DEN HAAG INTERNATIONAL CITY OF MUSIC IN THE 18th CENTURY − A MUSICAL WALKING TOUR –
Welcome to the Walking Tour! The Hague – International City of Music in the 18th Century During the reigns of Stadholders William IV and V, Princes of Orange, The Hague was an exciting, cosmopolitan court city with its own court orchestra, numerous opera houses, countless public concert series, internationally influential music publishers and a whole row of superstar musical visitors including Mozart, Abel, J.C. Bach, Beethoven and Dussek. The Hague's court orchestra was manned by internationally celebrated composer/musicians including the court music director Graaf, cellist Zappa en violist C. Stamitz. Together they developed a highly cosmopolitan symphonic style – The Hague symphonic school – music which was published and performed throughout the whole of Europe. The New Dutch Academy's research has resulted in the rediscovery, performance and recording of The Hague's symphonic heritage. In 2009, conductor Simon Murphy and the New Dutch Academy (NDA) made the very first CD recording documenting The Hague's 18th century symphonic school, in partnership with Dutch premium label PentaTone. This world première recording introduced works by composers active at The Hague's court of Orange including music director Graaf, concertmaster Schwindl, violin/viola virtuoso C. Stamitz and cellist F. Zappa. This rediscovered Dutch musical heritage was enthusiastically received by the Dutch and international music press. Now, incorporating the results of more than a decade of scholarly and archival research as well as musical exploration, this new musical walking
tour makes this valuable Dutch musical heritage completely accessible to the general public for the very first time. The walking tour takes you to The Hague's court and public concert locations, to the theatres and opera houses, and along the streets where the composers, musicians and music publishers lived and worked. The route marked on the 18th century map (Langeweg, 1747, from the city archives) starts at the house of the court music director Graaf on the Prinsegracht and ends up at The Hague's Historical Museum where further information on the topic is available at the museum shop including the NDA's world première CD recording of “Symphonies from The Hague's court of Orange in the 18th century”. This disc (Pentatone Classics PTC 5186 365) is also available via www.pentatonemusic.com, through www.amazon.com or on iTunes. More information on the NDA is available on the orchestra's site www.newdutchacademy.nl and more information on conductor Simon Murphy here www.simonmurphyconductor.com. We hope that you will thoroughly enjoy exploring the rich musical heritage of the city of The Hague on this walking tour and will find the experience invigorating and inspiring! Before starting the tour, we would like to offer some context to help non-Dutch people gain an understanding of the rather unique Dutch political system, as relevant to the musical situation in the 18th century. This information aims to help clarify two important terms for the tour: stadholder and States-General. In the 18th century, the Netherlands was a republic, the United States or the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Already in the 13th century, the Counts of Holland had their seat in The Hague. By the 18th century,
representatives of the seven states or provinces of the Netherlands came together in The Hague as the States-General and appointed a stadholder as the head of the confederation of the United Provinces. Gradually, the House of Orange became a strong, leading and constant factor in this process. Fuelled by the prestige and honour earned by Stadholder William I of Orange, a.k.a. William the Silent (1533 – 1584), in his role in establishing the Netherlands' independence from Spain in the period of the start of the Eighty Years' War, House of Orange stadholders became (as of 1747) erfstadhouders or hereditary stadholders. The whole Dutch political construction is quite a unique one – hence the lack of a real translation of stadholder (stadhouder in Dutch). The position of stadholder was more a function or role than a title, and, even when it became hereditary, it was still one which was bestowed (or perhaps even, to use a favourite word of the Dutch, tolerated) by the States-General. In 1813, after the period of French occupation (1795 – 1813), the Netherlands became a Kingdom, with the House of Orange as the designated royal family. As a Kingdom, and still now today, the structure remains one which has the feeling of a fiercely independent, individualistic, democratic republic, with a monarchy on top/on the side. It is a tribute to the individual members of the House of Orange (rather than to their “God given” right to rule) that they are, still, so loved by the people of the Netherlands. Simon Murphy and Cornelia Klugkist, The Hague, 2013
