Page 1

FUSE


NAME: OF

NEVILLE BOOK:

TITLE

CA

FUSE

SUN

94107)

SIZE

PHONE: BOOK:

PAPER

E-MAIL:

5.5X7

415-734-6521 OF

SOFTWARE: ADOBE

INDESIGN

CS3

EXACT

OPAQUE

92

FONTS

STERLING

60LB

JENNIFER

BRIGHTNESS,

PROFESSOR:

WHITE

UP_NEVIELE@HOTMAIL.COM STOCK:

ADOBE

ILLUSTRATOR

CS3

PRINTER:

EPSON

STYLUS

PHOTO

1400

USED: OAKLAND TEN, LETTER GOTHIC STD BINDERY: CARDOZA JAMES BINDING (N: GABI P: 415-543-2000 A: 2349 THIRD ST SAN FRANCISCO,


Contents

24

Electronic Waste 04 Problems caused by electronic waste How Landfill works

10

Issues Innovative Industrial Plant For The Recycling Of Automotive Shredder Residues - Asr, Also Called Car-Fluff 68 SurVey Reveals Children’s Environmental Future Is Greatest Incentive For Consumers To Be More Environmentally Conscious 70 Report Reveals Flawed U.S. E-Waste Policies 80 Saving On Printer Ink And Toner 84 Uncontrolled Electronic Waste Recycling Threat To Children, Says Ec 86 Nokia’s Aptly Named Phone, The Remade, Is An Example Of “Upcycling”—It’s Made Of Aluminum Cans And Other Recycled Materials 88 Scientists confirm oceans acidifying at unprecedented speed 98


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ELECTRONIC

WASTE


ELECTRONIC

WASTE

ELECTRONIC WASTE Electronic waste, “e-waste” or “Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment” (“WEEE”) is a waste type consisting of any broken or unwanted electrical or electronic appliance. It is a point of concern considering that many components of such equipment are considered toxic and are not biodegradable.

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ELECTRONIC

WASTE

The disposal of scrap has represented a critical aspect in the waste Starting from the 1st January 2007, the disposal of waste scrap also in Italy as in many other European countries. Such waste heterogeneous mixture of non ferrous and ferrous metallic textile fibres, paper, paints, oils and fluids. Generally of a motor vehicle. It is estimated that the number of vehicles 17 millions of units per year in 2015 (EEAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s data, 2001). This be doubled within the

U.S. residents removed more than 300 million electronic according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sent to domestic landfills. The rest is frequently world, mainly Asia and West Africa, where workers dismant in the open air or dump it

The researchers tested for the metals cadmium, These metals can cause both acute and long-term toxicity copper were the greatest cause for concern. High lead children. Other research has shown that both of bone disease, as well as digestive, neurol may linked to metal


ELECTRONIC

management in

(called residues, y, the to signifies

devices (EPA). sold to tle the into

WASTE

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[09]

for many years. landfill will be prohibited â&#x20AC;&#x153;car-fluffâ&#x20AC;?) is formed by a plastics, rubber, glass, car-fluff represents 25% of the total weight be scrapped will increase to that the quantity will probably next ten years.

from At least brokers products nearby

their

households in 2006, 80 percent of the e-waste is who ship it to the developing and often burn the remains water bodies.

nickel, cobalt, chromium, copper, lead and zinc. Of these metals, high levels of lead and lower levels are associated with IQ in workers and children in Guiyu have a high incidence logical and respiratory problems, which be toxicity.

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Due to lower environmental standards and working conditions in China, India, Kenya, and elsewhere, electronic waste is being sent to these countries for processing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in most cases illegally. Delhi and Bangalore in India and Guiyu in Shantou region of China have electronic waste processing areas. Uncontrolled burning, disassembly, and disposal are causing environmental and health problems, including occupational safety and health effects among those directly involved, due to the methods of processing the waste. Trade in electronic waste is controlled by the Basel Convention.


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by electronic waste

Problems caused

Electronic waste is a valuable source for secondary raw materials, if treated properly, however if not treated properly it is a major source of toxins and carcinogens. Rapid technology change, low initial cost and even planned obsolescence have resulted in a fast growing problem around the globe. Technical solutions are available but in most cases a legal framework, a collection system, logistics and other services need to be implemented before a technical solution can be applied. Electronic waste represents 2 percent of Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s trash in landfills, but it equals 70 percent of overall toxic waste.


