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The Business and Politics of Carbon by Alison Wise, National Renewable Energy Lab The activity around making markets for carbon continues to grow as climate issues gain more traction in the policy realm under a new administration. For those who are not up to speed on the ins and outs of carbon markets in general, I would refer them to the last time I wrote about the issue, a link to which can be found at the end of this article. This time around I will focus on the business case for carbon offsetting and on the treatment of carbon in the Waxman-Markey legislation currently being debated in Congress. Broadly speaking, voluntary carbon markets ref er to the markets f or c ar bon credits outside the scope of regulated carbon reduction. They are driven by businesses and organizations that pay a third party to make a measurable reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (usually CO2) though they have no legal requirement to do so. This reduction “offsets” the organization’s current carbon footprint, “crediting” it with the equivalent reduction. Until legislation mandates some sort of action towards carbon mitigation, whether a cap and trade mechanism or a carbon tax, there is no compliance market for carbon nationally in the United States. According to a recent repor t by Ne w Energ y Finance, the value of the transactions in the voluntar y carbon market globally has doubled in the past two years, increasing from US $335 million in 2007 to $705 million in 2008. It is interesting to dig a bit deeper into why these voluntary markets are growing despite having no compliance mechanisms. Ultimately, a regulated

market for carbon based on mandatory parameters may be the most effective, but in the interim there has been increasing involvement with voluntary carbon markets, with the drivers coming from the private sector. The New Energy Finance report outlines some interesting findings for the “business case” for carbon off-setting: Fi r s t , N e w E n e r g y Fi n a n c e identified 3,000 organizations that were end-buyers of voluntary carbon offsets. This number was seen as “significant ” given the industr y ’s common characterization as a “fringe” entity. The greatest business benefit from carbon offsetting is the protection or enhancement of corporate reputation, according to those surveyed in the New Energy Finance report. This is interesting in light of the fact that one of the drivers for sustainability measures within corporations in general is risk mitigation. Companies have reported that a motivating factor for adopting sustainability principles is the protection or enhancement of brand value, an intangible asset that all companies need to protect. It seems that this motivation applies to carbon offsetting as well. W hile a business case can be made for carbon offsetting, it was not the only reason for engaging in that activity. According to their respondents, 15% of those companies New Energy Finance surveyed said that offsetting their emissions was driven by the desire to be a good corporate citizen (that said, one could argue that being a good corporate citizen inherently protects your

Author: Alison Wise is a Senior Strategic Analyst at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Colorado, with focus areas in renewable markets and private sector investments, public policy and market/corporate policy. Her pr imar y r esear ch inte r ests are in renewable energy and renewable fuels competitiveness and in best practices for incentivizing renewable energy and renewable fuels. Prior to joining NREL, Ms. Wise was a senior research consultant with Clean Edge, Inc. She holds an M.B.A. from the University of Oregon.

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brand’s reputation, which is good for the bottom line). Surprisingly, carbon offsetting activity did not positively impact employee morale in any significant way. In fact, employees were confused about how carbon offsets worked and why it was beneficial to engage in this activity. Finally, given the “scale and diversity” of offset users, New Energy Finance predicted that the voluntary carbon market will continue to grow, once the global recession is over. While the voluntary carbon market is an important transitional step toward an economy that captures the true cost of a carbon intensive energy system, it will most likely take some sort of regulatory approach to accelerate the internalization of carbon externalities in the marketplace. So, let’s turn to the most prevalent legislative mechanism that is seeking to accomplish that end: The Waxman-Markey Clean Energy Bill (H.R.2454), otherwise known as the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACES Act). According to many spectators and participants, this bill represents a demonstrable move towards the United States adopting clear, identifiable carbon reductions. That said, according to those involved with the clean energy industry, there are many challenges to be met in terms of decision-makers crafting a piece of legislation that would effectively address the carbon issue, in turn accelerating the markets for energy efficiency and renewable energy. Tim Greeff, political director at the Clean Economy Network, puts it this way, “ While there are many important provisions in the legislation that will help facilitate a more rapid transition to the deployment of cleaner technologies, the legislation faces a substantial hurdle in the Senate. As it stands now, there are well over a dozen Senators who have significant concerns with

different provisions of the bill and are not convinced of its benefits for clean energy, jobs and the economy. ” The bill outlines a cap and trade mechanism for greenhouse gas emissions reduction, aiming to decrease emissions by 17% by 2020. However, the cap and trade program being designed within this legislation would give away 81% of allowances for free, as opposed to the cap and trade program advocated by the White House which would auction off the allowances and use the proceeds for clean energy investments and a tax cut for the underprivileged. Other aspects of the legislation: The bill allocates 36% of allowances to the power generation sector through 2025 Auctioned volumes would increase dramatically after 2025, rising from 19% to 65% by 2030. Beginning at a low auction rate would allow covered entities (the power sector) time for the technological transition they will need to make in a carbon constrained economy The legislation would ease restrictions on offset usage to reduce compliance costs. After 2017, it would remove an 80% offset discount factor for international offsets and allow increased international offset usage to compensate for domestic shortages of offsets when domestic prices are less than or equal to allowance prices The bill relaxes criteria for inclusion in the early offset supply pool to broaden the scope of eligible programs beyond the Climate Action Registry and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (this may address some of the shortage issues of domestic offsets) Getting the program and the price right in this new approach to carbon mitigation will be key to making sure that we are creating the right landscape for accelerating markets for renewables, efficiency services and technology. The internalization of carbon costs into our economic infrastructure will be important for creating the right market environment for the uptake of renewables, perhaps as important as the creation of a smart grid to be able to integrate distributed generation beyond niche applications. But that’s a story for another day.

How Will Utilities Make Money as PV Continues to Grow? Q: I assume my utility isn’t happy about my PV system -I'm buying less electricity! What happens when 10% of their customers have PV? What about 25%? -- Frank G., Zaza, Idaho 

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A: Photovoltaics (PV ) could very well become the new metaphor for disruptive technological change in the electricity sector, just as personal computers and cell phones were in their respective industries, emerging from within a centralized business model. Economic PV markets won’t emerge in every state at the same time though. Solar resources, electricity costs and state policies cause uneven solar adoption making PV market growth very state specific (California, New Jersey and Colorado were the top three states for installed PV in 2008 for example). However, utilities across the country engage in 10-15 year “integrated resource plans” (IRPs) where they forecast electricity demand and the necessary supplies and most utilities should be planning for moderate to significant PV growth over these time horizons. There are both technical and financial challenges for utilities related to the large-scale adoption of demandside PV, i.e. net metering. Technical challenges include efficiently and safely interconnecting hundreds or thousands of systems per year, capturing new streams of data and integrating it into the billing software, and managing concentrated areas of high penetration where peak production of PV during periods of low consumption might cause grid imbalances. However, since you are questioning what happens on the financial side of these challenges (if more people purchase less electricity), I’ll focus my answer on that aspect of the utility business model. First, you should know that electricity consumption already fluctuates both up and down because of weather, energy efficiency measures that consumers take, new products that consume more electricity, population growth or decline, the local economy and more. For now, utilities cover their costs and generate profits by selling electricity. If you purchase less, and if this was magnified many times by a larger and larger percentage of customers, the utility would, in current business models, essentially go bankrupt. While utilities are an easy target for scorn, they do manage a large amount of infrastructure that makes our modern lives possible, including providing electricity to supplement your PV system so we need to recognize that utilities are not going away. However, they may need to evolve. For now, there are a variety of methods that utilities

can use to manage the fiscal impacts of net metering, some of which also apply to other factors that affect consumption. Net Metering Limitations – Utilities or regulators can limit the size of any one PV installation and/or the aggregate of PV systems in a utility’s territory. This is quite common in states but results in widely uneven conditions for PV market development and runs a bit counter to the energy democratization movement that these new technologies represent. Increase Fixed Charges – The utility could increase the monthly fixed charge, the monthly fee consumers pay regardless of consumption levels to recover fixed costs and lower the amount consumers pay for each unit of electricity. Doing this wouldn’t encourage the efficient use of electricity, however, something that more and more utilities are being mandated to encourage customers to do. Fuel Clause Adjustments – Utilities can calculate or estimate how much revenue they are losing and then ask regulators to reimburse them, which they do already for many other programs. Decoupling – There is a new policy called decoupling, which financially reimburses utilities based on a metric other than electricity consumption, such as the number of customers, making the utility neutral to how much electricity is actually sold. Decoupling is being discussed in many states and at the federal level. It is important to know that all of these options (and others not listed) are either short- to medium-term patches but are ultimately incomplete if you envision an electricity world 25 years from now where a large number of homes or businesses could operate as small power plants. That will require a reevaluation of the utility business model and the management of the grid infrastructure. http://www.renewableenerg yworld.com/rea/news/ article/2009/08/the-business-and-politics-of-carbon

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GRID SCALE ENERGY STORAGE: TECHNOLOGIES AND FORECASTS THROUGH 2015: By John Kluza, GTM RESEARCH

Distributed Grid Scale Energy Storage: Executive Summary The development of the electrical grid is one of the most impressive accomplishments of the 20th century. Its scale and ubiquity speak volumes about how important it has become to modern life. The modern grid, however, is still largely based on the original design that Westinghouse and Edison debated in the late 1800s, and it is not designed for modern electrical loads, distributed energy sources or optimal efficiency. Smart grid technology is now beginning to be rolled out to improve the system. One of the major pieces required to make the new smart grid effective is a buffer in the system that can store energy to balance the whole grid system. The development of distributed grid scale energy storage technology offers great potential to improve the architecture and operation of the electrical grid. A number of interrelated factors are driving the adoption of distributed grid scale energy storage including: Development of renewable and/or distributed energy sources. For instance, wind power requires approximatel y 3 MW to 5 MW of additional f requency regulation electric ancillary service for every 100 MW wind power installed and would also benefit from load shifting energy storage. Utilities’ desire for more efficient use of generation, transmission and distribution assets Public’s desire for 

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carbon reduction and more efficient use of fuel resources Increasing power quality/reliability requirements from end users

Technology There are many ways that energy storage can help balance electric flow on the grid. This report will discuss distributed storage with discharge times of minutes or longer in order to focus in on particular sectors of the market that are undergoing rapid development and offer massive opportunities for growth. There are a number of classes of technologies with different properties that make them more suitable for specific market applications. Batteries of many different classes are used in these grid scale energy storage systems. One of the most familiar technologies in use is the lithium-ion batter y. While the handful of installations already on the grid do not use the same exact chemistr y commonly found in laptops and cell phones, they share some of the same components, packaging, manufacturing processes and properties. Lithium-ion batteries for grid use are more similar to those for electric vehicles and are designed to perform well on the metrics needed in power-oriented grid applications, including cycle life, cost and power capacity. The advanced lead acid battery, based on the familiar traditional lead acid battery, is in very early stages of being used on the grid for energ y-oriented applications. While considerably different f rom

Author: John Kluza, holds a Master of Science in Management and Engineering from MIT. While at MIT, John interned at A123 Systems and did competitive analysis and due diligence in order to prepare A123 for an IPO f iling. Prior to attending MIT, John worked for 5 years as an engineering consultant on the development of software for control systems and data analysis for a broad range of clients including aerospace, automotive and oil f ield ser vices. John earned his Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (Controls/Robotics) at Pennsylvania State University and his Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering at Lehigh University. John lives and works in the Boston metro area.


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traditional car starter type lead acid batteries, they share much of the same chemistry and packaging. However, these new ones have new parts integrated into them, such as ultracapacitor material or other alternate electrode material which greatly improves their cycle life and power delivery, while allowing them to still be built in a low cost fashion on equipment similar to that used for traditional lead acid batteries. The type of battery which currently is most used on the grid is from the sodium family of batteries, the sodium sulfur battery. It is conceptually similar to a traditional battery in many ways, however its implementation uses liquid sodium maintained at 300°C, so its design, construction and enclosure are quite different f rom traditional batteries. FIGURE 1: POWER AND ENERGY POSITIONING OF ENERGY STORAGE OPTIONS

Source: NYSERDA and GTM Research The various configurations of these batteries have acceptable power, energy and life cycle levels for many grid applications, both power and energy-oriented, but their cost, even in current mass production, makes them only suitable for very high value applications. The technology for the flow battery has been explored for decades but is only now becoming a viable alternative for cost effective energy-oriented grid installations. Flow batteries differ from traditional batteries in that they pump their active electrochemical material through a reaction chamber, instead of containing it all inside the cell. This way, their discharge time (energy) is related to size of the tanks of liquid active material and their discharge rate (power) is independently related to the size of the reaction chamber. There are a number of variations

on this chemistry and some have recently achieved low enough costs and high enough life cycles to be installed in pilot grid applications. The final technology examined by this report is fly wheels. These systems connect a motor/generator to a spinning rotor and spin it faster with the motor to charge the system then slow it down through the generator to discharge it. There are a handful of flywheels used in power-oriented installations on the grid already. Though they are expensive initially, they have a very long life, which could eventually make the upfront cost worthwhile.

Markets and Revenues One of the most interesting and complicated aspects of grid scale energy storage is that there are many applications that create value on the grid. This report describes 14 applications identified and researched by New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) which cover the range of possible methods to create value with grid scale energy storage. These applications include power-oriented (fast) and energy-oriented (load shifting or LS) options for utilities/grid operators, end users and renewable power. Each of these applications creates a benefit stream of cash and non-cash benefits. Many of these benefit streams are independent of each other and some can be accomplished at the same time by one energy storage installation. By analyzing estimates of benefit value created by each application and the cost of the energy storage systems, it was found that building an installation that only accomplishes one of these applications does not typically create enough value to offer an attractive payback on the project. Players need to find ways to create enough value by bundling applications together into what this report will refer to as “implementations� and identify ways to capture enough of that created value themselves to make the installation economically attractive. The applications were examined to identify which benefits could be accomplished at the same time and how they might be bundled together to create more value for the energy storage system owner. These possible implementations were compared to existing and proposed installations, and a set of six primary implementation types was developed. This set characterizes each of the grid scale installations identified and denotes the types of value each installation seeks to create and capture. The best case scenario for value generated by www.sneia.org

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FEATURE ARTICLES Grid Scale Energy Storage: Technologies and Forecasts Through 2015

each implementation was estimated and compared to the cost of the energy storage system built with each technology. This was used to develop a matrix of likely economic outcomes for each of the technologies in each of the implementations and identify which combinations make economic sense. For each implementation, existing installations with available economic data were also highlighted for comparison to the estimated numbers and these results were collected in their own economic outcomes matrix to show which technologies have been economical in practice. The significant technological and legal challenges and opportunities of each implementation were also investigated and discussed for each implementation. Concerns about regulatory barriers to accruing the multiple benefits of an implementation to one entity and the challenges of recovering value from non-cash benefits like improved customer service were highlighted for each implementation. The report continues on to an investigation into the current status of the market and projections for the future. The installed base of the total market by manufacturer and sub-market was determined. Total market size for each submarket was estimated both for the US and globally based on expected requirements for each application expected to be profitably served by energy storage. Currently addressable U.S. market size was also calculated for the one application which had sufficient data: frequency regulation ancillary services. Production for each energy storage manufacturer was then estimated to 2015 and summed into a bottom up company-based total annual production estimate for each submarket, including production by technology. This collection of data on estimates of cost and benefits, technical capabilities, market requirements, production levels and implementation strategies was based on interviews with dozens of vendors, utilities, regulators and industry experts, results of a vendor survey and an extensive review of news and research.

Conclusions In addition to the previously mentioned technology and application investigations, this research also includes profiles of the manufacturers in the industry with a listing of VC transactions for 2008 and 2009H1. The synthesis of this information led to conclusions in three main veins about the future of distributed grid scale energy storage. 

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Power-oriented (fast) energy storage will grow quickly in the near to mid term but will be constrained in the long term by a modest total market size. Power-oriented (fast) energy storage is poised for strong near- to mid-term growth. Its most significant component, the f requency regulation market, has recently been opened up for direct entry by energy storage in some ISO regions of the U.S. with additional ISOs anticipated. This means that energy storage can secure contracts for grid frequency regulation on the open market and the owner of the system will get compensated in cash. This capture-able, all cash benefit stream makes obtaining compensation for an energy storage system much less complicated than many other implementations. New highly robust, moderate cost lithium-ion batteries are able to provide this service cost effectively and are beginning to be deployed successfully in a few regions of the U.S. and in Chile. This trend is expected to continue and accelerate with the addition of new renewable resources on the grid and further decreases in the cost of lithium-ion batteries. Production of fast energy storage in 2009 is estimated at 49 MW and is expected to grow to 479 MW or $500 million in 2015. The total market size for fast energy storage is estimated at about 7,137 MW total for the U.S. and about 37,828 MW for the world. Energy-oriented (load shifting) energy storage has a massive total market size, however it is only beginning to be ready to be exploited. Energy-oriented (load shifting) energy storage offers a number of potentially lucrative opportunities for implementations that strategically combine applications. While wholesale load shifting is sometimes discussed, it does not create enough value to be cost effective on its own in most situations right


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now. There are many existing strategic load shifting implementations that are or are close to becoming cost effective. The challenge with these implementations is that some of the benefits are generated as non-cash benefi ts which can be diffi cult to monetize. Additionally, the benefits come from bundling different value streams, which are feasible technically but challenging to accrue to one entity for regulatory reasons. In some parts of the world, like Japan, where the value created from single applications is higher or utilities are more easily able to accrue value from the multiple benefits generated, sodium sulfur (NaS) load shifting energy storage has already gained a good foothold and has recently gained favor in other countries like France and the UAE, though only small pilot installations exist in the U.S. New fl ow battery technology, particularly zinc-bromide, has recently become more cost effective than NaS for many implementations and is expected to grow to surpass NaS installations by 2015. Advanced lead acid batteries are also expected to show impressive growth due to further cost reduction. Additionally, repurposing existing traditional lead acid manufacturing capacity will further enable growth of this technology. The currently variable government regulatory climate for LS storage is expected to somewhat limit near-term growth, but more amenable regulation and mass production cost reduction for LS storage are expected to drive strong mid to long term growth. In 2009, an estimated 147 MW were produced, but in 2015, 1,321 MW are expected to be produced with revenues of $1,978 million. The total market size is estimated at 85,000 MW in the U.S. and 450,000 MW in the world.

Government regulation will play a large role in determining the rate of the roll out of all energy storage. Government regulation is a critical driver of or inhibitor to energy storage technology penetrating the market. Recent history and current trends in government regulation are favorable for energy storage, especially for frequency regulation in the U.S. Recent political action in favor of renewable power, including energy storage tax incentives in bill S.1091 recently proposed in the U.S. Congress, is paving the way for a more favorable environment for LS in the U.S. However, compensation for utilities will also have to change in order to fully spur progress for LS energy storage, including areas such as allowable inclusions in the rate base, risk compensation and ownership of assets useful for both T&D and generation. Other countries with differing structures for utility compensation and greater LS storage penetration, like Japan, France and the UAE, may offer ideas for how to encourage its penetration in the U.S. FIGURE 2: PROJECTED WORLDWIDE PRODUCTION OF ENERGY STORAGE IN 2009

For more information acquiring the full report, please visit: http://www.gtmresearch.com/report/grid-scale-energystorage-technologies-and-forecasts-through-2015 All Reports are owned by Greentech Media protected by United States Copyright and international copyright/ intellectual property laws under applicable treaties and/or conventions. User agrees not to export any Report into a country that does not have copyright/intellectual property laws that will protect Greentech Media’s rights therein.

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Financial Crisis: a Good Opportunity for the Development of Solar Industry By Qiu Baoxing I t h a s p ro ve d by h i s t o r y that opportunities always come together with crises. At present, all business languishes as a result of the financial crisis. The emerging solar industry in China is also heavily attacked. However, from a dialectical point of view, the crisis is breeding a good opportunity for the development of solar industry.

I. Giving priority to the support of solar energy is in accordance with the principle of expanding domestic demand and investment The economic growth in China is mainly accelerated by export, consumption and investment. With the ongoing spread of the global financial crisis, the market demand of developed countries has shrunk. Therefore, the key point of coping with international financial crisis in China is to expand domestic demand and investment by all means. How can we expand domestic demand and investment effectively? Which industries or projects should be given policy support? In my opinion, the most important point is to see whether these industries or projects have following sustainability: first, the sustainability of ecological environment; second, the sustainability of

economic development, through which the industries or projects can be transformed into investment and consumption, thus driving the economic growth; third, the sustainability of social development, that is to see whether they accord with social justice and whether they can increase employment; the last one is the sustainability of technical innovation. Measured by the four kinds of sustainability, the plan of enlarging investment in the renewable energy fields, especially solar industry, and managing to spur the domestic demand of solar products are among what we should give special policy support. Solar energy is the known as the energy with highest quality in the world. And solar energy industry has huge development potential. It can replace the daily-decreased conventional energy at a great degree, relieve and even defuse the increasingly serious energy and climate crisis. It also has a long industry chain which can absorb a lot of labors. Meanwhile, it can become means of production and livelihood which people are in favor of. If we lay hold of the new energy industry, represented by solar energy, and give it substantial support, we can transform the crisis into an opportunity. We can not only make great progress in this industry, but also push the development of other related industries, gradually bringing us out of the shadow of the economic crisis.

II. The Solar Plan of America and Its Enlightenment to China From the view of the world h i s t o r y, d u r i n g e c on om i c recessions, many countries and regions al way s c hose to expand investment and stimulate domestic demand in certain industries with large development potential. This year, the U.S. Government promoted new energy priority policy which was worth learning from. America has abundant solar 

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resources and starts the development of solar technology early. However, in the past, due to various reasons, the development of its solar energy industry fell behind Germany, Japan and other countries. At the beginning when President Obama took office, he gave priority to the development of new energy in the New Deal, invited a large number of experts to participate in formulating a grand new energy plan which aims at supporting renewable energy to replace the traditional sources of energy, controlling carbon dioxide emissions and driving the "Green Jobs" program. The main contents of the plan are: comprehensively promoting the solar power plan of the rooftop by policies and administrative measures, encouraging the large-scale power stations in deserts and wetlands, developing the hybrid dynamic automobiles powered by the solar power grid so as to replace the conventional fuel vehicles, and substantially increasing the proportion of the use of renewable energy in electricity generation and transmission. Through these ways, nearly 3 billion kilowatts of electricity will be produced by photovoltaic technology by 2050 (Its price is equivalent with the price of the conventional electricity) and this can provide 69% of total electricity and 35% of the total energy for the United States (including energy consumption for transportation). Besides, it will reduce 1.7 billion tons of greenhouse gases annually and the total carbon dioxide emissions will be 62% lower than in 2005. In February this year, in order to realize this plan, Obama signed a package economic stimulus plan of 787 billion U.S. dollars, among which 62.5 billion U.S. dollars will be invested in Green Action Plan, 2 billion U.S. dollars directly used in those green projects with tax stimulation. Another 420 billion U.S. dollars will be added in future. The plan not only alleviates the energy and environmental crisis and curbs the global warming, which can make a significant contribution in improving the national image, but also directly creating a large number of new "green jobs" (expected to be 5 million posts in total). China and the United States are the top two countries in the world in carbon emission. China's solar energy resources are in no way inferior to the United States. If following the practice of the United States, in the next half century, it is possible that China will greatly improve the total installed capacity of solar photovoltaic power generation and make the green power

generation reach 4.6 trillion degrees, accounting for half of the country's total electricity consumption.

III. Finding opportunities for the development of solar energy in the crisis Taking an overview of the present development of solar energy in China, we can divide the opportunities as follows: ——The price of raw materials is decreasing at a fast speed, and the production cost of photovoltaic cells and modules is largely reduced; ——The high productivity of lots of newly-added raw materials begins to play its role as it helps in loosening the bottleneck which restricts the production of solar cells in China; ——The implementation of Renewable Energy Law. Rules such as Renewable Energy Law, Regulations on Energ y Conser vation of Buildings and other related technical specifications and standards that are being compiled, have laid a solid foundation for the development of solar energy in our country. ——Many breakthroughs have been made in solar photovoltaic technology, such as the construction of large photovoltaic plants, thin film generation, condensing plant, compressive resilience etc, as well as in innovation of photovoltaic building materials and components. ——The use of solar energy becomes more and more popular. Especially in China, the use of solar water heater is increasing at an average rate of 25% annually. China has become the first in both production and application of solar water heater. All of these have paved the way for the large-scale development of solar energy in China. The future prospective of solar industry is very promising.

