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XXZB 中国橡胶工业协会自律标准 CRIA Self-Discipline Standard _____________________________________________________XXZB/LT-102-2014

绿色轮胎技术规范 Green Tire Technology Specification

2014-03-01 发布 Mar/01/2014 Released

2014-03-01 实施 Mar/01/2013 Implemented

中国橡胶工业协会 发布 Released By CRIA


Content 目次 Conent 前言 Preface 引言 Foreword 1 范围 Scope 2 规范性引用文件 Reference 3 术语和定义 Terminology and Definition 4 要求 Requirement 5 验证方法 Test Method 附录 A(资料性附录) 绿色轮胎生产工艺推荐技术 Appendix A (Informative Appendix)- Green Tire Production Process Recommendation

Ⅰ Ⅱ 1 2 2 2 2 6 7


Preface

本自律标准根据工业和信息化部原材料工业司《绿色轮胎产业发展研究》课题结论制定。 This self-discipline standard is drafted in line with the conclusion of Study on the Development of Green Tire Industry performed by the Raw Material Div., MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, PRC). 本自律标准按照 GB/T 1.1-2009 给出的规则起草。 This self-discipline standard is drafted in line with the drafting rules of GB/T 1.1-2009. 本自律标准由中国橡胶工业协会首次提出。 This self-discipline standard is initiated by CRIA. 本自律标准由中橡协技术经济委员会归口。 This self-discipline standard is archived by the technical and economic committee of CRIA. 本自律标准主要起草单位:双钱集团股份有限公司、风神轮胎股份有限公司、三角轮胎股份有 限公司、山东玲珑轮胎股份有限公司、贵州轮胎股份有限公司、广州市华南橡胶轮胎有限公司、青 岛双星轮胎工业有限公司、兴源轮胎集团公司、四川海大橡胶集团公司、米其林(中国)投资有限 公司、普利斯通(中国)投资有限公司、朗盛化学(中国)有限公司、福建海能新材料公司、中海 油气开发利用公司等 The enterprises participated in the drafting of this self-discipline standard include Double Coin Holdings Ltd, Aeolus Tire Co., Ltd, Triangle Tire Co., Ltd, Shandong Linglong Tire Co., Ltd, Guizhou Tire Corporation, South China Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd, Qingdao Doublestar Tire Industrial Co., Ltd, China Xingyuan Tire Group, Sichuan Haida Rubber Group Co., Ltd, Michelin (China) Investment Co., Ltd, Bridgestone (China) Investment Co., Ltd, Lanxess Chemical (China) Co., Ltd, Fujian Haineng Advanced Material Limited Company, CNOOC Oil & Gas Development and Application Co., Ltd, etc. 本自律标准主要起草人:钱瑞瑾、蒋琦、许连玉、冯耀岭、邓世涛、刘连波、李代强、罗吉良、 黄义钢、张鹏、张俊伟、许叔亮、傅广平、周方英、郝荔、罗平、王玉海、蔡为民、赵文权等。 The main drafters of this self-discipline standard include Qian Ruijin, Jiang Qi, Xu Lianying, Feng Yaoling, Deng Shitao, Liu Lianbo, Li Daiqiang, Luo Jiliang, Huang Yigang, Zhang Peng, Zhang Junwei, Xu Shuliang, Fu Guangping, Zhou Fangying, Hao Li, Luo Ping, Wang Yuhai, Cai Weimin, Zhao Wenquan, etc.


Foreword

轮胎是汽车的重要安全部件,轮胎行业是国民经济发展的重要领域之一。长期以来,轮胎生产 都是按国家标准组织生产,指导行业走向健康稳定的发展道路。近年来,轮胎行业出现了投资过热、 低水平重复建设、盲目扩大产能的趋势,而高性能环保绿色轮胎又无标可依。 Tire is a safety component that plays an important role in an automobile. Tire industry is one of the most important sectors in the development of national economy. In China, Tire production has always been carried out in compliance with national standard which leads to the development of tire industry in a sustainable way. In recent years, a series of phenomenon have come up in Chinese tire industry, such as overinvestment, duplication of low-level similar projects, excessive capacity expansion, and the absence of authoritative standard on which high performance and eco-friendly tires could rely. 减少汽车尾气排放已成为全球高度关注的热点之一,而轮胎与汽车二氧化碳排放息息相关。绿 色轮胎滚动阻力低,燃油消耗少,可大量减少汽车二氧化碳的排放。同时,还具有出色的操纵稳定 性、更短的制动距离和更好的耐损坏性,对减少交通事故、提高经济效益和社会效益具有积极意义。 The reduction of automobile exhausted gas emission has become one of the hot topics across the world, and the automobile CO2 emission has actually a lot to do with tires. Green tires are characterized with low rolling resistance, less fuel consumption which leads to CO2 emission reduction. In addition, green tires have also excellent operating stability, short braking distance and better wear which play a significant role in reducing traffic accidents, and increasing economic and social benefits. 为推动中国绿色轮胎产业化进程,中国橡胶工业协会组织国内部分轮胎企业承接了《绿色轮胎 产业发展研究》课题。根据课题研究成果,研究和制定了与之相关的技术规范、标准和建设与之配 套的室内外试验条件,使之具备在中国推行绿色轮胎标签(非强制性轮胎分级)制度的条件,让中 国绿色轮胎尽快市场化,迅速提高中国轮胎的质量水平,扩大国产高端轮胎的比例,适应消费者选 购优质轮胎的要求,稳定高品质轮胎的出口需要。 CRIA (China Rubber Industrial Association) has organized a Study on the Development of Green Tire Industry in which a number of tire producers in China have been involved in order to promote the development of green tire industry in China. Based on the result of this study, the relevant technical specification, standard and the complementary indoor testing conditions have been worked on and finalized. In this way, the basis shall be ready to promote Green Tire Labeling Regulation (non-mandatory tire classification) in order to make green tire commercialized, to increase the quality of tires made in China, to enlarge the ratio of high performance tires made in China, to meet the demand of consumer choice on high quality tires, and to stabilize the export of high quality tires. 绿色轮胎是指节能、环保、安全的轮胎产品,生产全过程践行绿色制造理念,应用过程倡导绿 色使用。 Green tires are referred as safe, energy-saving and environmental friendly tire products that apply whole-process green production and green application concepts. 绿色轮胎具有低滚动阻力、低燃油消耗、出色的操纵稳定性、更短的制动距离、更好的耐磨性、 可多次翻新等突出的动态产品特性。 Green tires characterized with low rolling resistance, less fuel consumption, excellent operating stability, shorter braking distance, better wear and multiple retreadability. 绿色轮胎制造符合以下整体要求: Green tire production has to comply with the following requirements: 1


---- 使用环保、无毒无害符合欧盟 REACH 环保标准的原材料; The raw materials are non-toxic, non-hazardous, environmental friendly, and in compliance with EU REACH environmental regulation; ---- 生产过程实现低能耗、低噪音、低粉尘、低烟气; The production process has less energy consumption, lower noise, less dust and fume emission; ---- 产品具有节油、安全、高磨耗、可翻新特性,符合绿色轮胎标签认证规定的滚动阻力、湿 路面抓着性、滚动噪声要求。 The products are fuel saving, safe, high wear and retreadable, and its rolling resistance, wet grip and rolling noise parameters are in compliance with Tire Labeling requirement. 本标准依据以上原则进行制定。 This standard is set up based on the above principles.