CLOSED POSITION DESORB SAMPLE

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PROBLEMS

HINGE PIN HEATER CARTIDGE PRT

DESORPTION TUBE WELL

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POEN POSITION COOL SAMPLE

PROBLEMS > [13]

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PROBLEMS

Electronic waste is of concern largely due to the toxicity and carcinogenicity of some of the substances if processed improperly. Toxic substances in electronic waste may include lead, mecury, cadmium. Carcinogenic substances in electronic waste may include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A typical computer monitor may contain more than 6% lead by weight, much of which is in the lead glass of the CRT. Capacitors, transformers, PVC insulated wires, PVC coated components that were manufactured before 1977 often contain dangerous amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls.Up to thirty-eight separate chemical elements are incorporated into electronic waste items The unsustainability of discarding electronics and computer technology is another reason for the need to recycle â&#x20AC;&#x201C; or perhaps more practically, reuse electronic waste.


PROBLEMS

Electronic waste processing systems have matured in recent years following icreased regulatory, public, and commercial scrutiny, and a commensurate increase in entrepreneurial interest. Part of this evolution has involved greater diversion of electronic waste from energy intensive, down-cycling processes (eg. conventional recycling) where equipment is reverted to a raw material form. This diversion is achieved through reuse and refurbishing. The environmental and social benefits of reuse are several: diminished demand for new products and their commensurate requirement for virgin raw materials (with their own environmental externalities not factored into the cost of the raw materials) and larger quantities of pure water and electricity for associated manufacturing, less packaging per unit, availability of technology to wider swaths of society due to greater affordability of products, and diminished use of landfills.

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Challenges remain, when materials cannot or will not be reused, conventional reccling or disposal via landfill often follow. Standards for both approaches vary widely by jurisdiction, whether in developed or developing countries. The complexity of the various items to be disposed of, cost of environmentally sound recycling systems, and the need for concerned and concerted action to collect and systematically process equipment are the resources most lacked-though this is changing. Many of the plastics used in electronic equipment contain flame retardants. These are geneally halogens added to the plastic resin, making the plastics difficult to recycle.

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PROBLEMS

251 81.8


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RECYCLED OR COMPOSTED

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LANDFILL


1 _ 22 How Much Trash is Generated? Of the 251 million tons (228 million metric tons) of trash, or solid waste, generated in the United States in 2008, about 81.8 million tons (74.2 million metric tons), or 32.5 percent, was either recycled or composted. Before recycling, trash mostly consists of paper products, yard clippings, plastics and food waste.

1 2 3 4

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Electronics may contain lead, copper, and other heavy metals or potentially toxic substances. It is critical to reduce e-waste by only buying what you need, reuse electronics that still work, and finally recycle electronics at the end of their useful life cycle.

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LANDFILL

How E-waste Works

Think back for a minute at the procession of computers, TVs, cell phones, radios, game consoles and music players that have hands over the years. What about the endless stream of products such as vacuum cleaners, microwaves, hair dryers, el alarm clocks, lamps, law detectors that have come in and out of your life?

These are just a few examples part of the growing phenomenon known as e-waste. E-waste is the term used to describe discarded electronics and electrical products. In the past few decades for gadgetry has gone through the roof and, inevitably, more waste has started to accumulate. As the bustling economies of China and India modernize and follow more Western trends, the worldwide generation of e-waste has hit astro

So what happens to all that e-waste? E-waste contains a bonanza of toxic and hazardous components that, for the most part, are cur into landfills. Much of the remain is exported to developing nations, working under unsafe, unregulated conditions, recycle this e-waste. The work these laborers do, it does provide some materials that can be comes s o m serious


LANDFILL

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onomical proportions.

rrently being shunted ning portion where many laborers,

while raw reused, with e consequences.

