Village Artisan, Cabriére Street, Franschhoek 7690 Western Cape, South Africa


conference review



Synthetic Polymers.


Carst & Walker.

Lejn and African Colour Systems.

Crest Chemicals.

22 | Coatings SA


conference review




This year's event set new standards with

over 1300 visitors, more than 100 exhibitors, 35 countries and 32 speakers



Bidvest Panalpina Logistics.

23 | Coatings SA

conference review

Protea Chemicals.





24 | Coatings SA

conference review

FLP Rentals.




continues on page 28


25 | Coatings SA

conference review continued from page 25




Rhine Ruhr Process Equipment.

Delta Colours.

28 | Coatings SA

conference review

Synthetic Polymers – Here to stay!

With new organisers behind 2018 Coatings for Africa, Coatings SA spoke with Sanjeev Bhatt of Synthetic Polymers to gauge his thoughts on where the show is heading, its growth and what Synthetic Polymers will bring to the African continent. What is the value of the Coatings for Africa show? It was roughly three years ago that DMG took over the reigns of the show. And if I look back at the event, there was a fresh energy about the exhibition. I think we can safely say that reviewing exhibitor sentiment, the 2018 Coatings for Africa exhibition certainly outperformed the 2015 show. Over the past couple of years, the show had to undergo a metamorphosis and the result I believe is positive. There were a good number of international exhibitors, which is a feather in South Africa’s cap. South Africa is the proverbial gateway into the rest of Africa. Our international friends desperately want to do business with Africa, and their only path into the rest of the continent is through South Africa. This makes South Africa part of a very unique global village and again, we are ideally positioned seeing that we are situated in the middle – between the Far East and the Americas. This is why this show is important to South Africa. We can use this platform to change the minds of the east and the west – to think south! What do you believe has helped grow the Coatings for Africa Show? First and foremost the realisation that South Africa is capable of hosting and putting on a world-class and reputable coatings show. DMG has loads of experience with their

shows in the Middle East and we can see the positive impact it already had on the local coatings show. Furthermore, Africa is a very central location and this has added to the show’s popularity. International visitors do not have to travel around the world to a location, and we are also very accessible for visitors from Europe. I also believe the Coatings SA has been instrumental in raising awareness throughout the local industry. It is vitally important for a publication like Coatings SA to take a message to market. And looking at where we started in 2013, then the 2018 show certainly has taken the event to new heights. Do you believe that enough is being done to discuss key industry issues and how can we improve going forward? The Coatings for Africa show is a different platform where suppliers showcase their products to members of the industry. However, we must not forget that Africa is a unique continent with its own unique challenges. And there is most certainly an urgent need for a platform to address issues plaguing our local industry. It is clear that we need to publicise more – unfair competitive advantages and dumping of products are just two very serious issues, which puts us on the back foot. There is a lot to be done and a lot to discuss.

Sanjeev Bhatt.

What were Synthetic Polymers’ goals for this year’s show? This is the first time that Synthetic Polymers has exhibited at the show and we had to make a statement. We are here to stay! We have a variety of products catering to the coatings industry and many new products in the pipeline. Some of these will be first of its kind in Africa, so we definitely see a long-term future for our company. The focus was to ensure that there was a general awareness of all of our products at this year’s show. When we launch, we want to create a vibe and to strike while the iron is hot – watch out towards quarter 4 of 2018 and early 2019. Many exciting things are coming. c For more information 010-596-4444.

FLEXIBILITY FORMULATED FOR FLEXIBILITY ON SITE Chromaflo can bring the colorant experts to your lab, with on-site color solutions and color services that help ensure the color accuracy, the first time and every time.

Phone: +27 11 084 1600 E-Mail: adminSA@chromaflo.com Chromaflo Technologies Africa 17 Crusher Road, Crown Ext. 3 Johannesburg 2095, South Africa WWW.CHROMAFLO.COM



commercial vehicle news



The little Chinese giant MAHINDRA


To assemble vehicles in SA TRUCK X Adds revs!




5 Priorities for fleet managers

31 | Coatings SA

In it for the

long haul UNIQUE SELLING POINTS: • 3Year/ 90 000 Km Service Plan • 5Year/ 150 000 Km Warranty • 84KW




GAUTENG: CENTURION 012 660 1097 EAST RAND 011 915 8444 KEMPTON PARK 011 394 7908 PRETORIA NORTH 012 546 4503 SILVERTON 012 804 7077 WEST RAND 011 668 0300 NORTH WEST: BRITS 081 518 8477 RUSTENBURG 014 592 5400 KLERKSDORP 018 462 4041 KZN: PIETERMARITZBURG 033 394 2595 RICHARDS BAY 035 789 2655 FREE STATE: BETHLEHEM 058 303 5661 BLOEMFONTEIN 051 447 7042 WELKOM 057 050 0050 LIMPOPO: MOKOPANE 015 491 2855 TRICHARDT 017 638 0725/6 TZANEEN 015 306 0136 EASTERN CAPE: HUMANSDORP 042 291 0086 PORT ELIZABETH 041 484 1905 NORTHERN CAPE: UPINGTON 054 338 8833 WESTERN CAPE: PAARL 021 871 1317 PAROW 021 930 4613 SWAZILAND: 00268 2518 7867





on the move

The little Chinese giant Good business is all about getting the job done, and to achieve this means having the right tools and vehicles at your disposal. That's what makes you a trusted business partner.


