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Session Summaries

THINKING AHEAD, BUILDING TOGETHER

Organized by the

NEW CITIES FOUNDATION Paris 14-15-16 May

Table of contents

Defining Urbanites: how we became a city species and why it matters......................................... 6 Governing the Metropolis: new forms of governance for 21st century cities................................... 8 The Annotated City: digital storytelling in the urban age............................................................. 10 Citywalla: a look at urban India............................................................................................ 12 Portrait of an Urban World : facts, figures and the future............................................................ 14 Global Cities Investment Monitor........................................................................................... 16 Urban Innovation: Festival of Ideas for the New City................................................................. 17 Interactive session: Navigating the Meta-City........................................................................... 18 Securing Investments for the Urban Century: how do we pay for the urban boom?.......................... 20 Ciudades Latinas: urban Latin America................................................................................... 22 Hard and Software Cities.................................................................................................... 24 Urban Innovation: Waze..................................................................................................... 26 Urban Innovation: EkoBus.................................................................................................... 27 The Just City...................................................................................................................... 28 Greener Districts................................................................................................................. 30 City Dwellers on the Move: the future of urban transportation and mobility.................................... 32 AppMyCity! Presentations.................................................................................................... 34 A Glimpse into Future Cities..................................................................................................36 A Closer Look at Urban China: towards the urban billion........................................................... 38 Modern Urban Utopias: a conversation with the builders of new cities.......................................... 42 Capitalising Creativity......................................................................................................... 44 Gala Dinner Keynote Speech................................................................................................46 Partnering for Better Cities.................................................................................................... 48 Urban Innovation: Ciudad Saludable..................................................................................... 50 Urban Innovation: Isla Urbana.............................................................................................. 51 HydroCity: urban water....................................................................................................... 52 Greater Paris: reinventing the City of Light............................................................................... 54 City Shops: the future of urban retail in the digital age............................................................... 56 Call to Action: Thinking Ahead, Building Together.................................................................... 58

THINKING AHEAD, BUILDING TOGETHER For the first time in our history, we are a world of cities - and this is just the beginning. By 2050, the global urban population will reach 7 billion people, double the number living in cities today. We are only just starting to grasp the significance of this phenomenon. What is certain is that the scale and pace of global urbanization is unprecedented and its impact will be felt in all spheres of human life. This urban world comes with complex new environmental, economic and social challenges. It also represents a unique opportunity to build more sustainable, vibrant, innovative, and equitable communities, particularly in rapidlyurbanizing regions of the world.  The inaugural New Cities Summit, organized by the NEW CITIES

FOUNDATION, took place in Paris from 14-16 May 2012. The Summit aims to place the city at the heart of the global discussion. This event is new in both content and form. It mixes high-level conversations featuring some of the most recognized global urban thought leaders and decision makers -- mayors, CEOs and business leaders, academics, architects, technologists, media leaders and entrepreneurs -- with innovative demos and interactive thematic workshops. Workshop topics at this inaugural edition included: mobility, the creative and connected city, the just city, water, greener buildings, infrastructure finance, and regional sessions. China, India and Latin America as well as the Greater Paris region are particular focus areas. The Summit also highlighted the modern urban utopias and experimental cities that are a rich urban laboratory for future cities. The theme of the 2012 Summit was   Thinking Ahead, Building Together, reflecting the Foundation’s belief that understanding and contributing to our common urban future will require audacity, analysis and, above all, partnership. The Foundation, working closely with a rich and diverse ecosystem of members and partners, hopes that all participants at the Summit and those watching the sessions and reading the content online, are inspired and equipped to make positive change. Our best chance to build a better world is to build better cities together.

Click here to watch the highlights of the New Cities Summit 2012: http:// bit.ly/ Ki7Agn

Speakers Wim Elfrink Executive Vice President, Cisco

Ajit Gulabchand Chairman and Managing Director, Hindustan Construction Group

Gregor Robertson Mayor of Vancouver

Defining Urbanites: how we became a city species and why it matters

Geoffrey West Distinguished Professor and Past President, Santa Fe Institute

Opening Plenary Session, Monday 14 May, 09:50 - 11:00

Moderator Edwin Heathcote

Overview •

We have to deal with the swift urbanization of new cities,

Architecture and Design critic, Financial Times

and retro-fit old cities •

Cities are, and always have been, about the clustering of people

Digital solutions and technological innovations are undoubtedly speeding up our human interactions in cities and should be embraced in ways that contribute to inclusive growth

Setting the tone for the next three days of the Summit, the panelists engaged the crowd in their conversation about the future of our urban worlds from a variety of international perspectives. 6

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Geoffrey West introduced the stakes of

Wim Elfrink reflected on the

urbanization with a discussion about the science

unprecedented rate of change in relation to

of cities. Determining the science of cities is about

urbanization and technology. Technological

applying much of what we know about the natural

innovations and integrated virtual solutions, he

world to the organism of the city. The surprising

asserts, is becoming a new norm that should be

science behind the superlinear behavior of cities

embraced. Examples of the Korean aerotropolis

or, “the bigger, the more per capita,” revealed the

paradigm and Rio’s integrated operation center

need to innovate faster and faster to accommodate

reiterated the fact that the future of work and

the sustainable growth of the world’s cities.

clustering in cities will be, and is irrefutably becoming, digital. This change will take place

Mayor Robertson discussed various

quickly, as virtualization is fast and cities must

aspects of Vancouver’s citizens and their networks.

constantly reinvent themselves. Because of this,

Urban dwellers increasingly demand more from

cities must embrace ICT as an asset and see it as

cities than mere services - they demand “moments

a sustainable differentiator.

of inspiration.” The Mayor highlighted how Vancouver foresees their sustainable development framework as a win-win-win scenario for community, environment, and the city’s economy, and later alluded to the role of technology in steering us down a more sustainable path. Ajit Gulabchand contributed a critical perspective from the developing world, urging that the problems encountered by cities in India, for example, be included in the dialogue about how to build our cities. The relatively recent development of Mumbai and other Indian cities over the last two hundred years leaves Indian developers few models for governing and managing cities. Public-private partnerships were cited as the “the only way we can actually evolve.” Quoting Marx, Gulabchand explained that Lavasa functions as one attempt “to relieve Indian dwellers of their awkwardness and boredom.”

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Speakers Stephen Goldsmith Professor, Harvard Kennedy School; Former Mayor of Indianapolis

Patrick Le Galès Professor, SciencesPo Paris

Anil Menon President, Globalisation and Smart+Connected Communities, Cisco Systems

Governing the Metropolis: new forms of governance for 21st century cities

Anthony Williams Lecturer, Harvard Kennedy School; Former Mayor of Washington, DC

Monday 14 May, 11:45 - 01:00

Moderator Mathieu Lefevre

Overview •

To overcome the traditional ways of governing,

Executive Director, New Cities Foundation

encouraging participation of all the different stakeholders involved in the urban world •

To moderate the idea of transferring best practices and replicable ideas

To bring to attention the role of mayors and elected authorities to create and regulate the public realm where decision-making processes take place.

Patrick Le Galès introduced the discussion on traditional ideas that need to be moderated, concerning how the large metropolis can be governed. First, people are mobile and cities are 8

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changing rapidly, yet some urban structures are

idea that it might be interesting and enriching for

stable and evolve very slowly throughout time.

our cities to re-invent PPP processes because it

Governing is complex and having strong

does not always create the context for the right

institutions can help. However, the capacity to

innovation. He also stressed the fact that it’s

govern is about implementing the decisions made

becoming a main challenge for cities to keep their

by institutions through the decision-making process.

own identity. His last point brought to light the role

Who is implementing, for whom, and under which

of technology that can empower people and give

conditions are three crucial questions analysts

the capacities to disrupt old ways of making cities.

need to take into account for understanding how

Stephen Goldsmith pointed out the

the city is re-inventing itself. Le Galès brought

necessity to introduce incremental and more brutal

attention to the dangers of replicable best

changes in order to overcome traditional ways of

practices and the need of developing collective

governing and to avoid corruption and

action at the local level for better policy

indiscretion.

implementation and more transparency.

To do so, the ability to listen and

communicate with the civil society is essential to

Generalizing practices might be very debatable

anticipate issues and to find innovative solutions.

because territories have their own specificities.