1. The house of Kapelmeester Graaf Across from the Hofje van Nieuwkoop, on the Prinsegracht Zuidzijde number 132, lived Christian Ernst Graaf (1723 – 1804). He was “Capelmeester van Sijn Hoogheid” or hofkapelmeester (court music director). He originally came from Rudolstadt, Thüringen where his father was also a Hofkapellmeister. As hofkapelmeester in The Hague, Graaf was responsible for overseeing all the musical activities at court. His many tasks included composing, leading the orchestral rehearsals and performances, and programming the concerts and the appearances of guest soloists. He played first violin in the court orchestra and also in the court's many chamber music activities. He was an internationally celebrated composer and his oeuvre includes symphonic, vocal and chamber music. His works were published by, amongst others, the internationally renowned The Hague music publisher Hummel and distributed and performed throughout Europe. Graaf also made musical settings of La Fontaine's fables and of Dutch children's poems by Hieronymus van Alphen. On both professional and personal levels, Graaf became completely integrated into Dutch society. However, his position at court didn't necessarily mean that he was rich. Making an appeal to the court for a salary increase was, of course, always a possibility. In around 1765 Graaf was feeling the pinch and he sent a rousing poem to the then regent, the Duke of Brunswick (Brunswijk/Braunschweig), in German, the native language of both Graaf and the Duke. In the poem, Graaf describes his
situation, explaining that his yearly court stipend of 250 guilders barely covers his rent and is therefore completely insufficient to live on. “...Lass mein Demuts-Schrift ein milder Auge finden; Wirf einen Gnadeblick auf dies mein Klage-Lied;... Mich liess ein Fürstlich Wort hierher aus Inland kommen; Mein Glück ist hier nicht mehr; dort ist mein Wohl entnommen; ...Zweyhundert fünfzig Gulden, die nimmt mein Haus Herr weg; wo bleiben Kost und Schulden? Ach. Lege jährlich doch nur noch ein weinig beij....” A year later in 1766, when William V (1748 – 1806) came of age and became stadholder, Graaf was appointed “compositeur et directeur d'orchestre” with a yearly salary of 1,000 guilders (four times his previous salary), which he then continued to receive up until his retirement in 1790. In 1790, Graaf was succeeded by the well known violinist and music master, Jean Malherbe, who was active at the French Comedy in The Hague. Graaf died in 1804 and was buried in the Grote Kerk. The house now at number 132 was built after Graaf's lifetime. However, the house next door on the right is (largely) original. 2. The Dutch/German Opera and Theater The Nederduitse Opera en Theater (Dutch/German Opera and Theatre) in the Assendelftstraat close to the Westeinde (West End), was one of The Hague's many opera locations in the 18th century. A highly enterprising theatre maker, Martin Corver, founded this theatre in 1766. From 1773
onwards, he also rented it out to travelling opera companies, including a number of German ones. There were musical theatre and plays offered in Dutch and German including translated French and Italian comedies and German Singspiele. The stadholder and his family visited this theatre from time to time. It was also partly supported by the stadholder but to a considerably lesser extent than the French Comedy (see walking tour number 10). Unfortunately, the theatre was torn down in the 19th century. 3. Grote Kerk Just as the other older court musicians, kapelmeester Graaf received pension payments up until his death in 1804 from the stadholder's domain. Interestingly, pensions continued to be paid out to the relevant retired court musicians during the period of French occupation (1795 – 1813). Graaf was buried in the Grote Kerk. There is no headstone. The oldest remnants of the Grote Kerk (or Sint-Jacobskerk) date from the 13th century. A relatively large tower was built between 1420 and 1424. As is the case with so many Gothic churches, this church was also built in many stages. An important building phase was between 1434 and 1455 when the church was broadened into a hallenkerk. A well known organist and carillonist of the Grote Kerk was Johannes Albertus Groneman (c. 1710 – 1778) who was also the artistic director of Het Nieuw Vauxhall, The Hague's version of the London Pleasure Gardens. These were located on the “Zeestraat, op de weg naar Scheveningen aan deze zijde van 't Tolhek” (on the Zeestraat, on the way to Scheveningen, on
this side of the toll gate). Here, in the summertime, audiences were treated to concerts, operas, pantomime, theatre, spectacles, fireworks and more. 4. Grote Markt On the first floor of the municipal building the Boterwaag (weigh house), the Confrèrie Ste Cécilia – one of The Hague's most important 18th century amateur music societies – practised and performed. The Hague's magistrates gave this space to the society for free, to use for their musical activities. The building was later part of the conservatorium and is still in musical use as an apartment complex for conservatorium students. 5. The house of court cellist Francesco Zappa In the small streets in the centre of town, such as Vlamingstraat, Spuistraat and Achterom there was considerable industry. The internationally renowned music publisher Hummel had his shop there and many musicians lived in the neighbourhood. Court cellist Francesco Zappa (1717 – 1803) lived in the Papestraat, which is still most picturesque today. Zappa was a virtuoso cellist of the generation of Boccherini, Filtz, Schetsky and Klein. He was celebrated throughout Europe for his fine and highly polished playing and, according to a German review, “erweckte durch seinen sanften und schönen Ton die Bewunderung der Zuhörer” (awoke the admiration of his audience with his beautiful, mellow sound). In his compositions – even in his symphonies – he often gives the cello a solo role, in a most innovative fashion. Zappa's musical style is