here are many vehicles in the light commercial segment to choose from, but none offer what the JMC Carrying SWB dropside can – a 1.6 ton loading capacity. This is impressive considering the driver only needs a Code 8 licence to get behind the wheel of this little giant. Boasting a 2.8L Diesel Turbo Charged engine, torque is your friend at 235Nm and 84kW. Sure, you won’t break any land speed records, but speed is not the reason you would want to compliment your arsenal of delivery vehicles with the JMC Carrying SWB. Getting in is easy using the handle at the top right of the door for support and the welcome step just below the door to assist the driver to climb in. Buckle up and assume the command position. The seats are comfortable and three passengers fit in easily. The driver has a clear all-round view of the surroundings. The truck is high, immediately improving driver confidence. The large windscreen, side windows and back window provide an almost 360 degree view eliminating blind spots. The large side mirrors sit far forward offering a split view between top

and bottom. Once you figured them out, you quickly feel comfortable changing lanes without straining to see.      The fuselage is basic, but again, this is not your grandfather's Mercedes Benz. Still, it has everything you would want if you spend eight hours of every working day behind the wheel. Power steering, electric windows, air conditioning, a radio and cup holders to keep coffee secure on those winter mornings – not a bad office to be in.   First gear is short and strong. When empty, pulling away in second is easy. Third is in an odd position. You have to look for it, almost where you would expect fifth. Keeping up with normal traffic in the city is effortless if you step on the accelerator. I did not test the fuel consumption, but I guess the claimed 12km/litre won’t hold up if you are in a hurry. My heavy foot is the culprit here and you shouldn’t be waking up all the horses between traffic lights the way I did – yet, you can move quickly if you want to and that’s good to know. Just watch out for the speed bumps. The suspension was built to carry a load. When the cab is empty it feels a bit like

34 | Coatings SA

riding a bucking horse. Again, realistically, you cannot expect the nice soft ride that you get from driving the family saloon. You do get used to it, and once you’ve hit the first bump too fast you know to cool it when you reach the next one. The open road is smooth. You feel comfortable doing 100km/h and the vacuum assisted braking system provides fairly decent stopping power. If you are driving a bit too fast, a warning beep and light reminds you what speed you are driving at as soon as you push closer to 120km/h. But one doesn’t buy a truck to commute from place to place – the real test is with a proper load. For this we stopped at one of our long standing clients A.Shak. Its core business is the manufacturing and supplying of building industry chemicals. With a handy forklift operator to assist, I dropped the sides for easy pallet loading. The sides drop down almost 90˚, with rubber stoppers preventing the sides from damaging the cab. The rubber stops are most useful when the forklift pushes too close, absorbing the unwanted pressure pushing too hard onto the vehicle’s body. The

on the move rubberised back prevents unnecessary damage. Close the sides and secure the load using tie downs by threading them through the tie down loops and you are ready to get moving again. 1.6 ton compresses the suspension enough to make for a comfortable drive. Finally, the truck is doing what it is meant to do and JMC isn’t lying with its ‘in it for the long haul’ tag line. The handling is comfortable hauling large loads is a breeze. You have no reason to worry about other vehicles not knowing what you are doing. The indicators, brake lights and headlamps are clearly visible to other road users and the headlight lights up the road with perfect crisp light for night driving.    Overall the truck performs well. It definitely has its place in the market. Cindy Engels, sales and marketing director at A.Shak said they would consider the JMC Carrying to supplement its fleet that consists mostly of 4 ton trucks. This is simply because it is a smaller vehicle, but can carry a large load – it is ideal for smaller long haul deliveries. This vehicle is the ideal fit for smaller suppliers. It is also an excellent delivery vehicle for hardware retailers. And further, this truck is available in a van body and tipper configuration. In my opinion, this is a winner when you weigh up what you get for what you pay. c

The vehicle can carry a load of 1.6 ton.

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS Name: JMC Carrying SWB with drop sides Engine size: 2.8L Turbo Charge Diesel Transmission: 5 speed Rear body (LxWxH): 3100 x 1600 x 380mm Fuel tank: 63 litres Fuel consumption: 8l/100km (claimed by JMC) Max power: 84kW @ 3 600rpm Max torque: 235Nm @ 2 300rpm Warranty: 5 year/120 000km including free top up Service plan: 3 year/90 000km Service intervals: 10 000km 24 hours roadside assistance: 4 years Price: R218 880 – R243 990

ROOM FOR IMPROVEMENT • The glow plugs take a while to warm up in the morning • The cab is noisy • The indicators doesn’t always switch off after you have completed a turn • Third gear is in an unnatural position and hard to find at times.

Two pallets fit easily.

Electric windows.

The comfortable interior. Easy to attach at our hitch.

WHAT I LIKE • Hauling 1.6 tons with a code 8 licence • High ground clearance makes travelling bad roads possible • The rubberised back protects the body The dropside handles. • The suspension allows for an easy tow-hitch fitting • The price.

35 | Coatings SA

on the move

Mahindra to assemble vehicles in South Africa Mahindra South Africa has joined the league of South African vehicle manufacturers with the opening of a state-of-the-art vehicle assembly facility in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal.


he new vehicle assembly facility for Mahindra vehicles is located in the Dube Tradeport Special Economic Zone (SEZ) next to the King Shaka Airport in KwaZulu-Natal. Here the company will assemble the complete range of Mahindra Pik Up single- and double cab pick-ups, which they previously imported in fully built-up form from India. The facility represents an initial investment of R10 million and will employ 25 South Africans from the surrounding area. According to Mahindra, the assembly facility will have an annual capacity of 2 500 Pik Up vehicles on a single-shift production. Its modular design easily allows for an increase of production to 4 000 units per annum or the addition of any other Mahindra vehicle, such as the Genio or Bolero pick-up. According to Mr Rajesh Gupta, the CEO of Mahindra South Africa, the decision to assemble vehicles in Durban follows Mahindra’s exceptional growth since it first established an office here in 2004.

QUICK LOOK – MAHINDRA PIK UP The new Mahindra Pik Up was introduced in South Africa in October last year and has since become the company’s best-selling model. The range consists of three singlecab and two double cab models, all equipped with Mahindra’s updated mHawk turbodiesel engine of 2.2 litres. This engine is rated 103kW at 3 750rpm and delivers 320Nm of torque between

“Mahindra has grown significantly since the launch of its first models in South Africa. In the last five years alone, it has grown its market share by a compound annual growth rate of over 4.6% a year, which puts us in a league of the five fastest growing companies in the same period. Much of this growth was achieved in a declining market, which indicates our increased acceptance and popularity in the South Africa market,” says Gupta.

1 500rpm and 2 800rpm. All models are equipped with a sixspeed manual gearbox, a full size spare wheel with lock and a mechanical diff lock. At the entry level, Mahindra offers the S4 4x2 single-cab Mahindra Pik Up, which loses the colour-coded bumpers and door handles in favour for a very attractive entry price. This model has proven very popular in the agricultural sector and for small businesses, thanks to its easy maintenance and 1 195kg load capacity. Next up is the S6 in 4x2 or 4x4. The latter is fitted with a transfer case for full low range capabilities and both S6 singlecab models have air conditioning, power steering and power windows and luxuries such as keyless entry.