2


绿色轮胎技术规范 Green Tire Technical Specification 1

范围 Scope 本标准规定了绿色轮胎的术语和定义、要求、试验方法。 Terminology, definition, requirement and testing methods of green tires are defined in this standard. 本标准适用于轿车子午线轮胎和载重汽车子午线轮胎。 This standard is applicable to passenger car radial tires and heavy duty radial tires.

2

规范性引用文件 Reference

下列文件对于本文件的应用是必不可少的。凡是注日期的引用文件,仅注日期的版本适用于本 文件。凡是不注日期的引用文件,其最新版本(包括所有的修改单)适用于本文件。 The following documents are referred to for the application of this standard. For all reference documents noted with dates, only the dated versions are applicable to this standard. For all reference documents without dates, only the latest versions (including all amendments) are applicable to this standard. GB/T 521 轮胎外缘尺寸测量方法 Method of Measuring Tire Peripheral Dimension GB/T 2977 载重汽车轮胎规格、尺寸、气压与负荷 Heavy Duty Tire Specification, Size, Pressure and Load GB/T 2978 轿车轮胎规格、尺寸、气压与负荷 Passenger Tire Specification, Size, Pressure and Load GB/T 4501 载重汽车轮胎性能室内试验方法 Indoor Testing Method of Heavy Duty Tire Performance GB/T 4502 轿车轮胎性能室内试验方法 Indoor Testing method of Passenger Car Tire Performance GB/T 6326 轮胎术语及其定义 Tire Terminology and Definition GB 9743 轿车轮胎 Passenger Car Tires GB 9744 载重汽车轮胎 Heavy Duty Vehicle Tires GB/T 21910 轿车轮胎湿路面相对抓着性能试验方法 Testing Method of Passenger Car Tire Relative Wet Grip Performance GB/T 22036 轮胎惯性滑行通过噪声测试方法 Testing Method of Tire Coasting Noise GB/T 24001 环境管理体系 要求及使用指南 Environmental Management System Requirement and Use Guideline GB/T 24153 橡胶及弹性体材料 N-亚硝基胺的测定 Test Method of N-Nitrosamines Used in Rubbers and Elastomer Materials GB 27632 橡胶制品工业污染物排放标准 Rubber Product Industrial Contaminant Emission Standard GB/T 29040 汽车轮胎滚动阻力试验方法 单点试验和测量结果的相关性 Tire Rolling Resistance Testing Method: Single Point Test and Testing Result Correlation GB/T 29042 汽车轮胎滚动阻力限值 Tire Rolling Resistance Limit Value GB 29449 轮胎单位产品能源消耗限额 Energy Consumption Limit Values Per Unit of Tire Products 3


HG/T 2177 轮胎外观质量 Tire Appearance Quality (EC) No 661/2009 Concerning type-approval requirements for the general safety of motor vehicles, their trailers and systems, components and separate technical units intended therefor ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2013/66 Proposal for Supplement 5 to the 02 series of amendments to Regulation No. 117 (Tyres, rolling resistance, rolling noise and wet grip) ISO 21461 Rubber–Determination of the aromaticity of oil in vulcanized rubber compounds 3

术语和定义 Terminology and Definition

GB/T 6326、GB 29449 、(EC) No 661 界定的及下列术语和定义适用于本文件。 The following terminology and definition and the ones set up in GB/T 6326, GB29449 and (EC) No 661 is applicable in this standard document. 3.1 绿色轮胎 Green tire 绿色轮胎是指节能、环保、安全的子午线轮胎产品。绿色轮胎具有低滚动阻力、低燃油消耗、 出色的操纵稳定性、更短的制动距离、更好的耐磨性、可多次翻新等突出的动态产品特性。 Green Tires are radial tire products featured with energy saving, environmental protection and safety performances. Green tires have outstanding dynamic characteristics, especially lower resistance, lower fuel consumption, outstanding operating stability, shorter braking distance and repeatedly retreadability. 4

要求 Requirement

4.1 产品性能 Product Performance 4.1.1 绿色轮胎规格、负荷指数、层级、测量轮辋、新胎充气后的断面宽度和外直径、负荷能力、 充气压力、最小双胎间距和允许使用轮辋,轿车子午线轮胎、载重汽车子午线轮胎分别应符合 GB/T 2978 和 GB/T 2977 的规定。 Green tyre specification, load index, ply rating, measuring rim width, new tire section width and outer diameter after inflation, loadability, inflation pressure, minimum spacing of two tires and allowable rim shall be in compliance with GB/T 2978 for Passenger car radial tires, and GB/T 2977 for heavy duty radial tires. 4.1.2 绿色轮胎行驶速度与气压、负荷的对应关系,轿车子午线轮胎、载重汽车子午线轮胎分别应 符合 GB/T 2978 和 GB/T 2977 的规定。 Green tire driving speed and pressure, and load correlation shall be in compliance with GB/T 2978 for passenger car radial tires, and GB/T 2977 for heavy duty radial tires. 4.1.3 绿色轮胎速度符号与最高行驶速度的对应关系,轿车子午线轮胎、载重汽车子午线轮胎分别 应符合 GB 9743 和 GB 9744 的规定。 The correlation between reen tire speed symbol and its highest driving speed shall be in compliance with GB/T 9743 for passenger car radial tires, and GB/T 9744 for heavy duty radial tires. 4.1.4 绿色轮胎负荷指数与负荷能力的对应关系,轿车子午线轮胎、载重汽车子午线轮胎分别应符 合 GB 9743 和 GB 9744 的规定。 The correlation between green tire load index and its loadability shall be in compliance with GB/T 9743 for passenger car tires, and GB/T 9744 for heavy duty radial tires. 4.1.5 绿色轮胎安全性能,轿车子午线轮胎、载重汽车子午线轮胎分别应符合 GB 9743 和 GB 9744 的规定。 Green tire safety performance shall be in compliance with GB/T 9743 for passenger car radial tires, and GB/T 9744 for heavy duty radial tires. 4.1.6 绿色轮胎滚动阻力准入限值应符合 GB/T 29042 的规定,见表 1。 The threshold value for green tire rolling resistance shall be in compliance with GB/T 29042. See Table 1. 表 1 绿色轮胎滚动阻力准入限值 Table 1.Threshold Value for Green Tire Rolling Resistance 4


轮胎类型 Tire Type 轿车轮胎 Passenger Car Tires 速度符号≥N 单胎负荷指数≤121 Speed symbol ≥N (负荷能力≤1450kg) Single Tire Load Index≤121 速度符号≤M 微型、轻型载重汽 (loadability≤1450kg) Speed symbol ≥M 车轮胎 单胎负荷指数>121 Mini and Light Duty Vehicle Tires (负荷能力>1450kg) Single Tire Load Index>121 (loadability>1450kg) 载重汽车轮胎 Heavy Duty Vehicle Tires a 雪地轮胎限值可增加 1 N/kN。 a The threshold value for mud + snow tires shall be 1 N/kN higher.