Moreover, he emphasized the need to incorporate

Tony Williams highlighted the role of

a wide variety of stakeholders in the understanding

elected officials in developing and regulating

of governance.

interactions in the public realm, in creating trust, long-term perspectives and real-time solutions. ‘As a mayor, you have to come up with real solutions in deconstructing the reality and trying to disrupt classical ways of governing.’ Moreover, Williams insisted on the idea that creating a virtuous circle necessitates better management information, allowing the variety of stakeholders to have a better understanding of how a city is governed. The nature of governance is changing. Anil Menon believes that urban stakeholders are currently revitalizing the city without always changing the layers. Political conflicts linked to a wide variety of actors and approaches bring to the fore the role of mayors and elected officials as referees in the public realm. He concluded on the 9

Speakers Charlie Hale Public Policy and Government Affairs Lead, Maps and Research, Google

Jean-Louis Missika Deputy Mayor of Paris for Innovation

Alessandra Orofino Co-Founder, Meu Rio

The Annotated City: digital storytelling in the urban age Monday 14 May, 11:45 - 01:00

Moderator Steve Baker

Overview

Author of The Numerati

The annotated city allows us to communicate in different ways. Now that we have technology in our hands, we create stories about a city through the simple touch of a mobile device. However, this raises questions about what kind of information is going to be in our cities and who will make money off of this information. All panelists were in agreement that no one can predict the new annotations, so Charlie Hale proposed that open data can prove to be an answer. Open data improves civic governance, provides usefulness to consumers, and drives economic growth. The power of openness is very important, and Google recognizes that there is rich knowledge in the crowd of citizens. Therefore, opening yourself as a company, or a government, to this kind of openness 10

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will result in a multitude of innovations that cannot

Their free labor, in a way, helps companies like

be predicted. The crowd is now making our

Google, and city governments, like the City of

annotations, and there is an economic reason to

Paris, build powerful platforms. Meu Rio strives to

use this information, as well as civic hope.

make people aware of the power they have, to help people tell their own stories, and encourages

Jean-Louis Missika explained that if

citizens to curate their own information rather than

cities have been annotated for centuries, for

letting a few choose the data we use. The type of

example, through street signs or graffiti, the main

data also matters. While some data is given

difference is that today there is a mash-up of

freely, other critical pieces of information are not

information rather than a divide between

being released to people with the same ease.

information produced by the people and by

Because of this, people should demand the

government. Because of this, open data and

information that matters to them.

technology obliges city governments to interact with citizens, who are making tags online.

The discussion raised points to be thought of

However, a difficulty arises when you co-innovate

concerning the future of the annotated city. What

a city, as everyone in the city adopts the position

are the implications of this phenomenon on privacy

of “decision-maker”, rather than a select few.

issues? What infrastructure is needed to provide

Cities are now obliged to keep the old, but make

people with the tools for the annotated city, such

room for the new. However, making room for the

as free WiFi? Is access to information equal, or

new is not always welcome. For Missika, leading

are social inequalities further deepening? Overall,

the open data policy of Paris is not easy because

the role of data, and how governments, big

some leaders do not want to give away data

companies and citizens decide to handle its

freely, especially financial data. Because of this,

delicacy and transparency will affect the future of

Paris has started giving away geographical

how urban dwellers live in their city.

information first. Alessandra Orofino represented a critical perspective of the people, or “the new power.” Through Meu Rio, Orofino advocates for the voices of the people in Rio de Janeiro that are not being heard by encouraging their participation in the city. Part of the citizens’ fight in having their voice heard is fought in the realm of information. In this aspect, crowd-sourcing has changed the balance of power. Now, big companies and city governments are relying on people for their input. 11

Speakers Bharati Chaturvedi Founder and Director, Chintan

Manjeet Kripalani Executive Director, Gateway House

Annat Jain Managing Partner, Acropolis Capital Group

Citywalla: a look at urban India

V Ravichandar Co-Founder, City Connect Foundations in Bangalore, Chennai, and Pune

Monday 14 May, 11:45 - 01:00

Moderator

Overview

Pamela Puchalski

Urban governance is a key challenge facing India’s cities today. In dealing with the current and future challenges of urbanization, deeper collaboration and partnership between the

Senior Consultant, Bennett Midland; Advisor, Global Cities Initiative, The Brookings Institution

public sector, the private sector and all levels of civil society is acutely needed. Efforts must establish a framework of cooperation and a platform for sharing expertise and information across sectors. In order to respond more effectively to local needs, municipal governments should have greater autonomy and responsibility in shaping urban development policies, allowing for locally developed initiatives. The founding principles and models of successful projects, such as Chintan, must be identified and translated into other locally adapted programs, scaling the impact of new and innovative solutions to urban challenges.

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Manjeet Kriplani focused on the

and contributions must be recognized and valued

importance of innovation, and especially “low-

by the private and public sector in mitigating the

tech” innovation that is affordable, adaptable and

environmental waste and degradation that so often

appropriate, as a key driver of sustainable urban

accompanies rapid urban expansion.

development. Talent and innovation are aggregated in India’s cities, especially in socially diverse areas, where new products and processes contribute to a more efficient and livable urban environment. Based on his experience in developing partnerships between local industry and government institutions, V. Ravichandar highlighted the fact that local industry stakeholders have not been much engaged in productive “governance” conversations and the only way for key urban problems to be solved is through an effective platform for expertise sharing and exchange. Chennai City Connect has created a model which facilitates these types of interactions between the private sector and local government institutions. Coming from the perspective of private land developers, Annat Jain brought to light the ways in which development is hampered by a public sector which is highly over-regulated, badly administered and with lagging enforcement. He stressed the important role of private interests in the development of healthy urban centers, without which cities could hardly emerge. According to Bharati Chaturvedi, it is essential to meet the social and environmental challenges faced by urban India by incorporating the capabilities of the informal sector. Their needs 13

Speakers Ricky Burdett Director, LSE Cities and Urban Age

Greg Clark UK Minister for Decentralisation and Cities

Daniel Libeskind Architect, Studio Daniel Libeskind

Portrait of an Urban World: facts, figures, and the future

Hans Vestberg President and CEO, Ericsson

Plenary Session, Monday 14 May, 14:30 - 15:30

Moderator Richard Quest

Overview In a discussion led by Richard Quest, high profile speakers

International Correspondent, CNN

from diverse backgrounds commented on some of the central challenges faced by the urban world today. Panelists elicited what they saw as the most significant trends impacting urban development and what is needed in addressing these. Hans Vestberg described the increasingly networked society that has emerged from innovations in ICT and the widespread dispersion of these technologies. Not only has this had major impacts on social and economic structures globally but it may present solutions to pressing urban challenges, for example via digital healthcare and education.

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From the public policy perspective, Greg

people, they are not about buildings or

Clark advocated for increasingly decentralized

abstract façades. It is from the ground

governance structures that leave more room for

level that we have to think of the city –

local leadership and autonomy at the metropolitan

Libeskind

level.

Many success cases have been cities that

In discussing the challenges he has faced in

go back to the human side of the city,

bringing large architectural projects to completion,

rather than making space more

Daniel Libeskind focused on the need for

anonymous – Clark

collaboration between a wide range of actors. The greatest difficulty lies in creating consensus Financing issues

and bringing diverse stakeholders together around a vision. This will only happen when projects are

deeply rooted in the historical and cultural roots of

New combinations of innovative financing tools are needed for funding

a city.

urban projects.

Ricky Burdett refocused the conversation

around the realities facing a major number of city

We’re at a tipping point with great opportunities, but actors are more risk

dwellers today. With over 30% of the world’s

averse.

urban population living in slums without access to the most basic of services, the need for more socially inclusive political decision making

Decision making processes

processes is essential for sustainable urban governance systems.

Tension exists between different levels of government, as epitomized by a brief but

Following the opening statements of

intense discussion between the new

panelists, a discussion ensued focusing on key

Mayor of Liverpool and Mr. Clark.

themes: •

Connectivity and accessibility in transport infrastructure are of major concern.

Socio-cultural dynamics •

Collaborative action is needed to

Successful development must incorporate

empower people to participate in local

real human needs at a human scale.

initiatives.

“Without the cultural aspect of development, cities fail.” Cities are about 15

Global Cities Investment Monitor Monday 14 May, 15:30 - 15:45

Overview Based on the Global Cities Investment Monitor findings, a synopsis of international trends in urban investment demonstrates that “global cities” continue to be hubs of concentration for inward international investment, accounting for one in every five investments

Speaker Pierre Simon Chairman, Greater Paris Investment Agency

in 2011. In contrast to perceptions based on panel studies of the most important cities for investment, the top-ten cities were widely dispersed globally, including three Chinese cities in the top five investment hubs, and Sao Paulo and Moscow in the top ten. Investments are thus far from being polarized between the ‘West’ and ‘China’. International competition for finance has never been as intense, and it is in the world’s most globally connected cities that this competition takes place. The presentation concluded with a brief discussion of Paris as a strategic business center in Europe and its role in the world economy. There is a gap between common perceptions of Paris and the economic reality, being ranked first in Europe by GDP and third in the world in terms of Fortune 500 companies. Additionally, significant investments will be made in the Grand Paris project in the coming years. Finally, shifts in global investment patterns can be evidenced by the changes taking place in international investment in Paris. Investments from Asia now account for up to 25% of foreign investments in the city.