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FEATURE ARTICLES Financial Crisis: a Good Opportunity for the Development of Solar Industry

IV. Adopting 4 measures and seizing the opportunity to speed up the development of solar energy industry to achieve a "multi-win" situation. In the battle of expanding domestic demand, stimulating efficient investment, and promoting economic recovery and growth, we should seize the optimal opportunity to speed up the development of solar energy industry to achieve a "multi-win" situation; the key is to have a strong start in the following aspects.: A. Implementing BIPV; actively carrying out "Solar Roofs Plan for Ten Thousands of Families". The advantages of using roofs for solar photovoltaic power generation: firstly, it can make full use of the roof space for solar thermal, photovoltaic, which can save a lot of land; secondly, it can improve the cooling, insulation and ventilation performance in the building's roof, and cut energy consumption; thirdly, it closely links energy production with energy consumption, which can reduce the power loss caused by long-distance transmission. It is estimated that if photovoltaic devices are installed in all qualified buildings across China, the total generating capacity will be more than 80GW, equivalent to the output of 10 “Three Gorges Hydropower Station”; By 2020, if the more roofs of new buildings are used to generate electricity, the total capacity can hit the output of 25 “Three Gorges Hydropower Station”. Of course, the keys to the implementation of the plan are, first of all, to define the ownership of residential roof and façade; secondly, to adopt preferential policies such as the “user income tax credit” which has been long implemented in EU to encourage the promotion

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and application of PV systems. What’s more, we should timely promote the development of grid electricity and introduce mandatory technical specifications for offsettype meter. Finally, positive efforts should be made in developing the technologies integrating building with energy such as solar, methane, wind, energy from elevator descending, and promoting the connective distributed energy systems. B. Building PV power generation stations. It is also an important way to make use of solar energy through building large-scale PV power generation stations. Currently, Dunhuang 10 MW grid-connected photovoltaic power generation project, in Gansu province, has entered the sprint period, followed by a series of larger PV investment plans from local and central governments such as Yunnan Province and Qinghai Province. In fact, the premier place in China for building largescale solar power stations should be the Tenggeli Desert, which is at the junction of Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Gansu Province. If a small half of the desert can be used in this purpose, that is to make use of 20,000 square kilometers of this land, the total installed capacity could reach 770 million kilowatts. Based on an annual utilization of 1500 hours, the total generation capacity can be up to 1.16 trillion degrees! The advantages of constructing PV power station in this area lie in that the energy storage problem can be easily solved since it is adjacent to the bases of coal, oil, gas, and thermal power in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu and Shanxi provinces; What’s more, there will be no need to construct new high-voltage transmission lines because it can make use


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of the nearby northern line for transmission of electricity from the western to the eastern regions of China; besides, it is located in the southern edge of China, which is the best area for wind energy; in other words, it is the best north latitude west wind circulation in the world, where the wind-solar hybrid power generation can be realized. C Widely promoting solar PV products in villagers, along with the Project of Electricity Became Available for Every Household, Ever since a long time ago, owing to the natural and historical factors, a lot of herdsmen in western China are still leading a pasturing life featured by settling down in where there is water and grass and living in tents. The living style has caused over grazing and increased degeneration of plain. Their housing condition is also poor and the life standards are not improved for a long time. In recent years, China launched the Settling-down Project for Herdsmen which aim to construct villages and houses for 520,000 families (a population of 1, 600, 000) in western provinces within 5 years. It has come to the right time to promote solar PV, thermal and other solar products in these areas in accordance with this project. Electricity Became Available for Every Household project offers another big market for solar PV products. The company China Guodian is determined to invest RMB 23.6 billion to supply power to 1.2 million famers in remote and disadvantaged areas as stated in the company’s eleventh five-year plan. This is a hard and glorious task since the total investment will be RMB 50 billion which means investing RMB 20,000 to RMB 40,000 for each household. This money could be used to install a 3-5 KW solar power system for each household or build wind power or wind & solar hybrid power stations in this area. The green energy produced in this way could save a lot of electricity fee for famers and ease

the pressure of national power grid. D. Launching Solar City Plan As the most complicated carrier created by human being, cities should be the site with largest potential and most obvious effect in energy saving and emission reduction. Now in China, it becomes more and more popular to apply solar energy technology such as solar roof plan, technological innovation on solar products, and industrial group development in urban areas. Based on these conditions, with certain policy support from the national ministries and commissions, to launch synthetic Solar City Plan in time will largely accelerate the development and application of solar energy, therefore largely resolving the problem that 90% of solar products of China relying on exports. Meanwhile, it will increase local financial income by dealing with carbon emission right with other cities under Clean Development Mechanism. To sum up, effective measures adopted in developed countr ies inc luding promoting solar roof plan, constructing solar PV power stations, popularizing family-use solar PV products in rural and pasture areas, launching solar city plan, etc., could not only stimulate domestic demand for solar products and boom the emerging solar industry, but also help us grasp the unprecedented opportunity to develop low carbon economy and society. Eventually, all these will make China step into the advanced nations in applying clean energy such as solar energy and in fighting against climate change.

(The author is the Deputy Minister of Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China, President of China Society of Urban Studies, and Doctor Tutor of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.)

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QS Solar’s Goal and Confidence in Thin Film Cells

Cutting the Cost of PV Power to Be the Same as Wind Power in 3 Years and the Same as Coal Power in 4 to 5 Years Editor’s Note: On August 3, 2009, Chinese company QS Solar declared that the company will begin to sell thin film cells at USD 1/W at the end of this year. Later, it put forward a more comprehensive goal of cutting the PV power price to be the same as wind power in 3 years and the same as coal power in 4 to 5 years. The news became a hot topic among insiders and received warm response from the international community. Upon reviewing the materials provided by QS Solar, New Energy AP tries to analyze the secret behind the company's confidence in meeting this specific plan of action. What are their main processing methods and why they declare the plan to the public? The reasons given in this article are for readers’ reference. For more information, please visit the company’s website.

1. Why QS Solar raises the goal of cutting the cost of PV power to be the same as wind power and coal power in 3 to 5 years? High cost is still the biggest barrier and core problem in popularization of solar energy, especially PV systems constructed with crystalline silicon modules, for which the power generation cost is 3-3.5 times of wind power, and 4-5 times of coal power. To develop a low cost PV module and generating system that doesn’t need subsidy from the government and the cost is very close to those of wind power and coal power is the key factor for whether the PV industry can develop in a rapid, healthy and all-around way. At present, power generated by PV system only takes 0.25% of total in the world. If the PV power generation cost is lowered to be the same as wind power and coal power, PV application will develop very quickly in China and the world with huge advantages. Human being will then begin to comprehensively use this clean and low cost alternative new energy, and this will also make PV industry become a new booming industry after IT industry that gets explosive development. QS Solar raised the aim to make PV power price the same as coal power. It follows the situation that all human being are looking for solutions for energy crisis, complies with the policy guidance that the government is promoting PV application, and meets the objective requirement of solar energy development.

2. Can QS Solar realize this goal? To obtain the target of balancing the cost of PV power with wind power and coal power, it is paramount to place 12

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the development of PV industry in a new position, unify the recognition on it, and solve the following two big problems adequately: First, lowering the production cost of PV modules to RMB 4/W (USD0.5/w) in three years Second, lowering the construction cost of PV power generation system to less than RMB 10 million per MW in three years. The above production cost targets are about 40% of current production and application cost of crystalline silicon PV modules, and the costs need to be cut to 60% in the next few years. Is it possible? QS Solar firmly believes it is possible and practical. The key is how to solve some important problems:

First, what kind of PV modules shall be manufac-tured and used? PV modules are the key part in PV power plant system, which takes more than 50% of the whole PV generating system cost. If we lower the module cost, then the PV power system cost can be lowered, then the on-grid


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electricity price can be lowered largely. How to lower the module cost? Amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell is the best choice. First, the industry chain of amorphous silicon thinfilm solar cells is short, so it has the advantage of mass production, cost controlling and precise management; while the crystalline silicon cell industry chain is very long and covers from mining, smelting, purification to crystal pulling, slicing, acid cleaning, etching, and encapsulation and so on, which makes the production period longer and manufacturing cost higher; Second, during production process, amorphous silicon thin-film cells have advantage of low energy consumption and zero pollution. The main material of thin-film cells is common glass, silane and other gases, zinc oxide and aluminum targets and so on. All the raw materials are only more than 10 kinds and the supply of these materials are abundant, and there is no bottleneck for these raw materials. During the production process of amorphous silicon thin-film cells, there is only a little gas exhaustion, after burning treatment, we can realize zero exhaustion. The energy consumption is only 1/6 of crystalline silicon module production; while for crystalline silicon module production, during mining, crystal pulling, etching period, the pollution and energy consumption is very high, in 20 years of generating amount, nearly half of it has been consumed during production links. Third, amorphous silicon thin-film cell has low cost advantage the other PV cells can’t reach. At present, the production cost of QS thin-film cell is only USD0.85/W; in the next year, depreciation cost can make the cost fall to USD0.70/W;in 2011, it can fall to USD0.50/W; these cost index, not only crystalline silicon cell can’t reach, the other thin-film cell can’t make it either. At present, there is a saying in PV industry that the price of crystalline silicon raw material has fallen from USD 400/KG to USD 60/ KG, with a decrease of 85%. With the production capacity excesses once more, there is possibility for the silicon price to fall again. If the silicon price falls to USD 30/ KG, the cost advantage of amorphous silicon thin-film cell will not exist any more. According to the company’s estimation, for crystalline silicon modules, we can also lower the cost through raising convert rate, but the room is limited. While there is large room for lowering the cost of amorphous silicon

thin-film cells, not only the production cost can fall rapidly to USD0.50/W, there is large room for raising conversion rate too. At the same time, through technique innovation, we can lower nearly half of the cost of amorphous silicon thin-film cell to USD0.35-0.40/W.

Second, how to lower the production cost of amor-phous silicon thin-film cells at the most? First, the equipment investment problem needs to be tackled. The equipment should be polish and advanced, and the investment should be less. At present, there are more than 30 factories of thin-film cells in China, among them, 8-9 factories have imported equipment, and have imported about 10 lines of production lines from America, Europe, and Japan. For these imported production lines, the production capacity of each line is about 40 MW, and the average price is USD 100 million, for the most expensive production line, it has cost 160 million. The high price importing these equipment, not only causes slow capital recovery, and the depreciation cost is as much as USD 0.4-0.4 /W, which causes high production cost, together with high maintenance fee of equipment, and high cost of appointed material supplier, the total cost is 2-3 times higher than USD 0.50/w QS Solar claims. Products like this can’t compete with crystalline silicon modules on conversion rate and cost. In China, there are more than 20 amorphous silicon thinfilm cell factories, with small scale and low production capacity, some of them only has a line of 2.5 NW or 5MW production line, and the equipment is simulated equipment that used in 1980s, USA, with low technique, and the product conversion rate is below 5%, and the product size is 625*1245mm, which is only 0.77m2 most of the products made by these factories are provided for garden lamps, which has no competence in the market; QS Solar cooperated with a famous vacuum

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FEATURE ARTICLES Cutting the Cost of PV Power to Be the Same as Wind Power in 3 Years and the Same as Coal Power in 4 to 5 Years

equipment manufacturer in America, and share the production practice and first hand data, and develop and research on the equipment continuously. For the present, the whole production line is not only with advanced technique, but also made finely, and the investment is only about 20% of that importing the whole set of equipment. At present, in order to realize the thin-film cell equipment localization, the company has already built joint companies in China together with American companies, and will produce three core equipment, PECVD chamber, vacuum sputtering lines and TCO conductive glass production lines. Besides, QS Solar has built other matching mechanical factories in Shanghai, such as conveyors, superposition machine, washing machine, etching machine and so on. through manufacturing the whole set equipment of amorphous silicon thin-film cells, the aim price of QS Solar production line will fall continuously to 10-15% of the imported equipment, for 35 MW line, the investment will not be more than USD 10 million, and the product depreciation will fall to USD0.05/W; Besides, auxiliary raw material is very important in realizing the low cost of amorphous silicon thin-film cell. The aim of QS Solar is more than 98% of its raw material will be made by QS Solar itself or produced by cooperation with others, and realize the localization of raw material, and make our matching capacity maximum, and the cost minimum; Further, promoting technique innovation and improving the conversion rate of amorphous silicon thin-

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film steadily is another key point to realize low cost of modules. For the present, conversion rate of QS Solar amorphous silicon thin-film cell stays stably above 6%, which is of high level in China, but this conversion rate is still low. QS Solar is cooperating with some oversea famous universities to develop amorphous and microcrystalline superposition technique and other new techniques which can raise the convert rate, but also low cost and high production efficiency. These new techniques can be put into mass production in the second half of next year hopefully. By that time, the conversion rate of QS Solar thin-film cell can be raised to more than 8% on the base of low cost advantage. It is believed, through 2-3 years’ strive; it is very possible for the company to raise the amorphous silicon conversion rate to 9-10%. As for the conversion efficiency, there are also some misunderstandings. We can’t take for granted that modules with high efficiency must be good modules. Solar modules are used to generate electricity, which is needed in huge quantity. As a result, cost per watt and price per watt are what count most. Whether we can achieve grid-parity, or even lower than the parity is the most important thing. Thin-film modules have low efficiency. But when we establish power plants in desert land, we only add some costs for brackets, wires and installations, which should be quite limited. Taking construction cost for 1 MW power plant in Europe for example, those made with polysilicon modules cost as 3 million Euros; while those made with thin-film modules cost only 1.5 million Euros. In three years, construction


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cost for thin-film power plant could be lowered further to 1 million Euros. Consequently, the electricity generation cost of the thin-film modules is only about 40-45 percent of polysilicon modules. When we look at all these aspects, we find that the overall superiority of amorphous silicon thin-film cell could much more compensate its weakness of low efficiency.

Third, building low-cost PV power plants is an important step towards grid parity with wind energy and traditional energy. Building PV power plants is the major application way and development trend of PV application in future. How to build solar plants? We think there should be two major breakthroughs. One is scale. We should turn form current 1-2 MW pilot projects to large scale projects of 100MW, 500MW or even 1GW. Only when the scale is large enough could the effect of economy of scale come out. Second is that we should adjust measures to local conditions when we build solar plants. We should build solar plants in areas with good sun light conditions to generate more electricity with lower cost. Given that building large scale and low cost solar plants will become main stream, one big question emerges: we should choose what kind of modules for solar plants? We believe that amorphous thin-film modules should be the unquestionable first choice. Thin-film modules have unparalleled overall superiorities: First of all, solar plants should be built in areas where sun lights are very good and land prices are low, such as deserts and seashores. However, ground temperatures are very high in these areas. In summer, the outdoor temperatures could be as high as 40 degrees, at which the temperatures of modules could reach 60 degrees. At that temperature, the severe degradation could bring down the electricity generated to only 30 percent when the solar plants operate in normal temperature. But to thin-film modules, degradation is not a big problem: even when the temperature is higher than 50 degrees, the degradation is merely 5 percent. Second, thin-film modules have the so called weak-light effect, which means even in the same light condition, thin-film modules generate 10-15 percent more electricity than the polysilicon modules. And that is very important for the goal of grid-parity. Third, and the most important one, is construction cost. QS Solar thinks that, to build large scale and low cost solar plant, we should not only reduce the cost of solar modules (which could be as

low as 50% of that of the polysilicon modules), but also reduce the costs of the balance of system and installation. As a matter of fact, BOS cost also has large room to be further reduced. QS Solar suggests that building cost for 1MW solar plants using thin film modules could be reduced to 1 million Euros by 2012. Assuming that 1 MW solar plant generate 1.6 million KWh per year and operate for 25 years, the total electricity generated could reach 32.5 million KWh. While the total investment is 1.4 million Euros (1 million equipment and installation cost, 0.4 million interests and maintenance cost), the cost per KWh is only 0.044 Euros without government subsidies. Even we take tax and property owner’s profit into consideration, the cost is only 0.06 Euros per KWh, which is the lower than the cost of traditional energy. QS Solar also believes that, in three years, it can further lower the building cost of 1 MW solar plant to 0.8 million Euros. That means the cost of electricity would be only 0.05 Euros per KWh, which is lower than grid-parity. At this stage, we have one more question to answer: whether the life of thin-film modules could reach 25 years? Actually, many aspects of practices have already made the conclusion. First of all, many leading semiconductor equipment have set feet in the production of thin-film equipments. Developing low cost thin film modules is widely accepted around the world. That means the expectable life of thin film modules has been recognized by the industry. Second, the thin-film modules of a pioneer US company have been used outdoors for more than 30 years, and are still operating. Now that the manufacturing and encapsulation technologies have improved a lot, the life of the modules should increase as well. Third, certificate institutes like TUV and UL have rigid testing requirements for life, and set 25 year as a benchmark. The results of the testing demonstrate that the life of thin film modules could exceed 25 years. www.sneia.org

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First Solar, Southern California Edison Sign Contracts for 550 MW of Photovoltaic Solar Electricity

ROSEMEAD, Calif., – First Solar, Inc. and Southern California Edison (SCE) today announced agreements to build two large-scale solar power projects in Riverside and San Bernardino counties in Southern California. The installations, which will be among the largest of their kind, will have a generation capacity of 550 megawatts of photovoltaic solar electricity, enough to provide power to approximately 170,000 homes. The agreements are subject to approval by the California Public Utilities Commission. “Southern California Edison is always looking for innovative ways to deliver clean power from renewable sources. First Solar is an excellent partner in helping us achieve our goals,” said Stuart Hemphill, SCE senior vice president, Power Procurement. “This agreement is good for our customers, for the industry and for the environment.” First Solar will engineer, procure and construct the two solar facilities, using its industr y leading thinfilm photovoltaic solar modules. The projects are the 250 megawatt Desert Sunlight project near Desert Center, Calif., and the 300 megawatt Stateline project in northeastern San Bernardino County. Pending network u p g r a d e s a n d re c e i p t o f applic able go ver nmental permits, construction is scheduled to begin in 2012 for Desert Sunlight and 2013 for Stateline. Both projects are expected to be completed in 2015. Several hundred construction jobs are expected 16

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to be created at each site. When completed, the solar projects will produce 1.2 billion kilowatt-hours of clean energy per year. “Supplying solar power to Southern California Edison and its customers advances our mission of providing clean, affordable and sustainable solar electricity,” said John Carrington, First Solar executive vice president, Marketing and Business Development. “These projects will help California reach its renewable energy goals, and are powerful examples of large-scale photovoltaic solar generation becoming a reality in the United States.” California currently has a goal of delivering 20 percent of electricity from renewable sources by 2010 and is considering legislation to increase the goal to 33 percent by 2020. SCE is the nation’s leading purchaser of renewable energy and, in 2008, delivered 12.6 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its customers from renewable resources – about 16 percent of its total energy portfolio. In addition, the utility delivered more than 65 percent of the solar energy produced in the United States for its customers in 2008.

About First Solar First Solar, Inc. (Nasdaq: FSLR) is changing the way the world is powered by creating clean, a f f o rd a b l e , a n d s u s t a i n a b l e solar energ y solutions. First Solar manufactures solar modules with an advanced semiconductor technology and provides comprehensive photovoltaic system solutions. By constantly decreasing manufacturing costs, First Solar is creating an affordable and environmentally responsible alternative to fossil-fuel generation. With over 4,000 employees around the world, the company is headquartered in Tempe, Ariz., and has manufacturing facilities in Ohio, Germany, and Malaysia. For more information about First Solar, please visit www.firstsolar.com, or www.firstsolar.com/media to download photos.


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About Southern California Edison An Edison Inter national ( N Y S E : E I X ) c o m p a n y, Southern California Edison is one of the nation’s largest electric utilities, serving a population of nearly 14 million via 4.9 million customer accounts in a 50,000-square-mile service area within Central, Coastal and Southern California. Visit www. sce.com/renewables for more information about the

company’s work in renewable energy. Media Contact: Southern California Edison,Vanessa McGrady, (626) 302-2255 Investor Relations Contact: Southern California Edison, Scott Cunningham, (626) 302-2540 Media Contact: First Solar, Alan Bernheimer, (510) 441-4737 Investor Relations Contact: First Solar, Larry Polizzotto, (602) 414-9300

China hikes 2011 solar power target China is aiming for an installed solar power capacity of 2 gW by 2011, nearly a 15-fold jump from the 140 mW capacity it had at the end of last year, according to people familiar with the matter. The National Energy Administration has decided to expand the country's solar power capacity to 2 gW in the next two years, with a subsidized price for solar power of 1.09 yuan per kWh, the source said. China is trying to catch up in a global race to find alternatives to fossil fuels. The country, which revised its 2020 target for solar power capacity from 1.8 gW to 20 gW in its new energy stimulus plan, added 40 mW in new capacity last year. Six regions and provinces in Northwest China are the most suited for installing solar PV stations in terms of sunshine days. These are Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai and Shaanxi, said Shen Yanbo, an expert from the National Climate Center. The government's new policy would come as a boost for solar energy in the domestic market and create greater opportunities for companies involved in the entire solar supply chain, said Zhang Shuai, a new energy analyst with Sinolink Securities. Top panel-makers, including Suntech, Yingli Green Energy and LDK Solar, are expected to benefit from the revised goal. The solar industry has been hit hard since the end of last year due to freezing credit resulting from the financial crisis and an oversupply of solar panels that have cut prices sharply. China is considering enhancing incentives at a time when European countries such as Germany and Spain, the largest solar markets, are pulling back on incentives,

thereby slowing the market. Although China has been the largest solar panels supplier in the last two years, it played an insignificant role in the domestic solar photovoltaic (PV) market. But new policies are spurring a change this year. The government in March approved a subsidy of 20 yuan per watt for solar PV systems larger than 50 kW fixed on building roofs. The subsidy, which could cover half the cost of installing the system, was popular among developers, attracting applications equivalent to the building of 1 gW of solar power, Reuters reported earlier. For ground-mounted projects, the government

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is paying a feed-in tariff for the electricity generated, instead of a subsidy based on the projects' capacity. It has set a price of 1.09 yuan per kWh for a 10-mW solar PV power plant in Dunhuang, nearly three times the rate paid by coal-fired power plants. "The subsidized price of 1.09 yuan is not ideal for solar panel players to make money from these projects," said Li Junfeng, deputy director of the Energy Research institute under the National Development and Reform Commission. "The profitable price would be between

1.3 yuan per kWh and 1.5 yuan per kWh, depending on different producers." He said the government still needed to adjust the feed-in tariff if the domestic PV market had to develop faster. Besides the subsidy component, some Chinese solar panel makers would be able to make money when the production cost comes down to 1 yuan per kWh within the next two years, company insiders said.