>

[29]

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[32]

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>

LANDFILL

VCC

27p

C12

1

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LANDFILL

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(SDA)PC1

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15

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>

[33]

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FUSE


[34]

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FUSE

>

LANDFILL

E-waste Regulations If you don't want to damage the environment, are you supposed to transform your storage closet into an electronics graveyard? Never fear, the slow but steady mechanisms of social consciousness have been grinding at this one for a while now, and movement is starting to happen. Input about e-waste regulations are coming from a number of fronts, including grassroots organizations, governing bodies and industrial leaders.


LANDFILL

Many organizations have recognized the potential for e-waste dangers for years. However, the issue recently came to the forefront of media in 2002, when Basel Action Network’s (BAN) documentary “Exporting Harm” was released. BAN works to reduce the harmful effects of exporting e-waste and promotes sustainable solutions to worldwide waste issues. So-called recyclers and scrap brokers were buying e-waste from developed regions throughout the world and dumping it in developing nations. In some parts of these countries, people were dismantling electronics on street corners, instead of in recycling facilities.

>

[35]

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[36]

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Dump - an


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[37]

What is a Landfill? There are two ways to bury trash: open hole in the ground where trash is buried and that has various animals (rats, mice, birds) swarming idea around. (This is most people's of a lanfill!) Landfill - carefully structure built into ground in top of the is isolated from the

designed or on which trash surrounding environment (groundwater, air, rain). This isolation is accomplished with a bottom liner and daily covering of soil. Sanitary landfill - landfill that uses a clay liner to isolate the trash from the environment Municipal solid waste synthetic landfill - uses a (MSW) (plastic) liner to isolate the trash from the environment.

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[38]

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_ [40]

The basic Bottom liner (old

a -

the

landfill

system

collects

where -

breakdown

of cap - seals off

the

trash

within

the

Covering

are: from

has

the

landfill

on

landfill

top

or

Methane

contains

that

falls

and

water

that

stored

(leachate)

itself

collects

water

is

shown in Figure 3, and subsequent leachate rain

trash

landfill, as separates trash

new) -

substances

the

collection

system

and

parts of system -

Cells drainage

the

collection system - collects methane gas that is formed

through

Leachate

water

groundwater Storm landfill

contaminating

percolated

during

the of


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784 27.


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Building the Landfill

Once the environmental impact study is complete has been raised, construction begins. First, access roads to the landfill site must be sanitation services and the general public. After roads have been built, then the landfill can be

3


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permits are granted and the money e, the built if they do not already exist. These roads will be used by construction equipment, e excavated. In the North Wake County Landfill, the landfill began 10 feet below the road surface.

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Bottom Liner System

A landfill's major purpose and one of its biggest challenges is to contain the trash so that the trash doesn't cause problems in the environment. The bottom liner prevents the trash from coming in contact with the outside soil, particularly the groundwater. In MSW landfills, the liner is usually some type of durable, puncture-resistant synthetic plastic (polyethylene, high-density polyethylene, polyvinylchloride). It is usually 30-100 mils thick. The plastic liner may be also be combined with compacted clay soils as an additional liner. The plastic liner may also be surrounded on either side by a fabric mat (geotextile mat) that will help to keep the plastic liner from tearing or puncturing from the nearby rock and gravel layers.


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[47]

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metsyS reniL mottoB tseggib sti fo eno dna esoprup rojam s'llifdnal A niatnoc ot si segnellahc eht taht os hsart eht ehT .tnemnorivne eht ni smelborp esuac t'nseod hsart renil mottob orf hsart eht stneverp retawdnuorg eht ylralucitrap ,lios edistuo eht htiw tcatnoc ni gnimoc o epyt emos yllausu si renil eht ,sllifdnal WSM nI natsiser-erutcnup ,elbarud itsalp citehtnys enelyhteylop ytisned-hgih ,enelyhteylop( i tI .)edirolhclynivylop htiw denibmoc eb osla eb yam renil citsalp ehT .kciht slim 001-03 yllausu a sa slios yalc detcapmoc hT .renil lanoitidda b osla yam renil citsalp rehtie no dednuorrus am cirbaf a yb edis itsalp eht peek ot pleh lliw taht )tam elitxetoeg( o gniraet morf renil .sreyal levarg dna kcor ybraen eht morf gnirutcnup

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[48]