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Urban Innovation Festival of Ideas for the New City Monday 14 May, 15:45 - 16:00

Speakers Lisa Phillips Founding Director, Festival of Ideas for the New City

Karen Wong Co-director, Festival of Ideas for the New City

Overview The Festival of Ideas for the New City, held from May 4 to 8, 2011, is a collaborative action advocating cultural investment for better cities. The partnership aims to bring together eleven New York City Downtown cultural institutions with two hundred cultural, educational and community organizations. With the idea that cultural actors can be the most powerful agents of change, the groups bring together artists, architects, and urban planners. Three main components composed the Festival. A conference held by Rem Koolhaas took place the first day. Next, 115 vendors, who were local artists, designers and representatives from the Third Sector, animated the StreetFest, which presented exhibitions, performances and projects in more than one hundred cultural spaces. Seventy thousand people came to visit the Festival. The success of this event led to the organization of new versions of the Festival of Ideas to be held in Istanbul, in Sao Paulo, and in New York in May 2013.

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Speakers Gianluca Brugnoli Creative Director, frog

Rob McIntosh Creative Director, frog

Navigating the Meta-City Monday 14 May, 16:45 - 18:00

Overview Comprehensive data collection, construction, and sharing across sectors and disciplines are crucial to the realization of the meta city. This session explored the various layers of data that exist in the

Interactive session

city before embarking on an interactive exercise in informationsharing and data production. The city, it is argued through the metacity paradigm, is decoupling people from the computing experience and becoming the computer itself. The introduction of a public data infrastructure is creating comprehensive data across disciplines while maintaining a strong connection to urban folklore. Meta-cities, in essence, will be become an extension of our senses. The premise of the exercise was that smart cities connect smart people. The data stored in the meta-city is full of opportunities, meanings, and connections, which were explored through four 18

Video coming soon to the NEW CITIES FOUNDATION YouTube channel

database stations. These docking stations and their accompanying moderators facilitated idea-sharing among various experts and stakeholders around the topics of smart buildings, smart transactions, smart mobility, and smart sociality. At the end of the simulation, screens displayed the ideas and information collected and moderators briefed all participants on the aggregated outputs. It turned out that the definition of the word “smart� given by participants had to do primarily with outputs. Smart cities mean cities that give you back something of value in proportion to the data you put in or provide. Smart sociality was discussed in terms of its capacity to bridge the digital divide whereas smart buildings were conceptualized as linking building with technology. This new model created a valuable new interface with the inputs of pertinent and diverse actors that might not otherwise have collaborated at this level.

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Speakers Thomas H. Green Managing Director Head, Infrastructure Group, Citi

Lady Barbara Judge Chairman of the UK Pension Protection Fund

Li Dongming General Manager, China Development Bank Capital Urban Fund

Securing Investments for the Urban Century: how do we pay for the urban boom?

Christian Sautter Deputy Mayor of Paris for Economic Development

Moderator

Monday 14 May, 16:45 - 18:00

Ulysse Gosset Foreign Affairs Commentator, BFM TV

Overview •

National governments are not in the position to fund city infrastructure any longer, so cities must think of creative ways to finance their own projects.

The involvement of the private sector in a PPP may be a key option in the financing of new projects.

The Chinese context provides a different example due to its state-owned land tenure and its implications on spatial development.

Cities must work to carry out projects that attract foreign investment and capital, and enhance life for its citizens, such as greener districts. 20

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Lady Barbara Judge explained that

Such a complex land tenure system is

because governments do not have the money to

unsustainable for financing cities. Therefore, the

pay for their entire infrastructure projects, the

Fund aims to develop innovative financing tools

Pension Fund provides a means through which the

through the creation of joint ventures with local

UK administration can do so. Through this means,

governments and private actors.

there is less risk involved, investments are asset-

development of green districts and involvement of

backed, and the levy paid by the pensioner is a

foreign investors, they aim to attract quality capital

safe investment. Lady Judge hopes that once the

and to make the city vibrant by integrating industry

Fund becomes self-sufficient, it will attract foreign

with the well-being of the city.

investment and go international.

Through the

Christian Sautter stressed the importance

Thomas Green asserted that there are

of investment for a world city today. In Paris,

trillions of dollars in private capital ready to be

investments are poured into public transportation

invested into city infrastructure, but new

and reducing private vehicles, public housing, and

mechanisms are needed to secure this capital on a

innovation through research. For him, innovation is

long-term basis. The municipal market in the U.S.

the key to attracting investment to your city, but it is

provides the potential for cities to raise their own

not enough. The involvement of private money is

revenues for infrastructure projects on a sub-

key and this institutional set up of PPPs has long

sovereign basis, especially because national

been used in the French urban tradition. Paris is

governments today are too burdened by debt. For

attractive because of the amount of space that

Green, this municipal bond model is exportable

may be used for foreign investment and

and has the potential to succeed in other cities.

development. The problem is, he says, that Paris retains a “romantic” reputation, so that it is not

Li Dongming gave his perspective on

typically associated with the image of a “business

investment and planning in the context of Chinese

hub.”

cities, which are facing massive urbanization. Rapid economic growth has had great

Overall, cities must be able to attract

implications on the spatial development of cities in

investment to keep up with urban growth and the

China, primarily due to the lack of good

implications of a lack of infrastructure. Moreover,

management or planning.

Now that the central

cities are in competition with one another to attract

government has recognized the importance of

the best innovators, minds, and foreign

orderly development, they are playing a larger

companies. This need for investment drives cities to

role. However, the organization of China in terms

make themselves more attractive, whether through

of investment and financing is still in a transition

investment in an efficient public transportation

period and based on “land-fiscality,” where state-

system or through the creation of leisurely green

owned land pushes urbanization and financing.

spaces. 21

Speakers Jorge Abrahao President, Instituto Ethos

Mariana Alegre General Coordinator, Lima Como Vamos

Antonio Celia President, Promigas

Janaina Herrera

Ciudades Latinas: urban Latin America

Advisor, New Cities Foundation

Monday 14 May, 16:45 - 18:00

Moderator

Overview

Ricky Burdett

Latin American cities are more and more innovative in improving decision-making and government accountability, and

Director, LSE Cities and Urban Age

incorporating civil society in the information transfer process. Antonio Celia provided a striking example of how a city – Barranquilla, Colombia – has faced economic and social difficulties for many years and tackled all these challenges thanks to Como Vamos, which is composed of a group of entrepreneurs. This organization’s main aim is to develop a precise expertise through the development of a wide number of indicators, allowing them to evaluate public policies and actions. This permitted them to promote investment in this territory with more transparency and more dialogue between stakeholders. The second cornerstone of this organization is

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to diffuse its expertise at the local level and inform

aimed to demonstrate the potential of e-health

the communities about their territory.

technology for improving current and future health services in urban metropolises by addressing the

Ricky Burdett contributed to the debate

economic, social and physical obstacles to access

by questioning in more detail how the program

healthcare in underserved communities and

was led and how the success claimed by Antonio

populations. General Electric provided community

Celia can be demonstrated. Mariana Alegre

workers in the favela with a mobile health kit,

exposed the case study of the same organization –

containing equipment able to collect and transmit

Como Vamos – in Lima. Again, she insisted on the

health data to the nearest clinic. The benefits are

importance of raising expectations and awareness

immediate for the patients and for the overall

through better indicators and measurement about

medical system.

what is going on in this city. She showed that involving media in the common stakeholders’

The sustainability of all these movements and

discussion and negotiation is a powerful channel

their actions has been questioned because it might

of information for local communities. This network

also be related to change in political elections and

has the power to understand the needs of the

the lack of political support. All the speakers agree

people, to communicate them and to develop

on the fact that if civil society and the private

policy recommendations.

sector work together to define their needs and their solutions, national governments should follow in

Jorge Abrahao presented the Brazilian

the decision-making processes.

case study of the platform for an inclusive, green and responsible economy developed by Ethos Institute. It aims to develop new tools and new indicators to integrate new actors, such as businesses, in the public realm. It has also helped many mayors and elected officials to politically commit to new ways of creating the city. Janaina Herrera presented the m-health pilot project in the favela of Dona Marta, Rio de Janeiro, led by the New Cities Foundation. She started by stating that Rio is a city that has a rapidly aging population with limited mobility. This pilot project is based on anticipation of similar health trends in other important emerging urban centers over the next twenty years. This case study 23

Speakers Greg Clark UK Minister for Decentralisation and Cities

Parag Khanna Senior Fellow, New America Foundation

John Rice Vice Chairman, GE; President and CEO GE Global Growth and Operations

Hard and Software Cities

Jonathan Woetzel

Plenary Session, Tuesday 15 May, 09:00 - 10:00

Co-Chair, Urban China Initiative; Senior Director, McKinsey&Co.