轮胎滚动阻力系数 a/(N/kN) Rolling Resistance Coefficient, a/(N/kN) 11.5 10.0 7.5

7.5

7.5

4.1.7 绿色轮胎湿路面抓着性准入限值,轿车子午线轮胎应符合(EC) No 661/2009 的规定,载重汽 车子午线轮胎应符合 ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2013/66 的规定,见表 2、表 3、表 4。 The threshold value of green tire wet grip shall be in compliance with (EC) No 661/2009 for passenger car radial tires, and ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2013/66 for heavy duty vehicle tires. The detailed threshold values are shown in Table 2, 3, 4. 表 2 轿车子午线轮胎湿路面抓着性准入限值 Table 2.Threshold Value for Passenger Car Radial Tire Wet Grip Performance 使用类型 Type 雪地轮胎,速度符号(“Q”或以下,不包括“H”)表明允许最大速度不高于 160km/h Mud + Snow Tires, speed symbol (“Q”or below, excl. “H”) represents max speed no more than 160km/h 雪地轮胎,速度符号(“R”或以上,包括“H”)表明允许最大速度高于 160km/h Mud + Snow Tires, speed symbol (“R”or above, incl. “H”) represents max speed more than 160km/h 普通(公路型)轮胎 Normal (Road)Tires

湿地防滑指数(G) Wet Grip Index (G) ≥0.9

≥1.0

≥1.1

表 3 微型、轻型载重汽车轮胎湿路面抓着性准入限值 Table 3 Threshold Value for Mini and Light Duty Vehicle Tire Wet Grip Performance 湿地防滑指数(G) Wet Grip Index (G)

使用类型 Type 普通轮胎 Normal Tires 雪地轮胎 Mud + Snow Tires 特殊用途轮胎 Special Use Tires

在大雪条件下使用的雪地轮胎 Mud+snow tires used in snow condition

其他类型 Other Type

牵引型 Traction Type

≥0.95

≥0.85

≥0.95

≥0.85

≥0.85

≥0.85

≥0.85

≥0.85

表 4 载重汽车轮胎湿路面抓着性准入限值 Table 4 Threshold Value for Heavy Duty Vehicle Tire Wet Grip Performance 使用类型 Type

湿地防滑指数(G) Wet Grip Index (G) 5


普通轮胎 Normal Tires 雪地轮胎 Mud+Snow Tires

在大雪条件下使用的雪地轮胎 Mud+snow tires used in snow condition

特殊用途轮胎 Special Use Tires

其他类型 Other Type ≥0.65

牵引型 Traction Type ≥0.65

≥0.65

≥0.65

≥0.65

≥0.65

≥0.65

≥0.65

4.1.8 绿色轮胎滚动噪声准入限值应符合(EC) No 661/2009 规定,见表 5 和表 6。 The threshold value for green tire rolling noise shall be in compliance with (EC) No 661/2009. See Table 5 and Table 6. 表 5 轿车子午线轮胎滚动噪声准入限值 Table 5. Threshold Value for Passenger Car Radial Tire Rolling Noise 轮胎类型 名义断面宽(mm) 限值 dB(A) Tire Type Nominal Section Width (mm) Limit Value dB(A) 轿车轮胎 A 70 ≤185 Passenger Car Tire A 轿车轮胎 B 71 >185 ≤215 Passenger Car Tire B 轿车轮胎 C 71 >215 ≤245 Passenger Car Tire C 轿车轮胎 D 72 >245 ≤275 Passenger Car Tire D 轿车轮胎 E 74 >275 Passenger Car Tire E 注:对于雪地轮胎、增强型轮胎,或这些类型的任意组合,上表的限值应提高 1dB(A)。 Note: For snow tire, reinforced tire or any type combination tire, the above limit value shall be 1dB(A) higher.

表 6 载重汽车子午线轮胎滚动噪声准入限值 Table 6. Threshold Value for Heavy Duty Radial Tyre Rolling Noise 使用类型 限值 dB(A) Use Type Limit Value dB(A) 普通轮胎 72 Normal Tires 微型/轻型载重汽车轮胎 Mini/Light Duty Vehicle Tire 牵引型轮胎 73 Traction Tires 普通轮胎 73 Normal Tires 载重汽车轮胎 Heavy Duty Vehicle Tire 牵引型轮胎 75 Traction Tires 注 1: :对于特殊用途轮胎,上表的限值应提高 2dB(A)。 Note 1: For special use tires, the above threshold value should be 2dB(A) higher. 注 2: :微型/轻型载重汽车轮胎牵引型雪地轮胎的限值应提高 2dB(A)。 Note 2: In mini/light duty vehicle tire part, the threshold value for traction mud+snow tires should be 2dB(A) higher. 注 3: :对于微型/轻型载重汽车轮胎和载重汽车轮胎所有其他类型的雪地轮胎,上表的限值应提高 1dB(A)。 Note 3: In mini/light duty vehicle tire and heavy duty vehicle tire part, for all other types of mud+snow tires, the above threshold value should be 1dB(A) higher. 轮胎类型 Tire Type

4.1.9 绿色轮胎胎面磨耗标志,轿车子午线轮胎、载重汽车子午线轮胎分别应符合 GB 9743 和 GB 9744 的规定。 Green tire tread wear symbol shall be in compliance with GB/T 9743 for passenger car radial tires, and GB/T 9744 for heavy duty radial tires. 6