36 | Coatings SA

The assembly of the first South African Mahindra Pik Up models have already started, but production will ramp up to a steady pace of around 200 units per month in the next two months. To support the local assembly facility, Mahindra has added state-of-the-art quality testing equipment to ensure that this plant offers products that meet and exceed Mahindra’s strict quality standards for all locally produced vehicles.

All single cab models are rated to tow up to 2 500kg. The Mahindra Pik Up double cab range is called the S10 and it is available in a choice of 4x2 and 4x4 models. Like the single cab models, the double cab S10s are equipped with a six speed gearbox, a low range transfer case for the 4x4 model. It can load 1 095kg on the 4x2 model and 995kg for the 4x4 model and also tow a braked trailer of up to 2 500kg. The S10 double cab model is fitted with luxuries such as an automatic air conditioning system, electric windows, and a touch-screen infotainment system with Bluetooth cell phone connectivity and follow-me-home headlamps. Pricing for the Pik Up range starts at R189 995 for the S4 single cab. The 4x4 S10 double cab model costs R357 995. Most models are sold with a 5-year / 90 000 km service plan and 4 year / 120 000 km warranty. c

on the move

TruckX adds revs! TruckX, South Africa’s all-encompassing, interactive event for the commercial transport industry, has moved up a gear.


ith a new headline sponsor, new industry partnerships and new events in parallel, TruckX 2018 is set to surpass the record-breaking support it received last year. The event takes place on July 11 and 12 at the Kyalami Grand Prix Circuit, Midrand. “In line with our vision of creating an industry event that gives visitors an interactive, hands-on, practical experience, a full-blown exhibition and outside events were added to TruckX last year,” explains John Thomson, the exhibition organiser, adding, “To enable this, TruckX moved from the Sandton Convention Centre to Kyalami Grand Prix Circuit. This really worked! TruckX had its highest number of visitors ever, over 2 100 people.” Thomson expects to increase attendance at this year’s show by 50%, since support from the industry for the new format has been extremely encouraging. “There is a crying need for a conference and exhibition of this calibre,” says Japie Burger, transport manager at ZZ2, a farming conglomerate operating 104 trucks. Norman Pillay, managing director of Jesslyn Carriers, agrees, “The expo showcased how technology in the transport industry is changing rapidly and evolving with the times. TruckX is an excellent opportunity to get updates of events and to stay ahead of industry developments.”

For more information, visit www.truckx.co.za

Robin van Rensburg – CEO: Fiat Chrysler Automobiles South Africa.

Bongani Motloung – Shell.

WELCOME SHELL Global energy group Shell has taken headline sponsorship for this year’s event. “We believe that TruckX and FleetX are invaluable industry events. Shell South Africa is proud and delighted to have been afforded the opportunity to be one of the headline sponsors for 2018,” said Bongani Motloung, sales manager, Shell SA.

HEAD SPACE FOR TRUCKERS The hugely popular TruckX conference aimed at owners and operators of trucks and heavy vehicles, offers a diverse menu of topical issues addressed by industry experts. Day one will focus on heavy commercial transport issues. Topics on this year’s agenda include: the Challenges of Running Big Commercial Fleets, Connectivity in the Commercial Vehicle Space, as well as Getting the Most from Commercial Vehicle Tyres. The FleetX Conference, which takes place on July 12, focuses on issues affecting passenger and light commercial vehicles. This year’s line-up includes the Future of Dealerships, Vehicle Safety, as well as Connectivity in Transportation.

CROSS-BORDER CONFERENCE Each morning TruckX will run a jam-packed and informative conference. “Regional Connectivity – Making Inter-State Transport Work in Africa”, is hands-on and includes topics such as: Current Challenges and Possible Solutions for Regional Connectivity, as well as Tracking and Tracing Cargo from Origin to Destination. Perspectives from Cross-Border agencies, Government, Logistics Service Providers, Freight Forwarders, Transport Managers, as well as Cargo Owners, will form part of this exciting Programme. There will be delegates from a wide range of African countries, as well as a cross- section of speakers representative of the continent.

37 | Coatings SA

on the move


priorities for fleet managers

Derick De Vries, head of Standard Bank Fleet Management.

1 VEHICLE ACQUISITION COST Economic uncertainty, inflationary pressure and rand volatility do nothing to make fleet managers’ optimisation of their vehicle replacement and acquisition strategy any easier. Just about the only certainty is that there will be more pressure on fleet managers to keep their acquisition budgets and the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of their vehicles under control. It is not simply a matter of changing over to cheaper vehicles, as driver satisfaction and productivity also has a bearing on a company’s beleaguered bottom line. More thought, research and planning will have to go into fleet managers’ purchasing decision this year than in easier times. 2 SAFETY OF DRIVERS AND VEHICLES Local crime levels and road accident rates are among the worst in the world, so it is not surprising that driver and vehicle safety remains a top priority for commercial fleet managers. Deteriorating road surface conditions do not help either. Fortunately, there is a lot that fleet managers can do to improve the safety of their drivers and vehicles. The key is a clear company safety policy that goes beyond

Managing an efficient commercial fleet is a complex challenge at the best of times. During a difficult year in a distressed economy it becomes even more important for fleet managers to focus on their top priorities, says Derick De Vries, head of Standard Bank Fleet Management, who identifies the five most important issues exercising the minds of South Africa’s commercial fleet managers in 2018. simply urging everyone to abide by the rules of the road. Accident rates can be drastically reduced if drivers are aware of a heightened safety culture of the company, from compulsory roadside resting to explicit protocols around cellphone usage. The training of drivers and the proactive management of their behaviour through not only technology such as tracking and cab cameras, but also old-fashioned feedback and attention, is the only way to keep a company’s safety policy alive and effective.

3 FUEL PRICES AND MAINTENANCE COSTS In times of unpredictable fuel prices the careful management of a fleet’s fuel consumption becomes even more important. On the people-side of a fleet, route planning, load management, good driver behaviour and fueltransaction management are what fleet managers have to keep their eyes on to keep fuel consumption under control. And on the mechanical side of the operation, preventative maintenance and basic vehicle hygiene such as tyre pressure and wheel alignment are key components of managing the fuel bill. 4 USE OF TECHNOLOGY No matter what the economic conditions, new technology makes it an exciting time to be a fleet manager, with an increasing array of tools that can drastically reduce fuel and maintenance costs of a fleet. Drivers’ braking, speeding, turning and idling habits can be scrutinised with the latest tracking technology.