cosmopolitan, elegant and refined, and his oeuvre contains symphonies, chamber music and Lieder, much of which was published in The Hague by Hummel. Originally from the Milan area, Zappa came to the Netherlands in 1764. Zappa is listed as a musicien particulier (i.e. freelancer) on the list of payments of The Hague's court orchestra between 1766 and 1768. He also played in the very last court concert in 1794. In the years between, he is most active as an international soloist and is regularly on tour throughout Europe, but The Hague remains his base. On the 1st of August 1791, Zappa was granted a permanent residence permit. He is then residing in the Papestraat. He died on 17 January 1803, aged 85, in his later residence on the Turfmarkt (now the location of the modern town hall). He had no next of kin. The city took care of his funeral and burial. Through the NDA's research efforts, a number of important works by Zappa have been brought to light. Simon Murphy and the NDA have given these works first modern-day performances, first modern editions as well as first CD recordings, including Zappa's “Cello Symphony”. Up until now unknown facts and biographical information concerning Zappa were uncovered in the city's historical archives. 6. Noordeinde Palace Stadholder Frederik Hendrik (1584 – 1647) had the Oude Hof (Old Court) on the Noordeinde (North End) remodelled and expanded. He also had the palace gardens laid. In the second stadholder-less period of 1702 – 1747, the building fell into disuse and became an object in all sorts of inheritance
battles. Princess Anna van Hannover (or Anna of England) (1709 – 1759), the wife of Stadholder William IV (1711 – 1751), got the building back and had it restored. It was put to use as a guest, feast and concert location during the reigns of William IV and William V (1748 – 1795/1806), especially for larger groups. It was here that the larger scale concerts, dinners, feasts and balls were held, for invitees including ambassadors and foreign guests. In the winter time, the court orchestra gave its regular concert series here, the Zondagsconcerten (Sunday Concerts), which formed one of the highlights of The Hague's cultural season. Foreign musical celebrities were a particularly popular aspect of the series' programming. The series saw such luminaries as Carl Friedrich Abel (1723 – 1787) and Johann Christian Bach (1735 – 1782) appear in concert, and saw exciting musical interaction take place between the international guests and the musicians who regularly performed at the court including hofkapelmeester Graaf, Ricci, C. Stamitz, Zappa en concertmaster Schwindl. Friedrich Schwindl (1737 – 1786) composed in the style of the Mannheimer Schule. He wrote symphonies, chamber music, oratorios and opera, and his musical activities brought him to important musical centres in Germany and Switzerland. He spent a considerable time in The Hague where he had his symphonies published by Hummel in around 1765. Famous foreign soloists were guests at the court variously for a shorter or longer time, sometimes giving a couple of concerts or a great many. The later was certainly the case for Mannheim superstar composer Franz Xaver
Richter (1709 – 1789) who during a stay of three months in 1758, as a kind of artist in residence, gave 18 concerts (!) at the court. The programming of the court's symphonic concerts was full of variety. The programmes presented (often freshly composed) works by the musicians active at the court – Graaf, Zappa, Schwindl, Zingoni, Spangenberg, C. Stamitz, Ricci, Colizzi, Spandau, etc. – plus works by touring/featured soloists/composers such as Abel, J.C. Bach, Wendling, Mozart en Dussek. Featured alongside these works were compositions by other contemporaries. Zappa, for example, supplied the court with a number of Haydn symphonies. 7. Kneuterdijk Palace By the order of Johan Hendrik, Count of Wassenaer – Obdam, the construction of the Palace on the Kneuterdijk commenced in 1716 with the building based on sketches by the French Huguenot architect Daniël Marot (1661 – 1752). Johan Hendrik's brother, the diplomat, statesman and composer Count Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer, whose Concerti Armonici were for a long time attributed to Pergolesi, inherited the palace in 1745. In the 19th century, King William I (the son of Stadholder William V) bought the palace from the van Wassenaer family and had large parts of it rebuilt in the neoclassical style. The empire style Ballroom, for example, dates from this period. King William II resided there with pleasure and had the (neo)Gothic Hall built as a gallery for his art collection and as a location for official ceremonies and in which to receive guests.