4.1.10 绿色轮胎外观质量应符合 HG/T 2177 的规定。 Green tire appearance quality shall be in compliance with HG/T 2177. 4.2 原材料 Raw Material 4.2.1 不应使用的原材料 Raw Materials Shouldn’t Be Used 2015 年 1 月起,国内所有子午线轮胎配方中不应使用,所有进口轮胎中不应含有以下原材料。 Since January, 2015, the following raw materials should not be used in the formula of all radial tires in China, and the following raw materials should not contain in all tires exported into China. a) 高芳油 Aromatic Oil 高芳油是指芳香烃的碳原子数占整个油的碳原子数 30%以上的油品。高芳油中含有多环芳烃, 特别是苯并芘(BaP) ,对人体有强的致癌性和其他危害。 Aromatic oil is a kind of oil product in which the aromatic carbon atoms takes 30% of the total number of its carbon atoms. High aromatic oil contains polycyclic aromatics which is highly carcinogenic and hazardous to human body, especially BaP(benzopyrene). b) 防老剂 D Anti-Aging Agent D 对眼睛、皮肤、黏膜和上呼吸道有刺激性。对皮肤有致敏作用,受热分解放出有毒的氧化氮烟 气。 It is irritant to eyes, skin, mucuous membrances and upper respiratory tract. It is allurgic to skins. When it is heated, it decomposes out toxic nitrogen oxide fume. c) 促进剂 NOBS Promoter NOBS 含有亚硝胺,对人体有强的致癌性和其他危害。 It contains nitrosamine which is strongly carcinogenic and hazardous to human body. d) 秋兰姆类超促进剂 TMTM、TMTD Thiuram Type Ultra Promoter TMTM and TMTD 含有亚硝胺,对人体有强的致癌性和其他危害。 It contains nitrosamine which is strongly carcinogenic and hazardous to human body. e) 吗啡啉类硫磺给予体 DTDM Morpholine Type Sulphur Doner DTDM 含有亚硝胺,对人体有强的致癌性和其他危害。 It contains nitrosamine which is strongly carcinogenic and hazardous to human body. f) 五氯硫酚类塑解剂 Pentachlorothiophenol Type Peptizer 具有致癌性,对人体危害较大。 It is carcinogenic and hazardous to human body. g) SBR1712/SBR1721 充油为高芳油,其中含有多环芳烃,特别是苯并芘(BaP),对人体有强的致癌性和其他危害。 Its extended oil is high aromatic oil which contains polycyclic aromatics, especially BAP which is strongly carcinogenic and hazardous to human body. 4.2.2 限制使用的原材料 Raw Material With Limited Use 4.2.2.1 间苯二酚及预分散类型 Resorcin and Pre-dispersed Resorcin 间苯二酚主要在生产环境产生间苯二酚的烟雾,容易产生毒害作用,建议采用间苯二酚甲醛树 脂等类型的产品来替代。 Resorcin generates hazardous fume in production area. It is suggested to replace it with resorcinol formaldehyde resin,etc. 7


4.2.3 推荐使用的原材料 Recommended Used Raw Material 推荐使用按发布后的《绿色轮胎环保原材料指南》认定的主要原材料品种。 Recommended raw materials are the main raw materials identified in the Eco-Friendly Raw Material Guide for Green Tires to be released. 4.3 清洁生产 Clean Production 4.3.1 绿色轮胎的清洁生产技术和管理指标应符合表 7 的规定,其中单位产品综合能耗应符合 GB 29449 能耗先进值的规定。 See Table 7 for the technical and administrative parameters for green tire clean production. The comprehensive energy consumption per unit product should be in compliance with the advanced enegy consumption values in GB 29449. 表 7 绿色轮胎清洁生产技术和管理指标 Table 7.Technical and Administrative Parameters for Green Tire Clean Production 1 资源能源消耗指标 Energy and Resources Consumption Index 单位产品新鲜水消耗量 a(m3/t 轮胎) Fresh Water Consumption a(m3/ton tires) 全钢子午线轮胎 单位产品综合能耗 b Full-Steel Radial (tce/t 轮胎) Tire Comprehensive 半钢子午线轮胎 b Energy Consumption Semi-Steel (tce/ton tires) Radial Tire

≤6.60

≤0.285

≤0.380

全钢子午线轮胎 Full-Steel Radial 橡胶消耗量 (t 三胶/t 轮胎) Rubber Consumption (t three rubbers/t tires)

≤0.53

Tire 半钢子午线轮胎 Semi-Steel

≤0.45

Radial Tire 2 产品生产技术特征指标 Product Index for Technical Features 产品合格率(%)

≥98 Product Qualified Rate(%) 3 资源综合利用指标 Conprehensive Resoureces Utilization Index 余热余压利用率% Utilization Rate of residual heat and

≥90

pressure % 工业用水重复利用率% ≥95 Industrial water recycle rate % 工业固体废物综合利用率% Comprehensive

utilization

rate

of

≥97

industrial solid waste % 4 污染物产生指标 Contaminant Index 废水产生量(m3/t 轮胎) Waste Water(m3/ton tires) 基准废气产生量(m3/t 轮胎) Baseline off-gas(m3/t three rubbers) 炼胶颗粒物(mg/ m3 ) Milling particles (mg/m3) 非甲烷总烃(mg/ m3) Total non-methane hydrocarbon (mg/m3) 5 生产工艺及装备指标 Process and Equipment Requirement

≤4.50 ≤2000 ≤12 ≤10

8


炼胶工艺 低温连续炼胶 Milling Process Low Temperature Continuous Mixing Technology 硫化工艺 氮气硫化 Curing Process Nitrogen Curing 6 清洁生产管理指标 Clean Production Administration 执行《清洁生产审核暂行办法》 (国家发展和改革委员会、国 清洁生产审核制度执行 家环境保护总局令 第 16 号) Implementation of Clean Prodcution To implement <The Temporary Clean Production Review Review Regulation Procedure> (No.16 Act of NDRC and MEP) 清洁生产部门和人员配备 职能明确 Personnel and Department Deployment for To clarify position responsibility Clean Produciton 环境管理体系认证 Environmental Management Certification

按GB/T 24001通过认证 System To certificate in compliance with GB/T 24001

建设项目环保“三同时”执行情况 Implementation of the “Three Principle” Environmental Reguirement

同时实施 To timely implement as required

合同能源管理 Contractual Energy Management 能源管理体系认证 Energy Management System Certification

效果明显 Shown effective 持续改进 To continuously improve as required

a 新鲜水消耗:指淡水消耗。 Fresh water consumption means the consumption of water without salts. b 综合能耗:指轮胎生产过程综合能耗。 Comprehensive energy consumption means the comprehensive energy consumption during tire production.

4.4 污染物排放 Waste Release 绿色轮胎生产过程中的水污染物和大气污染物排放应符合 GB 27632 规定,分别见表 8 和表 9。 Water contaminants and atmospheric emissions released during green tire production shall be in compliance with GB 27632. See Table 8 and Table 9. 表 8 绿色轮胎生产过程中的水污染物排放限值 Table 8.Water Contaminant Release Limit During Green Tire Production 单位:mg/ L(PH 值除外) Unit: mg/L (except for pH) 序号 No.