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Cells (Old and New) Perhaps, the most precious commodity and overriding problem in a landfill is air space. The amount of space is directly related to the capacity and usable life of the landfill. If you can increase the air space, then you can extend the usable life of the landfill. To do this, trash is compacted into areas, called cells, that contain only one day's trash. In the North Wake County Landfill, a cell is approximately 50 feet long by 50 feet wide by 14 feet high (15.25m x 15.25m x 4.26m). The amount of trash within the cell is 2,500 tons and is compressed at 1,500 pounds per cubic yard! This compression is done by heavy equipment (tractors, bulldozers, rollers and graders) that go over the mound of trash severaltimes). Once the cell is made, it is covered with six inches of soil and compacted further. Cells are arranged in rows and layers of adjoining cells (lifts). In addition to compressing the is

trash

into

conserved

by

cells, excluding

space bulky

materials, such as carpets, mattresses, foam and yard waste, from the landfill .


[50]

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Storm Water Drainage It is important to keep the landfill as dry as possible to reduce the amount of leachate. This can be done in two ways: Exclude liquids from the solid waste. Solid waste must be tested for liquids before 04 entering the landfill. This is done by passing samples of the waste through standard paint filters. If no liquid comes through the sample after 10 minutes, then the trash is accepted into the landfill.Keep rainwater out of the landfill. To exclude rainwater, the landfill has a storm drainage system. Plastic drainage pipes and storm liers collect water from areas of the landfill and channel it to drainage ditches surrounding the landfill's base.


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03 02

[51]

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F C

Br

F

F C

Br

F F

F C

Br

C

F

F

C-BR BOND LENGT H

ENERGY

_

ENERGY

[52]

F C

Br

F F C F

C-BR BOND LENGT H


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C-BR BOND LENGT H

Br


[54]

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Leachate Collection System No system to exclude water from the landfill is perfect and water does get into the landfill. The water percolates through the cells and soil in the landfill much as water percolates through ground coffee in a drip coffee maker. As the water percolates through the trash, it picks up contaminants (organic and inorganic chemicals, metals, biological waste products of decomposition) just as water picks up coffee in the coffee maker. This water with the dissolved contaminants is called leachate and is typically acidic. To collect leachate, perforated pipes run throughout the landfill (Figure 3).These pipes then drain into a leachate pipe, which carries leachate to a leachate collection pond. Leachate can be pumped to the collection pond or flow to it by gravity, as it does in the North Wake County Landfill. The leachate in the pond is tested for acceptable levels of various chemicals (biological and chemical oxygen demands, organic chemicals, pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, sulfate and chloride) and allowed to settle. After testing, the leachate must be treated like any other sewage/wastewater; the treatment may ocur on-site or off-site. At the North Wake County Landfill, leachate is released to the wastewater treatment plant in Raleigh, where it is treated and released into the Neuse River. Some lanfills recirculate the leachate and later treat it. This method reduces the volume of leachate from the landfill, but increases the concentrations of contaminants in the leachate.


LANDFILL

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>

[55]

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[56]

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LANDFILL

Methane

>

Collection

[57]

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System

Bacteria in the landfill break down the trash in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic) because the landfill is airtight. A byproduct of this anaerobic breakdown is landfill gas, which contains approximately 50 percent methane and 50 percent carbon dioxide with small amounts of nitrogen and oxygen. This presents a hazard because the methane can explode and/or burn. So, the landfill gas must be removed. To do this, a series of pipes are embedded within the landfill to collect the gas. In some landfills, this gas is vented or burned. More recently, it has been recognized that this landfill gas represents a usable energy source. The methane can be extracted from the gas and used as fuel. In the North Wake County Landfill, a company collects the landfill gas, extracts the methane, and sells it to a nearby chemical company to power its boilers. The extraction system is a split system, meaning that methane gas can go to the boilers and/or the methane flares that burn the gas. The reason for the split system is that the landfill will increase its gas production over time (from 300 cubic feet per minute to 1,250 cubic feet per minute) and exceed the capacity of the boilers at the chemical company. Therefore, the excess gas will have to be burned. It is not cost-effective to compress the excess gas to liquid and s e l l i t .