Today, the buildings house the Dutch Council of State. The New Dutch Academy regularly gives concerts in both the Ballroom and the Gothic Hall. In front of the palace, further down on the Lange Voorhout there are more important musical locations. On the right hand, at number 7, was the residence of a famous music patron, Count Willem Bentinck. He was a friend of the composer Unico van Wassenaer and was instrumental in having Van Wassenaer's 6 Concerti Armonici published. These works were published in 1740 and were dedicated to him. In 1747, Bentinck offered the use of his house to Stadholder William IV, while the stadholder's residence in the Binnenhof was being renovated and made ready. The house dates from the mid 16th century, but from this time only the faรงade (remodelled in the 18th century) and stairwell remain. On the left, further along, at number 28, was the location, between 1719 and 1732, of another opera house, an opera comique. The 18th century building there now was built just a little later and is the residence of the Swedish ambassador. 8. Buitenhof On the left hand side of the entrance to the (19th century) Passage, there was a kaatsbaan (real tennis court) and a manege (riding hall), which were used as early theatres and opera houses. Theatre and music groups used these spaces in the later 17th and earlier 18th centuries, particularly during The Hague's annual May fair. Both of these building were torn down in the 18th century, whilst in the Casuariestraat a kaatsbaan was converted to a
permanent theatre, the French Comedy, with the architectural assistance of DaniĂŤl Marot (see walking tour number 10). Next to the Gevangenpoort (Prison Gate) is the Galerij Willem V. This was the first public museum in the Netherlands, housing and displaying some of Stadholder William V's art collection. William had it built in 1774 and the gallery still exists today in more or less the same form, including the picture hanging style of the time (floor to ceiling with a great variety of subject matter). Most of the paintings are there still/again: Italian and Flemish works as well as many paintings from the Dutch golden age. Paulus Potter's The Bull remains in the Mauritshuis. 9. Binnenhof In the 13th century, the Counts of Holland made the Binnenhof in The Hague their seat. From the 16th century onwards, when more States joined into forming the then United Northern Provinces, the Binnenhof gained even more significance and importance as a government centre. Stadholder William I of Orange (William the Silent) came here on occasion, however his residence in Holland was the Prinsenhof in Delft. His son and successor Prince Maurits made the Binnenhof his official residence after being installed as stadholder in 1585. The Binnenhof thereby became the official and actual residence of the stadholder, but interestingly one that was not owned by the stadholder himself (or the House of Orange), but one which was made available to him (in his role as stadholder) by the States-General.
The oldest residential area is along the water. Maurits had the corner tower built (Mauritstoren) and the wing along the Buitenhof was added a little later. Maurits' successor Prince Frederik Hendrik and his wife Amalia van Solms created a court with considerably more allure than those of their predecessors. During their reign and the reigns of their 17th century successors, Stadholders William II and III, there was expansion and beautification of the Binnenhof complex. During the stadhouder-less period of 1702 – 1747, the Binnenhof buildings fell into disrepair. With the appointment of William IV, the buildings needed to be again substantially renovated. William V conducted a grand court life which demanded more space. The Ballroom, (later used as the Dutch parliament's Tweede Kamer) was added, with building works beginning in 1776. The States-General had their meeting hall in the Binnenhof, and, as outlined above, they were and stayed the owners of the whole Binnenhof complex. The stadholders had private palaces elsewhere in The Hague (Noordeinde Palace, Huis ten Bosch). When they resided where was their own choice, but in practice the Stadhouderlijk Kwartier (stadhouder's residential area in the Binnenhof) was indeed the central point in the second half of the 18th century. The Groote Saal (Great Hall), now referred to as the Ridderzaal (Knights' Hall), is the oldest building in the Binnenhof complex. In the 18th century, the building was used for the sale of books, music and for auctions. It was a sort of upmarket, market hall. In the Stadhouderlijke Appartementen (stadholder's appartments) – located between the Ballroom and what is now the Eerste Kamer – smaller,
intimate concerts were given, in which the members of stadholder's family often played an active musical role. Intimate chamber concerts featuring guests and/or foreign virtuosi were also held here. And, it was here, in 1783, that a young Beethoven gave a recital on the pianoforte together with The Hague court violist Carl Stamitz and some of the other court musicians. Carl Stamitz (1745 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1801) was a composer, violinist and (star) violist. He was the son of the famous Mannheimer Johann Stamitz, one of the founders of the symphony and the symphony orchestra. Together with his father, he was an important source of inspiration for composers including Mozart and Beethoven. Carl Stamitz grew up in Mannheim amongst the members of the then already legendary Mannheimer Schule. Soon, he himself also became renowned throughout Europe. His compositions were most popular and he travelled throughout Europe working as a soloist and concertmaster. Before he arrived in The Hague, his music was already popular in the Netherlands. Many of his symphonies and much of his chamber music was published here. During his time in The Hague, Stamitz gave dozens of concerts including in the Binnenhof, the Oranie Saal (Orange Hall, in the summer residence of Huis ten Bosch), the French Comedy and the Schuttersdoelen (now The Hague's Historical Museum).