Overview The opening plenary session of the second day attempted to gauge the pressures and opportunities presented by the increasing integration of hardware and software in cities. Mobility and access,

Moderator Diane Brady Senior Editor and Content Chief, Bloomberg Businessweek

basic infrastructure needs and issues of governance within an environment of ever more sophisticated ICT technologies were recurring themes in the conversation.

Key points •

New “soft” infrastructures offer major opportunities for creating urban systems that allow for a better flow of information between users and providers.

Technology can give us “smart” systems that reduce cost and energy use while increasing transparency in the 24

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governance of city systems. This can

Small-scale interventions and locally

change how democracies work, ideally

embedded innovations that bridge the gap

allowing citizens to be more engaged

between soft and hardware opportunities must

and connected with policymakers.

tackle issues “one petri dish at a time”, in the words of GE’s John Rice. He agreed that

Hard infrastructure and the basic needs

fundamental infrastructures around energy, water

of energy, healthcare and clean water

and healthcare must come first, before issues of

continue to be the most necessary types

congestion should be addressed.

of investments in cities in developing countries.

The possible leapfrogging of China over the west in terms of urban technologies and

Panelists also raised the issue of the “info

infrastructure is very real, according to Jonathan

state,” continuing the dialogue started in other

Woetzel. China has been pragmatic in driving

sessions about data access, privacy and

forward urban development, with a focus on

ownership.

engineering solutions that draw on the best available technologies, without being on the

Giving several examples of recent

‘bleeding edge’.

technological innovations supporting efficient use of transportation services in the UK, such as an

In mediating the ensuing discussion, Diane

app showing the availability of Barclay’s Bikes,

Brady, brought up issues around the effective

Greg Clark demonstrated how mobile

governance of public-private partnerships in

applications allow residents to be smarter users of

infrastructure projects, how the citizen and the

city services, while also leading to more

community can be better engaged via new

interaction and connectivity between them. These

technologies and the challenges in bringing the

kinds of technologies quickly become

wider population up-to-date so as to benefit from

indispensable to navigating urban life.

new “soft” infrastructures.

Parag Khanna emphasized the fact that most cities of the world are still facing major hard infrastructure gaps that are greatly hampering development. Pointed interventions that target specific bottle-necks of mobility can have significant impact. In terms of soft infrastructure and connectivity, it must be recognized that cities need to have strong international connections, as opposed to just internal connectivity.

25

Urban Innovation Waze Tuesday 15 May, 10:00 - 10:15

Overview Diann Eisnor demonstrated an innovative mobile phone app that attempts to save urban dwellers time and money by increasing the efficiency of driving using the application, Waze. The interface provides an optimistic view of the city with creatures representing

Speaker Diann Eisnor VP of Partnerships and Platform, Waze

other drivers in the network providing information about traffic conditions on commuting routes across the world. Waze has proven to decrease travel time using crowd-sourced information about alternative routes and driving conditions that saves the individual approximately 61 hours and US $108 per year on gas. Collectively, these benefits for society, the economy, and the environment are extremely powerful.

Click here to watch full session on YouTube: Link to Yo u t u b e Video of the session

26

Urban Innovation Ekobus Tuesday 15 May, 10:15 - 10:30

Speaker

Overview Deputy Mayor Filip Mitrovic introduced the audience to the

Filip Mitrovic

Ekobus project in his city, realized through a partnership with

Deputy Mayor, Pancevo, Serbia

Ericsson and Telecom Srbija serving the 120,000 person population. Air pollution is a serious issue in Pancevo, capable of keeping children home from school and causing chronic diseases. Pancevo’s city reputation in Serbia is one of petrochemical pollution, bad driving and an unreliable public transit system. In this vein, the Ekobus was developed to not only collect real time GPS data about public buses through wireless sensors, but also to gather information about the volume of chemicals in the city’s air. The GPS data is used to inform citizens about the arrival times of the next bus, while the air quality data helps local authorities monitor pollution and address congestion problems accordingly. The Ekobus solution provides an alternative way to approach real time data in an integrated way to serve all citizens with the information that they care about most.

Click here to watch full session on YouTube: Link to Yo u t u b e Video of the session

27

Speakers Victor d’Allant CEO, Dallant Networks

Leila Janah CEO, Samasource

Kasim Reed Mayor of Atlanta

The Just City Tuesday 15 May, 11:15 - 12:30

Overview The Just City is not a luxury or an option, but a prerequisite for cities that want to be prosperous, sustainable and competitive around the world. This session took the form of an interactive debate, letting people from the audience come onstage and be part of the

Moderator George McCarthy Director, Metropolitan Opportunity Program, Ford Foundation

discussion, bringing their own topics to the debate. The moderator George McCarthy challenged the speakers by questioning each of the case studies illustrated, asking for more details related to the potential of the Just City. What are the main challenges cities are facing in order to create more equity in urban life?

Click here to watch full session on YouTube:

Key points •

To connect where people live to economic opportunity areas: the role of transport infrastructures; 28

Link to Yo u t u b e Video of the session

To bridge the informal society to the

opportunities, thereby creating positive collective

formal one to change the trajectory of

externalities.

slums and the way people are living for

Victor d’Allant pointed out that

a more inclusive city; •

developing dialogue between urban practitioners

To create and develop dialogue between

is one of the main challenges, which is needed for

urban practitioners to increase their

sharing insights on cities, urban public polices,

knowledge about practices, failures and

their ‘epic failures’ and good examples. The

successes of public policies and

Urb.im platform is trying to bring into contact all

development strategies;

practitioners of the urban ecosystem, between cities and within cities. To overcome the lack of

To take urban violence processes into

communication between all the stakeholders, the

account and demystify informal

urban platform has to work on the local ground as

settlements

well as connecting it to the global scale.

Social and spatial disparities are a major

Interactions between the people invited to the

trend in our cities. After presenting a map of

stage and the speakers took many interesting and

Atlanta that shows the distribution of economic

complementary directions. The need of

opportunity and overlaid it on the map of the

collaborative action through the wide variety of

distribution of subsidized housing, George

funders towards specific targets was highlighted.

McCarthy asked Kasim Reed how to fix the

Kasim Reed emphasized the role of the mayor and

mismatch between where people live and where

elected officials in developing a political

economic opportunities are to succeed. The Mayor

leadership for imposing the just city as a

of Atlanta brought attention to the importance of

requirement. It was also argued by all speakers

transport infrastructure investments in giving better

that slums are part of the city, are composed of

access and connectivity for opportunities to

people who live in them, but also work and create

citizens.

solidarities and communities. Before designing any

Then, Leila Janah exposed her

political or social actions, practitioners need to

perspective on bridging informal settlements to

understand first how people live in their homes.

urban and social integration, giving access to slum

Having access to housing and jobs are

dwellers in Kenya through sustainable wage

prerequisites for helping them to socially upgrade.

‘micro-employment’. Access to jobs is crucial and the social enterprise Samasource aims to connect them to computer-based micro-work. Creating a just city necessitates connecting people to job

29

Speakers Jay Carson CEO, C40 Cities

Clara Gaymard President and CEO, GE France

Masato Ito Deputy General Manager, Head of Sustainable Property Promotion Team, The Sumitomo Trust Bank

Hans Tijl

Greener Districts

Director-General, Physical Planning Department, Amsterdam

Tuesday 15 May, 11:15 - 12:30

Overview

Moderator

Key themes •

Joe Peach

Some of the most important steps in addressing emissions

Editor-in-Chief, This Big City

and environmental degradation will be taken at the local level and leadership by local leaders is essential to this process. •

The sharing of best practices and innovations for environmental sustainability, along with healthy competition between leaders, are key to achieving goals of sustainability.