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LANDFILL > FUSE

_ [58]

is covered daily with six inches of compacted soil. This covering seals the compacted trash from the air and prevents pests (birds, rats, mice, flying insects, etc.) from getting into the trash. This soil takes up quite a bit of space. Because space is a precious commodity, many landfills are experimenting with tarps or spray coverings of paper or cement/paper emulsions. These emulsions can effectively cover the trash, but take up only a quarter of an inch instead of 6 inches! When a section of the landfill is finished, it is covered permanently with a polyethene cap (40 mil). The cap is then covered with a 2-foot layer of compacted soil. The soil is then planted with vegetation to prevent erosion of the soil by rainfall and wind. The vegetation consists of grass and kudzu. No trees, shrubs or plants with deep penetrating roots are used so that the plant roots do not contact the underlying trash and allow leachate out of the landfill. Occasionally, leachate may seep through weak point in the covering and come out on to the surface. It appears black and bubbly. Later, it will stain the ground red. Leachate seepages are promptly repaired by excavating the area around the seepage and filling it with well-compacted soil to divert the flow of leachate back into the landfill.


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_ [59] > LANDFILL

Covering or Cap As mentioned above, each cell


The average lifespan of computers in Developed countries has dropped from six Years in 1997 to just two years in 2005. Mobile phones have a lifecycle of less than Two years in developed countries. 183 Million computers were sold worldwide in 2004 - 11.6 Percent more than in 2003. 674 Million mobile phones were sold worldwide In 2004 - 30 percent more than in 2003. By 2010, there will be 716 million new Computers in use. There will be 178 Million new computer users in china, 80 Million new users in india.

[60]

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8


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[64]

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LANDFILL

[65]

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The amount of electronic products discarded globally has skyrocketed

20

-

recently, with 50 million tonnes generated every year. If such a huge figure is hard to imagine, think

of it like this

a once

-

if

train

the estimated amount of e-waste generated every year would be put into containers on it would go around the world!


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18701028616737111180012730982476281767261870102861673711118001273098247628176726187010286 7 6 3 1 7 6 3 9 1 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 012687631761713171181010118 273098247628176726187 011101218860106 17 23 77 31 0 19 18 12 84 07 06 12 8 71 37 06 97 82 6 41 78 67 20 817 06 27 82 66 11 68 77 30 71 0 12 18 16 81 06 07 13 27 1 3 10 19 18 82 040716227831079687224671682780117062782661168773071101218168106071 38 70 10 11 2 17 83 00 9 18 22 74 37 06 9 476281767261870102861673711118001273098247628176726187010286167371111 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 12 87 73 00 19 08 22 84 67 16 62 78 31 77 672618701028616737 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 08 16 01 26 87 63 17 61 71 31 71 18 10 10 11 82 78 31 07 96 87 22 46 71 68 27 80 11 70 6 824762 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 16 12 18 11 87 06 07 12 26 71 38 07 90 81 20 278266116877307 11 01 21 81 6 81 06 07 13 27 1 31 01 91 88 20 40 71 627 83 10 79 68 726 41 78 67 20 810 72 68 76 21 66 17 83 77 01 1 01 21 8 86 01 06 17 237731019181284070612287137069782264178672081107268762166178377011 11180012730982476281767261870102 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 88 60 10 61 72 37 73 10 19 18 12 84 07 06 12 28 71 37 06 97 82 26 41 78 67 20 81 10 72 68 76 21 66 17 83 77 01 11 01 21 88 60 10 61 72 37 73 10 19 18 12 84 07 06 12 28 71 37 06 97 82 26 41 78 67 20 81 10 72 68 76 21 66 17 83 77 01 11 11800127309824762817672618701028616737111180012730982476281767261870102861673 7111180012730982476281767261870102 8616737111180012730982476281767261870102861673711118001273098247628176726187010 286167371111800127309824762817672618701028616737111180012730982476281 767261870102861673711118 001273098247628176 72618701028616737111180