38 | Coatings SA

On-board cameras can help analyse incidents in unprecedented detail. Sophisticated software can optimise routes, and IT tools such as Transaction Authorisation can help manage thousands of fleet transactions. Technology that is supplemented by the use of data analytics will assist fleet managers to get to the bottom of the real reasons where they experience fleet expenses that seem to escalate. The challenge for fleet managers is to decide which systems to prioritise and to make sure that they build the capacity to put the technology to full use without getting swamped by the information it generates.

5 REGULATIONS Commercial fleets are subject to more regulations than ordinary road users, including load restrictions, passenger safety requirements, and rules governing the transport of chemicals. One way of grappling with the increasingly onerous rules is to embrace efficiency and safety standards as a competitive edge, rather than trying to fly under the regulatory radar. The Road Traffic Management System (RTMS) is a voluntary system that gives operators a framework that goes beyond traffic regulations and takes them to the forefront of fleet management. Lower costs, greater efficiency and a reputation for excellence in the eyes of the customer are just some of the advantages. c For more information contact 011-547-0036 or email: Derick.devries@standardbank.co.za


4 steps to effective pigment dispersions

Pigments are designed and produced to be insoluble particles used to impart colour in a variety of materials. They can be classified as organic, inorganic, effect, and functional. The diverse range of pigment chemistries, the end use requirements, and the broad range of colours available can create a challenge for chemists in selecting the optimal pigment or additive for a given application.

By Jadel Baptista, Technical Director, Lansco Colors


roper pigment and additive selection can be critical in determining the performance of the finished coating as well as the production efficiency. Understanding the various pigment types, properties and chemical families will help the formulator in determining the most effective pigment chemistry and manufacturing processing thus avoiding potential problems with the final coating and application. This paper will focus on pigment families and their application in waterborne, solvent borne and universal dispersions.

PIGMENTS VS DYES – IS SOLUBILITY IMPORTANT? Pigments are inorganic or organic colourants that are virtually insoluble in the application medium, while dyes are colourants that are soluble in the application medium. Understanding this difference is the most important concept to help with the correct colourant choice. Dyes are organic molecules with brighter undertone, higher transparency, and generally demonstrate inferior fastness to UV exposure versus pigments. Organic pigments will vary regarding their chemical structure and surface treatment, and some can behave like a dye, losing their crystal structure when exposed to solubilising conditions. This structural change will negatively impact the pigments fastness properties. A good example of this is Pigment Yellow 74, widely used in architectural paints. This pigment will have better fastness properties when used in the mentioned application, than in most industrial paint applications. The difference in performance is due to the solvents used in these systems. Solvent-based architectural paints are based on acrylic and/or medium/long oil alkyd resins, and the preferred solvent used in this application is mineral spirits. In waterborne applications, acrylic emulsions or water-soluble acrylic are used. Pigment Yellow 74 is slightly soluble in mineral spirits but is not soluble in water (Picture 1); therefore it will maintain its crystal structure. However, in industrial coatings applications where the most commonly used solvents are aromatics, esters and ketones, Yellow 74 will have higher solubility, which will have a negative influence on its fastness properties such as heat stability, weathering, overspray migration, and opacity. Choosing the correct pigment for the desired application should be the first step during the coatings formulation process in order to formulate a stable system. Formulators are advised to consult their pigment suppliers in order to obtain the appropriate pigment solubility information.

Picture 1 – Solubility of PY 74 in different solvents. In addition to solubility, resistance to acids and alkalis, heat stability and weather-fastness /light-fastness, should be considered in order to formulate a stable system that meets end use requirements. The figure below (Figure 1) shows some important points to be considered during the initial formulating stage. The formulator should always keep in mind that the same pigment chemistry may not perform equally in all coatings systems.

Figure 1- Pigment selection Criteria ORGANICS VS INORGANICS – ARE THEY DIFFERENT? Organic pigments are synthetic materials based on carbon usually derived from petrochemicals. They generally are not stable at elevated temperatures, and have partial solubility in strong solvents, but do not dissolve in water. Inorganic pigments are metal salts and oxides, some natural and some synthetic, that generally are stable at elevated temperatures and do not dissolve in solvents. Due to their stable chemical structures, most inorganic pigments have better weatherability, dispersibility and opacity than organic pigments; however they will typically have lower chromaticity and tinctorial strength. PIGMENTS IMPURITIES Pigments having the same colour index identification produced by different manufacturers or different manufacturing processes could potentially have different performance in spite of being colouristically similar. This is due to impurities, which can be the result of unreacted raw materials, by-products, inorganic salts,

40 | Coatings SA

technical and contaminants in the water. These impurities may cause adverse effects on: weather-fastness, dispersion stability, and solvent fastness. In order to provide assurance that pigments do not have excessive impurities, the pigment manufacturer should test for pH, conductivity, oil absorption and viscosity in specific testing systems. They may even consider doing additional viscosity stability and dispersibility testing for certain pigments as needed. In addition to approving a pigment for colour, coatings formulators should always verify the stability of the final coating in determining the proper pigment or pigments for a given system or application. FACTORS AFFECTING COLOUR DEVELOPMENT Pigment colour development is dependent on five variables: dispersibility, energy input, process dwell time, system components, and pigment interactions. Paying proper attention to these variables will provide the highest probability of developing a stable formula. DISPERSIBILITY Pigments must be properly wetted, de-agglomerated/dispersed and uniformly distributed and stabilised (Figure 2) in order to achieve maximum colour intensity, gloss, and hiding power. Stabilisation of pigment dispersion requires time and energy. Dispersed pigments have a strong tendency to return to their initial agglomerated state. Due to this strong tendency, proper selection of wetting and dispersing agents is critical in obtaining a stable formula. Surfactants or wetting additives are normally defined as amphiphilic chemistries with low molecular weight while dispersing additives are oligomers able to stabilise the pigments and avoid re-agglomeration. The different types of wetting and dispersing agents are described in Table 1.