Change to policies, laws, regulations, and consumer behaviors will take time. Patience is needed as well as recognition that real reform occurs with a well-informed population. 30

Click here to watch full session on YouTube: Link to Yo u t u b e Video of the session

•

•

Technology has the possibility to meet

Clara Gaymard demonstrated that two

multiple challenges simultaneously, and

main issues exist in addressing urban sustainability.

we should focus on innovations with

On one hand, technologies, such as the electric

simultaneous environmental, social and

car or solar panels, are not yet mature and

economic benefits.

efficient enough. Secondly, business models do not yet exist for how innovative services and

Green Districts are important hotbeds for

products must actually be marketed and

testing and innovating new environmental

distributed. For example, healthcare systems and

policies and technologies, with successful

their funding should be based on keeping people

ones scalable at the city level.

healthy at home (possibly through mobile healthcare technologies) rather than through visits

In discussing the role of mayors to address

to the hospital.

issues of climate change, Jay Carson spoke of efforts to identify the primary levers by which they might have the greatest impact on emissions. Of the emissions output of cities, mayors actually have 75% control of the production of greenhouse gases. Mayors should thus prioritize those projects that are within their scope of power and which have the greatest impact. According to Hans Tijl, we should focus not just on the development of Green Districts but also on decreasing the environmental impact and emissions of the entire city. In order to do this, the key needs are infrastructure and connectivity (both hard and soft) and smart and efficient coordination between all actors. Sustainability within the built environment will be achieved through maintenance and retrofitting of existing buildings. With carbon credit policies and reduced energy costs, Masato Ito argued that businesses will have the long-term incentive to invest in energy efficient and sustainable space. The use of preferential environmental rating loans can also give proper incentives for green building. 31

Speakers Robin Chase CEO Buzzcar, Founder Zipcar

Wolfgang Mueller-Pietralla Head of Future Affairs Volkswagen Group Research, VW

Nimish Radia Director of Research, Ericsson

City Dwellers on the Move: the future or urban transportation and mobility Moderator

Tuesday 15 May, 11:15 - 12:30

Susan Zielinski Managing Director of SMART, University of Michigan

Overview This session sought to explore ways in which transportation can make cities better. Instead of discussing the enormity of the problem, this session focused on brainstorming and discussing the solutions to congestion, traffic, and access to transport. It was concluded that seamless multimodal activity is the future and does not need to be cumbersome. Diversifying our modes of transport and making our modal transitions more fluid is the key aspect of a smart solution enabling urban dwellers to connect. Nimish Radia of Ericsson underlined how the company is already creating seamless mobility solutions while Robin Chase described how Buzzcar integrates service into technology. 32

Click here to watch full session on YouTube: Link to Yo u t u b e Video of the session

Intermodality was attributed to descreasing urban dwellers’ depedence on the car and peer-to-peer car-sharing was to be seen as a useful transition mechanism for the shift from vehicle dependency to other, more sustainable and compact modes. Shifting the conversation from the “what” to the “how,” panelists engaged in a discussion about potentials for partnering across sectors in implementation before delimiting the barriers to innovation and the keys needed to remove those barriers. Electronic access to data and insurance companies’ policies were cited by Chase as a prime candidate for reform while Radia stated that the key was seamlessness and user-centricity. Volkswagen’s Wolfgang Mueller-Pietralla cited symbiosis and making public transport sexier. After some lively inputs from the audience, from a case study of Dhaka to the possibilities of jetpacks, it was determined that a linked system of solutions would be necessary to confront the transport challenges of the future. Mueller-Pietralla also commented on needing not only data for today, but some sort of forecasting system to provide information for tomorrow.

33

Panel Judges

Olivier Cormier, GE

Latif Horst, Cisco

Tim Leberecht, frog

Esther Dyson, EDventure Holdings

Ron Huldai, Mayor of Tel Aviv

Nimish Radia, Ericsson

Charlie Hale, Google

Naureen Kabir, New Cities Foundation

Karsten Selle, Orange

AppMyCity! Prize Presentations

Speakers Philippe Pujau CityGardens

Tuesday 15 May, 13:30 - 14:00

Overview

Andreas Zachariah

Summit participants heard from the finalists in the AppMyCity!

CarbonDiem

competition about three new applications that seek to improve how we experience the city. City Gardens was inspired a Sunday afternoon at Parc Buttes Chaumont in Paris that left the developer and his family looking for the playground, the ice cream stand, and the theater to

Patrick Pung Paris-ci La Sortie du Métro

no avail. The idea is to localize, inform, and transform knowledge for city dwellers to help them discover the green spaces around them. Next CarbonDiem took the stage and asked the judging panel and audience “What if we could tackle the most stubborn emissions?” The CarbonDiem application seeks to increase travel sustainability in our communities by encouraging and rewarding sustainable thinking. The smart phone app features automatic measurement of people’s carbon footprint and stores data about their travel patterns and carbon efficiency for six months. The app equally addresses businesses and communities by leveraging the power of

34

Click here to watch full session on YouTube: Link to Yo u t u b e Video of the session

social networking and aggregating data. CarbonDiem ultimately sees cities as the world’s climate change champions. Lastly, Paris Ci La Sortie introduced a simple, three-step app that could give individuals one week of freedom per year by reducing their commuting time. The developer decided to improve the daily underground user’s experience of the Paris metro by showing app users where the exits are in relation to the metro carriages so that they can avoid lost time by waiting on the wrong end of the platform. There is an additional added value in showing the position of escalators and elevators at each metro stop for people with reduced mobility. The app is compatible with the iPhone, Android, and Windows Phone.

The winner was announced the same night at the Grand Palais and the winner was City Gardens. Congratulations to Eric and Philippe!

35

A Glimpse into Future Cities Tuesday 15 May, 14:00 - 14:15

Overview How can we sense things in a city? Imagine living in a city where you knew everything that was happening around you in real time, such as how much energy is being consumed. We as humans have almost become like walking sensors. From this perspective,

Speaker Carlo Ratti Director, MIT SENSEable City Lab

how can this describe cities? Technology has now allowed us to study the built environment in different ways. Through analyzing and learning from data, we can utilize it to add value to the way we live in cities. SENSEable City aims to research the changes that have enhanced our experience of the city through the use of technology. Carlo Ratti, Director of the MIT SENSEable City Lab, presented projects undertaken by himself and his research team, including the Copenhagen Wheel, which is an example of collecting data and implementing a project based on the data collected. After analyzing traffic data in Copenhagen, the Wheel was invented to sense and capture the energy dissipated while cycling and braking, and store the energy for when you need it the most. The sensing unit on the wheel captures data about road conditions, temperature, and carbon monoxide levels, among other things. Users can share this data through a mobile application, which will allow others in the city to benefit from the crowd-sourced information. Another interesting project was the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) Follow-up, where one of the old electronic equipment, which was used by MIT researchers and had been programmed to report back information about its environment for MoMA, was stolen. The Lab was able to track its location thanks to a GPS built into the 36

Click here to watch full session on YouTube: Link to Yo u t u b e Video of the session

computer, allowing MIT to report the theft and get the computer back, along with pictures of the thief, which were taken by the computer during its time away. For Ratti, this showed that, “when objects talk back to us, they tell us unlikely stories.” The future city may hold the answers to what happens to physical objects when we throw them away. The last project presented was the Digital Water Pavilion at the Zaragoza World Expo in 2008. Ratti and his team wanted to explore how they could use architecture to play with water. What became interesting was not the architecture, but how the space was used by the people, which begs the question, how do we use things we design? Buildings of the future may, then, change their appearance and form based on use and necessity. The future city will, when combined with how we “sense” the city, require rethinking the use of data, architecture, and objects around us.

37

Speakers Yuan Yue: CEO and Chairman of Horizon Research Consultancy Group James Lee Architect, Founder of IContinuum Group Jonathan Woetzel Co-chair, Urban China Initiative; Xiao Jincheng

A Closer Look at Urban China: towards the urban billion

Deputy Director, Land Economy and Regional Regional Research, Bureau, National Development and Reform Commission Xie Chengxiang Deputy Mayor of Huangshi

Plenary Session, Tuesday 15 May, 14:15 – 15:30

Moderator Johan Björkstén

Overview •

Chairman, MSL China

The uniqueness of Chinese urbanization is its shared speed and scale.

Government’s strong leadership in urbanization presents unique opportunity.

• •

Local government is spearheading social housing projects. China needs to design more flexible mechanisms to engage external financial resources into Chinese urban infrastructure investment.

Since 2000, Beijing changed its attitude towards urbanization from conservative towards advocating. As a practical policy 38

Click here to watch full session on YouTube: Link to Yo u t u b e Video of the session

responding to hyper-urbanization, China

Xie shared Huangshi’s experience. A

emphasizes the robust development of urban

traditional mining city, Huangshi was confronted

concentrations of all scales: small, middle-sized,

since entering the 21st century with resource

and big cities. In the coming two decades, 40%

depletion and decay of traditional industries. By

of cities globally with over 5 million inhabitants

2000, Huangshi had 164 shantytowns with 2

will be in China and over 200 Chinese cities will

million square meters inhabited by more than

have over 1 million inhabitants.