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2179836269130128402219372702930219768236280391 1872092810001010109821708260837029701732017271920192701702717201029801982018730802930621 7632918739812739187293872 \321878659`59273894087208391283782936219864 321372983681923918372740971071073401648268461084620846 4217037928703601260486207309278107390720197302173 1 9 3 0 8 2 6 3 2 8 6 7 9 1 2 0 3 9 2 0 7 2 7 3 9 1 22 23 07 40 81 22 17 03 30 19 98 62 24 67 36 82 98 71 17 26 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 3 0 8 1 6 8 3 3 6 1 0 6 3 1 8 6 3 0 3 7 8 1 0 2 8 9 1 0 8 9 2 0 1 0 2 7 1 7 2 0 7 1 0 7 2 9 1 0 2 9 1 7 2 7 1 0 2 3 7 1 0 7 9 2 01 73 37 82 08 67 22 89 00 78 12 26 83 99 08 16 07 12 01 16 09 07 03 16 81 29 97 02 25 71 89 17 65 63 27 51 72 96 61 19 8 8102061023793200988 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 2783927819372189378192367 14267839019286234972682783187261792368108277081004298863176279357`1915161887080112237\3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 2 68 41 87 06 27 62 46 81 08 17 60 41 80 62 28 86 41 66 17 03 47 31 71 01 11 78 00 10 71 92 07 43 70 29 78 32 84 17 96 32 28 91 17 86 67 32 86 91 28 77 30 11 20 32 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 31 71 11 28 00 30 71 92 17 03 20 79 08 92 34 77 06 12 88 71 27 96 07 32 76 01 28 67 80 41 00 62 28 16 01 66 37 03 77 81 21 91 71 38 00 70 11 22 47 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 273098247628176726187 3681360163386180300811117376168201078162767182674289037210732 0 90 11 62 27 13 70 39 58 72 94 17 56 22 78 91 17 66 37 72 96 61 18 27 70 61 80 92 38 66 21 86 07 93 27 71 81 21 71 38 10 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 2 08 86 11 16 17 13 77 31 71 61 11 68 80 20 01 12 07 73 80 19 68 22 74 67 76 12 88 21 67 76 47 22 86 91 08 37 70 21 10 02 08 86 11 16 17 13 77 31 71 61 11 68 80 20 01 12 07 73 80 19 68 22 74 67 76 12 88 21 67 76 47 22 86 91 08 37 70 21 10 02 18 96 31 66 77 13 37 6 4 27 86 92 08 31 77 26 17 02 06 81 18 17 10 11 70 32 78 66 11 66 87 23 07 11 01 71 81 18 60 20 71 62 77 13 80 29 68 72 44 27 86 92 08 31 77 26 17 02 06 81 18 17 10 11 70 32 78 66 11 66 87 23 07 11 01 71 81 18 60 20 71 62 77 13 80 29 68 72 44 27 86 92 08 31 77 26 1 170327866116687230711017181186020716277138029687244 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 2 1 0 0 8 1 1 1 1 7 3 7 6 1 6 8 2 0 1 0 7 8 1 6 2 7 6 7 1 8 2 6 7 4 2 8 9 0 3 7 2 1 0 0 8 1 1 1 1 7 3 7 63 17 61 81 21 01 18 00 70 81 12 67 23 70 69 78 12 84 27 66 72 48 21 87 96 07 32 76 21 18 07 00 81 10 12 1 0 62 78 46 21 86 97 03 37 71 21 11 01 08 80 10 11 12 17 73 30 79 68 12 64 87 26 02 18 01 77 86 17 62 26 71 68 77 10 81 20 62 78 46 21 86 97 03 37 71 21 11 01 08 80 10 11 12 17 73 30 79 68 12 64 87 26 02 18 01 77 86 17 62 26 71 68 77 10 81 20 62 78 46 21 86 97 03 3 1 6 2 7 6 7 1 8 2 6 7 4 2 8 9 0 3 7 2 1 0 0 8 1 1 1 1 7 3 7 6 1 6 8 2 0 1 0 7 8 1 6 2 7 6 7 1 8 2 6 7 4 2 87 91 01 31 71 28 10 00 01 82 17 13 10 19 78 32 74 67 16 62 88 21 07 16 07 72 86 11 68 27 70 61 70 12 8 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 2 8 6 1 6 7 3 7 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 3 0 9 8 2 4 7 6 2 8 1 7 6 7 2 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 6276718267428903721008111173761682010781627671826742890372100811117376168201078 6 8 2 0 1 0 7 8 1 6 2 7 6 7 1 8 2 6 72 48 26 81 96 07 33 77 21 11 01 01 88 10 10 11 12 77 33 70 69 18 62 84 27 06 12 08 71 87 16 67 22 76 61 78 17 80 21 60 72 48 26 81 96 07 33 77 21 11 01 01 88 10 10 11 12 77 33 70 69 18 62 84 27 06 12 08 71 8 767261870102861673711118 1008111173761 001273098247628176 781627671826742890372 7 6 1 6 8 2 0 1 0 7 8 1 6 2 7 6 7 1 8 2 6 7 4 2 8 9 0 3 7 2 1 0 0 8 1 1 1 1 7 3 7 6 1 6 8 2 0 1 0 7 8 1 6 2 7 6 7 1 8 2 6 7 4 2 87 92 06 31 78 27 10 01 00 82 18 16 11 16 77 33 77 61 11 61 81 28 00 1 903721008111173 7182674289037210081111737616820107816276718267428903721008111173761682010781627671826742 737616820107816276 2100811117376168201078162767182674289037210081111737616820107816276718267428903721008111 67182674289037 0107816276718267428903721008111173761682010781627671826742890372100811117376168201078162 1737616820107816276718267428903721008111173761682010781627671826742890372100811117376168 20107816276718267428903721008111 1173761682010781627671826742890372100811117376168201078162767182674289037210081111737616 37616820107816276718267428903721008111173761682010781627671826742890372100811 2010781627671826742890372100811117 0107816276718267428903721008111173761682010781627671826742890372100811117376168 182674289037210081111737616820107816276718267428903721008111173761682 811117376168201078162767 671826742890372100 08111173761682010781627