Electrical Charge

Anchoring Groups


Phosphates, Sulfonates, Sulfates, Carboxylates


Quaternary Ammonium, Salts of fatty amines


pH dependent

Betaines, Phospholipids

Non ionic

No Charge


Table 1 - Wetting and Dispersing agents – Chemical types

Figure 2 – Steps for a stable pigment dispersion

WETTING To properly wet a pigment, the air/solid interaction needs to be replaced by a liquid/solid. Therefore, the less air entrapped in the system, the more effective the wetting will be. It’s all about surface tension. For a liquid to wet a solid, its surface tension must be lower than the free surface energy of the solid. Therefore, liquids with low surface tension are more effective at wetting and this is why wetting additives are so valuable to the formulator. They will reduce the surface tension and will adhere to the surface and coat the pigment to create an additive/liquid interaction. Generally solvent-based systems more readily wet a pigment due to the lower surface tension of solvents when compared to the higher surface tension of water (Table 2). Solvent

Surface tension, mN/m

Mineral Spirits






Ethyl Acetate




Table2: Surface tension of common solvents used in coatings

DEAGGLOMERATION In this phase of the dispersion process, pigment agglomerates are separated into smaller aggregates and primary particles. The lower the surface tension of the vehicle in which the pigment is being incorporated, the lower the energy that will be needed to disperse the pigment. Deagglomeration is achieved through mechanical energy developed by the use of HighSpeed Dispersers and various types of grinding equipment. A Cowles Blade fitted on the shaft of a high-speed mixer can be an efficient means of dispersing a pigment. High Shear blades (Picture 2) are a highly recommended type of Cowles Blade, which is well suited for pigment dispersion. Other types of blades include a High Vane Blade or a Combination Blade, which also can be used depending on the viscosity of the dispersion and the need to move/blend the raw materials during processing. Picture 2 – High shear Cowles Blade

In order to ensure a good laminar flow and increase the efficiency of dispersion it is recommended that the blade diameter is approximately 1/3 of the tank diameter, and also that the blade is approximately 0.5 to 1.0 diameters off the bottom of the tank. The recommended tip speed for a system with viscosity between 70-100 Krebs units is between 4 000–6 000fpm. The following equation can be used to determine the tip speed: Shaft RPM x 0.262 x blade diameter (inches). Pigments with a harder texture can be more finely dispersed by using a media mill, which produces significantly more shear, such as horizontal, vertical and basket mills. In order to disperse the pigment to a Nano level, the use of 0.3-0.5 nm grinding media is recommended.

41 | Coatings SA

technical STABILISATION Due to the increase of surface area of the solid particles during the deagglomeration/grinding stage, the pigments that are deagglomerated will need to be stabilised in order to avoid issues such as flocculation, colour shift, sedimentation and stability loss. The stabilisation process takes place by incorporating dispersion additives, which achieve stabilisation through the following mechanisms: ELECTROSTATIC STABILISATION Used in water based systems and mostly with inorganic pigments, additive molecules adhere to the pigment surface, through ionic bonding, hydrogen bonds, and/or dipole interaction and cause the particles to repel each other through electrostatic forces. Pigments with high conductivity may not be stabilised through electrostatic stabilisation. Zeta potential (the potential difference existing between the surface of a solid particle immersed in a conducting liquid, eg water, and the bulk of the liquid), will serve as a reference as to how stable the formula will be. Pigment dispersions with a potential between +30 mV and -30 mV have a high probability of being unstable. The pH, once the pigment has been incorporated into the formula, can be a good indicator of stability; dispersions with pH values between 4 and 7.5 are more prone to have dispersibility /stability issues, indicated by the Zeta potential value as it will most likely be between +30 and -30 mV. The addition of a pH modifier can be necessary in some cases. Formulas where the dispersion must be acidic due to the final application, having a pH lower than 4 is recommended, and for alkaline dispersions, a pH higher than 7.5 is good. The closer to zero the Zeta Potential is the more prone re-agglomeration will be with WB dispersions. Electrostatic stabilisation is accomplished by dispersion agents with cationic or anionic molecular groups, eg quaternary ammonia salts and alkylpolyamines (cationic) or polycarboxylic acids and sulfonated organic substances (anionic).

ELECTROSTERIC STABILISATION Used in water-based systems, the additive molecules will adhere onto the pigment surface through ionic bonding, hydrogen bonds, and/ or dipole interactions that repel each other through electrostatic forces. This is a combination of both the electrostatic and steric mechanisms. The electrosteric stabilisation is used with classical wetting and the dispersing agents can also improve the freeze-thaw stability of the dispersion. For this type of additive, the polymer backbone carries the charges while being modified with surface active groups.

CORRECT AMOUNT OF SURFACTANT Too much, or too little of a surfactant can be detrimental to the stability of a pigment dispersion. The determination of the optimal level is based on the rule of 2-2.5mg of polymeric dispersant needed per square meter of pigment surface. This rule must be applied initially, after which the formulator is advised to do a ladder study to determine the optimal level based on viscosity changes, the occurrence of flooding and floating, oven stability and freeze-thaw stability evaluations when necessary.

Pigment Surface Area

= 4

Amount of active surfactant to be added on pigment weight


PR 122 - Area of surface = 65m2/g

STERIC STABILISATION Used in both water and solvent-based systems, the additive anchoring groups will adhere to the pigment surface. The compatibility of the system is dependent on the functional segments of the polymer that compose the hydrophobic portion. Regarding steric stabilisation, the additive will physically reduce the mobility of the pigment particles and therefore avoid/minimise flocculation or re-agglomeration. This type ofstabilisation is accomplished mainly with nonionic dispersing agents.

65/4 = 16% active dispersant based on total pigment weight *Use for the initial ladder study to determine the correct amount of surfactant Rule: 2 - 2.5mg of polymeric dispersant per square meter of pigment surface

SELECTION OF THE CORRECT CHEMISTRY OF DISPERSING AGENT The recommended type of dispersant adhesion group depends on the pigment surface. The following suggestions may help formulators select the most effective dispersant chemistry for the pigment being evaluated.