10. The Schouwburg, a city palace and the French Comedy On the way to the next stop on the walking tour, we pass the Mauritshuis, built in the 17th century by Johan Maurits van Nassau with money earned in Brazil. Via the Lange Houtstraat, we arrive on the Korte Voorhout. On the right is the Schouwburg. By architect Pieter de Swart (1709 – 1772), it was built from 1766 to 1773 as a palace for Princess Caroline (1743 – 1787), the musically talented sister of William V. In her palace, there was much music made, amongst others by the young Mozart who she had invited to come to The Hague. Whilst here, Mozart composed for her, played for her, and accompanied her singing. Mozart wrote the aria Conservati Fedele for her, amongst other works. The French had another use for this building. In 1804 it was transformed into a theatre and opera house and in 1806 it was given the title of “Royal” by the French king, Lodewijk Napoleon, making it the Koninklijke Schouwburg as it is still know today. Until 1919, the theatre still regularly presented French theatre (also opera and ballet), as well as Dutch theatre. This palace survived the bombing of the Bezuidenhout at the end of the Second World War, whilst many buildings around it – of considerable beauty as well as of cultural and historical importance – unfortunately didn't.
The city palace of Lopes de Liz To the left of the Schouwburg, where now the Ministry of Finance is located, there was a splendid and large house owned by a major patron of the arts and donor to the opera comique, the Portuguese ambassador Jacob Lopes de Liz. In the first half of the 18th century, he supported diverse initiatives in The Hague aimed at achieving an independent opera comique, however when it appeared that this was going to be too slow a path, for example due to city restrictions, permits and red tape, he established a concert hall/theatre in his own rather substantial house. The house also had spacious gardens which, in the summertime, were often included in the performances. Lopes de Liz created a private musical establishment on a grand scale. His own house orchestra was comprised of well known musicians and from 1740 on was led by Jean Marie LeClair l'ainĂŠ (1697 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1764). The concerts were an important part of the city's cultural and social calendar. From 1734 to 1742 Lopes de Liz enriched the city's cultural life in a spectacular fashion. Unfortunately it ended in bankruptcy and Lopes de Liz leaving the country. The house and contents (art collection, books and music) were auctioned off. At the beginning of the 20th century, the palace was in use by the Queen's Commissioner to South Holland. It was destroyed in the bombings of the area at the end of the Second World War.
French Opera or French Comedy By far the most important opera theatre in The Hague in the 18th century was the French Comedy, located on the corner of the Casuariestraat (now the parking garage of the Ministry of Finance). As was the case with many of the other theatres in The Hague, the Casuariestraat theatre was originally built as a kaatsbaan (real tennis court). This brick building dated from 1628. The opera/theatre company known as the Franse Comedie first used the Manege (riding hall) on the Buitenhof for its performances (see walking tour number 8). In 1702, the company moved to the building in the Casuariestraat, which was then definitively transformed into a theatre in 1709. The architect DaniĂŤl Marot probably had a hand in the design, decoration, outfitting and furnishings of the theatre. The theatre had between 450 and 500 seats, which were divided into about 10 price classes. The building was used throughout the whole of the 18th century by the French Comedy company. In 1804 they moved to the then new (Koninklijke) Schouwburg. In the 18th century, the Casuariestraat was just as narrow as it is now. The opera was extremely popular, thus causing traffic chaos. In 1755, Princess Anna took the initiative to solve this problem, and had the street designated one way, with no parking allowed for coaches. With the French language being the international (European) language of the time (much like English is now), the French Comedy in the Casuariestraat functioned highly successfully for more than a century (1702 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1804) as a public theatre and production house. It was, without
question, the most important location of opera and music theatre in the city. Above all, the French Comedy carried the title of court theatre from 1749 which meant it could count on support from the court in the form of a yearly contribution. As well as purchasing a group subscription for the theatre's annual programming, the court bought its own tickets to special performances, for instance benefit concerts. With members of the stadholder's family attending performances at least once or twice a week, the theatre was further assured that The Hague's elite would also display great interest in its productions, alongside the attendance of foreign visitors, for example Casanova. There were also, however, cheaper seats and the theatre's general audience was broad. Music and theatre were not separated mediums in the 18th century, and, alongside its own company of singers and actors, the French Comedy also had its own salaried orchestra with permanent members. Jean Malherbe had a leading role here as concertmaster, and worked with the company for a long time. Later, he became Graaf's successor as hofkapelmeester. 11. The Oude Doelen The Oude Doelen or St Jorisdoelen, Toernooiveld 5, was one of the main public concert locations in The Hague in the 18th century. The building was used by the St Jorisgilde (Guild of St George), founded in 1397. The building still exists, as a bank office. The tower dates from 1600 and is part of the older building. There is a plaque from 1625. The faรงade dating from 1774 is authentic. During their time in The Hague (1765/66), the entrepreneurial Mozart family put on concerts here aimed at generating income.