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Innovative

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industrial

plant

for

the

recycling

of

Auto

GreenFluff, an Ita forward an innovative pro car-fluff (the waste of the process of vehicle of an innovative industrial plant able Automotive Shredder Residues (A technological alternatives, are currently disposed in landfi in the waste management for many years. Starting fro in landfill will be prohibited also in Italy as in many other European coun of non ferrous and ferr plastics, rubber, glass, textile fibres, paper, paints, oils and fluids. vehicle. It is estimated that the number of vehicles to year in 2015 (EEA’s data, 2001). This signifies that the qua March 2007, GreenFluff will realize, in for the screening and recovery of raw material car-fluff, to be put on the production of the automotive, ele cutting edge in a market niche and it represents a link between the oper industries of production. From the point of view of the emerging politic solution today as the best technology to guarantee an eco-compatibility of mankind. Theinnovation, based on a complex structure for environmental benefit. As a matter of fact, the plant is near the top among secondary industries which, up to now, have caused heavy damage t this mechanical cold process which from a technical point of view is abso Greenfluff says: “The technology and the new enterprises with in is unfortunately a scant resource at the national level, a funda capital but also as a bearer of expertises and mana a problem of a serious ecological impact, such as the dump outstanding in my dreams without the intervention o these residues would be left “under archaelogists of the


omotive

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Shredder

Residues

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ASR,

also

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called

[69]

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car-fluff

alian company, puts ocess for the disposal of scrap disposal) by means of the implementation e to process, condition and recycle the ASR) which, in lack of valuable ill. The disposal of scrap has represented a critical aspect om the 1st January 2007, the disposal of waste scrap ntries. Such waste (called “car-fluff”) is formed by a heterogeneous mixture rous metallic residues, . Generally, the car-fluff represents 25% of the total weight of a motor o be scrapped will increase to 17 millions of units per antity will probably be doubled within the next ten years.In the north of Italy, an industrial plant ls (such as metals and plastics) from the waste ectric and electronic industry once again. The plant is on the rators, who collect these materials which are in disuse, and the primary cs for the environmental sustainability, the project represents the only f the entire production of these goods which are periodically alienated by r the recovery of all raw materials, permits an important g the technological elements useful for the environmental improvement of the to the target “MANKIND-ENVIRONMENT”. The innovation is reached by olutely reliable. Diego Giancristofaro, President and Managing Director of nnovative industrial processes can find in venture capital, which amental partner for the start-up not only as a bearer of venture agerial support. My enterprise project, which solves ping of residues of the cycle of car disposal, would be left of an important Italian Fund of Investment. Fatally, our feet” as “present” for the generations yet unborn”.