Taiwan Initiatives to Stimulate Green Energy Industry Taiwan has started several initiatives aimed at supporting the growth of the domestic green energy industry, which is helping to cut carbon emissions and make better use of renewable energy. In the next five years, the government will invest a total of NT$45 billion (US$1.4 billion) to boost the industry. The government aims to increase industry revenue to NT$1.5 trillion by 2015, from last year’s NT$160.3 billion. By 2015, the industry is expected to account for 6.6% of the total revenue of Taiwan’s manufacturing industry and create 110,000 jobs. “The green energy sector can turn Taiwan into a major power in energy technology and production, as well as provide in the creation of green jobs,” Taiwan Premier Liu Chao-shiuan said. In June, Taiwan’s Legislative Yuan passed the Statute for Renewable Energy, and in April, Taiwan’s Executive Yuan approved a project for new industrial development — The Takeoff Program for the Green Energy Industry. Taiwan’s Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) said The Takeoff Program will be divided into two parts. The first stage will focus on solar energy and lightemitting diodes (LEDs). The aim is to make Taiwan one of the world’s top-three producers of solar energy batteries and the world’s largest supplier of LED lights and modules. Taiwan will change all of its 700,000 traffic signals to LEDs and by 2011, the island aims to complete the construction of Asia’s largest solar power plant. The global market for LEDs, worth about US$5 billion, is likely to more than double in size by 2012 as nations and consumers use the energy-saving lights to cut expenses and help reduce carbon emissions. LEDs are likely to 18

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capture a larger portion of the market for nearly every type of lighting such as displays in electronic devices, road signage, traffic lights, large public information screens and video displays. Taiwan’s LED industry, the world’s second largest by re venue, inc ludes companies such as Ar ima Optoelectronics Corp., Bright LED Electronics Corp., Epistar Corp., Everlight Electronic Co., Formosa Epitaxy, Genesis Photonics Inc., Harvatek, I-Chiun Precision, Ligitek, Opto Tech and Unity Opto Technology Co. Taiwan’s solar cell makers include Motech Industrial Inc., Gintech Energy Corp., E-Ton Solar Tech, SinoAmerican Silicon Products Inc. Sinonar Corp. and Green Energy Technology. Motech, Gintech and E-Ton are among the world’s ten largest solar cell makers by revenues. The second stage of the Takeoff Program will promote wind power generation, biofuels, hydrogen energy and fuel cells. Electric vehicles will be among the target


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products in this phase with the aim of developing Taiwan into a global supplier of wind power generation systems and becoming a key production base for electric vehicles and fuel cell system assembly in the Asia-Pacific region. The government aims to make Taiwan a key center for electric-vehicle manufacturing and fuel-cell assembly in the second stage. The MOEA noted that of the NT$45 billion in funds, NT$20 billion will allocated for investment in R&D and another NT$25 billion will be used for renewable energy and energy-saving facilities and grants. The Statute for Renewable Energy provides incentives for the development of the green energy industry, including solar

energy, ocean energy, wind power, biofuels and wastegenerated hydrogen power. Tsai Chin-yao, a board member of the Taiwan Photovoltaic Industry Association, said the passage of the statute will attract at least NT$30 billion of investment, creating over 10,000 jobs and NT$100 billion of annual production value in one to two years. Even some of Taiwan’s largest companies are evaluating the possibility of entering the solar energy business. Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. (TSMC), the world’s largest contract IC maker, said earlier this year that it may enter this relatively new industry.

California Group Announces Transmission Plan to Access Renewable Energy The Renewable Energy Transmission Initiative (RETI) recently announced the availability of its Phase 2A Report -- a conceptual transmission plan that evaluates the usefulness of potential transmission lines in accessing and delivering renewable energy. The plan is intended to help enable development and approval of renewable energ y inf rastructure in ways that minimize the economic cost, environmental impacts, and number of new transmission facilities. The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), California Energ y Commission, and California Independent System Operator (CAISO) formed RETI, and were joined by Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), the Northern California Power Agency, and the Southern California Public Power Authority. RETI is a public-private partnership created to consider the feasibility of building new transmission lines to access renewable generation from various areas of the state or possibly adjoining states and bring the power to population centers. The first phase of RETI identified areas of the state and adjoining regions that have high densities of biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind resources. These areas are referred to as Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ). RETI Phase 2 work expanded the evaluation and re- ranking of CREZs and focused on the development of a statewide conceptual transmission expansion plan to access the CREZ.

The conceptual transmission plan is designed to meet the goal of obtaining 33 percent of the state's electricity from renewable resources by 2020. RETI says it was created with input from an engaged Stakeholder Steering Committee comprised of representatives of environmental groups; renewable developers; public and investor-owned utilities; state, federal, and local governments; Native American tribes; and consumers. Based on information available today regarding the potential for renewable development, the report: --Identifies additional transmission capacity to access and deliver renewable energy to meet the state renewable energy goals in 2020; --Evaluates relative usefulness of potential lines for accessing the delivering renewable energy; --Identifies potential transmission network lines for further detailed study by the California ISO and electric utilities; --Locates most conceptual lines in existing right of way and/or designated utility corridors; and --Builds in environmental considerations and high level screening of conceptual transmission lines. For the RETI Phase 2A report, please visit http://www. energy.ca.gov/reti/documents/

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Neighborhood Solar Program initiated by SunWize SunWize Empowers Neighborhoods to Go Solar Offers discounts of up to 15 percent for homeowner groups Kingston, NY SunWize Residential Power Systems, the premier solar installation division of SunWize Technologies, Inc., has introduced a Neighborhood Solar Program to support communities, towns, and counties with their green initiatives. "We often encounter enthusiastic solar champions and wanted a way to empower them to energize their friends and neighbors. The SunWize Neighborhood Solar Program gives these advocates resources to host an educational kick-off meeting conducted by one of our SunWize experts and financial incentives through the program's group discounts. SunWize makes it easy for forward-thinking communities and neighborhood groups to go solar," explains David Kaltsas, Executive Vice President at SunWize. The SunWize Neighborhood Solar Program is designed to promote solar energy by encouraging people to band together and realize a volume discount on their systems. Through the program, SunWize teams with neighborhoods, homeowner associations, and municipalities to organize meetings and provide education to interested homeowners. The SunWize program offers discounts off of market price ranging from 5 percent for 5 homes, 10 percent for 10 homes, and 15 percent for 15 homes or more. Coupled with existing state rebates and the Federal tax credit, this program reduces the total cost of a SunWize solar electric system by over 50%. Launching a program is simple. A group representative contacts SunWize to schedule a kick-off meeting. Once a group initiates a program, it runs for a period of 60 days, during which time the participants enter into contract and receive their discount. “We often encounter enthusiastic solar champions and wanted a way to empower them to energize their friends and neighbors. The SunWize Neighborhood Solar Program gives these advocates resources to host an educational kick-off meeting conducted by one of our SunWize experts and financial incentives through the program’s group discounts. SunWize makes it easy for forward-thinking communities and neighborhood groups to go solar,” explains David Kaltsas, Executive Vice 20

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President at SunWize. In addition to existing statewide solar incentives and goals, many local jurisdictions are now offering their own programs. Examples are San Jose’s Green Vision Plan and local government administered low cost, long term financing solutions made possible by California’s Assembly Bill 811. The SunWize Neighborhood Solar Program also encourages homeowners to come together to ensure these local initiatives are successful in bringing solar to their communities. Complementing the Neighborhood Solar Program is a new Residential Solar Financing Program offered by SunWize, which effectively overcomes one of the biggest barriers to the widespread adoption of solar: the upfront cost of the system. With its Solar Financing Program, SunWize offers homeowners a higher level of flexibility, convenience, and affordability when going solar. Fo r h o m e o w n e r s , h o m e o w n e r a s s oc i a t i o n s , a n d communities interested in learning more about the SunWize Neighborhood Solar Program, please visit: http://sunwize.com/NeighborhoodSolar or call us at 408-510-5185. SunWize Technologies, Inc., a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co. (U.S.A), Inc., offers superior solar energy solutions to homes and businesses in the U.S. and abroad. The SunWize advantage is complete commitment to the customer’s satisfaction. Founded in 1992, SunWize is a pioneering solar distributor delivering top-tier products to the North American marketplace. The company manufactures a full line of best-in-class engineered solutions. In addition, SunWize continues to build on its reputation for high-quality residential, commercial, public sector, and industrial installations. The company operates manufacturing and distribution facilities on the east and west coasts and sales offices throughout the U.S. and Canada. For more information, call Dave Holt at (805) 625-2121 or visit www.sunwize.com. For Further Information SunWize Technologies


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$535 Million Federal Loan for Solar Manufacturing in Fremont Company Solyndra Inc. Today, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger joined U.S. Vice President Joe Biden and U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu to make a bipartisan announcement that the U.S. Department of Energy has finalized a $535 million loan guarantee for Fremont company Solyndra Inc, which manufactures cylindrical solar photovoltaic panels. The federal funding will finance construction of the first phase of the Solyndra’s new manufacturing facility – which the company estimates will create 3,000 construction jobs, eventually employ approximately 1,000 direct and indirect workers and provide enough clean renewable energy to power 24,000 homes a year through the first phase of annual solar production. Solyndra is the first-in-the-nation recipient of such a loan guarantee available under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Click here to read more. The following photos were taken in Fremont, CA. Governor Schwarzenegger joins federal officials in announcing that the U.S. Department of Energy has finalized a $535 million loan guarantee for Fremont company Solyndra Inc. From left to right: Fremont Mayor Bob Wasserman, U.S. Secretary of Energy Dr. Steven Chu, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and Solyndra, Inc. Chief Executive Officer Dr. Chris Gronet. Governor Schwarzenegger helps break ground for the first phase of Solyndra Inc.’s new manufacturing facility in Fremont, CA. California Company First-in-the-Nation to Receive Loan Guarantee Available Through President Obama’s Recovery and Reinvestment Act Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger today joined U.S. Vice President Joe Biden and U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu to make a bipartisan announcement that the U.S. Department of Energy has finalized a $535 million loan guarantee for Fremont company Solyndra Inc, which manufactures cylindrical solar photovoltaic panels. The federal funding will finance construction of the first phase of the Solyndra’s new manufacturing facility – which the company estimates will create 3,000 construction jobs, eventually employ approximately 1,000 direct and indirect workers and

provide enough clean renewable energy to power 24,000 homes a year through the first phase of annual solar production. Solyndra is the first-in-the-nation recipient of such a loan guarantee available under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act) and Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. “ We have adopted policies in California that have driven demand for solar and other renewable technologies, and our businesses and entrepreneurs are rising to the challenge,” said Governor Schwarzenegger. “Projects like this are exactly why I supported President Obama’s Recovery Act – because this funding will create thousands of jobs, stimulate our economy and move us closer to our clean energy goals. I know this city is still stinging from recent NUMMI facility news, and that is why I’m especially proud that this groundbreaking project will create jobs right here in Fremont.” Following his letter to legislative leadership, at today’ s event Governor Schwarzenegger also called on the California legislature to pass Assembly Bill 1111 by Assembly Republican Leader Sam Blakeslee (R-San Luis Obispo). The measure would exempt manufacturing equipment for eligible clean technology companies like Solyndra from sales tax. This bill is also a critical tool in incentivizing a new green company to occupy the Fremont NUMMI plant, which is scheduled for closure in March 2010 and expected to lay-off over 4,000 workers. This bill is yet another example of the Governor’s commitment to economic development and environmental protection – an innovative combination of job creation and groundbreaking clean energy policy. “In these tough economic times what we need are jobs, jobs, jobs and I call on our legislature to pass AB 1111 to provide a tax incentive for clean-tech manufacturers to locate in California,” said the Governor. “This tax incentive will help attract more companies like Solyndra to California and will be a critical tool in bringing a new company into the NUMMI facility – helping keep more jobs in California and right here in Fremont.” Under the leadership of Governor Schwarzenegger, California has embarked on some of the most ambitious clean energy policies in the world. Not only are

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NEWS BITES $535 Million Federal Loan for Solar Manufacturing in Fremont Company Solyndra Inc.

these policies moving the Golden State toward energy independence, a cleaner environment and influencing the national energy agenda - but they are growing California’s green economy. California has the largest green economy in America with $6.5 billion in venture capital investment in the last three years and is more energy efficient than the rest of the country. Highlights of some of the Governor’s most significant actions on clean energy include: • Governor Schwarzenegger spearheaded the largestever solar expansion in U.S. history, which has spurred more than $5 billion worth of private investment by California consumers. In 2004, the Governor introduced the Million Solar Roofs Initiative, now known as the California Solar Initiative (CSI), which included $2.9 billion in incentives to homeowners and building owners who install solar electric systems. In 2006 the Governor signed legislation implementing the final portions of the Million Solar Roofs plan. • In 2008, Governor Schwarzenegger committed to increasing California’s already ambitious renewable portfolio standard (RPS) to a nation-leading 33 percent by 2020. In 2004, Governor Schwarzenegger called on utilities to acquire 20 percent of the power used within the state from renewable sources by 2010, and in 2008 he increased that goal to 33 percent renewable power by 2020 with Executive Order S-14-08. • If California implemented this standard, state manufacturing employment could increase by almost 200,000 and pump as much as $60 billion into the state’ s economy, according to a 2008 report by the Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies. • On August 31, 2009, Governor Schwarzenegger announced the creation of the largest state-sponsored green jobs training program in the nation – the $75 million Clean Energy Workforce Training Program (CEWTP). The program leverages federal American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act) funds, public-private partnerships and state and local funding, to train more than 20,000 new or re-skilled clean energy workers to build a workforce capable of performing the jobs necessary to meet the state’s goals of renewable energy development, climate change reduction, clean transportation and green building construction for a new green economy.

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GAAS:507:09 For Immediate Release: Contact: Aaron McLear Friday, September 4, 2009 Brittany Chord 916-445-4571 Administration Officials Update Latest Actions on Fires and Recovery Efforts Highlight Additional Recovery Resources Available at www.rebuildyourlife.ca.gov California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA) Acting Secretar y Matthew Bettenhausen, Secretary of Service and Volunteering Karen Baker, Department of Consumer Affairs (DCA) Director Brian Stiger and CAL FIRE Deputy Director of Fire Protection Ken Pimlott today updated the latest actions taken by the Administration in addressing firefighting efforts statewide and helping fire victims take the important first-steps towards recovering. They also highlighted www.rebuildyourlife.ca.gov, which provides additional tips and resources for rebuilding and recovering after a disaster. “The Governor has directed every possible resource to help our emergency responders fight these fires and further help the fire victims rebuild their lives as quickly as possible,” said Cal EMA Acting Secretary Matthew Bettenhausen. “California stands ready to provide them with all the assistance they need to recover, rebuild and get their lives back on track.” Additional resources to help with the recovery effort can be found at www.rebuildyourlife.ca.gov. The Web site and Consumer Protection Hotline, 1-800-952-5210, were established by the State and Consumer Services Agency to reduce f raud and provide easy access to information for victims of these devastating fires. Victims of fires throughout the state can access the hotline and Web site for help in replacing important documents and checking contractor’s license numbers to avoid fraud and tips to avoid scams. Through the hotline, callers can speak to a live operator and receive assistance in several languages. They will be provided with contact information for vital resources like housing assistance programs and receive guidance on the services that are available for disaster recovery efforts. The hotline and Web site will also direct victims to other federal, state and local government agencies that can directly assist with their needs. The top ten tips for


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rebuilding after a disaster can be found here. Additionally, the Governor's CaliforniaVolunteers Office is coordinating volunteers and monetary donations to help Californians cope with the effects of the wildfires. Individuals, businesses and groups interested in helping can visit www.CaliforniaVolunteers.org to find volunteer and donation opportunities. “Our volunteers have been a great asset in helping the victims of these terrible fires begin the recovery process,” said Secretary of Service and Volunteering Karen Baker. “Californians have given their time and donated to their communities and I am sure that this will continue as

neighborhoods in these affected areas are rebuilt.” There are currently 81 volunteers registered to help in Los Angeles County and approximately 100 trained volunteers on site. These volunteers, which consist of Community Emergency Response Team and Volunteers in Police Ser vice, are on rotation helping at the command center and in other roles in an effort to assist the response effort. For more information on f ires burning throughout California please visit www.oes.ca.gov or http://cdfdata. fire.ca.gov/incidents/incidents_current.

NREL Energy Execs Make an Impact Nationally

President Barack Obama, Vice President Joe Biden, and Namaste Solar CEO Blake Jones tour a solar array at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science last February. NREL Energy Executives participant Dave Noel led the project. Credit: Jim Watson/AFP/Getty Images

in Portland, Ore. The 1.1-megawatt solar project is currently the largest thin film PV installation in the Northwest. Courtesy of Drew Torbin, ProLogis.

2007 Energy Execs alum Dave Noel talks with Superior Town Manager Scott Randell about a solar array at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science that was Noel's f inal class project. Credit: Heather Lammers 2007 Energy Execs alum Drew Torbin focused on working with Portland General Electric to install thin film solar panels on three ProLogis warehouses

2009 Energy Execs participants pose for a photo a atop the Denver Museum of Nature & Science while on a f ield trip to learn about this class project which grabbed national attention. (For a list of the 2009 participants please see the sidebar). Credit: Heather Lammers

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The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is no stranger to the spotlight when it comes to the discussion of renewable energy solutions for the country. But now alumni from the NREL Executive Energy Leadership program (Energy Execs) are also finding themselves in the national spotlight for their energy saving ways. Energy Execs is a six-month leadership program that gives executives an in-depth look at solar and wind power, biofuels and transportation, and energy efficient building technologies. Participants get first hand briefings by NREL technology experts, visit research laboratories as well as visit working applications of renewable energy technologies in the field. At the end of the program, participants demonstrate what they've learned by presenting a viable project on renewable energy or energy efficiency.

Energy Exec Project Garners Presidential Visit This year's class got to walk in the footsteps of President Obama when they toured the 100 kilowatt solar array atop the Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS). In February, Obama selected the museum as the location where he signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) into law. Just before the ceremony, Obama, along with Vice President Joe Biden and Namaste Solar CEO Blake Jones, walked among the solar panels that showed green energy in practice at the museum. While Namaste solar was recognized for installing the roof-top solar panels, what wasn't publicized was that the solar array was the final project for 2007 Energy Exec grad Dave Noel. "The people at NREL inspired me to push the envelope," Dave Noel, DMNS vice president of operations, said. "It helped me become a lot more aggressive with what I wanted to do at the museum. "I came into the program as an engineer with a different perspective than others. I looked at it as a great opportunity for some technical knowledge, but it was a pretty broadening experience and eye opening to see the related policy issues." In addition to completing the rooftop solar project at the museum, Noel said the program inspired him to expand his renewable energy knowledge to other projects. The DMNS is in the process of constructing a 100,000 sq foot addition to its exhibit space. Noel is steering the expansion toward LEED Platinum status from the U.S. Green Building Council and is working toward a zero 24

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carbon footprint for the new addition. "One of the biggest things I took away from the program is that I now have great contacts," Noel said. "I know that if there is something I'm trying to figure out, there's someone I can talk to."

Tapping Solar in Portland Another company that is reaping the benefits of having its employees attend the NREL Energy Execs program is ProLogis. ProLogis is headquartered in Denver and provides industrial warehouse and distribution space across the globe. ProLogis has 475 million square feet of this type of space which means it is one of the largest owners of roof space in the world. This vast amount of roof space is what got Drew Torbin, director of global renewable energy for the company, thinking when he participated in the 2007 Energy Execs program and is why his colleague, Matt Singleton, vice president for new development, is a member of the 2009 class. "The timing was great; I saw a press release for this program just as we were putting together an internal team that would focus on renewable energy projects," Torbin said. "We saw renewable energy as valuable and something we should be spending our time on." According to Torbin, even though the company had received a variety of ideas and offers for ways to use their roofs across the globe — from large movie posters to cell phone towers — the company held out for the right project. "We wanted focus on creating value from our existing assets and our roofs and our buildings are perfect for solar," said Torbin. The large, flat roofs make them ideal for rooftop photovoltaic (PV ) systems, and their locations near major population centers make good host sites from which to generate and export energy back into the electric grid. Exporting power from installation sites on ProLogis roofs ultimately creates the greatest impact. While it would be possible for ProLogis' customers inside these distribution centers to use the energy produced, they wouldn't come close to using all of it. The main use for ProLogis' industrial space is storage and distribution, and although the buildings are large, their energy consumption is small, since the buildings typically contains racks upon racks of merchandise and are not air conditioned. One of Torbin's recent accomplishments at ProLogis


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also doubled as his Energy Execs final project, which focused on working with Portland General Electric to install thin film solar panels on three ProLogis warehouses in Portland, Ore. The 1.1-megawatt solar project is currently the largest thin film PV installation in the Northwest.

2009 Executive Energy Leadership program participants • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Tom Acre - Deputy City Manager, City of Commerce City Matthew Appelbaum - Mayor, City of Boulder Sharon Barrett - Senior Director, Cushman & Wakefield Karen Benker - Mayor Pro Tem, City of Longmont Jim Benson - City Council Member, City of Commerce City Bruce Biggi - Economic Development Manager, City of Greeley James Bosch - Visitors Program/National Bioenergy Center, NREL Steve Catanach - Light & Power Manager, City of Fort Collins Bob Churchwell - City Administrator, City of Burlington Peter Dawson - County Commissioner/Chair, Baca County Frances Draper - Executive Director, Boulder Economic Council Keith Fife - Long Range Planning Division Director, Mesa County Robert FitzGerald - City Council Member/Mayor Pro Tem, City of Aurora John Hall - Business Development Officer, Office of Economic Development - City of Westminster Stephen Hall - Executive Director, Western TechSet Anne Hayes - Vice President, Westfield Company Michael Kirk - Director of Facilities Services, Larimer County Irene Pérez Law - Chief Operating Officer American Solar Energy Society Michael Masciola - Vice President, Northern Colorado Economic Development Corporation Lisa Nolder - Economic Development Director, Southeast Colorado Business, Retention, Expansion & Attraction (SEBREA) David November - Environmental Manager, Keystone & Breckenridge Resorts (Vail Resorts) Susan Osborne - City Council Member, City of Boulder Frank Phillips - City Council Member, City of Lafayette

But, ProLogis hasn't stopped there. Team members also have worked with Southern California Edison in California to complete a 2.4-megawatt installation — which at the time of installation was the largest single rooftop solar installation in the U.S. In total, the company currently has 10 PV projects completed in three continents, resulting in just over 6 megawatts of solar power. These 10 ProLogis PV projects occupy roughly 3 million square feet of roof space. Torbin lightheartedly pointed out that the company has roughly 470 million square feet of roof to go. "What has really helped us in terms of NREL's Energy Execs program was being able to get out and see the technology as well as take advantage of the people and speakers that are introduced to us," said Singleton. "We have found the Energy Execs program to be such a great value that we believe NREL could easily charge participants to be in the program."

NREL Benefits Too This is the third year for the Energy Execs program with a record 31 participants. In 2008, 19 representatives of industry, local government and non-profit organizations completed the program. The executives' final projects show the success of a program, which in the long run helps NREL technologies make it to the marketplace. "The NREL Executive Energy Leadership Program offers an important opportunity for community leaders to embrace clean energy technologies," NREL Director Dan Arvizu said. "Moving these technologies to the marketplace at speed and scale requires well thoughtout systems and grassroots implementation. Given the increasing interest in our leadership program, I'm confident NREL is on the right path in helping statewide leaders gain access to our important work accelerating clean energy technologies. Energy Execs alumni are emerging as shining stars on the statewide and national energy scene." Learn more about the 2010 NREL Executive Energy Program on the Web site, where updates will be posted later in the year about the application process. To contact the program, send an e-mail to energ yexecs@nrel. gov. Learn more about the solar power at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science and ProLogis. — Heather Lammers

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Siemens Sweden Produces Steam Turbines for Solar Thermal Power Plants Siemens Sweden produces steam turbines for solar thermal power plants which generate power without emission of carbon dioxide. The factory is located in Finspรฅng in Norrkรถping, an hour by train f rom Stockholm. The factory began to manufacture steam turbines since 1913. Now the company can produce turbines to use nearly 100% solar energy to produce electricity. Lars-Gรถran Sjรถberg, chief of the Steam Turbine's Division of Siemens Turbomachinery told us about the history of solar energy usage. "The first solar energy collector was developed by a Philadelphia inventor, Frank Shuman and was established in Egypt in 1912. The collectors were installed in a small community 25 kilometer south of Cairo. The 70 meter long sun power collectors were used to produce steam which drove the large water pump. Together they produced an equivalent of 55 horsepower and was capable to deliver 23 cubic meter water per minute for irrigation of the dry land."

development such as Asia, Africa and Latin America. Their products include SST-700 DRH, ISCCS or SST-900 and SST-600 steam turbine for solar power plants.