12,000 inhabitants. In 2010, Huangshi government set up Zhongbang, a company that

All the speakers agreed that the Chinese

functions as a financing vehicle and wholly

government is well in control of Chinese

controlled by Huangshi government. Since then,

urbanization. Woetzel pointed out that China's

Zhongbang has built 45,000 apartments in high

governance model in supporting more sustainable

rising buildings grouped under 45 community

urbanization is “the central government drives

projects with a financial investment of 5.9 billion

urban shapes and standards, and local

RMB. Huangshi also uses ICT solutions to monitor

governments are accountable for initiating and

and publicize the management of low-income

executing implementation plans". Woetzel believes

individuals. In the coming 3 years, Huangshi will

that China's leadership in urbanization presents a

produce 35,000 apartments through this platform.

unique opportunity to develop innovative solutions. Yuan pointed out the constraints of this government

Ongoing Chinese urban infrastructure heat,

dominated model in that the government cannot

as Lee portrayed by several numbers that “11

estimate what is to happen and cannot fully

Chinese cities with subway, 15 cities in

understand what happens on the ground. Yuan

construction, 19 cities are planning to build

and Woetzel pointed out that Chinese

metro”, creating a chance to build a urbanization

urbanization increased inequality and created

model through what Lee called “Transit Synergized

social problems, concentrating on land and

Development (TSD)” that integrates land planning,

environmental issues.

transportation planning, and urbanization planning. Concerning infrastructure, Xiao pointed

Today, how to absorb rural influx and give

out that this heat inevitably slowed down its

equal treatment to rural and urban inhabitants is a

investment towards increasing social welfare, so

top priority of national leaders. Rural-urban

China needs to design more flexible mechanisms

migration happens in mainly two forms: “migrant

to engage external financial resource into Chinese

worker” and “rural-originated graduate.” In the

urban infrastructure investment.

coming 18 years, 300 million inhabitants will be added into the urban population. The core of this question is where Chinese cities can find the money to accommodate them. 39

巴黎新城市峰会热议中

力投资,无形中消

国城市化创举

外资和民资参与投资的渠道。

继本月初李克强副总理在“中欧城镇化

伴”

了可以用于改善民生的政府资源,因

此政府应该进一步改革地方基础设施融资平台,深入

系在 城市化新

布鲁塞尔发布后,日前在巴黎拉底方斯举行的首届“新城 市峰会”汇集500余名全球城市化领域的决策者和意见领袖

章:城市运营商时代

在5月14日下午的议程中,国

就世界范围的城市化,三天跨领域的广泛、深入对话,特

的总经理李东明指出正在

注高速发展的中国城市化。这次峰会由新城市基金会

行金融规

起的中国城市运营是解决地方

政府财政困境,真正实现可持续城市发展规

举办,由巴黎市长致欢迎词,发言人包括温哥华市市长、

合作部

的独特平

台。“城市运营商的出现,应视为中国城市化过程的转折

特拉维夫市市长、塞内加尔达卡市长、英国城市部长,以

点”,李东明说。国

及通用、爱立信、思科、苏伊士燃气等公司的执行总裁

金融是国内第一家拥有直投

照的

金融机构,其投资的重点领域是城市基础设施投资,并迅

等。

速成为主要城市运营商之一。城市运营商与地方政府合 作,合资建立的城市运营平台。这个平台一方面做符合当 地自然禀赋条件的整体工业、城市、经济规

前所未有的速度和规模:中国城市化的独一无二的特点和

与国内外知名规

独特机遇

,另一方面

设计机构、金融机构等合作,引入当地

发展必须的金融、智力等资源支持。

在5月15日下午“城市中国”的议席中,“城市中国计 ”共同发起人、麦肯锡公司资深董事华强森先生,国家 发展和改革委员会国土

亚特兰大市长:中国城市发展令我很受启发

发与地区经济研究所副所长肖金

成、中国湖北黄石市副市长谢承祥共同指出,中国城市化

在5月16日上午举行的“新型城市合作

独一无二的趋势特点是其规模和速度前所未有。未来20

系”议

席上,美国亚特兰大市长里德谈到他4月上旬他对深圳、

年,中国将有超过200个百万人口以上的城市,而欧洲百

杭州等五个中国城市的访问印象深刻。他认为中国城市化

万人口以上的城市仅为35个。华强森指出,中国政府在支

的发展揭示了地方政府领导人的愿景和他们执行力的重要

持更加可持续的城市化中发展的管理模式是“中央政府推

性。里德认为市长是目前美国最活跃的政治行动者,而他

动城市建设的形态和标准,地方政府负责启动和实施计

们可以从中国等发展中国国家城市发展的过程受到很多启

”,中国政府在城市化过程中的这 在城市化进程中

主导作用,为中国

发。

发出创新的解决方案提供了独特机遇。

中国城市化的悖论:人和基础设施“争”钱 在同一议席上,香港天能集团有限公司总裁、建筑 师李承民指出,目前中国有30多座城市正在建或拟建地铁 项目。肖金成指出,中国中央和地方政府对基础设施的大

40

41

Speakers Fahd Al Rasheed Managing Director and CEO, King Abdullah Economic City

Jacob Bennett Deputy City Manager, Skolkovo

Chen Xiaohui Deputy Chief Planner, Jiangsu Institute of Urban Planning and Design

Modern Urban Utopias: a conversation with the builders of new cities

Scot Wrighton City Manager, Lavasa

Plenary Session, Tuesday 15 May, 16:00 - 17:00

Moderator Carlo Ratti

Overview This session explored a discussion between the builders of four

Director, MIT SENSEable City Lab

new-city greenfield projects around the world. Carlo Ratti organized the conversation in three main sections: the specificities of each city, the difficult tensions between top-down and bottom-up approaches in designing these cities, and the aspects of the projects that have been implemented that make the cities smart. Jacob Bennett introduced the specificities of Skolkovo, in Russia. This city has been designed to diversify the economy and to allow commercialization of technology. Four hundred companies are already working on the site, hand in hand with universities, research centers, and multinational corporations. Leading master planners and architects have also worked together to develop a mixed-use city, 42

Click here to watch full session on YouTube: Link to Yo u t u b e Video of the session

composed of open green spaces and low-rise

Lavasa City Master Plan in their construction of

residential areas. The two main characteristics that

schools and village rehabilitation in the indigenous

make this city smart and competitive are efficient

villages around the site. The city’s mission is to

social interactions and a strong ICT network.

respond to rural-to-urban migration by diverting migrants through the new city.

Next, Fahd Al Rasheed presented the Again,

These “cities from scratch” face the same

the aim of this new city of two million people is to

questions and challenges about building a city

diversify the sources of economic growth, currently

from the top-down and incorporating the “bottom-

dependent on oil.

The government did not

up.” Due to their diverse experiences and contexts,

financially support the project, but allowed it to be

their responses to these challenges differ. For

developed through an economic zone with

example, while Skolkovo impressed upon the fact

specific regulations. Thirty global companies and

that they try to assemble all stakeholders to mix

10 billion euros have been transferred to King

bottom-up with top-down, Suzhou lamented the

Abdullah during the last six years. The city is now

government limitations in China inhibiting a lot of

entering its operational phase. The private sector is

bottom-up initiatives. Various visions are

able to evaluate this project through consumer

complimentary, however, such as the fact that all

behaviors, so that it can readjust and update

plans include mixed-use planning to increase the

throughout time.

amount of “products,” that is, experiences

King Abdullah Economic City example.

produced in the city.

Chen Xiaohui proceeded to outline the aspects of Suzhou Industry Park, located 20 minutes from Shanghai by train. The park acts as one of the most competitive in China with an annual GDP growth rate of 30%. The park aims to increase China’s international competitiveness by stimulating the economy with a shift from manufacturing to service industry and has already attracted 86 international firms. Lastly, Scot Wrighton presented Lavasa, a 100 square kilometer city located in the PuneMumbai corridor. The city is a completely corporate endeavor in that it receives no financial support from the Indian government. Wrighton highlighted the corporate responsibility of the 43

Capitalising Creativity

Speaker VHILS Artist

Tuesday 15 May, 17:00 - 17:15

Overview

organizing festivals that draw artists and admirers

In a presentation demonstrating the

globally. An event recently organized in Lisbon

transformative power of street art, the widely

not only added color and dynamism to boarded

recognized artist VHILS, demonstrated the

up buildings within the inner city, but also brought

essential role of creative expression in public

renewed political attention to the abandoned

spaces of the city, even when it is expressed

buildings and spaces scattered within the heart of

illegally. Cities have many unused and

the city. A festival organized in a declining

dehumanized spaces, giving the possibility for

southern Italian town drew artists and tourists from

street art and graffiti to transform and enhance the

around Europe, re-energizing the area around

public environment. Graffiti is often seen as a

original displays of creativity. According to VHILS,

problem, especially when it is unorganized.

thinking globally and acting locally can be

However, street art has the potential to enhance

powerful for drawing renewed attention to spaces

urban spaces through color, political commentary

or urban issues. Street art and graffiti are not an

or purely aesthetic work.

urban problem. It is rather the way in which the city handles these expressions of creativity that is

Street art is about the reinterpretation of the

the problem.

city’s space. In describing his own trajectory as a street artist, VHILS drew on the historical roots of his home country, Portugal. Layers of material have progressively been left behind on the walls, including inspiring political murals and ads driving the new consumer cultural. He started to carve large-scale portraits into the peeling layers of paper and paint, leaving behind images

Link to Yo u t u b e Video of the session

representative of the human soul of the city. Having created a name for himself within the street art world, VHILS has now been 44

45

Gala Dinner Keynote Speech

Speaker Bertrand DelanoĂŤ Mayor of Paris

Tuesday 15 May, 2012

Overview

boundaries of what has been done before. Paris

John Rossant opened the evening in

has been able to take risks, such as investment in

thanking the assembled guests of the New Cities

the Velib bike-share project and more recently

Summit Gala Dinner for their presence and

Autolib, the free electric car-sharing service,

participation. He proceeded to introduce Bertrand

allowing for a new way to experience the city.