42 | Coatings SA

technical BET Surface area m2/g

Oil Absorption ml/100g

Particle size, μ

PY 42




WH 6




PR 170




PR 122




PY 74




PB 15:1




PB 15:2




PB 15:3




PB 15:4




PG 7




Organic Pigments (aromatic surface treatment) – Dispersants containing phenyl or naphthyl groups are recommended. Inorganic Pigments (oxides, sulphides, silicates, etc.) – Dispersants containing acidic groups, ie phosphate, carboxy, or sulphate are recommended. Carbon blacks (Diazonium surface treatment) - Dispersants containing nitrogen. CO-GRINDING VS SINGLE PIGMENT DISPERSION Pigment chemistries vary in texture and the amount of energy required to achieve full colour development will differ from one to another. A good way to determine the pigment’s optimal dispersion time is by doing a dispersibility study in which the formulator will determine the time and energy needed to develop the pigment to its full strength by evaluating its colouristic properties. Figure 3 below shows the dispersibility of selected PB 15:2, PG7, PY74 and PY 65 pigments. These pigments were evaluated for strength and colour in 30 minutes intervals, where the dispersion made with 15 minutes of grind time was used as the standard. Pigments were ground beyond their optimal level, which can be confirmed when a loss of colour strength is observed. This type of evaluation is important in determining the optimal processing time for a pigment in a selected formulation. As can be seen in figure 3, some pigments develop their strength and colour faster than others. This is a key factor to consider when co-grinding pigments as it may not be possible to achieve optimum colour development and consistency by this means. It is for this reason that single pigment dispersions are recommended as the best means of obtaining the full colour development value of a given pigment.

Table 2 – Physical properties for various CI pigments

CONCLUSION Pigments are a key component in a coating formulation and proper selection and dispersion is critical in determining the performance of the coating. In a recent study regarding the requests for technical assistance received over the past two years, it was noted that nearly 80% of the formulation issues were resolved by modifying or changing the pigments being used in the formula. It is a mistake to assume that all pigments will perform the same way from one formula to another. This assumption could also prove to be costly with respect to the coating development and manufacturing process. The keys to achieving a stable coating with the optimum performance and value are: Proper pigment selection, proper additive selection, and the appropriate means to achieve complete dispersion. It is for this reason that we strongly suggest that formulators consult with their raw material and equipment suppliers to better understand their options and potential issues when formulating a coating. REFERENCES

Figure 3 – dispersibility Study

Additionally, not all pigments have the same behaviour in a specific coatings formula due to variations in their physical (ie surface area, oil absorption, particle size) and chemical properties (ie chemical structure, surface treatment) as shown in Table 2. It should be noted that there is no direct correlation between the physical properties of various colour indexes and this provides additional reasoning as to why co-dispersion of pigments is not recommended.

BASF, little helpers love great achievement – Practical Guide to Dispersing Agents, 2016 Hunger, Klaus, Thomas Heber, Martin U. Schmidt, Friedrich Reisinger and Stefan Wannemacher. Industrial Organic Pigments Production, Properties, Applications.Weinheim, Bergstr; Wiley-VHC, 2013. Print. Surface Coatings. London: Chapman & Hall, 1993. Print. “Surface Tension Values of some Common Test Liquids for Surface Energy Analysis”. N.p.,n.d. Web 29 June 2017

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to acknowledge Frank Lavieri, Mark Freshwater, Ralph Svenningsen, and Belinda DeSousa from LANSCO COLORS for their contributions.

43 | Coatings SA

The polymer that creates colour Synthetic Polymers produces high-quality polymers for various myriad sectors such as decorative coatings, automotive coating, medium to heavy industrial coating and wood coating etc. Solvent based polymers are Synthetic Polymers core focus; however, our plant also has the capability of producing water-based polymers. A wide variety of resins including acrylics, aminos, saturated polyesters and the more popular alkyd resins as well as some specialist resins are produced using the strictest quality standards in our plant. Research and development take place in our state-of-the-art laboratory with the latest equipment and highly qualified polymer chemists. Convenient delivery with our twenty-metric ton bulk delivery vehicle with lead times between twenty-four and seventy-two hours.

• Long oil alkyds • Medium oil alkyds • Short oil alkyds • Short & Medium chain stopped alkyds • Urethane alkyds & Oils • Styrenated alkyds • Hydroxy functional acrylics • Thermoplastic acrylics • Specialty alkyds • Amino resins • Thermoset acrylics • Saturated oil free polyesters

010 596 4444 | sgb@syntheticpolymers.co.za | www.syntheticpolymers.co.za


Lead chromate replacement Old hat but still a long process? By Dr. Thomas Sowade Heubach GmbH

Global use of lead chromates has significantly declined in recent years due to the toxicity of the pigments. In the past decade alone, the quantity used has declined by more than half, down from 90,000t in 2000 1. However, due to the excellent price/performance of lead chromates and the partial use of the pigments in colour mixing systems, complete replacement has failed to occur so far. The recent approval requirement for REACH annex XIV in May of 2015 has increased the focus on the issue of alternative. formulation concepts again.


ead chromates are typically used to achieve good hiding power with a high brilliance level in paint films. In fact, so far there is no individual pigment alternative for an exact 1:1 replacement of specific chrome yellow P.Y. 34 or molybdate red P.R. 104 pigments. The reformulation of such a formula is still a challenge even for


• Replacing lead chromates is

• Customised dry pigment

technically challenging but possible. A 1:1 replacement of the individual pigments is not possible • The method of choice is the smart combination of appropriate organic and inorganic pigments. The hiding power is achieved by the inorganic part. The organic part serves to adjust the colour strength, chroma and hue angle • Weather resistance depends on the organic pigments used and can be adapted to the specific requirements

preparations permit a 1:1 replacement in the near-full shade colour range and thus offer rapid and costeffective formulation • Chroma enhancement of hybrid pigment technology offers great potential for formulating highbrilliance colours • Replacing lead chromate will increase the formula costs. The increase depends on the respective formula and/or the colour, as well as the properties to beachieved.

application technicians with coloristic experience. Formulation of colours using multiple pigments is the current state of the art. Pigment combinations, hybrid pigments, and customised pigment preparations are already being used successfully as alternatives to lead chromates. Classic pigments for such combinations include P.Y. 74, P.Y. 83, P.Y.