Solar power technologies One type of solar technique is to use mirror to focus the sunlight on to a tower and the heat will be transferred into a steam cycle or other kind of heat-receiving medium, such as liquid sodium. The linear Fresnel concept uses flat mirrors close to the ground to reflect and concentrate sunlight on water-refilled pipes that hang over the mirrors. In a parabolic trough plant, sunlight is focused onto a receiver tube filled with thermal oil in the center of the parabolic mirror collectors, the heat being transferred via heat exchangers to the steam turbine, which generates electrical power. In all cycles, surplus heat can be stored in large storage tanks and used to extend the running hours of the steam turbine during times without sun radiation. Siemens turbine technology can fit all of these concentrated solar power (CSP)concepts.

Efficiency

Siemens turbine It is well known that the advantage of solar energy is that the fuel is free, abundant and inexhaustible. In the face of global warming, solar projects are proving increasingly valuable cutting the use of energy and greenhouse gas emission. Sjรถberg said Siemens solar turbines are sold in the US, Spain, Algeria and Egypt and they are keen to open the market to more places that are suitable for solar energy 26

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For a typical Spain solar steam turbine, investment can reach 260 to 300 million Euro. But steam turbine only accounts for 5-8% of total investment. The solar field can be approximately 80 football fields in size. Thermal storage can be up to 6-7 hours of full operation. In order to justify the high investment cost for a CSP plant, which will not be run 24 hours per day, high demands for efficiency and increasing economic returns are imposed on the steam turbine used in the process. Siemens has cooperated closely with leading solar thermal EPC companies to develop and finetune the SST-700 DRH(dual-casing reheat) steam turbine, now optimized for solar steam cycles and capable of generating up to 175 MW in CSP applications. This highly efficient turbine with its high-speed, high pressure module enables a smaller solar mirror collector field with associated reduction in investment cost for generation of the required electrical power output.


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ISCCS-integrated Solar Combined-Cycle System

Alternatively, the surplus heat can be put into thermal storage to extend the production time for the plant. The reheat solution improves efficiency and reduces problems with erosion/corrosion and moisture in the LP turbine, according to Mr. Sjรถberg.

Excellent daily-cycling capacity When focusing on annual power production, the short start-up times the turbine can provide are of great benefit to the CSP plant owner. Daily cycling and temperature variations require special attention. The SST-700 DRH, with its low-mass rotors and casings, is ideal for daily cycling and has a low minimum load, enabling maximum running hours per day for plants without heat storage. The cycle has also been optimized for stand-still at night and rapid restart in the mornings. The SST-700 DRH uses high quality materials specially chosen for long and trouble free operation in a solar plant, bearing in mind the potential wear and tear of the special cycle conditions. In Southern Spain, due largely to government-granted price surplus for solar-produced power from units under 50 MW, the 50-MW size has proved to have the optimal fit and flexibility for single or multiple units. Advantages of the solution is flexibility, long lifetime, high availability and reliability, short start up time, fast and easy assembly, lower installation cost, high efficiency and savings on the solar field, Sjรถberg claimed that Siemens' solar thermal experience is best in class and the solidity and reach of the Siemens global network is an advantage in terms of security of investment, supply and after-sales service. "Our experience shows that customers still want the best product even if the price is a bit higher," said Sjรถberg confidently.

For excellent performance and attractive emission reduction, parabolic troughs can be effectively integrated with a conventional combined-cycle plant as well as a steam-cycle plant. The Siemens ISCSS(integrated Solar Combined-Cycle System) is a single-casing high pressure non-reheat unit, suited to demands of the combined cycle. This SST-900 can be used with any gas turbine or in combination with one or more Siemens 47 MW SGT-800 gas turbines, as in a pioneering ISCCS in Morocco. This configuration is doubly effective. It not only minimizes the investment associated with the solar field by sharing components with the combined cycle, it also reduces the CO2 emissions associated with a conventional plant. The integration maximizes operation efficiency even though solar energy intensity varies according to the weather and time of the day. Peak thermal-to-electric efficiency can exceed 70% for an ISCCS plant compared to 50/55% for a conventional gas-fired combined cycle plant. Although the SST-700DRH turbine configuration is the most used on the market, all Siemens steam turbines have the potential for solar applications. Demonstration tests are currently underway with leading institutions in Spain and Germany to test both the lower end of the industrial turbine range-around 1.5 MW and also the mid-range around 20 MW-in solar tower applications. One commercial order has been placed for a 19 MW SST-600 steam turbine for the solar tower project Solar Tres in southern Spain. Sjรถberg said market trends indicate that solar power will increase up to 20 fold in the midterm future. The benefits of solar power are compelling: environmental protection, economic growth, job creation, diversity of fuel supply and rapid deployment technology transfer and innovation. Solar thermal technology undoubtedly has a large global potential. Where there is sun there is heat, where there is heat, there is power-clean and renewable power. And the Siemens industrial turbine ensures that customer confidence is not misplaced, said Sjรถberg.

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Google May Take Lead in Solar Tech One would expect advances in solar technology to come from established solar energy companies like First Solar (FSLR). But Google's (GOOG) green initiative may outpace the major industry leaders by creating much more efficient technology. The head of Google's alternative energy operations, Bill Weihl, told the Reuters Global Climate and Alternative Energy Summit that, "We've been looking at very unusual materials for the mirrors, both for the reflective surface as well as the substrate that the mirror is mounted on." Google's work could cut the cost of the fields of mirrors that track the sun. The Google comments left unanswered whether it will share its technology with other companies or make it available for license. If it keeps it for itself, Google could become a competitive threat to the rest of the industry and end up putting some struggling solar companies

into tough financial positions by hurting their sales and offering products with much better margins. Google's core business has nothing to do with alternative energy, but investors have criticized the company for focusing too narrowly on the search business. No one can say for certain whether Google intends to become a major force in the sales and marketing of powerful new solar technologies, or just an R&D operation that could help the overall industry to develop better solar collection facilities. Given Google's balance sheet and its huge capacity to fund new businesses, the rest of the solar power industry should be more than a little nervous. Douglas A. McIntyre is an editor at 24/7 Wall St. Source: Daily Finance www.dailyfinance.com

China's Huawei to Supply Solar-powered Base Stations to Bangladesh Chinese telecoms equipment maker Huawei Technologies has signed a deal with leading Bangladesh mobile operator Grameenphone to supply solar-powered base stations in rural areas. The base stations will primarily run on solar power, with diesel generators providing a backup source of energy. Grameenphone said the hybrid technology will cut carbon emissions and eliminate the need for the stations to be connected to the national grid. The operator also noted that the new base stations would help it to provide an uninterrupted telecoms service that is unaffected by the blackouts that often strike the country's power grid. Electricity outages are common in the nation, particularly during summer months when supply is diverted to farms to power irrigation technologies. Grameenphone chief executive Oddvar Hesjedal said the deal, financial terms for which were not disclosed, also underlined the company's commitment to invest in a "green mobile network". The company said the move was part of a wider environmental initiative that has also seen the carrier embark on a trial project to install wind turbines at select 28

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base station sites. Grameenphone, which has about 21 million mobile phone subscribers, is a joint venture between Norwegian mobile carrier Telenor and local operator Grameen Telecom. Nobel Peace Prize winner Muhammad Yunus established Grameen Telecom in 1995 as a non-profit company focused on providing affordable telephony services to rural Bangladesh. In related news, China Mobile earlier this month said it is considering installing solar-powered base stations in Pakistan, where it operates a network serving 6.5 million subscribers. China Mobile noted that rolling power shortages are affecting nearly all areas of the South Asian country, where the operator has 4,500 base stations. Telecom towers that run on renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power are seen as ideal for developing countries, where electricity supply in rural areas can be unreliable. Swedish telecoms giant Ericsson last year also debuted a solar-powered base station in Cambodia that provides GSM and satellite transmission.


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Duke Energy Signs MOU with China Huaneng Group to Pursue Renewable and Other Clean-Energy Technologies BEIJING - Duke Energy, one of America's largest electric utilities, will explore a variety of renewable and other clean-energy technologies with China Huaneng Group, China's biggest electric utility, as part of a Memorandum of Understanding signed in Beijing. The MOU between Duke Energy and China Huaneng Group – which produces more than 10 percent of the electricity consumed in China – encompasses high-level discussions and information-sharing on a number of renewable and clean-energy fronts. "We find ourselves at a pivotal point in world history," said Duke Energy CEO Jim Rogers. "To deal with global warming requires rapid action from all of us, and clearly China Huaneng Group and Duke Energy are playing a leadership role on this issue. "China has committed to rapidly developing clean-energy technologies, as has the U.S.," Rogers added. "Working together, the U.S. and China can commercialize and drive down the cost of these technologies for the benefit of the entire world." "China Huaneng Group has been attaching great importance to emission reduction and clean energy development, and has made great achievements on that," said China Huaneng Group Vice President Huang Yongda, "Duke Energy is clearly at the forefront of renewable and clean-energy development in the U.S. "We look forward to a mutual sharing of information and technology between the two companies and to jointly promote the development of clean energy technology," Huang Yongda added. Under the MOU, top executives from both Duke Energy and China Huaneng Group will launch a series of meetings to exchange information and explore potential long-term cooperative initiatives to reduce coal plant emissions and develop other renewable sources of electricity generation. One key focal point will be emerging cleaner-coal technologies including carbon capture and sequestration and coal gasification. Duke Energy is building one of the cleanest, largest and most advanced coal gasification power plants in the world – a 630-megawatt facility in Edwardsport,

Ind., which is scheduled to go online in 2012. In addition, Duke Energy is spending $17 million to study carbon capture at the site and proposing to spend $121 million to study the potential capture and permanent underground storage of up to 60 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide emissions. The company is also building an advanced 825-megawatt pulverized coal plant in Cliffside, N.C., and retiring 1,000 megawatts of older, less efficient coal plants. The Cliffside and Edwardsport projects received more than $250 million in U.S. Department of Energy clean coal tax incentives. China Huaneng Group has successfully built China's first CO2 capturing demonstration facility in Huaneng Beijing Cogeneration Power Plant. Also, a larger scale CO2 capturing facility in one of Huaneng's coal-fired power plants in Shanghai is under construction, and is scheduled to be put into operation by the end of 2009. Huaneng is also building its GreenGen project – a 250-megawatt IGCC demonstration power plant in Tianjin. It will be China's cleanest and most environmentally friendly coal-fired power plant when it is put into operation in 2011.

About Duke Energy Corporation: Duke Energy is the third largest electric power holding company in the United States, based on kilowatt-hour sales. Its regulated utility operations serve approximately 4 million customers located in five states – North Carolina, South Carolina, Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky – representing a population of approximately 11 million people. Duke Energy's commercial power and international business segments operate diverse power generation assets in North America and Latin America, including a growing portfolio of renewable energy assets in the United States. Headquartered in Charlotte, N.C., Duke Energy is a Fortune 500 company traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol DUK. More information about the company is available on the Internet at: http:// www.duke-energy.com/.

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About China Huaneng Group: As one of China's largest power producers, China Huaneng Group is a Fortune 500 company, with total assets exceeding RMB 500 billion. By the end of June 2009, Huaneng had 130 wholly-owned and majorityowned power plants, distributed over 26 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China and also overseas, with total installed capacity of 88.96GW.

More information about the company is available on the Internet at: http://www.chng.com.cn/. Duke Media Contact: Dave Scanzoni Phone: 704-382-2543 24-Hour Phone: 800-559-3853 Huaneng Media Contact: LI Zhaokui Phone: +86-10-6229 1628

Navigant Consulting Releases Annual Analysis of Worldwide PV Markets and 5-Year Application Forecast Report Washington, DC Navigant Consulting, Inc. (NYSE: NCI), a specialized consulting firm providing dispute, financial, regulatory and operational advisory services, announced today that its Photovoltaic (PV ) Service Program has released its annual report Analysis of Worldwide PV Markets and Five-Year Application Forecast 2008/2009. This comprehensive annual report provides an analysis of global demand for photovoltaic products and five year application forecast.

"20 09 is prov ing a chal leng ing year for the phot ovol taic indu stry, with its first decr ease in overall demand volume in thirty-five years," said Pau la Min ts, Asso ciate Dire ctor and Prin cipa l Analyst with Navigant Consulting's PV Serv ices Program. "We are also seeing significant module price decreases due to slower demand worl dwide, which increases affordability of the technology , and may translate to more affordable system price s." The report includes a detailed analysis of the market for PV technologies and products by selling channels, application segments, module size and regional markets. The report ’s global coverage includes analysis of developed and industrialized countries in the following regions: North America, Latin America, Asia Pacific, Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Description of regional markets includes relevant incentive programs and a breakdown into five major application categories: grid-connected, remote habitation, remote industrial, 30

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consumer power, consumer indoor. In addition to more than 170 detailed charts and graphs, the 350 page report includes detailed sections including how investment models affect the PV market: The grid application is the largest and fastest growing of all of the photovoltaic market segments, with an 80% share of global volume in 2004, an 82% share in 2005, an 86% share of total volume in 2006, and a 94% share of total volume in 2008. The fastest growing sub-segment of this application is the commercial application, primarily investor owned (>1-MWp) fields and roofs. Always dynamic in terms of changes and growth, the grid connected application is in a particularly dynamic stage with business and financial models maturing, technology form factors being developed specifically for the it, and business entities (manufacturing and selling channel) starting up to serve it. Accelerated growth will resume for this application segment as it has many years before it matures. In the meantime, industry volume is now reliant on a healthy, maturing grid connected application. Analysis of Worldwide PV Markets and Five-Year Application Forecast 2008/2009 is an essential tool for business planning purposes. The comprehensive annual report complements NCI’s previously released supplyfocused report Photovoltaic Manufacture Shipments & Competitive Analysis 2008/2009. The report can be purchased through Navigant Consulting. For additional content information, table of contents, or a report brochure, please contact Paula Mints at 650.849.1142, or Jessica Donnelly at 650.849.1151.


NEWS BITES

Top China Power Generation Company in Broad Cooperation with Canadian Solar (CSIQ) ONTARIO, Canada, -- Canadian Solar Inc. ("the Company", "Canadian Solar" or "we") (Nasdaq: CSIQ) today announced a broad strategic cooperation with one of China's largest power generation companies. Under the far reaching agreement, Canadian Solar and the Guodian Power Development Co., Ltd. will design, invest, build, operate and maintain PV power plants in China. As specified in the agreement, the two parties will work together as strategic partners in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia first and will work to develop new markets in other provinces in the future. Guodian Power Development Co. Ltd (listed on the Shanghai Exchange: 600795) is a subsidiary of stateowned China Guodian Corporation ("Guodian"), one of the five largest national power generation groups. Guodian has power plants in 29 Chinese provinces, employing over 110,000 people. It engages in the development, investment, construction, operation and management of power generation assets, and the production and sales of electricity and heat. By the end of June, 2009, Guodian's total installed capacity reached 7,490 MW, including 6,687 MW thermal, 471 MW hydro, and 325.6 MW wind power. Mr. Jun Miu, vice president of Guodian Power Development Co., commented, "Guodian Power Development Co.'s target is to achieve 510 MW of installed PV capacity in China by 2012. We also have a strong interest in overseas expansion. Today's announcement with Canadian Solar is critical to our successful achievement of that goal. We are pleased to have a proven, financially strong and trusted partner like Canadian Solar, as Guodian Power Development moves forward in its important solar expansion effort. We are confident that working together, we can build a complete PV industry supply chain and a strong partnership." Dr. Shawn Qu, Chairman and CEO of Canadian Solar, commented: "We are proud to partner with Guodian Power Development and to reach a formal cooperation agreement with them in China. Our target is to become the leading supplier for Guodian Power Development's anticipated 400 MW to 500 MW of PV projects in China and support its overseas expansions. Recent policies supporting the PV industry announced

by Chinese Government have paved the way for us to grow in the Chinese PV market as we further diversify our revenue base. Canadian Solar's anticipated ramp up in module production capacity of 820MW this quarter will prepare us for near term production growth. This broad partnership with Guodian Power Development underscores the success Canadian Solar has achieved worldwide and sets the stage for the next phase of our growth in China." Under the agreement, Canadian Solar and Guodian Power Development will initially form a joint venture focusing on PV power plant, with Guodian Power Development holding a majority interest in the proposed PV power plant projects. Canadian Solar will have first right to sell modules and EPC services to the joint venture at market pricing. The agreement initially calls for two grid-connected PV power plants in Ningxia: One project targets 50 MW total installed capacity, with a first phase of 10 MW. A second project will also have a first phase of 10 MW, with further expansions later. The Ningxia PV power plants are designed to establish a scalable model for future business development between Guodian Power Development and Canadian Solar.

About Canadian Solar Inc. (NASDAQ: CSIQ) Canadian Solar Inc. is a leading vertically integrated provider of ingot, wafer, solar cell, solar module and other solar applications. Canadian Solar designs, manufactures and delivers solar products and solar systems for ongrid and off-grid use to customers worldwide. Canadian Solar is one of the world's largest solar module producers by manufacturing capacity. With operations in North America, Europe and Asia, Canadian Solar provides premium quality, cost-effective and environmentallyfriendly solar solutions to support global sustainable development.

For more information, visit http://www.canadian-solar.com

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LDK & CSI Each Sign 500-MW PV Project Deals LDK Solar has entered into an agreement with Yancheng City of Jiangsu Province for the development of PV power projects. According to the agreement, LDK Solar will develop a number of PV power projects, including PV ground-power stations, and roof and building integration systems totaling up to 500 MW over the next five years. The terms, according to LDK, including financing, design and specific location of each of the projects, will require a feasibility study as well as final approval from relevant state departments prior to initiation. "Yancheng City is currently one of the most important wind power bases in China," said Li Qiang, Mayor of Yancheng City. "We plan to partner with LDK Solar to build large ground-power stations to take advantage of wind and photovoltaics as complementary power sources." In other Chinese solar news, Canadian Solar Inc. (CSI) has obtained rights to design, install, operate and maintain a 500-MW solar power plant system. The agreement was reaching with the Administration Committee of Baotou National Rare Earth Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone (CPT) in Baotou, Inner Mongolia for the the solar power plant to be located in CPT. The project is subject to a feasibility study and government approvals and is divided into three phases. The first phase, expected to run from September 2009 to December 2011, calls for the installation of a 100

MW PV system. The second and third phases each call for the installation of 200 MW PV systems. There are no binding commitments until the feasibility study is completed and approvals are obtained. China is looking to position itself as a world leader in the implementation of renewable energy technologies, and in recent weeks solar has been its focal point. Earlier this year, the Chinese government said this that it would provide new incentives for solar photovoltaic (PV ) projects. The Chinese Finance Ministry plans to provide US $2.93 per watt for projects of 50-kilowatts and above. The Ministry will provide ¥20 [US $2.93] per watt for projects of 50-kilowatts and above. Last week the Chinese government revealed that it is readying a feed-in tariff (FIT) for utility-scale solar plants that will dwarf the country's previous solar subsidies, and drive a wave of investment into the sector. The FIT will likely fall in ¥1.09-1.50 [US $0.16-0.22] range per kWh of electricity produced at large-scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays and could be in place by the end of the year. These moves will likely kick-start the PV industry in China, which up until this point has been almost nonexistent. While many solar manufacturers are based in the country, there has been little domestic demand for their products.

Seoul, Korea: LG Display to Build Thin Film Solar Cell Pilot Line LG Display, a manufacturer of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display technology, today announced plans to focus its R&D capabilities on a thin-film type solar cell and nurture it as a future growth driver. LG Display plans to invest KRW50 billion into R&D to build a pilot line within its Paju display complex in Korea during the second half of 2009 and build an outdoor test power generation facility. Further, the company aims to raise the current energy conversion efficiency rate of 8% to 12% by 2010, and eventually achieve an efficiency rate of 14% in 2012 to prepare for commercialization. It also plans 32

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to secure sufficient commercial value by lowering the manufacturing cost to less than $1 per watt. In addition, LG Display will target the market for cells used in photovoltaic power generation, buildings and public displays during the initial stages of commercialization. The company’s long-term blueprint includes expansion into solar cells for mobile displays and automobiles, as well as solar cells for extreme environments such as offshore photovoltaic power generation stations. Further details about: LG Display


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NREL Names Director for National Center for Photovoltaics Dr. Ryne P. Raffaelle has been named director of the National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL.

Ryne Raffaelle to join NREL August 31, 2009

D r. R y n e P. R a f f a e l l e has been named director of the National Center for Photovoltaics at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Raffaelle most recently has been Academic Director for the Golisano Institute for Sustainability and Director of the NanoPower Research Laboratory at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) in New York. “Dr. Raffaelle’s experience in scientific research and development in the private and academic sectors brings critical leadership to DOE’s and NREL’s solar program,” said Robert Hawsey, NREL associate director of renewable electricity and end use systems. “With Dr. Raffaelle on board, we expect to build on our leadership position in solar research and accelerate photovoltaics technology research, development, and deployment to make solar energy a significant part of our energy future.” Raffaelle has more than 20 years experience leading laboratory research teams. While directing the two institutions at RIT, he also served as a professor of physics, microsystems engineering and sustainability and was responsible for more than $20 million in research grants in photovoltaics, thin-film processing, and nanomaterials research. He co-founded two photovoltaic and power system start-up companies: Wakonda Technologies, Inc. in 2008 and Alpha V, Inc. in 2002. His career included working as a visiting scientist at the NASA-Glenn Research Center; the NASA Lewis

Research Center; and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He was an associate professor of physics and space sciences at the Florida Institute of Technology from 1992-1999. Raffaelle has authored or co-authored over 100 refereed publications and books. He is co-editor of Progress in Photovoltaics and has ser ved on the organizing committee for the past four IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conferences and the last World Conference. He has a Ph.D. in physics from University of Missouri-Rolla, and bachelor of science and a master of science degrees in physics from Southern Illinois University.

NREL is the U.S. Department of Energy's primary national laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. NREL is operated for DOE by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

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Evergreen Solar and Jiawei Solar Hold Ceremonial Groundbreaking at Wuhan, China Manufacturing Plant Construction of 100MW Factories Underway and Set to be Complete by Spring of 2010 Marlboro, Massachusetts and Wuhan, China, August 29, 2009 – In a ceremony today in Wuhan, China, Evergreen Solar, Inc. (NasdaqGM: ESLR), a manufacturer of String Ribbon™ solar power products with its proprietary, low-cost silicon wafer technology, and its contract manufacturing partner, Jiawei Solarchina Co., celebrated the groundbreaking for their new 100 megawatt manufacturing plants. Evergreen Solar Chairman, President and CEO Richard M. Feldt was joined by Mr. Qing-Quan Lo, Hubei Province party leader; Mr. Hong-Zhong Li, Governor of Hubei Province; Mr. Song Yang, Wuhan City party leader; Mr. Chen-Fa Ruan, Wuhan City Mayor and other high ranking government officials as well as Professor Ding Kongxian, chairman of

Jiawei Solarchina Co., Ltd., and senior management f rom Jiawei and the Hubei Science & Technology Investment Co for the ceremony celebrating the start of the plant ’s construction, which actually began in July of 2009. Construction is on schedule to be completed by spring 2010. These manufacturing plants are part of an agreement between Evergreen Solar and Jiawei through which Evergreen Solar will manufacture String Ribbon wafers using its state-of-the-art Quad furnaces at this leased facility being built on Jiawei’s campus. Jiawei will convert the String Ribbon wafers into Evergreen Solar-branded panels on a contract manufacturing basis. “Today represents an important step in the growth of Evergreen Solar,” said Feldt. “When you combine Evergreen Solar’s unique wafer technology and Jiawei’s high quality, cost efficient cell and panel conversion processes, we believe we have a winning formula that will produce the best performing and lowest cost multi-crystalline solar panels in the world. We’re extremely pleased that construction proceeds according to schedule and look forward to beginning production of our String Ribbon solar panels in the spring of 2010.”