DelanoĂŤ, Mayor of Paris, for the keynote address.

He expressed pride in the fact that a Parisian startup, City Gardens Paris, had been recognized by

In his speech, Mayor DelanoĂŤ opened in

the Summit for its new and innovative smart-phone

thanking guests, public officials and the event

application.

organizers. He went on to state that there is

In closing, the Mayor spoke of his

nothing more beautiful than being committed to

confidence in the assembled guests and his

serve, to serve life and to serve humanity.

anticipation to see the results of this significant

He spoke of Paris as a world city; that is, a

effort in reflection and exchange. He urged those

city with a million little worlds within it. Being

assembled to stay creative and dynamic, and to

composed of such a diversity of cultures, religions

continue to share always, as do the mayors of the

and people is ultimately its greatest strength. Paris

world. Again, he thanked everyone for their

itself has historically been a center of innovation,

contributions to the event and reasserted the

as exemplified by the space of the Grand Palais,

inherent beauty in being deeply committed to

so it should be seen as no surprise for the event to

serving life, and the vision that we each have of

be held there.

humanity.

In cities we need to work for social cohesion, economic development, and sustainability; in a word, life. The Mayor asserted

Link to Yo u t u b e Video of the session

his belief that we can meet the challenge of sustaining economic development, but only when we are willing to take risks and to push the 46

47

Speakers Vivek Badrinath CEO, Orange Business Services

Pablo Farias Vice President of Economic and Assets Program, Ford Foundation

Ron Huldai Mayor of Tel Aviv

Kasim Reed

Partnering for Better Cities

Mayor of Atlanta

Plenary Session, Wednesday 16 May, 09:00 - 10:00

Overview The sharing across borders of knowledge, experience, and

Introduced and Moderated by

lessons learned is key to the cooperation of cities. Whether your city

Saskia Sassen

is Tel Aviv or Atlanta, each city can learn from one another, making

Robert S. Lynd Professor of Sociology; Co-Chair, The Committee on Global Thought, Columbia University

the concept of “building together” important in addressing today’s and tomorrow’s urban challenges. Saskia Sassen introduces two main challenges that global cities are presently facing. First, in a global economy, the idea that all economies seem to become similar is not completely true. This is because cities, in order to compete with one another, need to be specialized. If the global standards of building a city homogenize the built environment, the way it has been used and is still used by its communities, is making the difference. The second challenge for Sassen is the need to take inequalities, unemployment and poverty into account. 48

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When turning to the panel, Sassen asked

and newcomers through democracy and public

each of the two mayors to present the strengths

participation. Cities must also make prosperity a

and difficulties of the cities they are representing.

shared goal by every citizen living there.

Mayor Huldai sees his city’s advantage as

Vivek Badrinath seeks to provide a

lying in its openness, young age, dynamism,

technological means through which leaders can

tolerance and creativity. However, without any

make change in their cities. Through applications

natural resources to take advantage of,

on mobile phones providing water meters or

entrepreneurship and connectivity are the two

informing one of electric recharging stations for

solutions for developing economically and making

their cars, technology is helping to connect city-

it competitive around the world. Mayor Kasim

dwellers faster. It will also be important that

Reed of Atlanta, which is the center of commerce

companies who own data make partnerships with

in the U.S. south and the site of such global

consumers in order to add more value to what

brands as Coke and CNN, recognizes that 80%

companies produce and sell.

of GDP in the U.S. occurs in cities, which shows the urgency of collaborative action. Collaboration

Overall, cities and their leaders are now

is already occurring inside his city, where

given new means through which they can partner

Republican and Democrat officials cast their

together to make their cities better. By sharing

partisanship aside and voted to invest billions of

knowledge and lessons learned, local leaders can

dollars into improving Atlanta’s infrastructure and

carry out initiatives to alleviate poverty and to

transportation system. Reed strongly believes that

create more equitable cities. Technology and

transportation is a key to bridging inequalities in

innovation, as well as creating added value, also

the city and creating accessibility, whether it be to

opens up opportunity for citizen inclusion in the

jobs, education, or other opportunities. It is in the

city space. Especially during a time where

public interest, economically and socially, to solve

national governments are de-investing in cities, it

problems of poverty and accessibility.

will be important to think of cities as a strategic space, and for power to be brought back to local

Pablo Farias oversees grants that focus on

governments and for local leaders to act to

expanding opportunities, overcoming inequities,

address the pressing issues facing today’s global

and building economic resources. For him, it is

cities.

important to innovate through collaboration, and through this process, inclusion can be created. Collaboration itself must also bring together all stakeholders to learn and build knowledge in order to transfer it to an extended network. Cities have to open opportunity to diverse communities 49

Urban Innovation Ciudad Saludable Wednesday 16 May, 10:00 - 10:15

Overview The presentation started with a film showing waste pickers living off of heaps of garbage in Peru and the many challenges posed by large amounts of contaminated urban waste that are not adequately collected and processed. The film then highlighted the

Speaker Luciana Lima Director of Strategic Partnerships, Ciudad Saludable

importance of innovative waste management tools that have been developed by Ciudad Saludable, including waste pickers. Luciana Lima described the passion of Albina Ruiz, the Founder of the organization. She has spearheaded the project thanks to her passion for finding a solution to waste management issues plaguing most urban centers of the country. Using simple and small-scale models, and demonstrating by example, waste pickers become employed in collecting and processing a town’s waste, composting and recycling where possible. Having met with success, these smallscale, self-supporting social enterprises have now been replicated in a number of Latin American cities. Over 9 million poor people have been impacted by the work of Ciudad Saludable, and they have now gained recognition from the Clinton Global Initiative, Ashoka and the Schwabb Foundation, among others.

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Urban Innovation Isla Urbana Wednesday 16 May, 10:15 - 10:30

Speaker

Overview Isla Urbana aims to provide a viable and scalable solution for

Enrique Lomnitz

the water crisis in Mexico City. Enrique Lomnitz presented the origin

Co-founder, Isla Urbana

of his interest, explaining his first surprising discoveries. If housing is crucial for developing an inclusive city, water is the most vital resource. However, while low-income communities from informal settlements are able, year after year, to build their own home, to pave their streets and to provide electricity to the all neighborhood, they face an unprecedented water crisis. The ironic fact is that slums in Mexico City are exposed to massive flooding issues, while the inhabitants expressed the increasing water scarcity. Enrique Lomnitz developed the adoption of rainwater harvesting, by catalyzing communities through training and collaborative action to develop effective and accessible systems. The benefits are threefold. First, it vitalizes local economies, by training and employing local plumbers. Second, one component of the project is to connect these new innovative systems to existing ones in order to create a self-sustainable system. Finally, it directly involves community leaders and the community itself through the designing of the process and its implementation. One thousand systems have

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been built in the slum within the past two years. This innovative system couldn’t have emerged without the partnership of governments, businesses, universities and NGOs, throughout the entire process.

51

Speakers Alan Hinchman Global Market Director, GE Intelligent Platforms

Nathalie Leboucher Director of Smart City, Orange Business Services

Henri Saint-Bris Senior Vice President Strategy, Suez Environnement

HydroCity: urban water Wednesday 16 May, 11:00 - 12:00

Overview

Xiao Jincheng Deputy Director, Land Economy and Regional Research Bureau, National Development and Reform Commission

Moderator

Key issues

Hugh Aldridge

The social costs of water distribution must be addressed.

Water scarcity will continue to be a challenge for both

Director of Development, University of California, CITRIS

developed and developing cities. •

Cities must think about new ways to deal with water scarcity, e.g. re-use solutions and correct tariffs.

Water pricing must be fair.

Water losses, which incur heavy economic costs as well, must be mitigated.