There is much written about the travels of the Mozart family, in the first place by Leopold Mozart himself. A tour throughout Europe was a fantastic way to make the Wunderkinder Wolfgang and Nannerl even more famous, and to earn money. That worked well. Father Leopold had a keen business sense and the European courts had great interest in famous musicians. During their stay in London, the Dutch ambassador went out of his way to convince the Mozarts to visit The Hague. They were specifically invited by Princess Caroline, the sister of the stadholder to be, William V. A solid payment was promised and then father Mozart declared that one could never deny a pregnant woman (Princess Caroline) her want. Coming on the barge from Rotterdam, the Mozarts arrived in The Hague in September 1765. It pleased them well. They were well received and rewarded with a princely sum. They were immediately invited to appear at court, by William V and in the palace of Princess Caroline. They played there repeated, both privately and publicly. Wolfgang wrote a number of works in The Hague including soprano arias for Princess Caroline and his 5th symphony, KV 22 “The Hague”. The Mozarts were present during the celebrations surrounding the 18th birthday of Prince William V and his installation (on 8 March 1766) as stadholder. They contributed to the festivities with new compositions. Wolfgang composed a pot pourri on various melodies, the “Galimathias Musicum”, and he wrote a number of keyboard variations, which The Hague music publisher Hummel immediately published, together with festive variations on patriotic songs by hofkapelmeester Graaf.
12. The Schuttersdoelen The Schuttersdoelen or Nieuwe Doelen or St Sebastiaansdoelen, on the corner of the Toernooiveld and Korte Vijverberg, now The Hague's Historical Museum, was the most accessible public concert location of the time. As is indicated on the building's façade, the first stone was laid in 1636 by Willem II, the son of Frederik Hendrik. The St Sebastiaansgilde of civic guards (Guild of St Sebastian), founded in 1443, held its meetings here. The building was also used for public concerts, other performances and auctions. Enterprising musicians put on public concerts here, just as in the St Jorisdoelen, including hofkapelmeester Graaf, who often helped with the practical organisation and musical accompaniment of travelling soloists. The music director of the French Comedy, Jean Malherbe, also played an important role here. The stadholder's family often bought a number of tickets and visited the concerts, and of course the Haagse elite came also. It was clearly a good business model and an important (extra) source of income for the musicians, particularly the renowned ones. Alongside the usual suspects such as Graaf, Zappa, Schwindl, Zingoni etc., the following international music figures performed here: The important composer and most famous viola da gamba of his generation, Carl Friedrich Abel (1723 – 1787), mentor of Mozart and himself star student of Johann Sebastian Bach, Johann Christian Bach (1735 – 1782), celebrity composer and keyboardist, and who in his time was considerably more famous than his
father Johann Sebastian, and Carl Stamitz (1746 – 1801), famous symphonic composer from Mannheim, violin and viola virtuoso, son of the great Johann Stamitz – founder of the symphony. Unfortunately, there are almost no concert programmes extant. From advertisements, one can glean that the musicians mostly performed quite diverse types of music. It seems that variety and contrast were critical factors in drawing an audience: famous performers, a couple of symphonies, some arias, unusual and spectacular instruments etc. etc.