About Evergreen Solar, Inc. Evergreen Solar, Inc. develops, manufactures and markets String Ribbon™ solar power products using its proprietary, low-cost silicon wafer technology. The Company’s patented wafer manufacturing technologyuses significantly less polysilicon than conventional processes. Evergreen Solar ’s products provide reliable and environmentally clean electric power for residential and commercial applications globally. For more information about the Company, please visit www.evergreensolar. com. Evergreen Solar® and String Ribbon™ are trademarks of Evergreen Solar, Inc.

About Jiawei Solarchina Co., Ltd. Inc. Jiawei Solarchina Co., Ltd. Inc, through its subsidiary Jiawei Solar (Wuhan) Co. Ltd., is a fully integrated manufacturer of solar products serving OEM and ODM customers around the world, including SunPower Corporation. Jiawei offers its global customers high-

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performance solar products for a broad range of applications including residential and commercial end-users f or off-gr id and ongrid applications. The Company is dedicated to providing its world- class customer base with innovation, manufacturing excellence and superior product quality. For more information about Jiawei Solar, please visit www.solarchina.com.hk.

About Hubei Science & Technology Investment Co., Ltd. Hubei Science & Technology Investment Co., Ltd. (“HSTIC”) is a state owned investment company focusing on science and technology development with registered capital of approximately 2.8 billion

of RMB ($410M USD). HSTIC is composed of the Administrative Committee of Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone and its holding company, Optics Valley Investment Company, Hi-Tech Productivity Enhancement Center and Overseas Scholar Incubation Company. The Hubei state government and Wuhan city government have announced HSTIC will manage 10 billion RMB funded by the National Development Bank to develop central China. According to Hubei state government’s planning, 6 billion of RMB will be dedicated to Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone. CONTACT: Evergreen Solar, Inc. Michael McCarthy Director – Investor Relations mmccarthy@evergreensolar.com Phone: 508-251-3261

LDK Solar Partners With Yancheng City on PV Projects XINYU CITY, China and SUNNYVALE, Calif., a leading manufacturer of multicrystalline solar wafers LDK, announced today that it has entered into an agreement with Yancheng City of Jiangsu Province for the development of PV power projects. According to the agreement, LDK Solar will develop a number of PV power projects, including PV ground-power stations, and roof and building integration systems totaling up to 500 MW over the next five years. The terms, including financing, design and specific location of each of the projects, will require a feasibility study as well as final approval f rom relevant state departments prior to initiation. "Yancheng City is currently one of the most important wind power bases in China. Yancheng City possesses the largest coastal area in Jiangsu Province and is rich in natural resources," stated Li Qiang, Mayor of Yancheng City. "We plan to partner with LDK Solar to build large ground-power stations to take advantage of wind and photovoltaics as complementary power sources. With the support of the Chinese government and their financial subsidy programs, we hope that our partnership with LDK Solar further increases the development of solar resources and promotes growth of the solar PV industry

in Yancheng City." "We are pleased to partner with Yancheng City on PV projects and participate in the development of the Jiangsu coastal area. We believe that an increasing number of PV application projects will originate in China in the future and we will continue to work to position LDK Solar favorably within China's rapidly developing PV market," stated Xiaofeng Peng, Chairman and CEO of LDK Solar.

About LDK Solar (NYSE: LDK) LDK Solar Co., Ltd. is a leading manufacturer of multicrystalline solar wafers, which are the principal raw material used to produce solar cells. LDK Solar sells multicrystalline wafers globally to manufacturers of photovoltaic products, including solar cells and solar modules. In addition, LDK Solar provides wafer processing ser vices to monocr ystalline and multicrystalline solar cell and module manufacturers. LDK Solar's headquarters and manufacturing facilities are located in Hi-Tech Industrial Park, Xinyu City, Jiangxi Province in the People's Republic of China. LDK Solar's office in the United States is located in Sunnyvale, California.

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Baoding Tianwei Starts Mass Production of Thin Film Solar Panels with Oerlikon Solar Technology One of the largest Thin Film Solar Fabs in Mainland China Ramps up in Record Time As China boosts solar energy to meet growing power demand and reduce dependence on imported fuels, Tianwei and Oerlikon Solar announced the completion of one of the mainland China’s largest thin film solar panel factories. The facility was completed ahead of schedule. This first phase of the Tianwei project produces 500,000 modules per year, which generates a total of 46 megawatts of power. Oerlikon Solar leads the thin film solar equipment sector with ten factories in production and the fastest time to market. Thin film solar offers a cost-advantage over traditional crystalline silicon, and is making strong efficiency gains. Tianwei is using Oerlikon Solar’s Amorph High Performance PV technology for Phase 1. “Oerlikon Solar surpassed its promised completion time and efficiency,” said Mr. Ma Wenxue, General Manager of Baoding Tianwei Solarfilms Co., Ltd. “Watching this state of-the-art fab go from an empty room to full production in six months was stunning.” Reaching production quickly is essential to allow Tianwei to address the rapidly growing Chinese solar market. Under the “Golden Sun” program announced on July 21, China’s Ministry of Finance will subsidize half of the construction costs for on-grid solar power plants. The ministry of finance will also pay for up to 70 percent of off-grid installations and cover transmission costs where necessary. In response, analysts have predicted that China could develop more than 500 megawatts of solar power within three years. Just 50 megawatts of solar power were installed in 2008. “Oerlikon Solar has designed, tested and perfected its methodology for bringing new factories and equipment online on time and on budget,” said Jeannine Sargent, CEO of Oerlikon Solar. "This is key in being the leader on the path to grid parity and placing clean renewable solar power on equal footing with traditional fossil fuel sources. Oerlikon Solar has the first thin film silicon technology to have IEC certification from TÜV Rheinland for Amorph Basic, Amorph High Performance and Micromorph®. Certification compresses the time to production by reducing administration efforts and 36

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guaranteeing durability and performance. With more challenging credit markets, certification also makes Oerlikon Solar’s customers projects more predictable and bankable. TÜV certification for the Tianwei line is expected in September 2009.

About Baoding Tianwei SolarFilms Co. Ltd. Tianwei is an international high-tech company with more than 50 years experience in the energy industry and is the leading company in the power transmission industry and the world’s biggest transformer supplier in output as the only state-owned enterprise in China with a vertical industrial chain in PV industry. Its affiliate Tianwei SolarFilms Co and specializes in designing, manufacturing, selling and installing thin film solar modules and related accessories. Located in the National Renewable Energy & Equipment Industry Base, with its well-recognized R&D teams and facilities Baoding Tianwei SolarFilms Co., Ltd. invested about RMB 1.2 billion for Phase 1 and a capacity of round 50 megawatts.

About Oerlikon Solar Oerlikon Solar offers field proven equipment and endto-end manufacturing lines for the mass production of thin film silicon solar modules. Engineered to reduce device cost and maximize productivity, its end-to-end solutions are fully automated, high yield, high uptime, and low maintenance. The production lines are complete systems, yet modular and upgradeable in both throughput and process technology. As a global leader in thin film PV technology, the company provides its customers with extensive experience in both amorphous and highefficiency Micromorph® tandem technology. Oerlikon Solar is ranked “global number one solar turnkey line supplier” by VLSI and has been named winner of the 2009 CELL AWARD for the “best technical product for thin film module manufacturing”. Oerlikon Solar is headquartered in Switzerland, has over 750 employees in 13 locations world wide and maintains sales and service centers in the USA, Europe and China, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore and Japan.


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Suntech Achieves World Record Conversion Efficiency for a Multi-Crystalline Module WUXI, China/PRNewswire-Asia Suntech Power Holdings Co., Ltd. (NYSE: STP - News), the world's leading manufacturer of photovoltaic (PV ) modules, today announced that it has achieved a new world record conversion efficiency of 15.6% on a commercial grade multi-crystalline silicon PV module. This conversion efficiency surpasses the previous record of 15.5% (aperture area only) set by Sandia National Labs 15 years ago. The multi-crystalline module conversion efficiency was independently tested by Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE in Germany.

SunTech has achieved a new world record conversion efficiency of 15.6% on a commercial grade multi crystallline silicon PV module Suntech's world record breaking multi-crystalline silicon module is powered by Pluto PV cells utilizing solar grade silicon with each PV cell having a conversion efficiency well over 17%. The previous record was based on an aperture area or frameless module. In contrast, Suntech's new world record efficiency includes the framed area, without which Suntech believes it would achieve a conversion efficiency of well over 16%. The world record conversion efficiency was accepted by the scientific journal Progress in Photovoltaics (PIP), which offers a prestigious forum for reporting advances in the PV industry. Professor Martin Green, Research Director of the ARC Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence at the University of New South Wales, Australia, and member of the PIP committee, said, "Improving the conversion efficiency of multi-crystalline silicon modules has proven particularly challenging and this is a very impressive achievement for such a large module from a commercial supplier. I can confirm that the 15.6% multicrystalline module result is the highest known conversion efficiency measured by a PIP-recognized test center." Dr. Stuart Wenham, Suntech's Chief Technology Officer, said, "This is a tremendous result for Suntech and clearly demonstrates the power and versatility of the Pluto technology, which can be applied to both mono and multi-crystalline wafers. The fact that this module was produced on our commercial scale production lines

using regular solar grade silicon is of particular note. The best news is that we believe there is still room for plenty more improvement in Pluto as we push the boundaries of technology development to bring more powerful and reliable solar products to market." Suntech has initiated commercial shipments of Pluto powered modules and currently expects to ship 10MW to 15MW of Pluto products in 2009.

About the Fraunhofer Institute The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft undertakes applied research of direct utility to private and public enterprise and of wide benefit to society. By developing technological innovations and novel systems solutions for their customers, the Fraunhofer Institutes help to reinforce the competitive strength of the economy in their region, throughout Germany and in Europe. Their research activities are aimed at promoting the economic development of our industrial society, with particular regard for social welfare and environmental compatibility. The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft's research work is oriented toward concrete applications and results. Pure basic research, as practiced at universities, is funded to almost 100% by public grants. Industrial R&D, up to prototype level, is largely financed by private enterprise. For more information please visit http://www.fraunhofer.de .

About Progress in Photovoltaics Progress in Photovoltaics offers a prestigious forum for reporting advances in this rapidly developing technology, right through from research to practical application, and aims to reach all interested professionals, researchers, and energy policy-makers. The journal's Editorial Board is drawn from many countries with a deliberate balance of interests between research, industrial development and practical operation of PV systems, and plays an essential role in the refereeing of contributions. Contributions in the form of Full Papers and Short Communications are invited on the full range of PV topics and concerns. All submissions are rigorously peer reviewed. For more information, please visit http://as.wiley.com/ WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-PIP.html .

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COMPANY CLOSE-UP Suntech Achieves World Record Conversion Efficiency for a Multi-Crystalline Module

About Suntech Suntech Power Holdings Co., Ltd. (NYSE: STP News) is the world's leading solar energy company as measured by production output of crystalline silicon solar modules. Suntech designs, develops, manufactures, and markets premium quality, high-output, cost-effective and environmentally friendly solar products for electric power applications in the residential, commercial, industrial, and public utility sectors. Suntech's patent-pending Pluto technology for crystalline silicon solar cells improves power output by up to 12% compared to conventional production methods. Suntech also offers one of the broadest ranges of building-integrated solar products under the MSK Solar Design Line(TM).

Continued

Suntech designs and delivers commercial and utility scale solar power systems through its wholly owned subsidiary Suntech Energy Engineering and will own and operate projects greater than 10 megawatts in the United States through Gemini Solar Development Company, a joint venture with Fotowatio Renewable Ventures. With regional headquarters in China, Switzerland and San Francisco and sales offices worldwide, Suntech is passionate about improving the environment we live in and dedicated to developing advanced solar solutions that enable sustainable development. For more information, please visit http://www.suntech-power.com .

REC ASA - Calls Upon Bank Guarantee and Terminates Contract REC has decided to terminate a long-term take-or-pay contract with the Chinese solar energy company China Sunergy for deliveries of mono wafers. China Sunergy has not renewed the required guarantees and the parties have not agreed on revised terms. As a consequence, REC has called upon a USD 50 million bank guarantee established by the customer to cover its payment obligations. REC has since 2006 signed several long-term take-or-pay contracts with a range of customers. In these contracts both price and volume are typically predetermined for the entire contract period, and no mechanisms allow the customer to renegotiate terms and conditions. These contracts are also typically supported by bank guarantees established to secure part of REC's outstanding receivables. Given the increasingly difficult market development in 2009, with falling prices and declining capacity utilization, REC has engaged in dialogue with its customers in order to assist them in coping with the short-term effects of the market downturn. In most cases, REC and its customers have been able to find solutions for 2009 which are commercially acceptable to both parties. Should the market weakness continue into 2010, it may be in REC's best interest to make further contractual adjustments. The contract in question was entered into in 2008 as a take-or-pay contract as described above. The total 38

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contract value is estimated at NOK 2.4 billion, covering deliveries of predefined volumes at pre-defined prices in 2009-2015. The contract prices were at the time of signing considerably below the spot market price for mono wafers, reflecting the longterm nature of the commitment by both parties. REC has made serious efforts to reach an agreement that could lay the basis for continued cooperation with China Sunergy. As REC saw the possibility of finding solutions of common interest, REC has demonstrated a high degree of flexibility to discuss a range of options that could address customer needs. Despite this, it has regrettably not been possible to resolve the situation, and REC has therefore decided to call upon the existing time-limited bank guarantees to protect its interests. In this particular contract, the bank guarantee structure requires annual renewal, but China Sunergy has failed to provide and renew sufficient bank guarantees in time. It is REC's intention to continue the negotiation with China Sunergy to try to find an acceptable solution. However, as the bank guarantees may cover only parts of the loss, REC will also consider further legal actions to cover any such loss.


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About REC REC is the leading vertically integrated player in the solar energy industry. REC Silicon and REC Wafer are among the world's largest producers of polysilicon and wafers for solar applications. REC Solar is a rapidly growing manufacturer of solar cells and modules, and

are also engaging in project development activities in selected segments of the PV market. REC had revenues of NOK 8 191 million and an operating profit of NOK 2 529 million in 2008. Close to 3 000 employees work in REC's worldwide organization.

LDK Completes First Polysilicon Production Run LDK Solar has successfully completed the first production run and initiated production ramp-up of operations of its first 5,000 metric ton (MT) train in its 15,000 MT annualized capacity polysilicon plant in Xinyu, China on September 5. "We are pleased to successfully complete of our first production run and begin to ramp manufacturing at our state-of-the-art 15,000 MT polysilicon plant. The construction of this facility has been an unprecedented undertaking for many of us in attendance. This achievement is thanks to our international teamwork and

collaboration efforts," said Nick Sarno, LDK's senior VP of manufacturing and the polysilicon plant's project manager. The plant is one of many that has, and is expected to come online this year. Increased polysilicon supply is one of the largest factors in the drop in the cost of manufacturing solar modules. Modules have been slow to move off the shelves of distributors however, as continuing problems in the finance system, as well as savvy consumers waiting for prices to reach bottom have slowed demand.

First Solar To Build 2-GW Solar Facility in China First Solar has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the Chinese government to build a 2-gigawatt (GW) solar power plant in Ordos City, Inner Mongolia, China. Pursuant to the MOU, the project will be built over a multi-year period. The project will operate under a feed-in-tariff which will guarantee the pricing of electricity produced by the power plant over a long-term period. Phase 1 will be a 30-megawatt (MW) demonstration project that will begin construction by June of next year. Phases 2, 3 and 4 will be 100, 870 and 1,000 MW respectively. Phases 2 and 3 will be completed in 2014 and Phase 4 will be completed by 2019. “This major commitment to solar power is a direct result of the progressive energy policies being adopted in China to create a sustainable, long-term market for solar and a low carbon future for China,” said Mike Ahearn, First Solar's CEO. “We’re proud to be announcing this precedent-setting project today. It represents an encouraging step forward toward the mass-scale deployment of solar power worldwide to help mitigate climate change concerns.” The MOU also calls for First Solar to review the

possibility of module and supplier manufacturing sites in Ordos. First Solar also expects to facilitate expansion of the supply chains in China for thin film photovoltaic module production and for the recycling of photovoltaic modules after use. Final agreement between the parties is subject to the negotiation and execution of definitive agreements among the parties. The project will operate under a feed-in-tariff which will guarantee the pricing of electricity produced by the power plant over a long-term period. “The Chinese feed-in tariff will be critical to this project,” Ahearn said. “This type of forward-looking government policy is necessary to create a strong solar market and facilitate the construction of a project of this size, which in turn continues to drive the cost of solar electricity closer to ‘grid parity’ – where it is competitive with traditional energy sources.” First Solar also announced that it has entered into a US $300 million senior secured revolving credit facility with a syndicate of nine financial institutions. The facility, which was oversubscribed, has a three-year term and is intended to be used for general corporate purposes, including the issuance of letters of credit. www.sneia.org

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RADOX Solar Boxes for Module Manufacturers HUBER+SUHNER offers a wide range of tailor-made connectivity systems for solar module manufacturers. These consist of pre-fabricated junction boxes with cables and connectors which are fixed to the rear side of the modules and connect them to the inverter. As a result of the diodes’ positive heat-conducting properties, the modules feature optimum protection from the temperature increase which occurs in ‘reverse mode’. Low-loss connectors and thermal insulation between module and box ensure that the power generated can be used in a more efficient manner, thus increasing operating efficiency. The high quality of the materials used and their careful processing ensure that the connectivity systems require no maintenance for the entire duration of their lifetime. All boxes feature a reliable flat design, facilitating simple handling and efficient installation. HUBER+SUHNER designs and manufactures the boxes in accordance with customer requirements, offering optimised logistics. HUBER+SUHNER RADOX Solar boxes have to date been supplied to module manufacturers such as Conergy, Suntech and other innovative manufactures of high quality panels.

HA3 box for high performance Solar boxes HA3 and RH3 have been developed especially for high-performance modules, both have also a TÜV approval. Thanks to thermal insulation between the junction boxes and the modules, constant high power is guaranteed. The junction boxes are characterised by a high degree of functional safety over their entire lifetime, as well as by extremely low power dissipation. They are designed for both manual and automated production and optimised in accordance with customers’ requirements. The RH3 box is designed in an extremely space-saving way; the contacts can be soldered or welded, guaranteeing high connectivity quality. In addition, the HA3 box is equipped with brackets to accommodate the connectors. This simplifies transportation and logistics considerably. The HA3 connection system has already been certified in accordance to “UL 1703. Additional boxes are currently 40

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undergoing the UL certification process. The dual rating of the connectivity systems makes it possible to use the same boxes in the American, European, and Asian market.

HF0/HF1 box and HO1 box for thin-film modules The HF0/HF1 box and the HO1 box that is currently still at the development stage, are designed especially for use on thin-film modules. Both boxes are extremely small and space-saving due to their compact and robust construction. Yet they meet the requirements of the relevant standards, in particular those regarding heat conduction in ‘reverse mode’. Grouting provides both the module and the box with effective protection, ensuring trouble-free operation throughout the entire lifetime of installations.

TÜV and UL certified A l l R A D OX s o l a r c o n n e c t i v i t y s y s t e m s o f f e r the renowned and long-established properties of HUBER+SUHNER solar products. Their robust design, high quality and tried-and-tested design ensure reliable connectivity over the entire lifetime of an installation – even in the case of harsh environmental conditions. All HUBER+SUHNER solar products are developed on the basis of the latest technical knowledge and the relevant TÜV and UL requirements. The conventional and proven RADOX solar cables have passed the more


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stringent TĂœV re-qualification requirements. Our products are developed to ensure constant high levels of functionality over the entire lifetime of installations, thus simultaneously ensuring optimum safety.

Outlook In regards to future requirements of the solar market HUBER+SUHNER is constantly developing new solutions for thin film applications with the goal always to create best customer benefits. Contact Max Goeldi, Solar Product Unit Manager Tel: +41 (0)44 952 25 62, e-mail: max.goeldi@hubersuhner.com

HUBER+SUHNER Group The HUBER+SUHNER Group, based in Switzerland, is a leading international manufacturer of components and systems for electrical and optical connectivity for communication, transportation and industry. The company can draw on core competencies in the areas of high-frequency, fiber optics and low frequency. The

product range includes coaxial, fiber optic and copper cables, cable systems, connectors, antennas and lightning protection components. The company has a global presence with 18 subsidiaries and representatives in over 60 countries around the world. Further information on the company can be found at www.hubersuhner.com.

The Potential Risks and Preventive Measures of China's PV-Solar Industry PV-Solar industry is a new and emerging indusry. Photovoltaic power is sustainable renewable. PV-Solar industries have developed worldwide rapidly since somecompensation policies were putout by foreign government from 2004. And that year, depending on its strong manufactoring capability, chinese PV-Solar industries entered European and USA markets. From 2005 til 2007 there had been more than 10 large-scale PV-solar factories landing on the overseas markets in

succession, with the huge wealth effect rapidly heating up the development of solar energy photovoltaic industry in China, and from then on, there has been hundreds of small and medium solar PV processing enterprises developed in China.

I. Potential risks facing solar photovoltaic enterprises Although the prospects are ver y broad for the photovoltaic industr y, with a great potential in international markets, but from a nationwide perspective, there is a risk of overheating in industrial investment. As we all know, when domestic solar module manufacturers sell the products in the international markets, they usually made a commitment to the foreign purchasers in the form a product warranty—peak output power no less than 90% of the rated within 10 years and no www.sneia.org

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party (insurance service providers) long-term quality warranty insurance in order to meet the needs of current tough markets. The domestic module manufacturers are now indeed have a strong production capacity, but for those enterprises still at the early stage of solar energy production, they may not be able of undertake on their own and effectively control the annually aggregated risks when addressing various types of continuously germinated risks.

less than 80% of the rated within 25 years. With the deepening of the development of PV industry in China, the production capacity has expanded steadily. Across the country, the production capacity has reached 2000MW per year. In a no-increase scenario, the total aggregated production will reach 20000MW in 10 years, that's about a output of RMB 300 billion. However, as it goes on, an accumulation of corresponding various types of risks are also growing, which will also be gradually exposed. In other words, 10 years later, the cumulative risk of the PV industry, especially the cumulative risks involved with the modules, would also be very large. In a buyer's market, the foreign customers have become increasingly demanding for the module's quality and product liability protection. Now in Spain, Italy, Germany and other markets, in addition to the requirement of CE, TUV, GB and other standard certification, it also needs third-party long-term

product quality warranty insurance in order to receive financial subsidies provided by the government as well as the bank's financial support. Therefore, the domestic module manufacturers must attach most importance to the product's quality, and strive to obtain a third42

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II. The current situation of the risk protection and transfer in the solar photovoltaic industry Alltrust Insurance Brokers &Risk Consultants Co., Ltd. is established under the approval of the Chinese Insurance Regulatory Commission as a nationwide c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n s u r a n c e b r o k e r a g e c o m p a n y, headquartered in Shanghai Pudong Lujiazui Financial Center, with the business covering nationwide. Meanwhile, Alltrust is the only comprehensive insurance brokerage company in China that has been servicing the solar photovoltaic industry for almost three years. In 2007, To meet the special needs of the solar photovoltaic industry, Alltrust has allied with specialty projects of international financial groups and re-insurance groups, and launched the first long-term(upto 25 years) quality warranty insurance specifically dedicated to the solar photovoltaic products, with Alltrust as the insurance plan


COMPANY CLOSE-UP

designer, and a coinsurance consisting of a number of domestic and international large insurance companies as the insurance underwriters. Alltrust is the only insurance brokerage company with a dedicated solar power industry-specific services team. After three years of service for the PV industry, Alltrust has formed a complete and professional risk management system for the PV industry, from the risk identification and insurance plan design, to policy management and data management, and to insurance claims processing. As of the end of 2008, Alltrust has successfully provided professional services to more than 30 large and mediumscale PV companies. The insurance plan designed and provided by Alltrust has also gained recognitions from large foreign purchasers, financial institutions and governments. Product quality warranty insurance is to warrant that the module output power is no less than 90% of the rated power within 10 years, and no less than 80% of the rated power within 25 years. In case the module fails to perform as warranted, The repair or replacement or compensation of the power shortage costs liable to the insured, as well as testing fee, transportation cost and repair cost will be compensated by the insurance company. Meanwhile, Alltrust will provide a series of training on the insurance policy's selling point, which will highlight the long-term product quality warranty and is conducive to the development of new customers and retain old customers, so as to promote product sales; At the late stage of sales, once an insured event occurred, Alltrust will dispatch service person to provide claims processing services for the insured in accordance with its needs. This can significantly reduce business risk concerns of the insured and risk management costs.