CHROMA AND HUE ANGLE OF INDIVIDUAL PIGMENTS In order to be able to compare the properties of inorganic and organic pigments with each other, work was conducted with a pigmentation level of 5% typical for organic pigments, while quite low for inorganic pigments. With a wet film

139, P.Y. 151, P.Y. 154, P.R. 112, and P.R. 254 as organic components, and P.W. 6, P.Y. 53, P.Br. 24, and P.Y. 184 as inorganic components. In these combinations, the inorganic component contributes to achieving the hiding power, while the organic component is used to adjust the hue angle, chroma, and colour strength

thickness of 500μm, coats with comparable hiding power can be achieved in the test system used (2C- Acrylics) in this way. Different positions in the colour space (Figure 1) resulted for the individual pigments when plotting chroma against hue angle. While the lead chromates have a chroma on the level of organic pigments, the inorganic coloured pigments P.Br. 24, P.Y. 53, and TiO2 (not shown in Figure 1 due to the low chroma) are at a significantly lower level, with the exception of bismuth vanadate. For comparison, the RAL colours signal yellow (RAL 1003), traffic yellow (RAL 1023), traffic red (RAL 3020), and flame red (RAL 3000), which people like to formulate with lead chromate, were entered. The chromas of these RAL colours are all lower than those of the organic pigments and the individual lead chromate pigments in this study.

Figure 1: Chroma versus hue angle of individual pigments in full shade colour (2C-Acrylics, 5% pigmentation level, 500μm wet film thickness).

45 | Coatings SA

technical HIDING POWER AND COLOUR STRENGTH OF INDIVIDUAL PIGMENTS It is well known that the hiding power of paints and coatings is achieved with the help of inorganic pigments, not organic ones. In some cases, this does not depend on the hiding power of the pigments themselves. If the same pigmentation levels are compared, certain organic pigments also exhibit good

C.I. pigment index

Pigment class

hiding power as shown in Table 1. However, inorganic pigments typically exhibit lower oil absorption and can be used in a higher pigment concentration. This is also reflected in the maximum pigment concentration that can be achieved by commercial pigment pastes. Correspondingly, higher opacity can be achieved with higher pigmentation in practical applications.

dE* (black/white contrast board)

P.W. 6

Titanium dioxide


P.Y. 184

Bismuth vanadate


P.Y. 53

Nickel rutile


P.Br. 24

Chrome rutile


PY 34 (reddish)

Chrome yellow


PY 34

Chrome yellow


P.R. 104

Molybdate red


P.Y. 74



P.Y. 151



P.Y. 154



P.Y. 83



P.Y. 139



P.R. 112

Naphthol AS


P.R. 254



Organic pigments typically exhibit higher colour strength than inorganic pigments, as shown in Figure 2, if exceptions such as bismuth vanadate P.Y. 184 or the lead chromates are disregarded. Therefore, organic pigments are ideally suited for compensating the deficient colour strength of hiding inorganic pigments in pigment combinations for simulating the behaviour of leadchromates.

Table 1: Hiding power of the individual pigments tested: dE* over black/white contrast board (2C-Acrylics, 5% pigmentation level, 500μm wet film thickness).

Figure 2: Colour strength of nickel rutile yellow P.Y. 53 in comparison to P.Y. 151. Significantly less organic P.Y. 151 is needed for adjusting to standard colour depth 1/3 SD.

INORGANIC AND ORGANIC COMBINED Since 1:1 replacement of lead chromates on the basis of individual pigments is not possible, the special challenge of reformulation lies in the requirement to combine the colouristic parameters of different pigments (chroma C*, hue angle h°, and hiding power CR), which partly oppose each other, in such a way that they correspond to all three parameters of the lead pigments to a large extent. This process must take into account that industrial coatings are mostly brilliant near-full shade colors. Reformulation is usually only achieved through a smart combination of inorganic and organic pigments. However, as already shown, these two pigment groups differ significantly in their color strength, so that it is in many cases not possible to replace a lead pigment for multiple formulations with different titanium dioxide levels with just one single pigment combination. Therefore, it is important to define the colouristic

requirement profile of the paint in advance of development in order to ‘pinpoint’ the appropriate pigment combination in the colour space. However, by using colorimetric databases on the basis of individual pigments, an alternative pigmentation can be developed by the experts in many cases. The incremental procedure of such an inorganic/organic colour matching is illustrated in what follows through the example of recreating a chrome yellowpigment. Table 2 compiles the CIELab values and the hiding power for the individual tinting steps. Combination no. 4 with a pigment ratio of 43% P.Y. 184 to 57% P.Y. 151 represents the best basis for the final fine-tuning with P.Y. 83, P.G. 17, and P.Bk. 11. Combination no. 9 exhibits good conformity with the chrome yellow reference pigment, both metrologically and visually. The identical and high hiding power of 98% for both full shade coats (Figure 3) should be emphasised.

46 | Coatings SA

More durable

Low impact

Positive impact

Doing more with less

technical Nr.

Pigment combination

Pigment ratio




CR [%]

































































P.Y. 34 (chrome yellow pigment)






Table 2: Combination of individual pigments to match chrome yellow (2C-Acrylics; 25% pigmentation). Combination no. 9 shows the best conformity with the reference pigment.

Figure 3: Top – incremental combination of P.Y. 184 and P.Y. 151; bottom: comparison of chrome yellow (left) and combination no. 9 (right).

In an analogous procedure, industrial colours such as RAL 1003 (signal yellow), RAL 1023 (traffic yellow), or RAL 3000 (flame red) can be formulated without lead through a combination of organic and inorganic pigments. Table 3 (Figure 4) summarises the results of the colour matching for RAL 3000 on the basis of P.R. 104 (formula A) and a hybrid

pigment with inorganic/organic morphology (formula B). It can be seen that formula B based on the hybrid pigment actually exhibits even a higher chroma with the same hue angle. Chroma enhancement is an inherent property of the hybrid pigment technology and is derived from the special inorganic carrier substrate.[2]

48 | Coatings SA

technical RAL 3000

Pigment class

Formula A (containing lead)

P.R. 104

Molybdate red





P.R. 101

Iron oxide red



P.W. 6

Titanium dioxide




Hybrid pigment


P.Br. 24

Chrome rutile



Formula B (lead-free)





CR [%]

Formulation A (P.R. 104)




Formulation B (TICO R 655)




RAL 3000 GL (flame red)




Table 3: Comparison of the RAL 3000 formulas and coloristics on the basis of Molybdate red (Formula A) and hybrid pigment (Formula B) on black/white contrast board (2C- Acrylics, 20% pigmentation).