Afterthoughts On the position of musicians in The Hague in the 18th century When one goes through the various historical sources, materials and descriptions, a number of quite fascinating and most personal themes present themselves: Just as is the case nowadays, musicians generally earned their incomes in an actively enterprising manner and concurrently from a number of different sources: through performing as much as possible, giving lessons, and through the sale of their own compositions. A permanent position with one of The Hague's two largest musical employers – the hofkapel (or court orchestra) and the French Comedy/Opera – produced a modest yearly stipend, but one not entirely sufficient to live off on its own. Alongside this base-salary, the court and opera musicians received regular financial gratifications for special
performances, for example the accompaniment of a visiting soloist and for private concerts, feasts, balls and parties. Each court musician was paid extra for each performance – those with a permanent appointment the least, the highly valued (foreign/visiting) guest soloists the most. In general, the court looked after its musicians rather well, with most of the court musicians staying at their post for many years, with some also fulfilling supplementary duties such as copyist or music librarian. The permanent court musicians received a retirement package with superannuation which continued to be paid out during the period of French occupation (1795 – 1813). As has been said, The Hague's 18th century musicians were generally full of initiative and regularly organised their own (one-off) concerts in the public concert halls, mostly with individual ticket sales (rather than in lots as part of subscription series). These concerts were announced through advertisements in the newspapers and through (bill)posters. The enterprising musicians sold concert tickets both from their homes and at the hall, as demonstrated by kapelmeester Graaf and, during his time here, Leopold Mozart. Many of The Hague's musicians also had a flourishing teaching career. Not only the stadhouder's family, but also the aristocracy as well as The Hague's well-to-do bourgeoisie liked to their children to have music instruction. It was an essential part of a good upbringing. Musical instrument builders were also an important part of the scene. Perhaps the best known was Johannes Theodorus Cuypers (1724 – 1808), a.k.a. “The Dutch Stradivarius”. He first lived and worked in the Lang
Achterom and in the Spuistraat, subsequently bought a house/studio in the Gortstraat, and lived later in De Laan. Another type of cultural enterprise was music publishing. The Hague's Hummel and Spangenberg families were particularly successful in this area. Their activities bring a number of rather nice Dutch/The Hague cultural elements together: freedom of the press, the availability of fine musical compositions, high quality printing techniques and materials, and the presence of skilled engravers. The Hummel brothers – Johann Julius Hummel (1728 – 1798) and his younger brother Burchard (1731 – 1797) – became leading European music publishers with offices in The Hague, Amsterdam and Berlin. They are responsible for beautifully presented first publications and exerted major influence on the musical tastes of 18th century Europe and, subsequently, on music history. That all said, one gets the impression that 18th century musicians weren't really rich. However, the musicians who stayed in The Hague and made the city their home must have been reasonably satisfied with their lives here. Many migrated from Germany and Bohemia. Once settled in The Hague, they married Dutch women and learnt French (then the international language) as well as Dutch. Most of the musicians didn't have the financial means to buy a house. Instead they rented, mostly in the narrow streets in the centre of town or in the neighbourhood around the French Comedy.
Final stop on the Tour: The Historical Museum of The Hague There were of course more locations of musical importance in The Hague in the 18th century. They are not included in this tour because they either lie too far away from the chosen walking tour route, such as the summer palace Huis ten Bosch and the Pleasure Gardens Het Nieuw Vauxhall, or because there is nothing left of them to see, such as the two hotels of the Mozarts or the last residential address of Zappa. In the Museum Shop of The Hague's Historical Museum, the following relevant items are available: −
Simon Murphy and The New Dutch Academy's world première CD recording “Symphonies from the 18th Century Court of Orange in The Hague” (Pentatone Classics PTC 5186 365)
historic map and text of this walking tour The Hague – International City of Music in the 18th Century in booklet form
− maps and reproductions of paintings of historic The Hague
More Information The Walking Tour “The Hague – International City of Music in the 18th Century” can be downloaded as an App via the website of The New Dutch Academy. www.newdutchacademy.nl Via the website of the Historical Music of The Hague you can request a version of this walking tour for a group with a personal guide. www.haagshistorischmuseum.nl And with the historic map and booklet (available for download via the NDA's website and in print in the Historical Museum's Shop) the tour can also be made completely non-digitally. The NDA website also has more information on The Hague's musical life in the 18th century, for example this article on Francesco Zappa: Simon Murphy and Cornelia Klugkist – ZAPPA IN THE NETHERLANDS, New Discoveries on the life of Francesco Zappa (1717 – 1803), Cellist and Composer at the 18th Century Court of Orange in The Hague, 2013.
Music Research into the music of the mid-18th century has been carried out by, amongst others, conductor Simon Murphy – in particular, in relation to the establishment and emergence of the German and Dutch symphonic traditions. Murphy's work in this area has resulted in 2 CDs exploring the foundations of the symphony orchestra at the court at Mannheim featuring a selection of pioneering early symphonies by central Mannheimer Schule composers Stamitz and Richter. Another of Murphy's world première CDs presents the early symphonies of Joseph Schmitt, “The Dutch Haydn”, a key figure in the Netherlands' 18th century music life and the founding conductor of the “Felix Meritis” in Amsterdam. Relating to the musical history of The Hague, Murphy´s world première CD documenting the symphony at The Hague's 18th century Court of Orange is of great importance. The CD presents The Hague's 18th century symphonic school for the first time, with music by hofkapelmeester Graaf, court cellist Francesco Zappa, concertmaster Friedrich Schwindl and court violist Carl Stamitz. The recordings mentioned are all available on the Dutch premium label Pentatone (www.pentatonemusic.com). Simon Murphy and The New Dutch Academy's world première CD recording of “Symphonies from the 18th Century Court of Orange in The Hague” Pentatone Classics PTC 5186 365 Other 18th century symphonies by Joseph Schmitt “The Dutch Haydn” PentaTone Classics PTC 5186 039
Main Literature and Sources There is, in fact, not a huge amount written about The Hague's music life in the second half of the 18th century. This is somewhat surprising given that, upon further study, one can determine that the city was musically active on an international level. Three previous researchers have carried out pioneering work in this area: Scheurleer (1909), De Smet (1973) and Lieffering (1999). All three performed important archival research. With his results, Scheurleer put together a nice story with many pointers to areas of musical interest. De Smet combed the Royal House Archives in highly conscientious fashion and, along with information which she found elsewhere, made a meticulous list of all of the musically relevant archival entries. Lieffering turned the results of his substantial further research into a full and vibrant picture of The Hague's 18th century cultural life, in particular in relation to theatre. Given that, in the 18th century, music and theatre (i.e. plays) were not separated mediums, his work is also highly important for music history. D.J. Balfoort â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Het muziekleven in Nederland in de 17de en 18de eeuw. Den Haag, 1981. D.J. Balfoort â&#x20AC;&#x201C; De Hollandsche vioolmakers. Amsterdam, 1931. C. Burney â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The present State of Music in Germany, the Netherlands and United Provinces, 1773. (There are various Dutch translations including Muzikale reizen. Kroniek van het Europese muziekleven in de 18e eeuw.)