污染物项目 Item

PH 值 pH 悬浮物 2 Suspending substance 五日生化需氧量(BOD5) 3 BOD5 化学需氧量(CODCR) 4 CODCR 氨氮 5 Ammonia nitrogen 总氮 6 Total nitrogen 总磷 7 Total phosphorus 石油类 8 Oil 单位胶料基准排水量(m3/t) Baseline water release quantity per ton 1

直接排放限值 Direct Release Limit Value

间接排放限值 Indirect Release Limit Value

6-9

6-9

10

150

10

80

70

300

5

30

10

40

0.5

1.0

1

10

7

直接排放的基准排 水量适用于相同类

污染物排放监控位置 Monitoring Position of Contaminant Release

企业废水总排放口 Tire producers’ general waste water outlets

排水量计量位置与污染物 排放监控位置一致 9


rubber (m3/t)

型间接排放 The direct water release baseline is applicable to the direct release of the same type.

The weighing position for water release is the same position for contaminant monitoring.

表 9 绿色轮胎生产过程中的大气污染物排放限值 Table 9.Atmospheric Contaminant Release Limit during Green Tire Production 序号 No.

污染物项目 Item

生产工艺或设施 Process Section

排放限值(mg/ m3) Release Limit Value (mg/ m3)

基准排气量(m3/t 胶) 污染物排放监控位置 Baseline Off-Gas Monitoring Position Quantity (m3/tons for Contaminant rubber) Release

炼胶装置 12 2000 Milling Device 胶浆制备、浸浆、胶 甲苯及二甲 浆喷涂和涂胶装置 苯合计 Rubber cement 2 15 Total preparation, cement 车间或生产设施排气 Toluene and soaking, cement 筒 Xylene spraying and coating Off-Gas suction hood Devices shall be installed 3 10 2000 炼胶、硫化装置 非甲烷总烃 inside the plant or a 胶浆制备、浸浆、胶 production devices. Total 浆喷涂和涂胶装置 Non-Metha Rubber cement 4 100 ne preparation, cement Hydrocarbo soaking, cement n spraying and rubber a coating Devices a 待国家污染物监测方法标准发布后实施。 The implementation shall be waited till the official release of the national contaminant monitoring standard. 1

颗粒物 Particle

4.5

生产工艺推荐技术 Recommended Production Technology 绿色轮胎生产工艺推荐技术参见表 10,具体内容参见附录 A。 See Table 10 for the recommended technologies for green tire production. See Appendix A for details. 表 10 绿色轮胎生产工艺推荐技术 Table 10.Recommended Technology for Green Tire Production 类型

序号

内容

序号

Type

No.

Item

No.

内容 Item

1

小药料自动称量技术 Additive Automatic Technology

Weighing

9

2

炼胶硫化废气除臭技术 Deodorization Technology for Mixing

10

3

低温连续混炼技术 Low Temperature Continuous Mixing Technology

11

冷却水循环利用技术 Cooling Water Recycle and Re-use Technology

推荐 实施 Recomme ned

胎面/胎侧连续称量控制技术 Tread/Sidewall Continuous Weighing and Control Technology 半钢轮胎纤维压延、全钢轮胎内衬层压 出/压延电子束预硫化技术 Fiber Calendering Technology for Semi Steel Tyre, and Inner Liner Extruding/Calendering Technology and Electron Beam Precuring Technology for Full Steel Tyre 10


4

5

6

7

8 逐步 取消 Graduall y Eliminate d

5

锅炉烟气脱硫/除尘/脱硝技术 Sulphur/Dust/Nitre Removal Technologies for Boiler Fume 高温管道及硫化机隔热保温 Heat Insulation and Preservation of High Temperature Pipeline and Curing Machine 高温充氮硫化技术 High Temperature Nitrogen Curing Technology 炭黑管道输送技术 Carbon Black Pipeline Conveying Technology 橡胶助剂造粒技术 Pelletizing Technology for Rubber Additives

12

13

14

15

16

轮胎自动化成型及半部件大卷化技术 Automatic Tyre Molding and Semi Part Rolling Technology 变频控制技术 Frequency Inverter Control Technology

余热发电和利用技术 Waste Heat Cogeneration and Re-use Technology 分压供蒸汽技术 Partial Pressure Steam Supply Technology 硫化后蒸汽回收利用 Steam Circulation and Reuse after Curing

胎面底面涂胶浆技术 Tread Bottom Coating Technology

试验方法 Testing Method

5.1 绿色轮胎新胎充气后的断面宽度和外直径及胎面磨耗标志的高度按 GB/T 521 进行测量。 The measuring of section width, diameter and tread wear symbol height for green tires shall be in compliance with GB/T 521. 5.2 绿色轮胎的安全性能,轿车子午线轮胎、载重汽车子午线轮胎分别按 GB/T 4502 和 GB/T 4501 进行检验。 The safety performance of green tires shall be in compliance with GB/T 4502 for passenger car radial tires, and GB/T 4501 for heavy duty radial tires. 5.3 绿色轮胎的滚动阻力性能按 GB/T 29040 进行检验。 The testing for green tire rolling resistance performance shall be in compliance with GB/T 29040. 5.4 绿色轮胎的湿路面抓着性,轿车子午线轮胎按 GB/T 21910 进行检验,载重汽车子午线轮胎按 ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2013/66 进行检验。 The testing for green tire wet grip performance shall be in compliance with GB/T 21910 for passenger car radial tires and ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2013/66 for heavy duty vehicle radial tires. 5.5 绿色轮胎的滚动噪声性能按 GB/T 22036 进行检验。 The testing for green tire rolling noise performance shall be in compliance with GB/T 22036. 5.6 绿色轮胎不应使用原材料中含芳香类物质按照 ISO 21461 进行检验,亚硝胺含量按 GB/T 24153 进行检验。 The raw materials shouldn’t be used containing aromatics shall be tested in compliance with ISO 21461. The testing of nitrosamines shall be in compliance with GB/T 24153. 5.7 绿色轮胎的清洁生产按发布后的《轮胎行业清洁生产评价指标体系》要求进行审核。 The clean production for green tires shall be reviewed according to the requirement of <Parameter Evaluation System for Clean Production of Tire Industry> to be official released. 5.8 绿色轮胎生产过程中的污染物排放按 GB 27632 进行监测。 The contaminant release during green tire production shall be monitored in compliance with GB 27632.

11


附 录 A Appendix A (资料性附录) (Informative Appendix) 绿色轮胎生产工艺推荐技术 Green Tire Production Process Recommendation

A.1

目的 Objective

为了推进我国节能、环保、安全的绿色轮胎产业化进程,加快轮胎产品的质量升级和结构调整, 本附录给出了绿色轮胎生产工艺推荐技术。 This document provides recommended technologies for green tire production in order to push forward the green tyre industrilization in China in terms of energy saving, environmental protection and safety, and to expedite the tyre quality ungrading and structural adjustment.