Figure 4: Comparison of formula A (molybdate red; left) and formula B (“Tico” hybrid pigment; right) on black/white contrast board (2C-Acrylics; 20% pigmentation.

CUSTOMISED SOLUTIONS In many cases, the desired colours can be obtained through mixing the individual pigments and/or hybrid pigments as described above. However, besides the pigment- specific and colourimetryspecific laboratory know-how, this process must also take subsequent operational implementation into account. For example, five individual pigments, some in small quantities, must be weighed out, mixed, and dispersed for the example given in Table 2. The colour must then be checked and corrected if necessary. The pigment industry‘s search for an alternative solution approach has led to the development of customised dry pigment preparations. These are multiple pigment preparations in powder form that have been developed alongside the special market requirements in a targeted fashion. Thus they permit rapid and cost-effective formulation. The ‘HeucoFit Lead Replacement’ dry preparations provide a good example. These pigment preparations have been developed for

direct 1:1 replacement of chrome yellow and molybdate red pigments. In selecting the pigments, the focus was on a good balance of the colourimetric properties and the hiding power in the near-full shade color range. This is particularly interesting in the area of industrial paints, since good substrate hiding by a onecoat application of the paint with low layer thickness is necessary. Figure 5 contrasts the color gradient of ‘Heucofit LR 1006401’ and a high-brilliant chrome yellow pigment in full shade and two reductions with titanium dioxide. In the near-full shade colour range, there is good colouristic conformity, which decreases with higher levels of titanium dioxide. This effect is attributable to the organic pigments contained in the pigment preparation with their high colour strength compared to lead chromate. The visual assessment of the full shade coat confirms the good conformity found metrologically (Figure 6). Customised pigment preparations are also available for replacing molybdate red (Figure6).

49 | Coatings SA


Figure 6: Top: Full shade colour comparison of chrome yellow (left) and “LR 1006401” (right); bottom: full shade colour comparison of molybdate red (left) and “LR 3022001” (right) on black/ white contrast board (2C-Acrylics; 20% pigmentation).

Figure 5: Colour gradient of chrome yellow and “LR 1006401” (2C-Acrylics; 25% pigmentation).

LIGHT FASTNESS AND WEATHER STABILITY The light fastness and weather stability of lead chromates depend on the types used and their surface stabilisation. The majority of lead chromates used on the market are standard types. Mixed metal oxides such as P.Y. 53 and P.Br.

24 exhibit excellent properties. Similar to lead chromates, organic pigments vary greatly in weather stability. In selecting appropriate organic pigments, most of the requirements in this area can be resolved in addition.

Light fastness

Weather fastness

P.Y. 34 (standard)



P.Y. 34 (stabilised)



HeucoFit LR 1006401 (high-quality pigment preparation)



HeucoFit LR 1006402 (cost-designed pigment preparation)



P.R. 104 (standard)



P.R. 104 (stabilised)



HeucoFit LR 3022001 (high-quality pigment preparation)



HeucoFit LR 3022002 (cost-designed pigment preparation)



Table 4: Light fastness and weather fastness of various lead chromates versus pigment preparations

Cost-designed pigment preparations can replace standard lead chromates. Pigment preparations and hybrid pigments formulated with weather fast organic pigments are not inferior to stabilised lead chromates and can even outperform standard products (Table 4). Contact: Mike Inkleg Email: Mike.Inkleg@proteachemicals.co.za Tel: 011-821-3300

Literatur 1. Farbe & Lack, Ausgabe 11/2001; Vincentz Verlag; http://www.farbeundlack.de/Publikationen/Zeitschrift/eJournalArchiv/Verbrauch-vonBleichromat-in-2000-stabil 2. Frischmann L.; Ott J.: ‘Out-of-the-box’ formulations, European Coatings Journal; 07/08 (2011); pp.32-36

50 | Coatings SA


The easy way to change the look of wall tiles, Melamine cupboards and other smooth surfaces! • Apply TilePrime with a brush or roller • It is economical & easy to use • TilePrime Offers excellent adhesion • Clean equipment with water afterwards • TilePrime is dry after 24 hours • Once dry it is transparent • Apply paint over TilePrime • TilePrime is compatible with most paints • Do not paint kitchen work surfaces! TIP: For best results clean surfaces before priming. TIP: Use masking tape to mask areas you do not want painted.




TilePrime 1 Litre covers ± 10 m2

5434. Shak COATINGS SA june fp ad’18



Resins Polymer dispersions UV monomers, oligomers Photoinitiators Anticorrosive pigments & additives Dispersants Defoamers Adhesion Promoters Extenders Rheological Additives Additives Technical Assistance PUD Dispersions

www.carst.co.za www.carst.co.za

Johannesburg Johannesburg

Cape Cape Town Town

Paul Edge Paul Edge paul.edge@carst.co.za paul.edge@carst.co.za

Jenny Rossouw Jenny Milburn jenny.milburn@carst.co.za jenny.rossouw@carst.co.za

Durban Durban

Port Port Elizabeth Elizabeth

T [031] 3138500 8500 (T) 031 313 F [031] 3138516 8516 (F) 031 313

T [041] 3973600 3600 (T) 041 397 F [041] 3973601 3601 (F) 041 397

(T) 011 489 T [011] 4893600 3600 F [011] 4893601 3601 (F) 011 489

Andrew Dutton Andrew Dutton andrew.dutton@carst.co.za andrew.dutton@carst.co.za

(T) 021 506 T [021] 5064560 4560 F [021] 5064561 4561 (F) 021 506

Paul Edge Paul Edge paul.edge@carst.co.za paul.edge@carst.co.za

Profile for New Media B2B

Coatings SA_Issue 2 I Vol 6 I 2018  

Paint Manufacturers, Raw Material Suppliers, Distributors and Paint Chemists

Coatings SA_Issue 2 I Vol 6 I 2018  

Paint Manufacturers, Raw Material Suppliers, Distributors and Paint Chemists