A distributed model is where innovation must take place in order for consumers to understand water usage, whether through education or investing in simple technology. 52

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Population growth and urbanization, climate

for agriculture. However, the urban water supply

change, and the change of consumption patterns

continues to be the biggest issue, and local

through history have greatly impacted water

governments are now adopting better policies to

demand today. Cities will need new solutions in

save water and clean up pollution, though some

dealing with the almost 40% of urban water that is

projects that have been undertaken to transfer

lost and water infrastructures that are out of date.

water from water-rich to water-scarce areas are not

Issues of equity also arise, as most of the people

yet sustainable.

who are paying the most for water in the world

Alan Hinchman described “Innovative

are the poorest, and increasingly only 1% of water

Industry,” a new GE initiative which aggregates

is reserved for drinking. This is a problem faced by

and adds value to data through the development

not only developing countries, but also developed

of efficient water management tools. For example,

ones.

water costs more to pump out than oil, yet they are Henry Saint-Bris suggested ways water

not even close to being the same price because

management may be improved, especially through

water is pumped so inefficiently and cost recovery

greater recycling. Nathalie Leboucher

measures are difficult to implement. However, this

proposed that the main solutions will be found in

knowledge is not always known. Through the

rethinking “re-use” solutions, such as desalination

leverage of data, conflicting usages in water may

and correct tariffs. A tool such as smart metering

be revealed, such as the imbalance of water

networks will help the consumer by showing them

usage between agricultural and consumer usage in

how much water they are consuming. With the

China, and decisions may then be made on how

advancement of technology, multiple applications

to optimize the water quantity and its uses.

exist on mobile devices to help measure our

Because of the nature of water as a necessity

consumption. Such services may even be put into

for human life, challenges concerning the scarcity

cities like Mexico City that may not be

of the resource, improving water quality, and

infrastructurally ready for wireless water metering;

maintaining the networks and treatment facilities in

however, the main impediment is money, so the

the world’s big cities today will be of utmost

right partnership of stakeholders must be put into

importance.

place for this to work in cities everywhere. Xiao Jincheng revealed that water scarcity is severe in Chinese cities, especially in the north and west of the country. The fact that China now has three cities with populations over 10 million people, making water very unevenly distributed in the country. Most of the water is used 53

Speakers Youenn Dupuis Responsable de la Mission Grand Paris, RATP

Jean-Yves Durance Vice-President, Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry

Pierre Mansat Deputy Mayor of Paris for Paris Metropole

Greater Paris: reinventing the City of Light

Robert Vassoyan Director General, Cisco France

Wednesday 16 May, 11:00 - 12:00

Moderator

Overview

Stephen Barrett

Stephen Barrett began the breakout session and introduced Pierre Mansat to talk about the origins of the Greater

Architect, Partner, Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners

Paris project. He emphasized the fact that if the last French President, Nicolas Sarkozy, gave political visibility to greater Paris, it was the elected officials of the Ile-de-France region that got the project off the ground in 2001, with the Mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delanoë. Many urban stakeholders reached a consensus around the need to change the relationship between Paris intra-muros and its banlieues. Within the last ten years, the challenge for Paris and its region has been to reassert itself in the global economy, as well as the political will to reduce socio-spatial inequalities and political fragmentation. The emergence of the Greater Paris has been crystallized in the massive consultation in which central government, local authorities, 54

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architects, civil society and private sector have

precondition for success is that it needs to be

been working together to define challenges and

planned out ahead of time.

potential solutions for the Greater Paris. However,

However, if transport regulations are part of

Pierre Mansat insisted on the fact that no

the Greater Paris, both Jean-Yves Durance

consensus has been reached, but the most

and Pierre Mansat wanted to remind us that

important thing was to match the strategic plan

housing is as important as transportation. Another

with the local territories’ needs. Nevertheless, the

important goal for a prosperous Paris is to develop

governance challenge is at the heart of the success

solidarity. Pierre Mansat concludes the session

of the Greater Paris, as all the speakers agreed.

with an optimistic message related to the discourse

The project needs to overcome the administrative

of François Hollande, saying that the central

boundaries because Paris has a radiating effect in

government wants to partner with local authorities

all the region. So the aim is to create a dynamic

rather than be a barrier to progress.

where all the stakeholders are part of the project, where the institutions evolve regarding the need to find the right scale at which to treat housing and transport issues. Perhaps the public transport system change has been the only point where all the actors found consensus so far. Youenn Dupuis presented the current project on public transportation, developed by the RATP collaboratively with all the stakeholders. 175km of ring-road automatic underground will be connected to the existing system for a cost of 20 billion Euros. The challenges faced are more about getting consensus and being attentive to the territories, actors and private sector than technical ones, in order to develop a sustainable and viable network. Robert Vassoyan presented the Smart Work Centers, initiated from Cisco in Amsterdam, stating that digital technology is an asset, giving flexibility to cities to adapt themselves to the current challenges they are facing. The

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Speakers Paul Delaoutre Chairman and CEO, BHV and Galeries Lafayette Department Stores

Jean-Charles Decaux Co-CEO, JCDecaux SA

A City Shops: the future of urban retail in the digital age Wednesday 16 May, 11:00 - 12:00

Moderator Mark Dytham

Overview

Director, Klein Dytham architecture (KDa); Founder, PechaKucha

Key points •

Retail continues to be about knowing your customers and providing key services.

Technology is changing the way that people shop, but the in-store experience is still centrally important.

Drawing on evolving technologies and trends, retail and advertising can and should adapt, while staying faithful to values of their key customers.

In moderating the discussion, Mark Dytham focused on the changing environment for retail operators and advertising with the 56

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advent of new technologies. The most significant

who cited the fact that 7.4 million people pass

of these is actually the increasing use of the

though the Shanghai subway every day.

internet for making purchases, which will continue

The session concluded with the recognition

to change the face of retail.

that retail offerings must continue to be customer

Paul Delaoutre responded to this

focused, taking into account changing habits

assertion by agreeing that the topic of matching

within new urban environments and thanks to ever

internet retail to in-store strategies is a hot one.

evolving technologies.

However, it is important to not fall into the trap of thinking of retail in terms of stores selling products, but rather of brands serving customers. The best use of technology is in learning to better understand what customers want and responding to their needs. However, the competition coming from online retailing will make it increasingly difficult for small retailers in disadvantaged areas to compete. From the perspective of Jean-Charles Decaux, the firm is the bridge between products and services and the municipalities that must find innovative ways to fund infrastructure projects. The challenge is to perceive the major trends that will impact mobility and navigation of the city. For example, many were unsure about whether the Velib bike-share system would work given such cheap user pricing. However, this is what ultimately contributed to its success. Despite claims otherwise, Paul Deloutre argued that mobility is not decreasing but increasing, offering new opportunities and markets for retailers. Additionally, the scale of emerging cities holds massive potential for revenue generation according to Jean-Charles Decaux,

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Speakers Jay Carson CEO, C40 Cities

Gérard Mestrallet CEO, GDF Suez

Jean Pistre Architect, Valode & Pistre

Khalifa Sall Mayor of Dakar

Call to Action Thinking Ahead, Building Together Plenary Session, Wednesday 16 May, 12:00 - 13:00

Moderator John Rossant

Overview

Chairman, New Cities Foundation

The closing session refocused the conversation around the need for effective coordination and partnership between the public and private spheres, and continued sharing of information and best practices between municipal leaders around the world. John Rossant opened by inviting Gerard Mestrallet to discuss the role of GDF Suez in working with municipalities to manage city services. With over 150 years of experience in partnering with urban centers, the CEO described how services, such as increasingly efficient waste water collection/treatment or the smart city dashboard, are creating a more liveable and efficient urban environment with better responsiveness to the needs of people.

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The Mayor of Dakar, Khalifa Sall,

solved, and where we must partner and

described the central challenges faced by cities in

collaborate for change. Finally, he expressed his

Africa citing, among others, the need for access to

wishes that the first New Cities Summit had

affordable sources of credit for addressing urgent

created a community of practitioners that would

needs for basic services within the city. However,

thrive and expand in the future, enacting positive

he remained largely optimistic about the

change in participants’ home cities. He closed in

development potential of African cities, bringing

thanking the attendees for their participation, as

attention to the young, educated and dynamic

well as contributors and organizers.

population, access to new markets, and the high returns on investment. Coming from the perspective of emissions reduction, Jay Carson highlighted the fact that these issues can and will only be addressed at the city level, where municipal governments have significant power to impact CO2 output. The sharing of best practices is a powerful tool for leveraging innovative solutions globally. Additionally, it should be recognized that some of the most pragmatic steps towards more effective and efficient systems have been taken by cities in developing countries, with many lessons to be learned. The architect, Jean Pistre, argued for design that focuses once more on the human experience and the creation of spaces which facilitate interaction, engagement and sustainable means of access to the experiences, services, and goods that are important to us. In closing the discussion, John Rossant emphasized the important role of cities in meeting the massive challenges that we are faced with globally today. Cities are where innovation takes place, where social problems arise and are 59

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Full New Cities Summit 2012 Session Summaries