B.J. Donker – Haagse theaters toen en nu. Den Haag, 1999. J. Doove – De Haagse periode van Johan Colizzi. In: Mens en Melodie, Utrecht, 1975, 30e jaargang, p.151 – 154. A.J. Koogje – Le Théâtre français de La Haye, 1789-1795, Thesis, Utrecht, 1987. E.F. Kossmann – De boekhandel te 's-Gravenhage tot het eind van de 18de eeuw: biographisch woordenboek van boekverkopers, uitgevers ,... 'sGravenhage, 1937. A. Lieffering – De Franse Comedie in Den Haag: 1749 – 1793: opera, toneel en het stadhouderlijk hof in de Haagse stedelijke cultuur. Thesis, Universiteit Utrecht, 1999. English translation: The French Comedy in The Hague 1749 – 1793: opera, drama and the stadholder court in The Hague urban culture. Koninklijke Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis. Muziekhistorische Monografieën, 19. Utrecht, 2007. A. Lieffering, E. Ebbers – Database ´Eighteenth-Century Music and theatre advertisements from the ´s-Gravenhaagsche Courant and Gazette de La Haye.´ (1999) Data Archiving and Networked Services (2010) (www.dans.knaw.nl) W. Lievense – Beroemde musici aan het hof van de stadhouders Willem IV en Willem V. Buren, 1985. H. Metzelaar – ´Mon Cher Ami´ A New Source on Francesco Pasquale Ricci (1732 – 1817), His Music Career and His Dutch Pupils, in:
Tijdschrift van de Koninklijke Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis, LX – 1 / 2, 2010, p. 91-124. R. Rasch – The Italian Presence in the Musical Life of the Dutch Republic, in: The eighteenth-century diaspora of Italian music and musicians, ed. R. Strohm, Turnhout, 2001, p.177-210. D.F. Scheurleer – Het muziekleven in Nederland in de tweede helft der 18e eeuw in verband met Mozarts verblijf aldaar. 's Gravenhage, 1909. D.F. Scheurleer – Haagsche zomerconcerten in de achttiende eeuw. In: Tijdschrift der Vereeniging voor Noord-Nederland's Muziekgeschiedenis, Band VII, 1904, p. 280 – 289. M. de Smet – La musique à la cour de Guillaume V, Prince d'Orange (1748 – 1806), d'après les archives de la Maison Royale des Pays-Bas. Utrecht, 1973. M. de Smet – La vie du Violoniste Jean Malherbe, Maître de Chapelle de S.A.S. Le Prince d'Orange et de Nassau, d'après ses letters inédites. Bruxelles, 1962. P. Wander – Haagse Huizen van Oranje, Catalogus van de expositie in Pulchri Studio 1981, Den Haag, Gemeente Archief. J. van der Zanden – Mozart in de Lage Landen. Leeuwarden, 2002. Gemeente archief Den Haag – Buurtboeken, Rechterlijk Archief, Notarieel Archief en verwijzingen uit ongepubliceerd onderzoek naar Francesco Zappa.
Toonkunst Collectie Amsterdam, Rijksarchief Utrecht (Collectie Evangelische Broedergemeenschap Zeist), and Gemeente Museum/Gemeente Archief/Nederlands Muziek Instituut (NMI) The Hague (Collecties Gemeente Museum, D.F. Scheurleer, Le Théâtre français de La Haye, W. Noske, etc.).
The Hague, 2013 Simon Murphy, Cornelia Klugkist
ÂŠ Simon Murphy, Cornelia Klugkist 2013