A.2

绿色轮胎工艺推荐技术项目 Recommended Technologies for Green Tires

A.2.1 小药料自动称量技术 Chemical Additive Automatic Weighing Technology 小药料自动称量技术的实现方式较多,目的是实现小药自动称量控制,该工艺的应用可以提高 称量精度、消除小药粉尘污染、改善现场环境、降低工人劳动强度、提高生产效率。 There are various kinds to achieve chemical additive automatic weighing. This technology can improve the weighing precision, eliminate chemical dust pollution, improve on-site environment, reduce labor demand and increase the prodution efficiency. A.2.2

炼胶硫化废气除臭技术 Off-Gas Deodorization Technology for Curing

炼胶硫化过程产生的废气,存在复合恶臭类的有机物异味气体,一般经布袋除尘后直接排入空 气,给环境带来较大的影响;部分炭黑无法彻底收集,也随之排入空气中,造成污染。目前暂无专 用设备进行处理,大部分企业只是做到收集高空排放,部分企业已采用活性炭吸附、RTO 催化燃烧 或等离子、光氧催化等方法治理,建设及维护成本都较大。因此,热胶废气中复合恶臭类有机物异 味气体的治理技术和综合利用技术需要进行深入研究,寻求更佳的解决方案,是目前行业紧迫的技 术需求。 12


Off-gas is generated in the rubber curing process. This organic off-gas with combined odor normally goes through filter bag to remove the dust, then go to the atmosphere directly which gives negative impact on the environment. The carbon content cannot be completely collected, so partial carbon goes with the off-gas into the atmosphere and cause pollution to the environment. So far there is no equipment specifically for such off-gas treatment. Most enterprises only collect the off-gas to elevated atomspheric discharge. Some enterprises use carbon adsorption, RTO catalytic combustion, plasma or photo catalytic oxidation for the off-gas treatment which ask for great investment on the facility construction and maintenance. Therefore, the treatment technology for such off-gas and the technical comprehensive utilization is to be further researched in order to find a better solution. This is an urgent need for the whole industry. 炼胶烟气中存在炭黑等颗粒物以及恶臭类污染物如 R-SH、SO2、甲苯、甲醛、H2S、氨类等, 可以采取气液充分接触的办法处理,净化效率高。 The fume in mixing section contains carbon black particles and odorant pollutants such as R-SH,SO2,toluene,formaldehyde,ammonia, etc. These materials can be removed by sufficient contact between gas and liquid. This treatment method is highly efficient and should be widely promoted. A.2.3

混炼工艺技术 Mixing Technology

橡胶混炼是橡胶加工技术的瓶颈,是产品性能的关键。橡胶混炼过程能量消耗巨大,几乎占轮 胎生产总能耗的 40%,通常 1 吨通过密炼机 2 至 3 段混炼胶,消耗电能达 400 千瓦左右。因此,近 年来,混炼工艺的技术创新引起人们极大关注,混炼工艺由间歇法向连续法转变是一个重要的技术 创新;低温一次法连续混炼及双螺杆或双转子连续混炼等技术取得了较好地开发和应用,湿法混炼 工艺技术也有了重大突破。 Rubber mixing is the bottleneck issue in rubber processing field,as well as the key issue highly related to product performance. The rubber mixing process is highly energy consuming which takes about 40% of the total energy consumption of the whole tyre plant. Generally one ton rubber going through 2nd and 3rd stages of the mixers consumes 400 kw electricity. Therefore, the technical improvement of mixing process has drawn great attention of the industry in recent years. The transition of mixing technology from backwise process to continuous process is a significant technical innovation. The low temperature one-step continuous mixing technology and the double-screw or double-rotor continuous mixing technology have also been well developed and applied. The wet mixing technology has also gone through significant 13


breakthrough. A.2.3.1

低温一次法连续混炼工艺 Low Temerature One-Step Continuous Mixing Process

传统的混炼工艺基本上都是采用密炼机连续多段高温混炼,每一段都要经过多次反复高温加热 和冷却,其中 40%的能量都消耗在加热和降温的过程中,能耗大、耗时长、效率低。 The traditional mixing process is normally a mixing machine with multiple stages of continuous mixing at high temperature.Several times of high temperature heating and cooling should be carried out in each stage. 40% energy is consumed during the heating and cooling which is also time consuming and low in efficiency. 低温连续混炼技术是集冷态碎胶、自动称量、一次法炼胶于一体的混炼工艺技术,一般采用“密 炼机加 6 至 8 台开炼机”的配置形式的一次法炼胶工艺,将原有传统的母炼加终炼工艺过程改为母 炼到终炼一次完成,即胶料通过密炼机高温混炼后,先经过第一台开炼机冷却,再通过中央输送系 统对称地分配到周围多个开炼机上进行连续低温混炼,制得终炼胶,全过程实现自动控制。 Low temperature continuous mixing technology is a combination of rubber breaking in cold condition, automatic weighing and one-step rubber mixing. The one-step mixing process is normally consisted of one mixer plus 6-8 milling machines, which change the traditional mother mixing+final mixing process into one step mixing for both mother and final materials. In the new technology, the rubber materials come out from high temperature mixing machine, go into 1st milling machine for cooling, then the materials are evenly distributed by central conveyor system into several milling machines around to have continuous low temperature mixing, and to get the finally mixed rubber. The automatic control is achieved during the whole process. 低温一次法连续混炼工艺减少了胶料中间传递环节,节约了混炼时间,使原材料转化为混炼胶 的时间由原来的 12 小时缩短为 30 分钟,降低了企业原材料占用成本。由于只有一次密炼机高温混 炼,胶料大部分时间在开炼机上低温混炼,降低了能耗,同时,低温混炼有利于改善炭黑分散,可 以提高胶料的物理机械性能。 The low temperature one-step continuous mixing process has shortened the intermediate rubber conveying process, shortened the mixing time from 12 hours to 30 minutes, and reduced the raw material cost. Since there is only one step of high temperature mixing, the rubber material stays in the low temperature milling machine for most of the time, which reduces the energy consumption, and the carbon black distribution,and rubber physical and mechanical performances can be improved by the low 14