Insurance is a common means of risk control internationally. Enterprise need only pay a low premium so as to transfer the risks to insurance companies, who will undertake all the risks after the sales of the products. Thus, It can provide risk management and control for our domestic solar photovoltaic industry, stability of financial income, chance of showing the enterprise's social responsibility, thereby enhancing the visibility of companies in the world. In the same time, it can enhance the reputation of Chinese solar module exports, so as to eliminate foreign trader's risk concerns over the the course of trade, significantly protect the interests of both buyers and sellers, and also continue to promote China's solar PV industry into the international market, achieving a benign development.

III. Our expectations Alltrust has always been adhering to the philosophy of ultimately sincere service for all companies, with a goal of safeguarding the oversea trades for the photovoltaic companies. Fully play of our advantages, resolve all potential risks, and strive for national brands, Enhance the competitiveness, expand exports, and ensure the leading position. Contact: Mr. Ted, Ms. Ou Tel: 8621-51755136 8621-51755173 Email: ted.zhu@alltrustcorp.com, oux@alltrustcorp.com Address: 19/F, Tower B Eton Plaza, No. 555, Pudong Avenue, Shanghai 200120, P.R.China Website: www.alltrustcorp.com www.sneia.org

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Consumer Energy Tax Incentives What the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Means to You The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 extended many consumer tax incentives originally introduced in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT) and amended in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-343). Businesses, utilities, and governments are also eligible for tax credits. See the summary of the energy tax incentives included in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008.

About Tax Credits A tax credit is generally more valuable than an equivalent tax deduction because a tax credit reduces tax dollar-fordollar, while a deduction only removes a percentage of the tax that is owed. Consumers can itemize purchases on their federal income tax form, which will lower the total amount of tax they owe the government. Fuel-efficient vehicles and energy-efficient appliances and products provide many benefits such as better gas mileage –meaning lower gasoline costs, fewer emissions, lower energy bills, increased indoor comfort, and reduced air pollution. In addition to federal tax incentives, some consumers will also be eligible for utility or state rebates, as well as state tax incentives for energy-efficient homes, vehicles and equipment. Each state’s energy office web site may have more information on specific state tax information. Below is a summary of many of the tax credits available to consumers. Please see the ENERGY STAR® page on Federal Tax Credits for Energy Efficiency for more details on federal incentives and the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) for information on federal, state, local, and utility incentives.

Home Energy Efficiency Improvement Tax Credits Consumers who purchase and install specific products, such as energy-efficient windows, insulation, doors, roofs, and heating and cooling equipment in existing homes can receive a tax credit for 30% of the cost, up to $1,500, for improvements "placed in service" starting January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2010. See EnergyStar.gov for a complete summary of energy efficiency tax credits available to consumers.

Residential Renewable Energy Tax Credits Consumers who install solar energy systems (including 44

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solar water heating and solar electric systems), small wind systems, geothermal heat pumps, and residential fuel cell and microturbine systems can receive a 30% tax credit for systems placed in service before December 31, 2016; the previous tax credit cap no longer applies.

Automobile Tax Credits Hybrid Gas-Electric and Alternative Fuel Vehicles Individuals and businesses who buy or lease a new hybrid gas-electric car or truck are eligible for an income tax credit for vehicles “placed in service” starting January 1, 2006, and purchased on or before December 31, 2010. The amount of the credit depends on the fuel economy, the weight of the vehicle, and whether the tax credit has been or is being phased out. Hybrid vehicles that use less gasoline than the average vehicle of similar weight and that meet an emissions standard qualify for the credit. This tax credit will be phased out for each manufacturer once that company has sold 60,000 eligible vehicles. At that point, the tax credit for each company’s vehicles will be gradually reduced over the course fifteen months. See the IRS's Summary of the Credit for Qualif ied Hybrid Vehicles for information on the status of specific vehicle eligibility. Alternative-fuel vehicles, diesel vehicles with advanced lean-burn technologies, and fuel-cell vehicles are also eligible for tax credits. See the IRS summary of credits available for Alternative Motor Vehicles. Plug-In Electric Vehicles Plug-in electric vehicles also qualify for a tax credit starting January 1, 2010. The credit for passenger vehicles and light trucks ranges from $2,500 to $7,500, depending on battery capacity. The first 200,000 vehicles sold by each manufacturer are eligible for the full tax credit; the credit will then phase out over a year. Plug-In Hybrid Conversion Kits Hybrid vehicle owners who purchase a qualified plug-in hybrid conversion kit are eligible for a 10% credit, capped at $4,000, through 2011. * Sources: ENERGYSTAR.gov and IRS.gov ** The IRS will determine final tax credit amounts. As more information becomes available, it will be posted on our website. http://www.energy.gov/recovery/taxbreaks.htm


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70% Subsidy for Solar Power By Fu Chenghao China will subsidize up to 70 percent of investment in new solar power systems as it expands a program to speed development of the clean energy industry. The government will pay half of the price of new ground-mounted solar power projects and related power transmission and distribution systems, the Ministry of Finance has said. The subsidy will rise to 70 percent for independent solar projects in remote areas with no power supply. In the next two to three years, China aims to subsidize solar power projects of no less than 500 megawatts the size of an average coal-fired power plant - under the program called Golden Sun, the ministry said. Shenyin and Wanguo Securities analyst Jiao Jian estimated a total subsidy of between 11 billion yuan (US$1.6 billion) and 14 billion yuan under the program. "This is still a temporary incentive, as in the long term we need a feed-in tariff system to guarantee the on-grid tariffs for producers," said Zhao Yuwen, vice chairman of the Chinese Renewable Energy Society.

To qualify for the subsidy, each project must have a peak capacity of at least 300 kilowatts, while construction will have to be completed in one year and operations last for at least 20 years, in addition to other requirements. The government in March unveiled a program to subsidize half the equipment and installation costs for building-integrated solar power projects, without specifying how much capacity would be subsidized. China has some of the world's largest solar power panel makers, including Suntech Power Holdings Co and Trina Solar Ltd, but 98 percent of the output was sold abroad last year because of a lack of subsidies domestically and high costs. Domestic installed solar power capacity was just more than 100MW by last year. With the new policies, China's installed solar power capacity is set to easily double annually during the next two to three years, but the pace would not be enough to offset an industry oversupply, Guotai Jun'an Securities said in a note, telling investors to remain cautious about the sector.

DOE Awards $377 Million in Funding for 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers Washington, DC – In a major effort to accelerate the scientific breakthroughs needed to build a new 21stcentury energy economy, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced the delivery of $377 million in funding for 46 new multi-million-dollar Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) located at universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and private firms across the nation. "As global energ y demand grows, there is an urgent need to reduce our dependence on imported oil and curtail greenhouse gas emissions," said Secretary Chu. "Meeting the challenge to reduce our dependence on impor ted Dr. Steven Chu, oil and curtail greenhouse gas Secretary of Energy emissions will require significant scientific advances. These centers will mobilize the

enormous talents and skills of our nation's scientific workforce in pursuit of the breakthroughs that are essential to expand the use of clean and renewable energy." Of the $377 million awarded to the EFRCs, $277 million comes from funding made available through the Recovery Act with the remaining $100 million made from DOE's FY2009 budget. The 46 EFRCs are being funded at $2-5 million per year each for a planned initial five-year period and were selected from a pool of applications received in response to a solicitation issued by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science in 2008 and announced on April 27, 2009. Selection of the EFRCs was based on a rigorous merit review process utilizing outside panels composed of scientific experts. In total, the EFRC initiative represents a planned DOE commitment of $777 million over five years. EFRC researchers will take advantage of new www.sneia.org

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MONEY MATTERS DOE awards $377 million in funding for 46 energy frontier research centers

capabilities in nanotechnology, high-intensity light sources, neutron scattering sources, supercomputing, and other advanced instrumentation, much of it developed with DOE Office of Science support over the past decade, in an effort to lay the scientific groundwork for fundamental advances in solar energy, biofuels, transportation, energy efficiency, electricity storage and transmission, clean coal and carbon capture and sequestration, and nuclear energy.

EFRCs funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act include: • Arizona State University (Tempe, AZ) – $14 million for five years to adapt the fundamental principles of natural photosynthesis to the man-made production of hydrogen or other fuels from sunlight. • University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) – $15 million for five years to enhance the conversion of solar energy to electricity using hybrid inorganic-organic materials. • University of California, Santa Barbara (Santa Barbara, CA) – $19 million for five years to discover and develop materials that control the interactions between light, electricity, and heat at the nanoscale for improved solar energy conversion, solid-state lighting, and conversion of heat into electricity. • Columbia University (New York, NY) – $16 million for five years to develop the enabling science needed to realize breakthroughs in the efficient conversion of sunlight into electricity in nanometer sized thin films. • Cornell University (Ithaca, NY) – $17.5 million for five years to understand and control the nature, structure, and dynamics of reactions at electrodes in fuel cells, batteries, solar photovolataics, and catalysts. • University of Delaware (Newark, DE) - $17.5 million for five years to design and characterize novel catalysts for the efficient conversion of the complex molecules comprising biomass into chemicals and fuels. • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, MA) – $19 million for five years to understand the transport of charge carriers in synthetic disordered systems, which hold promise as new materials for conversion of solar energy to electricity and electrical energy storage. • University of Massachusetts (Amherst, MA) – $16 million for five years to use novel, self-assembled polymer materials in systems for the conversion of sunlight into electricity. 46

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• University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI) – $19.5 million for five years to study complex material structures on the nanoscale to identify key features for their potential use as materials to convert solar energy and heat to electricity. • University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill, NC) – $17.5 million for five years to synthesize new molecular catalysts and light absorbers and integrate them into nanoscale architectures for improved generation of fuels and electricity from sunlight. • Northwestern University (Evanston, IL) – $19 million for five years to synthesize, characterize, and understand new classes of materials under conditions far from equilibrium relevant to solar energy conversion, storage of electricity and hydrogen, and catalysis. • University of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, IN) – $18.5 million for five years to understand and control, at the nanoscale, materials that contain actinides (radioactive heavy elements such as uranium and plutonium) to lay the scientific foundation for advanced nuclear energy systems. • Pennsylvania State University (University Park, PA) – $21 million for five years to dramatically increase our fundamental knowledge of the physical structure of bio-polymers in plant cell walls to provide a basis for improved methods for converting biomass into fuels. • Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN) – $20 million for five years to use fundamental knowledge about the interactions between catalysts and plant cell walls to design improved processes for the conversion of biomass to energy, fuels, or chemicals. • University of Southern California (Los Angeles, CA) – $12.5 million for five years to simultaneously explore the light absorbing and emitting properties of hybrid inorganic-organic materials for solar energy conversion and solid state lighting. • University of Texas, Austin (Austin, TX) – $15 million for five years to pursue fundamental research on charge transfer processes that underpin the function of highly promising molecular materials for photovoltaic and electrical energy storage applications. A complete list of the 46 EFRCs, their lead institutions, funding levels and objectives, is available at: www.sc.doe.gov/bes/EFRC.html


MONEY MATTERS

China Mulls Benchmark On-Grid Solar Power Tariffs China will consider setting benchmark tariffs for largescale solar power projects to be connected to grid networks, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) said on Monday. It did not specify any timeframe for the announcement of the rates that industry officials said would reduce uncertainty for businesses that need to factor the income into operational plans. Last month, the Ministry of Finance said it would provide big subisidies for the construction of utility-scale solar power projects after announcing subisidies for solar power projects attached to buildings in May. Eager to reduce its reliance on cheap but dirty coal, which provides over 70 percent of the country's power, China said it would boost the supplies of clean power from solar, wind, nuclear and other renewable sources by providing incentives. China in July announced benchmark tariffs for on-

grid wind power projects. Developers previously had to compete for grid access. In a statement summarising the latest developments in energy price reforms, the commission said it will continue to enforce the fuel pricing mechanism approved by the State Council despite various problems and conflicts. The commission did not elaborate on the problems and conflicts. Under a fuel pricing scheme that has been in place since January, China said it may change gasoline and diesel guidance prices -- or ceiling prices -- when the moving average of crude prices shifts more than 4 percent in 22 working days. China has raised fuel prices three times and cut them twice so far this year. The commission said it would also re-classify the categories for retail power prices to reduce cross subisidies.

China to Subsidize Renewable Energy Buildings and Projects The Chinese government will give subsidies to renewable energy buildings and projects in pilot cities and rural areas. Pilot cities would carry out projects and build buildings with renewable energy technologies and products, said the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development in a circular on Thursday. Every pilot city was expected to get between 50 million yuan ($7.33 million) and 80 million yuan in subsidies from the central budget.

Meanwhile, rene wable energ y products and technologies would also be introduced to the country's vast rural areas, said the two ministries in the circular. The central government would channel money to local governments for installing renewable energy facilities to housings, schools and other public buildings. Solar energy water heater and solar radiators were highlighted by the two ministries. Every pilot county was expected to get a maximum subsidy of 18 million yuan, said the circular.

China: Golden Sun Project is Officially Launched’ The “Golden Sun� demonstration project aims to put solar across the country and support projects to transmit and distribute solar power. China plans to install at least 500 megawatts of solar farms across the country in the next two to three years. In a notice posted on the Ministry of Finance website Tuesday, the government said it would subsidize 50 percent of the costs of building a solar power project and transmitting and distributing the solar power from

that project. The incentive would go up to 70 percent for projects in remote areas without connections to the grid. The government didn't provide a budget for carrying out the initiative. China said it's keen on promoting renewable energy development while stimulating the economy. It is home to many solar energy equipment makers who have seen their sales and profits decline quickly because of a softened market demand worldwide. These companies

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have been exporting their products largely to the Europe and the United States rather than the domestic market. The Golden Sun project provides the latest evidence that China is on an ambitious path to become a major consumer of solar electricity. In March this year, the government said it would subsidize rooftop and buildingintegrated solar power projects with as much as 20 RMB per watt (see Confusion, Political Spat Emerge for China Solar Subsidies). Chinese solar companies are expecting the government to create a feed-in tariff program that would allow solar power plant operators to sell electricity at premium prices. Just last week, Suntech Power and ReneSola said they had inked roughly 2.3 gigawatts of deals with provincial and city governments to build solar farms. China is looking at installing 10 gigawatts of solar energy capacity by 2020, and some analysts expect more than 2 gigawatts of new generation could be added by 2011. Other analysts said they strongly doubt that China could go from less than 100 megawatts nationwide to gigawatts in a few years. "Historically, China has made a lot of announcements that have not come to pass. They have affordability issues, and they have cheap coal and other problems to solve," Paula Mints, principal analyst of solar services at

Navigant Consulting, said at Intersolar North America in San Francisco last week. "They aren't going to go from 25 to 50 megawatts, mostly off the grid, into a multigigawatt market in a few years." For the Golden Sun initiative, each project would need to have a minimum of 300-kilowatt capacity, and it should be completed in one year. To make sure the money is spread out across the country, the government said each province should limit the projects to 20 megawatts total. If a project generates more than can be used onsite, the project owner could sell the excess electricity to grid operators at prices on par with power from coal-fired power plants. "This program is more suitable for off-grid solar power development where power generated from diesel generation costs over $0.15/kilowatt hour," wrote Vishal Shah, senior analyst at Barclays Capital, in a research note. He added that incentives aren't likely to drive a lot of demand for solar energy equipment for 2010. Still, Chinese solar companies have seen their share prices jump after the news made its way around the world Tuesday. Suntech's shares rose 9 percent to reach $17.70 per share in recent trading. Renesola's increased nearly 4 percent to reach $5.57 per share, while LDK Solar's stock shot up 12.50 percent to reach $10.63 per share.

China to Issue Tax Incentives on Clean Energy within 2009 China will issue new tax incentives on clean energy and small cars as early as the end of this year, including an exemption of sales tax for cars with a 1.4-litre size engine or smaller, according to China Securities. In the next five year, China will pour 450 billion yuan into environment protection industry, said XIe

Zhenghua, the vice director of National Development and Reform Commission. U.S. House of Representatives and Heads to the U.S. Senate passed American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 in June, said that USA by 2020 may impose sanctions on countries that do not limit emissions.

Beijing is Going to Subsidise Geothermal Heating Beijing’s underground thermal energy could heat up to 1 billion square metres, reaching 2020’s planned target. The government will provide subsidies of 30 to 50 yuan per square metre to developers in communities that adopt geothermal heating. A report released yesterday by the Beijing Municipal Geological Prospecting Bureau revealed that the heat energy contained in the shallow 48

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strata beneath Beijing’s plain area could supply heat to 959 million square metres, a huge potential. It is reported that this kind of large-scale resource appraisal is a world first. Yesterday the municipal Geological Prospecting Bureau released its report Geological Prospecting Report on Shallow Strata Thermal Energy Resources in Beijing’s


MONEY MATTERS

Plains Area, completed over three years. The report revealed that the thermal energy contained in the shallow strata from 3 metres to 150 metres below Beijing’s plains area amounts to 66.2 million tons of standard coal per year. In winter the equivalent of 15.3 million tons of standard coal could be used, supplying heat to an area of 959 million square metres. This comes very close to the goal of Beijing Municipality’s overall plan to supply heat to a total area of 1 billion square metres by 2020. The person responsible at the municipal Geological Prospecting Bureau said that using shallow strata geothermal energ y is about 10 yuan cheaper than using regular gas as it is renewable, making it both environmentally friendly and energy saving.

Currently Beijing has 13 million square metres of construction using shallow strata geothermal heating and cooling. In addition, considering the possible influences of resource exploitation on the environment, the municipal Geological Prospecting Bureau has already built two monitoring stations and over 20 collecting points to monitor the influence of exploitation. Once geothermal energy is used on a large scale, Beijing will consider establishing 20 monitoring stations and over 1000 collecting points to carry out monitoring and ensure safe exploitation.

CPUC Proposes New Feed-in Tariff Program This week, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) proposed a new program to significantly increase the amount of solar energy installed in the state. An interpretation of the Feed-in Tariff (FIT). The program would require utilities to purchase 1-gigawatt (GW ) of electricity f rom mid-size solar and other renewable energy technologies. As proposed, renewable energy systems between 1 megawatt (MW ) and 10 MW in size that deliver electricity directly to the utility grid can qualify for the new program. Contract prices will be set through a competitive auction in order to accurately reflect current solar market conditions. The Vote Solar Initiative came out in support of the proposed program as a cost-effective and efficient means for meeting California's aggressive renewable energy goals. "This program ensures that renewable energ y projects wil l be built quickly and at the lowest cost to ratepayers," said Adam Browning, executive director of the Vote Solar Initiative. "It throws the doors wide open on an entirely new

renewable energy market in the state: mid-sized solar projects that generate clean electricity for all Californians. Coupled with highly successful CSI program for customer-owned solar and existing channels for large utility-scale projects, California will be able to lay claim to one of the most comprehensive and dynamic solar markets in the world.” California's Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) has already resulted in contracts for more than eight gigawatts (GW) of large-scale renewable energy projects across the state, with another six GW of contracts of signed contracts under review by regulators. CPUC analysis identified transmission as the single most significant barrier to large-scale renewable project development. This new CPUC program could stimulate immediate activity by establishing a market for smaller renewable projects that can be incorporated into the existing utility infrastructure without the construction of new transmission. The smaller projects will also likely be easier to finance, another critical hurdle in the current economic climate. San Francisco, United States [RenewableEnergyWorld.com] http://www.renewableenerg yworld.com/rea/news/ article/2009/08/cpuc-proposes-new-feed-in-tariffprogram?cmpid=WNL-Wednesday-September2-2009 www.sneia.org

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Signs of Impact By Kathy Belyeu, AWEA Project numbers and developer feedback indicate that the economic stimulus package is on the right path to bolster activity within the wind industry. Washington, D.C. United States [RenewableEnergyWorld.com] On July 9, the U.S. Treasury Department and U.S. Department of Energy released the guidance for how wind farm developers can access cash grants in lieu of the investment tax credit. The grants, which were part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA, also known as the stimulus bill), are expected to help get wind projects built while capital markets remain difficult. The program began accepting applications at the end of July.

“Ou r chal leng e now is to seiz e the hist oric opportunity before us to unleash this entrepren eurial force and build up an entire new industry here in the U.S. that will create jobs, avoid carb on, and strengthen our energy security.” -- Denise Bode, CEO, AWEA Although it is still too early to get an accurate read on how the Treasury grant program and the other stimulus bill provision will affect the wind industry, it is clear that the law is keeping the industry alive during difficult economic times.

ARRA Understood Provisions in ARRA that benefit new wind power project development include an extension of bonus depreciation through 2009, the three-year extension of the production tax credit (PTC) (2010-2012), and the ability to take an up-front 30% investment tax credit (ITC) instead of the PTC and, if desired, take an equivalent cash grant from Treasury in lieu of the ITC. The grants are designed to temporarily replace tax credits which have been major factors in the continued growth in wind and other renewable energy projects. Third-party investors with a large tax appetite or developers with access to large balance sheets were a key part of wind project financing. Such investors normally partner with developers who have limited tax liability themselves and help them monetize the tax credit. However, due to the recession, there has been limited tax equity available from investors and developers with 50

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large balance sheets, making it difficult to monetize tax credits and thereby rendering tax-based incentives such as the PTC almost useless as an investment incentive. As revenues for investors and developers have declined with the recession, so has their tax liability. The availability of the temporary Treasury grant program allows projects to continue to use the value of the incentive by removing the link between the incentive and tax liability. To be eligible, a wind project must be placed in service either between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010 (regardless of when construction begins) or after 2010 but before the credit termination date (for large wind, January 1, 2013; for small wind, January 1, 2017) if construction of the property begins between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010. Applications must be filed online by going to https://treas1603.nrel.gov/. For more information, see:http://www.treasury.gov/recovery/1603. shtml.