temperature mixing. A.2.3.2

双螺杆或双转子连续混炼工艺 Double-Screw or Double-Rotor Continuous Mixing Process

传统的混炼工艺是胶料投入密炼室,在冷态下启动混炼,需要较大的功率,电耗大。而且,在 混炼过程中,胶料快速剪切所产生的热量无法排除,一般均控制在较短时间内将高温胶片排出冷却, 根据工艺要求进行二段三段混炼。 The traditional mixing process is to feed the rubber materials into the internal mixer chamber, and start mixing in cold condition. This process consumes a large amount of electricity. During mixing, the heat generated in the quick cut cannot be removed, so normally it is controlled in a short time and then move the high temperature rubber out for cooling. According to the process requirement, it needs two to three stages of mixing. 采用双螺杆或双转子连续混炼工艺,可以将胶料剪切过程产生的热能加以利用,使其提高进入 双螺杆混炼段胶料的温度,与密炼生产工艺相比,可以节省电能消耗 50%以上,同时实现连续混炼 过程的温度控制,实现混炼的连续生产。 The double-screw or double-rotor continuous mixing process can reuse the heat generated during rubber cut, which increase the temperature of the rubber materials going into the double-screw mixing. Comparing to the internal mixing, this process can save more than 50% electricity, and meanwhile the temperature control and continuous production can be achieved. A.2.3.3 湿法混炼工艺 Wet Mixing Process 湿法混炼工艺技术是将天然橡胶或合成橡胶在乳胶状态时直接加入炭黑或白炭黑浆料,制成橡 胶—炭黑或白炭黑共混橡胶。这是近代橡胶混炼技术的重大创新。与传统的干法混炼相比,湿法混 炼工艺可以从根本上解决炭黑或白炭黑在加工过程中粉尘飞扬的问题;可以减少混炼段数,减少混 炼过程的能源消耗,据测算,采用湿法混炼工艺生产相同重量(体积)的混炼胶,可以减少 30%至 40%的能量消耗;可以大幅度减少混炼设备的投资,可以节约资金约 30%;可以有效地改善橡胶与 炭黑或白炭黑之间的混合效果,提高混炼胶的均匀性;提高胶料的物理机械性能,提高产品寿命。 Wet mixing process is to add carbon black or silica liquid directly into natural rubber or synthetic rubber in liquid condition to produce rubber-carbon or silica composite. This is a great innovation in modern mixing technology. Comparing to the traditional dry process, the wet process can solve the dust problem during carbon black or silica processing, shorten the mixing process, and save energy. As estimated, for the same 15


quantity in weight (volume) of mixed rubber, the wet process can save 30%-40% energy consumption. The investment in mixing equipment can be greatly reduced, approx. By 30%. It can also effetively improve the mixing between rubber and carbon black or silica, and the uniformity of mixing rubber, and improve the physical and mechanical performances of the rubber materials, and increase the product lifetime. A.2.4

锅炉烟气脱硫/除尘/脱硝技术 Boiler Fume Sulphur/Dust/Nitre Removal Technology

大多数国内轮胎企业采用国内外锅炉脱硫常用工艺,有的轮胎企业则采用钠钙双碱法脱硫技术, 该技术既实现了钠离子的高效脱硫又实现了用廉价的钙离子对钠离子的再生降低了脱硫费用,工艺 较为先进,特别适合中、小型锅炉。该技术的投入能有效减少锅炉对大气二氧化硫及粉尘的排放, 确保达标排放。 Most domestic tyre makers use the normal boiler sulphur removal process that is commonly used home and abroad. Some tyre makers use sodium and calcium caustics to remove sulphur, which achieves the high sulphur removal efficiency through sodium ions. This technology uses less expensive calcium to regenerate sodium ions which can reduces the sulphur removal cost. It is an advanced technology, especially suitable for medium and small size boilers. This technology can efficiently reduce boiler SO2 and dust emission to the atmosphere according to the emission requirement. A.2.5

高温管道及硫化机隔热保温 Heat Insulation and Preservation of High Temperature Pipelines and Curing Machines

高温管道及硫化机隔热保温采用的是可拆卸重复利用的保温材料构件应用于管道外表面,达到 降低热量损失、节约能源、改善环境的目的。但是,检修管道拆卸后很难重复利用。 Removable and Reusable temperature insulation materials and parts are used on the outside surface of pipelines to reduce heat loss, save energy and improve environment. But it is difficult to reuse after removed for pipeline maintenance. A.2.6

高温充氮硫化技术 High Temerature Nitrogen Curing Technology

传统的轮胎硫化工艺是以过热水作为轮胎硫化热源并提供轮胎硫化内压。其中过热水由锅炉加 热软化水后送到硫化车间动力站,再经过动力站除氧罐除氧,成为高温无氧软化水,利用动力站的 热水泵把过热水送到硫化机台。该工艺过程需要消耗大量的水、燃料和电,总体能量耗用量巨大。 The traditional curing technology is to use superheated water as the curing sources and for increasing the tyre inner pressure of the curing.The superheated water in the curing power station is the heated 16


softened water from the boiler. After going through the deoxygenated tank in the power station, it becomes the high temperature deoxygenated water. This water is sent to the curing machine by the hot water pump. This process consumes a large amount of water, fuel and energy. 高温充氮硫化技术是以饱和蒸汽为热源、利用高压氮气给轮胎硫化提供内压,该工艺的应用使 轮胎硫化不再需要过热水,因此有利于节约能源、缩短硫化时间、提高生产效率。 The high temperature nitrogen curing technology is to use saturated steam as the heat source. The high pressure nitrogen is used to provide inner pressure for the tyre curing. The application of this technology delete the use of superheated water for curing, so the energy consumption is reduced, the curing is shortened and the production efficiency is increased. A.2.7

炭黑管道输送技术 Carbon Black Pipeline Conveying Technology

该技术采用槽车密封气体输送炭黑,有的轮胎企业还采用双管气力输送技术,即输送管道由主 管道和旁通管组成,输送过程中旁通管通压缩空气将物料柱切成小段,减小阻力,从而实现密闭输 送,提高输送效率,系统全程封闭,无泄漏。 This technology uses airtight road tanker with sealing gas to send carbon black. Some tyre makers. During the conveying, the compressed air is charged into the bypass which cut the materials into small pieces so as to reduce resistance, to achieve dense phase conveying, and to increase the conveying efficiency. This whole system is closed and no leakage. A.2.8

橡胶助剂造粒技术 Pelletizing Technology for Rubber Additives

橡胶助剂造粒技术是化工小料、生胶或其他材料预混合、挤出后造粒和自动称量技术,该工艺 有助于降低粉尘、改善生产环境,有利于实现自动化称量,开炼机上加硫等工艺。目前,助剂行业 基本上有造粒技术,轮胎企业采购时只需提出要求,但可能会带来成本的上升。 The pelletizing technology for rubber additives is used to pelletize and weigh the chemical additives, crude rubber and other materials in premixing and extruding sections. This technology can reduce dust emission, improve productive environment,and achieve automatic weighing,and curing on top of the mixing machine. Currently, the pelletizing technology is normally available in chemical additive industry for the tyre maker procurement, but the cost might be increased. A.2.9