ARRA’s Impact AWEA reported in late July that the U.S. wind energy industry installed 1,210 MW of new power generating capacity in the second quarter, bringing the total added this year to just over 4,000 MW. In addition to what has been commissioned this year, over 5,500 MW have been reported as under construction for completion later this year or early next year. New wind project announcements have also been picking up. In addition to what is under construction, at least another 5,000 MW of new projects have been announced by project development companies. Most of the projects either completed this year or announced for the next few years are driven by or at least are benefitting from ARRA provisions. The relationship between the newly implemented policies and robust project activity is evidenced both in the numbers and through informal feedback from developers. Just since the July 9 announcement, 200 MW have been completed, construction has started on over 400 MW, financing has closed on 100 MW, and another 550 MW have been announced. These projects would


MARKET DEVELOPMENT TRENDS/INDUSTRY ANALYSIS

equate to $2.5 billion in new investment. Moreover, several large wind power project development companies said that their entire 2009 portfolios would have been reassessed had ARRA not passed. According to Horizon Wind Energy, owned by EDP Renewables, the passage of the stimulus bill allowed the company to accelerate its 2009 projects currently under construction, totaling 501 MW. In addition, Horizon has advanced the construction schedule for its 99-MW Meadow Lake II Wind Farm in Indiana. Horizon also completed construction and has started operations of its 101-MW Rail Splitter Wind Farm in Illinois and 97-MW Wheat Field Wind Farm in Oregon. All together, these projects, which total 798 MW, are driving creation of over 600 direct construction jobs and represents an investment of over $1.5 billion. Developer E.On also said that all of its 2009 projects are moving for ward because of the stimulus bill. Including completed and under construction projects, E.On has a portfolio for 2009 of 878 MW, representing an investment of $1.75 billion and over 600 direct construction jobs in Pennsylvania and Texas. Iberdrola Renewables, meanwhile, stated that it plans to bring online around 850 MW of wind energy installations in 2009, a project pipeline that could be eligible for $400 million to $500 million in Treasury aid over the coming months. Several projects were singled out as being driven by ARRA provisions, including the bonus depreciation extension piece of the legislation as well as the provision that allows developers to take an ITC in the form of a Treasury grant. Wind Capital Group started construction early on what will be the largest wind farm in the state of Missouri, the 150-MW Lost Creek Wind Farm, the power from which will go to Associated Electric Cooperative, Inc. The electric transformers going into the project’s 100 GE Energy 1.5-MW turbines will be built by United Auto Worker employees at the ABB manufacturing plant in Jefferson City. Duke Energy responded that the 42-MW Silver Sage project was positively impacted by the ARRA. The extension of 50% bonus depreciation into 2009 allowed the company to proceed with the project. The wind farm features 20 2.1-MW Suzlon turbines.

Manufacturers Still Await Market Signal In spite of the positive news that the stimulus bill has

brought to the wind industry, most see it as a vital stopgap but not a long-term solution. Manufacturers in particular are still looking for the longer-term market signals that will encourage them to make manufacturing investments. While AWEA manufacturing members are reporting a reduced number of orders for wind turbines and their components, investment in new manufacturing facilities has continued, albeit at a slower pace, with 20 manufacturing facilities brought online, announced or expanded in the first six months of 2009. More specifically, a recent announcement by Nordex that it would start construction on its manufacturing plant in Jonesboro, Ark., was a breath of fresh air for the industry; nevertheless, the plants of other manufacturers continue to idle or even downsize. “The numbers are in, and while they show the industry has been swimming upstream, adding some 4,000 MW over the past six months, the fact is that we could be delivering so much more,” said AWEA CEO Denise Bode. “Our challenge now is to seize the historic opportunity before us to unleash this entrepreneurial force and build up an entire new industry here in the U.S. that will create jobs, avoid carbon, and strengthen our energy security.” In order to send the right long-term market signals, AWEA is urging Congress to pass a national Renewable Electricity Standard (RES) with strong early targets. As the Department of Energy 2008 “20% Wind by 2030” report shows, wind power is ready to make a meaningful commitment to the country’s need for carbon-f ree electricity. The industry is still ahead of the curve sketched out in the report for the necessary deployment pace to achieve 20% wind power penetration, but as the early part of this decade showed, project development activity can be very volatile depending on the policies that are in place. AWEA applauds Congress for its immediate support in the stimulus bill and urges it to look ahead and pass a policy that will help the industry grow for the mid- and long-term as well. Kathy Belyeu is manager of industry information at AWEA. This article f irst appeared in the August 2009 issue of Windletter and was republished with permission from the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA).

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Renewable Ventures Completes $200 Million Fund to Finance and Develop New Solar Projects in the U.S. Wells Fargo and John Hancock Financial major participants in Solar Fund V SAN FRANCISCO, – Renewable Ventures, a Fotowatio company, today announced the completion of Solar Fund V to finance more than $200 million of new solar energy projects across the United States. The fund’s first project is a two-megawatt solar photovoltaic project located in Ft. Collins, Colorado that will sell energy to Colorado State University and renewable energy credits to one of the state’s utilities, Xcel Energy. Solar Fund V, the fifth fund organized by Renewable Ventures and the first as Fotowatio’s U.S.-based subsidiary, reinforces the company’s growth strategy in the United States. The fund will focus on the development and acquisition of commercial, public sector, and utility-scale solar projects from one to 10 megawatts in size. “With this new infusion of capital, we stand ready to work with businesses, utilities and others to immediately finance, develop, or acquire megawatts of large-scale solar projects in the U.S.,” said Renewable Ventures CEO Matt Cheney. Solar Fund V is structured to include both debt from John Hancock (a unit of Manulife Financial Corporation, NYSE:MFC) and equity f rom Renewable Ventures and Wells Fargo (NYSE:WFC), and will enable the construction and permanent financing of around 35 megawatts in the next year. The combination of debt and equity enables the fund to seek a broader range of federal government incentives, improving project economics for prospective customers such as municipalities, universities, electric utilities and companies. “ Wells Fargo’s and John Hancock’s continued commitment to investing in renewable energy will allow us to replicate the success of our previous relationships,” added Mr. Cheney. “Solar Fund V has been designed to use capital and incentives available under the stimulus program in a way that can accelerate the development of more solar projects and quickly create jobs in the U.S. renewable energy sector.” “We are pleased to continue building our relationship 52

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through setting up this fund with Renewable Ve n t u r e s , ” s a i d Barry Neal, director of Environmental Finance at Wells Fargo. “Wells Fargo’s commitment to clean energy and Renewable Ventures’ development and operating experience together will help our nation take advantage of clean, renewable energy.” “John Hancock is proud to be working once again with Renewable Ventures, extending our partnership by helping to finance, develop, and deliver clean, renewable energy projects making a difference globally and to the communities we serve,” said Jerry Hanrahan, Managing Director, at John Hancock. The fund’s first project, to be located at Colorado State University, will generate enough solar power to provide more than 10% of the electricity needs on the university’ s Foothills Campus. The 15-acre solar power plant is expected to be one of the largest solar installations at a U.S. university when it is completed in 2009. Fotowatio is one of the world’s largest independent solar producers, and has financed, owns, and operates 130 megawatts of photovoltaic projects in the United States and Europe. The company recently began construction on a five-megawatt solar photovoltaic project in Italy and is developing over 1,000 megawatts of concentrating solar power and solar photovoltaic projects across Spain, Italy and the United States. Renewable Ventures finances and operates solar projects of all sizes, from one to 50 megawatts and larger. The company’s recent projects in the United States include the photovoltaic system at Denver International Airport, the largest solar PV project in North America at Nellis Air Force Base, and installations at Macy’s, Roche, University of California-San Francisco, California State University-Fresno, Lowe’s, and many others. Fotowatio, one of the largest solar power companies


MARKET DEVELOPMENT TRENDS/INDUSTRY ANALYSIS

in the world, is an independent renewable power producer (IPP) with 130 megawatts of solar projects in operation in the United States and Europe. Fotowatio has more than 1,000 megawatts in development across the United States, Spain and Italy using both PV and CSP technologies. A global company, Fotowatio is owned by GE Energy Financial Services, Landon Group, and Qualitas Venture Capital. Renewable Ventures is Fotowatio’s U.S. global business unit with an exclusive

focus on the development of commercial and utility-scale solar projects throughout the United States. For more information, please visit www.fotowatio.com or www.renewableventures.com For information about Wells Fargo, please visit www.wellsfargo.com For information about John Hancock Financial, please visit www.johnhancock.com

Investors Splashed with Red Ink by European Solar Companies Heavy job losses and sharp falls in revenues at European solar manufacturers brought investors in the clean energy sector down with a bump last week. This pain, brought about by a sudden move from excess demand to excess supply in the world solar market over the last 12 months, was best highlighted in recent days by bleak employment news from German heavyweight Q-Cells and Spanish module maker Solaria Energia. The latter said it would lay off 400 of the 500 employees at its Puertollano PV factory for 10 months, but Q-Cells, the cell maker based in Bitterfeld-Wolfen, trumped that announcement by revealing two days later that it would make 500 permanent job cuts at its oldergeneration Thalheim production lines. Q-Cells also said that it would review all of its investment projects, “especially those for 2010”, and reduce its capital commitments. It said that its results for the first half of this year, published in mid-July, showed “how quickly and dramatically the markets have changed”. This was far from an isolated, negative report last week. Other German solar equipment makers also revealed difficult trading conditions, although some appeared to be surviving a bit better than others. SolarWorld, which extends along the solar supply chain from silicon to modules, said that sales in the first half of 2008 fell 6%. It presented this as a resilient performance, given a 25% drop in module prices. Its profit margin was down from 28% in the first half of 2008 to 21% in the first six months of this year. Frank Asbeck, SolarWorld’s expansion-minded chairman, is pinning much hope for sales growth in coming months on the US, where it announced 15MW

of civic projects in partnership with oil major Chevron. Asbeck predicted: “As of the fourth quarter of 2009, the public funding of solar power is expected to come to the fore.” This is a reference to the anticipated approval of grants for solar projects, as part of the US ‘green stimulus’ programme. A third German contender, Sunways, said that its sales increased 16% in the first half of 2009, although earnings moved into the red, mainly due to a particularly poor first quarter for cell and system businesses. It admitted that excess capacity worldwide meant that it faced a “high degree of planning uncertainty”. A fourth firm, ErSol, active in silicon, wafers, cells and modules and now owned by white goods giant Bosch, published news of a “dramatic slump” of 44% in sales in the first half, and a slide into loss. ErSol’s chief executive, Holger von Hebel, said: “This decline is mainly attributable to the slump in the overall market compared with 2008, due in particular to massive cuts in the Spanish photovoltaic market, the worst global economic crisis for decades and the considerable surplus of solar modules and cells this resulted in. This led to extreme price pressure and, ultimately, to a considerable drop in prices of up to 30% in the first six months of 2009. Furthermore, the credit crunch that persists… is curbing the global project business.” The impact on solar company share prices last week was clear, although fairly limited since investors had been expecting poor sales and profit figures at this stage. Shares in Q-Cells dipped 16% between 12 and 17 August, while SolarWorld fell 11%. However shares in Sunways edged higher. www.sneia.org

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BioBackSheet that May Change the Solar Industry S A N TA C L A R I TA , C a l i f . - (BUSINESS WIRE)--BioSolar (OTC BB: BSRC - News), developer of a breakthrough technology to produce bio-based materials from renewable plant sources that reduce the cost of photovoltaic solar modules, “has developed a ‘biobacksheet’ that may change the solar industry,” according to a July 22, 2009 article on Energy Boom. “BioSolar is currently making steady strides in the commercialization process, and we are always pleased when members of the solar industry share our excitement. We received great feedback following our recent announcement of the successful prototype run of the new BioBacksheetTM-A,” said BioSolar’s CEO Dr. David Lee. News of the development was also featured in New Energy World Network and Solar Industry Magazine. Conventional polymer backsheets, the bottom-most layer of nearly all photovoltaic solar cell modules, are designed to protect the solar cell from environmental hazards like moisture and UV rays. One of the reasons solar power has remained expensive is because of the cost of its components such as backsheets. BioSolar’ s BioBacksheet™ is a protective covering made from renewable plant sources, rather than the expensive petroleum-based film currently in use, and is expected to cost substantially less than traditional petroleum-based backsheets. A Renewable Energy World article says that according to Lee, the fastest growing segment of the photovoltaic (PV ) market is thin film, particularly 54

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copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic panels that require backsheets to have a water vapor transmission rate of nearly zero. “ BioS olar has de veloped the BioBacksheetTM-A with an absolute moisture barrier f rom renewable materials. The three layer laminate film consisting of 100 percent recyclable aluminum foil is the center core sandwiched between outer layers of bio-based polymer films, making our product unique in the industry,” said Lee. BioSolar recently announced that the BioBacksheetTM-C, designed for the traditional c-Si PV modules, will be the company’s first product to be commercially available during the second half of 2009. Two more versions of BioBacksheetTM are currently in the pre-production stage moving towards qualification for full production.

About BioSolar, Inc. BioSolar, Inc. has developed a breakthrough technology to produce bio-based materials from renewable plant sources that will reduce the cost per watt of solar cells. Most of the solar industry is focused on photovoltaic efficiency to reduce cost. BioSolar is the first company to introduce a new dimension of cost reduction by replacing petroleum-based plastic solar cell components with durable biobased materials. To learn more about BioSolar, please visit our website at http://www.biosolar.com.

David D. Lee With over two decades of engineering, marketing, sales and executive management experience in high technology, BioSolar, Inc. Chief Executive O f f i c e r D r. D a v i d D. L e e founded the company in 2006. An elect rical engineer, Lee recognized that historically, manufacturing costs have been one of the biggest barriers to driving down the cost per kilowatt of solar energ y for consumers. In response, BioSolar was the f irst company to introduce a new dimension of cost reduction by replacing petroleum-based plastic solar cell components with durable biobased components derived from renewable plant sources.


NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

Award-Winning Reflector to Cut Solar Cost SkyFuels Chief Tech Technology Officer Randy Gee, left, and NREL Senior Scientist Gary Jorgensen developed a thin silver polymer film to substitute for bulkier glass mirrors on solar-collecting troughs. Credit: Pat Corkery Huge parabolic mirrors catching the sun's rays could crisscross America's deserts soon, thanks to a breakthrough that may greatly lower the cost of solar power. A small solar company has teamed with scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to develop massive curved sheets of metal that have the potential to be 30 percent less expensive than today's best collectors of concentrated solar power. The SkyTrough Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrating Collectors will be longer than football fields and look like fun-house mirrors, but could be the game-changers in solar energy's bid to out-muscle gas and coal in providing electricity for America's homes. The breakthrough recently was honored by R&D Magazine as one of the top 100 technical innovations of the year, and by the Federal Laboratory Consortium with a 2009 Excellence in Technology Transfer Award. Solar power has been nipping at the heels of fossil fuels for decades, but hasn't yet found a way to be costcompetitive on a large scale.

It also is much easier to deploy and install." The glossy film uses several layers of polymers, with an inner layer of pure silver. The government scientist and the chief technology officer say the cost advantage is about 30 percent, a huge dividend in an industry that has scratched together savings one percent at a time for decades. Solar scientists for years have understood the advantage of the parabolic shape, which distorts the rays, concentrating the sun's heat onto a tube filled with heattransfer fluid, which carries the heat to the boilers in a power station. The heat-transfer fluid can get as hot as 400 degrees Celsius (more than 750 degrees Fahrenheit).

More than 10 Years in the Making Kathleen Stynes removes the cover from the heat transfer tube on the prototype SkyTrough on South Table Mountain overlooking NREL's Golden, Colo., campus. Credit: Pat Corkery

'The Sky is the Limit' That could change, says NREL senior scientist Gary Jorgensen, who with SkyFuel Chief Technology Officer Randy Gee developed a thin silver polymer film to substitute for bulkier glass mirrors on solar-collecting troughs. "Glass is highly durable, but is heavy and hard to shape without added cost," Jorgensen said. "Once industry sees the advantages of the silver polymer and is convinced the product is durable in an outdoor environment, the sky is the limit." Gee said the film, trademarked ReflecTech速 Mirror Film, "has the same performance as the heavy glass mirrors, but at a much lower cost and much lower weight.

The thorny problem has been how to find an alternative to glass, something that is cheaper and lighter, easier to install, yet durable in the hot sun. The story goes back to the late 1990s, when Gee and Jorgensen worked with a small $25,000 federal grant to see if they could come up with an alternative reflector. They used NREL's testing facilities to sample dozens, indeed hundreds, of possible materials that potentially provided the low-weight low-cost highly flexible properties needed to drive down the cost of solar power collection. "Within two years, we had enough data to believe we had a substantial improvement relative to predecessors," Jorgensen recalled. www.sneia.org

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NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGY Award-Winning Reflector to Cut Solar Cost

Continued

They found that silver had great potential, but that by itself the metal would delaminate and corrode too easily. It's the combination of metals and polymer film layers that protect the silver that makes the film commercially viable. "We reduced the concept to practice and filed for the patent," Jorgensen said. SkyFuel now holds the exclusive license for using the patented technology developed by both Gee and Jorgensen. NREL's technology transfer office aims to make it easier for private industry to invest in renewable energy by developing mutually beneficial partnerships, including teaming on research and patents. A prototype SkyTrough is capturing the sun's rays right now atop South Table Mountain overlooking NREL's Golden, Colo., campus; a larger pilot system also has been installed at SkyFuel's location in Arvada, Colo., a few miles north of NREL. The parabolas could spring up by the end of the year in the highest desert regions of California, and soon in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas and Colorado, states blessed with lots of sunshine and vast open areas. Parabolic collectors have been around since the 1970s. Back then they were about seven feet wide and 20 feet long, a half dozen or so lined up to collect the sun's rays, a motorized system turning the mirrors as the sun moved across the sky. "The natural evolution was to get larger and reduce costs," said Gee, who worked with Jorgensen in the 1980s at the Solar Energy Resource Institute, NREL's predecessor. "Each generation got larger," pointing to the day when utility companies would want to purchase the troughs for 50- to 100-megawatt plants. In commercial use, a SkyTrough would measure 375 feet long and 20 feet high. One SkyTrough would supply enough electricity for at least 50 homes. Gee describes the technology transfer as a natural outgrowth of NREL's presence in a large metro area. "Just the fact that you have that level of expertise in a national lab, you're going to have naturally occurring spinoffs. This didn't occur through any particular program, other than the contact between different people in the research community in this particular area of solar." Gee recalls the methodical testing of samples at NREL's optical materials lab. "Bit by bit, we improved the performance of these samples," he said. "The real important moment came when we filed the

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patent. It took many years of working through the patent process, but we were rewarded with it in 2007.

'Perfect Storm' for Renewable Energy SkyFuel's R&D Center in Arvada has 16 employees, mainly scientists and engineers that have been improving the design of the SkyTrough. "Just two-and-a-half years into the development cycle, it looks like our great technical team is going to be able to take a big chunk out of the costs of installing CSP systems," Gee said. "We're not doing this in tiny steps but in big chunks." NREL's contribution to the breakthrough film "was absolutely critical," Gee said. "Over the past two years, we've had the ability to ask the scientists there, where they have the optical test equipment, to come over and bring their specialized equipment to measure the accuracy our parabolic trough collector." "It was absolutely important for us to verify the optics of our technology before we put it in the field." Several utilities that have installed expensive fossil-fired plants in the past decade "are very excited about solar in general, and many of them see our technology as a very important part of that," Gee said. Gee maintains that it all could have come together years ago, if not for wavering. "It requires political will to make this happen," Gee said. "There's no reason why we couldn't be 20 years ahead of the game, compared to where we are now. "A lot of work in materials has evolved," Gee added. "It remains to be seen whether this time we break through. It depends on how seriously climate change is taken, what sort of actions are taken to move us away from fossil fuels." Jorgensen has been working on renewable energy for 30 years. He calls today's climate "a perfect storm ‌ with the realization by the public of the importance of alternative energy, with politicians listening to the public, with energy demands and with security issues of not wanting to rely on foreign oil. "With the whole impact of global environmental change, we're truly at the pinnacle of a golden age," Jorgensen said. Learn more about NREL's research in concentrating solar power. — Bill Scanlon


NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

Treasury & DOE Award US $500M in Recovery Act Grant Funds for Renewables A milestone was reached this week for the renewable energy industry as the first part of the US $3 billion grant program authorized by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) were awarded. Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner and Energy Secretary Steven Chu on Tuesday announced $502 million in the first round of awards from the ARRA program that provides cash assistance to energy production companies in place of earned tax credits. “The Recovery Act is investing in our long-term energy needs while creating jobs in communities around the country,” said Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner. “This renewable energy program will spur the manufacture and development of clean energy in urban and rural America, allowing us to protect our environment, create good jobs and revitalize our nation's economy.” Created under Section 1603 of the Recovery Act, the program is expected to provide more than $3 billion in financial support for renewable energy projects by providing direct payments in lieu of tax credits. These payments will support an estimated 5,000 bio-mass, solar, wind, and other types of renewable energy production facilities in all regions of the country over the life of the program. The grants are designed to temporarily replace the production tax credit (PTC) that has been a major factor in the continued growth in wind and other renewable energy projects. The recession and the freeze in the credit markets that began late last year rendered the PTC much less useful as an investment incentive.

The Treasury Department opened the application process for the 1603 program on July 31, 2009 and made the first awards in half the mandated turnaround time of 60 days. The projects funded in the first round are listed below. Treasury said that additional awards under the program will be announced in the coming weeks. Iberdrola Renewables Inc. confirmed that it received five of the grants totaling $294,889,003 to support wind projects in four states. The Penascal, Moraine II, Locust Ridge II, Hay Canyon and Pebble Springs Wind Projects are all being developed by Iberdrola. “Switching from the PTC to the grant program was made necessary by the collapse of U.S. financial markets last fall. This change will enable our company and others to keep investing in new renewable energy while the financial markets mend,” said Ralph Currey, president and CEO. “Thanks to the grant program, Iberdrola Renewables is proceeding with new renewable investments in 2009 and will continue to do so next year and beyond.” Currey said the company expects the Treasury to act on three additional grant applications this month. The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) welcomed the announcement and said the funds will spur more investment across the industry. “For these grantees and many other projects that are preparing their applications, we are seeing business activity picking up and turbine and parts orders being sent all the way up the value chain,” said Rob Gramlich, AWEA's senior vice president for public policy. “That activity had all but dried up and it is very encouraging to see this turnaround underway. Time will tell if that market signal is strong enough to keep the 85,000 people working in the wind industry employed for the next couple of years.”

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NREL Research Garners Three Prestigious R&D 100 Awards An ultra-accelerated weathering system, a parabolic trough solar concentrating collector, and a microbatter y — all developed in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) — were honored today as top 100 innovations for 2009 by R&D Magazine. The Ultra-Accelerated Weathering S y s te m ( UA W S ) i s a m u l t i f a c e t e d ultraviolet solar concentrator used to speed up the exposure of coatings, paints, and other materials to determine their durability and resistance to weathering. Industry applications include coatings used for solar panels while other uses for the UAWS include paints or finishes used on homes, cars or even bridges. The UAWS provides test results 12 times faster than other accelerated weathering systems and can replicate years of sun damage in just a few weeks. NREL shares this award with Atlas Material Testing Technology and the Institute of Laser Optical Technology. NREL researchers who worked on the

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project are Gary Jorgensen, Al Lewandowski (retired), Carl Bingham and Judy Netter. The SkyTrough™ Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrating Collector uses a reflector material developed by NREL and its collaborative research partner, SkyFuel, to create a ground-breaking and low-cost system for utility-sized power generation. The SkyTrough™ uses ReflecTech® Mirror Film, a glass-free, slide-in mirror that is lightweight and weather proof. This innovation coupled with improvements to items like the hydraulicbased rotational system and the sun-tracking controller enables SkyTrough™ to reduce the installed cost by 35 percent and substantially improves the financial return to investors. This reduction to the price barriers brings the installation costs into competition with gas-fired power plants. NREL shares this award with SkyFuel, Inc. NREL researchers who worked on the project are Gary Jorgensen, Tim Wendelin, Allison Gray, Mark Mehos, Frank Burkholder and Kent Terwilliger. The PowerPlane UX Microbatter y is a safe, rechargeable, deep-cycle, thin-film lithium microbattery. Its ideal applications are remote wireless sensors, smart homes, smart cars and medical sensing devices. Unlike traditional batteries, the PowerPlane UX Microbattery has a long life cycle even if it is frequently and fully discharged. It uses a solid glass electrolyte—lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON)—to give the battery its longer cycle life. NREL developed the buried-anode architecture used in the microbattery. This innovation involves lithium being intercalated, or chemically trapped within, the cathode layer. The battery also is tolerant of


NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

high temperatures. NREL shares this award with Planar Energy Devices. NREL researchers who worked on the project are Roland Pitts, Ed Tracy and Dane Gillaspie. “The Department of Energy's national laboratories are incubators of innovation, and I'm proud they are being recognized once again for their remarkable work,” said Energy Secretary Steven Chu. ”The cuttingedge research and development being done in our national labs is vital to maintaining America’s competitive e d g e , i n c r e a s i n g o u r n a t i o n’s

energy security, and protecting our environment. I want to thank this year's winners for their work and congratulate them on this award.” “These technologies showcase the variety of world-class research and development that is NREL’ s hallmark,” NREL Director Dan Arvizu said. “We are honored to once again have our efforts recognized with this preeminent award.” The R&D 100 Awards are known in the industry as the “Oscars of Invention” and the awards showcase the best new technologies f rom

around the world. Including this year’s recognition, NREL has won a total of 45 awards R&D 100 Awards. The 2009 awards gala will be held on November 12 at the Renaissance Orlando Hotel at SeaWorld in Florida. NREL is the U.S. Department of Energy's primary national laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. NREL is operated for DOE by The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

NWTC Installs Multimegawatt Research Turbines N R E L’s N a t i o n a l W i n d Te c h n o l o g y Center installed the first of two multimegawatt wind turbines last week to be used for research to advance wind turbine performance and reliability. Crews at the NWTC began lifting the GE 1.5-MW turbine’ s 262-ft steel tower using a 320-ft crane on August 17th and finished with the installation of its nacelle and rotor on August 21st. The GE turbine, purchased by the U.S. Department of Energy, will be used as a tool for long-term research and testing. It will be extensively instrumented to collect detailed data that will help researchers study the microclimate in which the turbine operates, the aerodynamics of its design, the effects of turbulence on its load and performance, and how the combination of these factors may affect wind plant performance. The turbine will also be used to educate budding wind engineers and researchers from universities, laboratories and companies nationwide.

The second turbine, to be installed in September, is a Siemens 2.3-MW turbine. The installation of the turbine will facilitate a cooperative research and development agreement between NREL and Siemens to validate the performance of this late-stage prototype that features a novel blade design. Both the GE and the Siemens turbines will be connected to the grid and are expected to generate twice as much energy as the NWTC uses.

For more information about the installation of the two turbines at the NWTC see Wind Technolog y Center Installing a Dynamic Duo.

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NEWS ON SNEIA

Approved by Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China Initiated and Organized by Shanghai New Energy Industry Association (SNEIA) Co-organized by European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) New Energy Industry Association for Asia and the Pacific (NEIAAP) Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) Chinese Renewable Energy Society (CRES) Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association (CREIA) American Council On Renewable Energy (ACORE) Japan Photovoltaic Energy Association ( JPEA) German Solar Industry Association (BSW-Solar) Delegation of German Industry & Commerce Shanghai/econet china Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH Taiwan Photovoltaic Industry Association (TPVIA) International Photovoltaic Equipment Association (IPVEA) Shanghai Federation of Industrial Economics (SFIE) Shanghai Science & Technology Development and Exchange Center Supported by Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality Shanghai Municipal Development & Reform Commission Shanghai Economic Commission Managed by Shanghai Environmental Science Information Technology Exchange Center Follow Me Int’l Exhibition (Shanghai), Inc. Follow Me Int’l Exhibition (USA), Inc.

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Preface: SNEC 3rd (2009) International Photovoltaic Power Generation Conference & Exhibition [SNEC (2009) PV POWER EXPO], which was approved by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China and jointly organized by 15 international associations and organizations, came to a successful end on May 8, 2009. Despite the global financial crisis, 1,032 exhibitors, 60,000 sq. meter exhibition space and over 60,000 visitors have made SNEC (2009) PV POWER EXPO break the record of PV exhibitions previously held in Asia. The industrial experts, scholars and entrepreneurs from over 40 countries and regions, such as Germany, UK, France, USA, Canada, Japan, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, Spain, Singapore, Taiwan, etc., gathered here to discuss extensively on the trend of the solar and PV market, industry development strategies, policy directions and advanced technologies. On May 16, 2009, Chinese government launched an action plan of promoting the new energy high-tech industrialization, which, in particular, brings forward new development principles for the solar PV industry. It proposes to focus on the development of thin-film solar cells, support the development of highly efficient crystalline silicon solar cells and make breakthroughs in core equipments of the thin-film solar cells, thus upgrading their technological and industrialization levels, optimizing the industrial layout and promoting the development of industrial clusters. The launch of this action plan has fully proven the irreversible development momentum of the new energy industry, solar energy in particular. Upon the previous success of three SNEC events, Shanghai New Energy Industry Association (SNEIA) plans to hold SNEC 4th (2010) International Photovoltaic Power Generation Conference & Exhibition [SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO] from May 5 to 7, 2010 at Shanghai New International Expo Center (SNIEC), China. Moreover, during SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO, Shanghai will be hosting World Expo 2010 which has already attracted worldwide attention. It is believed that every participant of SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO will have the opportunity to surprise himself/herself and find it worthwhile by visiting the two shows at one trip. Looking forward to meeting you at SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO!


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Data Analysis:

Data on Exhibitors

Data on Visitors

Schedule: Move-in Dates: May 2, 2010 May 3-4, 2010 Show Dates: May 5-7, 2010 Move-out Date: May 7, 2010

(13:00) (8:30-16:30) (9:00-18:00) (16:00-18:00)

Exhibits Category: • Production Equipment: Solar Ingot/Wafer/Cell/ Panel/Thin-Film Panel Production Equipment Category Description: Companies that manufacture equipments used to make solar ingots/blocks, wafers, cells or panels (/modules), including: Ingot/Block Production Equipment: turnkey systems,

casting/solidification equipment, crucibles equipment, pullers and other related; Wafer Production Equipment: turnkey systems, cutting equipment, cleaning equipment, inspecting equipment, and other related; Cell Production Equipment: turnkey systems, etching equipment, cleaning equipment, diffusion equipment, coating/deposition, screen printers, other furnaces, testers & sorters, and other related; Panel Production Equipment: turnkey systems, testers, glass washing equipment, tabbers/stringers, laminators and other related; Thin-Film Panel Production Equipment: amorphous silicon cells, CIS/CIGS, CdTe and DSSC; Production Technical and Research Equipment. • Solar Cells/Panels (PV Modules): Category Description: Companies that manufacture solar cells/panels (/ modules), including the companies that simply sell or distribute solar cells/panels (/modules) and the companies using OEM/ODM. • Components: Batteries, Chargers, Controllers, Converters, Data Logger, Inverters, Monitors, Mounting Systems, Trackers, Others Category Description: Companies that supply products (apart from solar panels/ modules) required for a functioning grid-connected or off-grid solar power system. • Solar Materials: Silicon Materials, Ingots/Blocks, Wafers, Glass, Film, Others Category Description: Companies that supply materials required for the manufacture of solar cells, solar panels (/modules), etc. • Solar Products: Lighting Products, Power Systems, Mobile Chargers, Water Pumps, Solar Houseware, Other Solar Products Category Description: Companies that manufacture products that use solar products or panels. • PV Projects and System Integrators: PV system integrators, solar power air conditioner system, rural PV power generation system, solar power measurement and control system, solar power warming system projects, PV projects programs control, engineering control and software system.

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Category Description: Companies that design and sell complete photovoltaic systems in buildings (panels installed on buildings) or in solar power plants, and companies that install panels/ modules. • Others

Exhibition Rates: • Standard Booth (3m×3m) Price: USD3,200/booth; USD2,800/booth (for SNEIA/ EPIA members) Basic Facilities: one information counter, two folding chairs, one wastepaper basket, two name card registers, one 220V/500W/10A power socket, two spotlights, one header board and carpet inside of the booth. • Indoor Raw Space (≥36m , Hall Management Fee included) Price: USD320/m ; USD280/m (for SNEIA/EPIA members) 2

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hall management fee, but exclude the booth construction fee and the additional facility renting fee; b) Exhibitors shall remit the deposit to the account designated by the organizing committee within 2 weeks after signing the contract, and meanwhile fax the remittance receipt to the organizing committee; c) The remaining exhibition fee shall be paid to the account designated by the organizing committee before Dec. 31, 2009. 4) The ranking order of the advertisements on the catalogue shall be in accordance with the order we receive the advertising fee. The deadline is March 31, 2010. 5) The organizing committee will mail the “Exhibitor Manual” and the “Move-in Notice”, from Feb. 20, 2010, to exhibitors.

Contact Us:

Procedures of Exhibiting at SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO 1) Exhibitors shall fax or mail the application form (contract) with company’s seal to the organizing committee. 2) The principle of booth assignment: “First come, first serve”. Booth space will not be assigned or confirmed without the required deposit payment being submitted. 3) Payment terms: a) The above mentioned exhibition rates contain the

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Shanghai New Energy Industry Association (SNEIA) Organizing Committee of SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO Add: Room 1008, No.1525 West Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200235, China Tel: +86-21-64281523 Fax: +86-21-64642653 E-mail: office@sneia.org Website: http://www.snec.org.cn


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SNEC 4th (2010) International Photovoltaic Power Generation Conference & Exhibition

Overview & Highlights http://www.snec.org.cn Approved by Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China [Ref. No.:(2009)0425], SNEC 4th (2010) International Photovoltaic Power Generation Conference & Exhibition [SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO] will be held in May 2010 in Shanghai, China. It is hosted by Shanghai New Energy Industry Association (SNIEA) and jointly organized by 15 international associations and organizations including European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) and Chinese Renewable Energy Society (CRES). Up to date, the exhibition has attracted 750+ exhibitors, with the total exhibition space reaching over 70, 000 sq. meters.

Time & Venue SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXHIBITION Time: May 5-7, 2010 Venue: Shanghai New International Expo Center (SNIEC) (2345 Longyang Road, Pudong District, Shanghai, China) SNEC (2010) PV POWER CONFERENCE Time: May 7-8, 2010 Venue: Shanghai International Convention Center (SHICC) (2727 Riverside Avenue, Pudong District, Shanghai, China)

International Background The United Nations Climate Change Conference will take place in Copenhagen, Denmark between December 7 and December 18, 2009. During the twoweek conference, leaders of 192 countries will sign an action agreement on fighting against climate change and promise to all human beings on behalf of their own country. This will become another epoch-making agreement after Kyoto Protocol and will undoubtedly be decisive for the change tendency of earth and future destination of human beings. Chinese President Hu Jintao met U.S. President Barack Obama during G20 Financial Summit in London on April 1, 2009. President Obama accepted President Hu’s invitation to visit China late this year. As the major players in the world, China and the US have cooperated with each other on energy for many times

and signed US-China 10-Year Energy and Environment Cooperation Framework. The two countries have strong complementarities in energy especially new energy, which has recently attracted great attention from various sectors of China and the U.S.

Timely Measures for Stimulating Domestic Demand taken by the Chinese Government will Definitely Promote the Development of PV Application Market in China On March 23, 2009, the central government Ministry of Finance (MOF) in China put forward a scheme for a solar subsidy program, which, with immediate effect, would start, with costs 70% supported by the central government and 30% by local governments. The subsidy would be paid up-f ront and amount to RMB20/W installed at most. The MOF also issued documents on March 31, 2009 to explain in detail about the policy of accelerating BIPV applications. After that, the local governments introduced various policies for the development of the renewable energy industry one after another. On May 16, 2009, the municipal government o f S h a n g h a i l a u n c h e d a n Ac t i on P l a n f o r t h e Industrialization of New Energy High Technology, which, in particular, brings forward new development principles for the solar PV industry. It proposes to focus on the development of thin-film solar cells, support the development of highly efficient crystalline silicon solar cells and make breakthroughs in core equipments of the thin-film solar cells, thus upgrading their technological and industrialization levels, optimizing the industrial layout and promoting the development of industrial clusters. The launch of this action plan has fully proven the irreversible development momentum of the new energy industry, solar energy in particular, in China. On August 27, 2009, the 10th session of the Standing Committee of the Eleventh National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China adopted the Resolution on Making Active Responses to Climate Change. It is www.sneia.org

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the first time that China’s supreme legislature expressed its official altitude towards climate change in this way.

China -- the World’s Largest Production Base in the PV Industry In 2007, China developed to be the top one solar cells producer worldwide. The great development potential of the global PV market has drawn large numbers of companies in China including equipment manufacturers, material suppliers, engineering companies, technology consulting companies, etc., to move in on this industry. It is estimated that, up to now, nearly 50 companies in China are constructing, expanding or planning to construct polycrystalline silicon production lines based on Improved Siemens Process, of which the overall output is over 100,000 tons and the total investment reaches RMB 100 billion.

A Gathering of Worldwide PV Industry Leaders SNEC(2010) PV POWER EXPO has invited Mr. Yiren Jiang, Member of the Standing Committee of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), Chairman of the Presidium of China Federation of Industrial Economics (CFIE) and President of Shanghai Federation of Industrial Economics (SFIE), Mr. Dinghuan Shi, Counselor of the State Council of the People's Republic of China and Chief Director of Chinese Renewable Energy Society (CRES), Mr. Michael Eckhart, President of American Council

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On Renewable Energy(ACORE), and Dr. Murray Cameron, Vice President of European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), to act as Chairmen; invited Mr. Junfeng Li, Deputy Director of CRES and Secretary General of Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association (CREIA), and Dr. Zhengrong Shi, Vice Chairman of Shanghai New Energy Industry Association (SNEIA) and Chairman & CEO of Suntech Power Holdings Co., Ltd., to be Executive Chairmen. We will invite wor ld-c lass experts f rom the photovoltaic industry, the academic experts f rom universities and institutes as well as the chief experts recommended by brand enterprises to join the Academic Committee. The Chairmen of Academic Committee will be Dr. Jianhua Zhao, General Manager of China Sunergy (Nanjing) PV-Tech Co., Ltd., and Mr. Yuwen Zhao, Deputy Director of Chinese Renewable Energy Society (CRES) and Director of PV Professional Committee of CRES. SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO will also invite heads of EPIA, BSW-Solar, ACORE, SEIA, etc. to join the presidium, attend the opening ceremony and deliver important speeches.

SNEC (2010) PV POWER CONFERENCE Aims to Expand PV Application and Promote the Technology Exchange & Cooperation China is the largest greenhouse gas producer in the world and the largest developing country. What’s more, it is a


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major manufacturer in global solar photovoltaic industry. In SNEC (2010) PV Power Conference, it will be an important subject about how to improve the photovoltaic technology and guarantee the product quality so as to achieve the sustainable development of photovoltaic industry. With the theme of “Develop New Energy, Benefit All Mankind”, SNEC (2010) PV Power Conference will be held from May 7 to May 8, 2010 at Shanghai International Convention Center (2727 Riverside Avenue, Pudong District, Shanghai, China). It consists of nine sessions: Keynote Speeches, CTOs Forum, CEOs Forum, Advanced PV Industry Technology Forum, Intelligent Grid Connection and System Integration Forum, Silicon Material Forum, Crystal Silicon Cell Forum, Thin-film Cell Forum, Policy and On-site Bidding Meeting. Meanwhile, there will also be activities such as One-on-One Meeting for Projects Cooperation and New Rising PV Products/Technologies Performance.

Updates of SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO has got over 750 exhibitors including world famous companies in this industry from over 40 countries and regions worldwide, such as Germany, America, Japan, France, Austria, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan, etc. The total exhibition space has reached 70,000 sqm and is expected to be 80,000 sqm to 90,000 sqm. 4,000 experts and scholars, 70,000 professionals, and over 5,000 enterprises, including buyers, suppliers,

integrators, etc., will gather in Shanghai for this grand occasion.

A Series of Exciting Events in Conjunction with SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO • • • •

“PV Night” Welcome Reception “World Expo 2010” Huangpu River Cruise & Banquet Visiting World Expo 2010 Site visit to the PV demonstration base & manufacturing factories; Investment environment inspection and Sightseeing around the Yangtze Delta region • One-on-One Meeting for Projects Cooperation and Technology Exchange, etc. These events are adding more value to SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO!

SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO welcomes you! Contact: Shanghai New Energy Industry Association (SNEIA) Shanghai Environmental Science Information Technology Exchange Center Organizing Committee of SNEC (2010) PV POWER EXPO Add: Room 1008, No.1525 West Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200235, P.R.China Tel: +86-21-64380781/64276991 Fax: +86-21-64642653 E-mail: office@sneia.org

Technical Advisor Introduction Dr. Nabih Cherradi Consultant, EmpowerSun SAS Technical Advisor, Shanghai New Energy Industry Association (SNEIA) Over 20 years of industry experience internationally (Europe, Asia and U.S.), accompanied Yingli in its expansion from 95 MW to 400 MW with responsibility for the technology and manufacturing. He also participated in its IPO in New York (NYSE). Previously, he worked for 10 years as equipments supplier to industries of semiconductor and photovoltaics. Dr. Nabih Cherradi has an MBA, a master’s degree in physics and Ph.D. in material sciences (amorphous silicon).

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SNEC 4th (2010) International Photovoltaic Power Generation Conference

Call for Papers Approved by Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China [Ref. No.: (2009)0425], SNEC 4th (2010) International Photovoltaic Power Generation Conference [SNEC (2010) PV POWER CONFERENCE] will be held from May 7 to 8, 2010 at Shanghai International Convention Center (2727 Riverside Avenue, Pudong District, Shanghai, China). It is hosted by Shanghai New Energy Industry Association (SNIEA) and jointly organized by 15 international associations and organizations including European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) and Chinese Renewable Energy Society (CRES). SNEC (2010) PV POWER CONFERENCE has invited Mr. Yiren Jiang, Member of the Standing Committee of Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), Chairman of the Presidium of China Federation of Industrial Economics (CFIE) and President of Shanghai Federation of Industrial Economics (SFIE), Mr. Dinghuan Shi, Counselor of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China and Chief Director of Chinese Renewable Energy Society (CRES), Mr. Michael Eckhart, President of American Council On Renewable Energy(ACORE), and Dr. Murray Cameron, Vice President of European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), to act as Chairmen. We will invite world-class experts from the photovoltaic industry, the academic experts from universities and institutes as well as the chief experts recommended by brand enterprises to join the Academic Committee. The Chairmen of Academic Committee will be Dr. Jianhua Zhao, General Manager of China Sunergy (Nanjing) PV-Tech Co., Ltd., and Mr. Yuwen Zhao, Deputy Director of Chinese Renewable Energy Society (CRES) and Director of PV Professional Committee of CRES. With the theme of “Develop New Energy, Benefit All Mankind”, SNEC (2010) PV POWER CONFERENCE consists of nine sessions: Keynote Speeches, CTOs Forum, CEOs Forum, Advanced PV Industry Technology Forum, Intelligent Grid Connection and System Integration Forum, Silicon Material Forum, Crystal Silicon Cell Forum, Thin-film Cell Forum, Policy and On-site Bidding 66

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Meeting. Meanwhile, there will also be activities such as One-on-One Meeting for Projects Cooperation and New Rising PV Products/Technologies Performance. During SNEC (2010) PV POWER CONFERENCE, Shanghai will be hosting World Expo 2010, which will certainly help attract more industry people. We hereby sincerely invite the colleges and universities, academic institutions, technical companies, brand enterprises all over the world that dedicated to the PV industry to actively participate in the event, contribute papers, and express your insights. Prospective authors are requested to submit an abstract for review by Feb. 28, 2010. The abstract must clearly describe the nature, scope, content, organization, key points and significance of the proposed paper. Authors of accepted abstracts will be notified no later than Mar. 10, 2010. Manuscripts of maximum 4 pages, including diagrams, figures, and photographs, are to be typeset according to the template on the website http://www.snec.org.cn. The deadline for manuscript submittal is Mar. 20, 2010. A biography (Max. 200 words) and a 2-inch colorful photo of the first author shall be submitted together with the manuscript. All accepted papers will be published in the conference Paper Collection. Notifications of accepted papers will be sent no later than Mar. 31, 2010. Topics to be addressed at SNEC (2010) PV POWER CONFERENCE include, but not limited to the following:

I. Keynote Speeches • New Opportunities and Challenges for the Worldwide PV Industry • Development Status, Trend and Policies of the Solar PV Industry in China • Global PV Market in this Great Competitive Era • Leading Trend of Rapidly Growing PV Industry in Each Country

II. Advanced PV Industry Technology Forum • Cutting-edge PV R&D Technologies Worldwide • Manufacturing Technology and Reliability of PV Modules • Research Achievements and Manufacturing Technology for Solar Cells • Thin-film Technology, PV Concentrator Technology, Grid Connection and Control Technology, etc.


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• Special Equipment Manufacturing Technology for the PV Industry • Solar Cells Made from New Components (Incl. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells), New Materials and New Solar Cell Conception • Silicon Material Technologies

III. Intelligent Grid Connection and System Integration Forum • Intelligent Grid Construction and New Energy Development • Discussion on Grid-connected Technical Equipment and its Industrial Development Prospect • PV Generation System Integration Technology (Incl. Highefficient Inverter, Power System Management, Grid-connected PV System, etc.) • Analysis on China’s Subsidy Policy for Grid-connected PV Power Plant • The Market Development Status and Prospect of Global PV System Integration Industry • The Development Status of Technology Application in PV System Integration Industry • Analysis on Technology and Market of BIPV (Building Integrated Photovoltaics) • Financing Channels of PV Power Plants • Analysis and Research on Feasibility of Commercial Operation of PV Power Plants

IV. Silicon Material Forum • Current Trends of Silicon Raw Materials • Supply and Demand of Solar PV Silicon Materials in the World • Development Status of Polysilicon Raw Materials Industry in China • SoG Polysilicon Manufacturing Technology

• • • • •

Crystalline Silicon Growth and Wafer Processing Manufacture of Crystalline Silicon Ingots and Wafers Quality Control on Mono-Silicon and Multi-Silicon Related Materials and Equipments The Quality Control and Standard of SoG Silicon

V. Crystalline Silicon Cell Forum • • • • •

Analysis on the Development Prospects of Crystalline Silicon Cells New Progress of Crystalline Silicon Cells High Efficiency Low Cost Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells Progress of Solar Cell Processing and Equipment The Relationship between Improvement on Aluminum/Silver Paste and Screen-printing/Sintering • Light Induced Degradation Issues of Crystalline Silicon Cells • Quality Control and the Analysis & Testing Technology of Crystalline Silicon Cells

VI. Thin-film Cell Forum • Advances in and Manufacturing Technology of Compound Thin-film Cells • New Progress of Thin-film Silicon Solar Cells and Equipments • Manufacture and Application of New Types of Solar Cells • Testing Technology and Equipment for Thin-film Cells

VII. Policy and On-site Bidding Meeting • PV Power Generation Policies all over the World • Policies for the Solar Cell Industry Development • Preferential Fiscal and Taxation Policies for the Solar PV Industry in China • Solar PV Industry Projects Presentation and On-site Bidding

Announcement to Become Members for Market Alliance on Wind, Photovoltaic and Thermal System New Energy Industry Association for Asia Pacific (NIEAAP) is looking for people and companies to join in Market Cooperation Alliance on Wind, Photovoltaic and Thermal System. The Market Allicance aims to assist you to seek opportunities to futher develop new energy market.

Qualified Applicants: • Electric power design companies; • Project installers; • Distributors who are interested in expanding the market of photovoltaic/thermal products; • Technical companies who have new projects, technologies and look for Chineseartners; • Others.

Goals: i. To set up the representative office and the sales center venturing into US new energy market, by assisting with techinical support, after-sale service and quality guarantee system; ii. To provide an overall plan of design, installation, construction, and technical support for new energy project, including large-scale PV power station, wind power plant and offshore wind power station; iii. To establish the sales network covering the whole US market; iv. To acceralate technical cooperation in new energy market.

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Application to Join Market Cooperation Alliance on Wind, Photovoltaic and Thermal System New Energy Industry Association for Asia and the Pacific (NIEAAP) 2055 Junction Ave., Suite 255, San Jose, CA 95131 Contact: Sophie Liu Mobile: 001.650.580.8386 Tel/Fax: 001.408.434.1993 sophieliu@sneia.org

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Shanghai New Energy Industry Association (SNEIA) R1008, 1525 West Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200235, P.R.China Contact: Qun Wang Mobile: 0086.158.2196.9996 Tel: 0086.21.6428.1523 ext. 8015 Fax: 0086.21.6464.2653 alywang@snec.org.cn


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