冷却水循环利用技术 Cooling Water Circulation Technology 17


基本上每个轮胎企业都有结合自己工艺特点的冷却水循环利用技术,大多数轮胎企业采用“闭 路循环冷却、智能化在线自动监控”的形式,有的企业还采用 2 套沙滤装置(多介质过滤器及活性 炭过滤器)来提高循环水的水质,去除循环水中的悬浮物和有机杂质,从而提高产品质量。 Almost every tyre maker has its own unique cooling water circulation technology. Most of the tyre makers use the procedure of “closed route of circulated cooling,and smart on-line automatic monitoring”. Some tyre makers use two sets of sand filtering device(multiple media filter and activated carbon filters)to improve the quality of circulated water, and to remove the suspending material and organic impurity in the circulated water. A.2.10

胎面/胎侧连续称量控制技术 Tread/Sidewall Continuous Weighing Control Technology

胎面/胎侧连续称量控制技术是在光电监测器的定位信号下,根据设定的重量上限和重量下限分 选出合格半部件,确保后道工序的加工质量,降低操作人员劳动强度,提高生产速度。由于采取了实时 监控的办法,大幅度提高了半部件的精度,从而提高了最终产品的质量。 Tread/Sidewall continuous weighing control technology is to set up the maximum and minimum weights with positioning signals from photoelectric detector to pick up qualified semifinished parts,which ensures the processing quality in the later stage, reduce the operative labor demand, and increase the production speed. The application of real time monitoring significantly increase the precision of the semifinished parts and the quality of the final products. A.2.11 半钢轮胎纤维压延、全钢轮胎内衬层压出/压延电子束预硫化技术 Fiber Calendering Technology for Semi Steel Tyre,and Inner Liner Extruding/Calendering Technology and Electron Beam Precuring Technology for Full Steel Tyre 电子束预硫化技术是通过电子加速器发射的高能电子束在橡胶基体中激活橡胶分子,产生橡胶 大分子自由基,使其以自由基为出发点发生聚合,并引起连锁反应,被裂解分子的一部分与其他分子发 生冲突失去能量后回复到基底状态,而产生碳碳键重组形成三维网状结构的过程,该工艺有助于提 高半成品的强度,使半成品成型过程中变形均匀,达到减薄内衬层的厚度从而节省材料成本、缩短 硫化时间、降低滚阻、轮胎轻量化,同时确保成型过程中胎体帘线的密度,从而提升轮胎各项性能 稳定性及质量。 Electron beam precuring technology is to activate rubber molecule through high energy electron beam emitted by electron accelerator to produce free rubber macromolecule radicals, and to cause polymeriation and chain reactions based on the free radicals, from which the cracked molecules partially attack other 18


molecules, lose energy and return back to the basic status, while the carbon-carbon bonds generated form into a tri-dimensional network structure. This process can improve the strength of the semifinished product, ensure the uniformity of the semifinished molding process, therefore the inner liner becomes thinner, the material cost is saved, the curing time is shortened, the rolling resistance is reduced, and the tire weight is lighter, and the carcass cord density is ensured dudring molding, so the tyre performance stability and quality can be improved. 需要关注的是辐照电子束对作业人员及环境有影响,另外可能会一定程度上影响压延的效率。 Attention on the electron beam operators and impact to the environment should be paid. The calendering efficiency might also be affected by this technology to some extent. A.2.12

轮胎自动化成型及半部件大卷化技术 Automatic Tyre Molding and Semifinished Part Rolling Technology

主要是从提高成型机自动化程度、定位精度,以及减轻劳动强度、提高劳动生产率的角度提出 来的工艺要求,目前国内大部分轮胎企业都还处于摸索时期,还没有成功投入应用的案例。与成型 自动化技术相关联的胎面等半部件的大卷化技术,对产品质量和生产效率等都有很大帮助。 This technology can achieve tyre molding automation, precision of positioning, and reduce labor demand and increase production efficiency. Currently, most of the tyre makers in China have not yet full grasped this technology, therefore, no successful application is achieved in China.The semifinished part rolling technology is related to the molding automation, and is helpful to increase product quality and production efficiency. 对现有工厂,该技术是否投入,要充分考虑车间现有设备的布局,费用也较高。 The existing facilities and high investment should be considered for the technology application into existing tyre plants. A.2.13

变频控制技术 Frequency Inverter Control Technology

对轮胎企业,变频控制技术主要应用于公用工程各供水系统中,以及在炼胶车间和主厂房,将 大功率直流电机改为变频电机。该技术利用变频恒压控制替代原有的旁路、回路控制方式;用变频 调速代替直流调速。变频控制技术可提高控制精度,提高设备功率因数、减少谐波干扰,降低电机 维修费用、节约电能。 The frequency inverter control technology for tyre makers is mainly used in the water supply and other utilities, mixing house and main production house, where large power direct current machine is 19


converted into frequency inverter machine. This technology uses variable frequency constant pressure control to replace the original by-pass and loop control, and it uses the variable frequency speed control to replace direct current speed control.This technology can increase the control precision,equipment power coefficient, and reduce harmonic interference,motor maintenance cost and save electricity power. A.2.14

余热发电和利用技术 Waste Heat Power Generating and Reuse Technology

目前国内轮胎企业使用比较多的余热发电和利用技术就是溴化锂制冷机利用硫化余热资源。该 技术的应用需要较高的初期投入,约 1000 万元/套,但可以节约水、汽、电的耗用。 Currently, most domestic tyre makers use lithium bromide refrigerator to reuse the curing waste heat. The initiative investment for this technology is relatively high, approx. 10 million RMB/set, but it can save a great amount of water, steam and electricity. A.2.15

分压供蒸汽技术 Partial Pressure Steam Supply Technology

产品线比较大、硫化所需要的内外压蒸汽有较大压差的轮胎企业可以采用这种技术,即以不同 的蒸汽压力供给满足相应硫化机台的工艺要求,可以节约燃料动力费用。 This technology is suitable for tyre makers with large production lines and large volume of partial pressure steam supply for curing. Differenct steam pressure should be used to supply to curing machines with different process requirement. This technolocay can save fuel and power cost. A.2.16

硫化后冷凝水回收利用 Recycle of Condensate Water After Curing

硫化后冷凝水回收利用,包括冷凝水回收、冷凝水蒸汽回水、余热制冷与采暖等,即把废蒸汽 混合物经过处理后,净水实现再循环,蒸汽用于溴化锂制冷、锅炉给水加热等,减少能耗损失,达 到能源重新再利用。 The condensate water coming out from the curing process can be reused, including the condensate water recycle, steam water, waste heat cooling and heat supply. This technology is to purify the waste steam mixture and reuse the steam in lithium bromide cooling and boiler water heating,tec. It can reduce energy loss and achieve energy circulation.

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