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What motivates you to do more to protect the environment? A survey by the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC), a nonprofit, public service organization dedicated to recycling used rechargeable batteries, identifies driving forces behind American’s “green” practices and attitudes and reveals that concern for one’s children is an important part of Americans’ motivation to protect the environment. The survey, conducted by GfK Roper Public Affairs and Media on behalf of RBRC, reveals that in 2008 Americans increasingly feel an obligation to recycle and protect the environment for the sake of future generations. In fact, of the items asked about in the survey, children are the primary reason that Americans admit to suffering from “green guilt” – the feeling consumers have when they aren’t doing everything they know that they can and should be doing to protect the environment. The responsibility to ensure the future of the Earth for generations to come is one that Americans are increasingly viewing with more importance. An overwhelming majority (91 percent) of respondents say that the reason they recycle is because of the impact their efforts will have on their children’s future. Nearly 20 percent of Americans say they would do more to preserve the environment – and relieve some of their “green guilt” - if they had a child. Nevertheless, even with the emphasis on adopting eco-friendly practices for the sake of one’s children, 30 percent of respondents still admit that switching to cloth diapers is one thing they could not bring themselves to do to be “greener”, among the items listed.

Survey reveals children’s environmental future is greatest incentive for consumers to be more environmentally conscious

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Overall, the number of people who did not experience “green guilt” in 2008 (42 percent) decreased from 2007 (51 percent), perhaps suggesting that Americans are increasingly realizing that their actions to preserve the environment – large and small – can make a difference. In fact, almost 90 percent of respondents say that the reason they recycle is to do their part to protect the environment. “It is encouraging that most Americans are acutely aware of the impact today’s actions have on the sustainability of the Earth for future generations,” said Greg Broe, Interim Chief Operating Officer, RBRC. “Consumers now recognize that even something as simple as recycling is a practice that will help to ensure a healthy environmental future for their children.” The survey also reports that nearly 90 percent of Americans are recycling at least one item.

[74] ISSUES


Rechargeable battery and cell phone recycling efforts increased by 10 percentage points and 8 percentage points from 2007, respectively, with 37 percent of Americans recycling used rechargeable batteries and 41 percent recycling old cell phones. Other commonly recycled items include aluminum cans, plastic and newspapers. While there are hundreds of ways to â&#x20AC;&#x153;go greenâ&#x20AC;? this Earth Day, this survey pinpointed the one thing from a list of items that Americans felt could most easily be incorporated into their everyday lifestyles. The largest group of respondents (23 percent) said they would bring their own tote bag to the grocery store rather than use a plastic bag. Seventeen percent would turn off the air conditioning or heat when they are not home, or unplug appliances that are not in use.

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Additionally, 11 percent indicated a willingness to recycle old cell phones and used rechargeable batteries. “When it comes to preserving the environment, there are many possibilities and sometimes it can be overwhelming to figure out what exactly you can do,” said Danny Seo, best-selling author and eco-lifestyle expert. “Doing ‘Just One Thing’ – no matter how small – can have a lasting impact on our environmental future. One simple and free way to help is by recycling old rechargeable batteries and cell p h o n e s t h r o u g h t h e C a l l 2 R e c y c l e T M p r o g.r a m ” RBRC encourages you to try one of these simple environmentally-friendly tips this Earth Day: Limit the amount of electricity your children use by encouraging them to play outdoors i n s t e a d o f p l a y i n g v i d e o a n d c o m p u t e r g a.m e s - T h e s c r e e n s a v e r o n y o u r c o m p u,t e r is still running on full power. Instead put your computer into sleep or standby mode. Instead of purchasing a new plastic water bottle each day, consider using a glass or mug, or refill and reuse your old bottles. - Cut costs on gas while limiting air pollution by carpooling with coworkers, friends or families. If possible, look into fuel-efficient or hybrid c.a r s “Almost 40 percent of Americans are already recycling their used rechargeable batteries, and we hope that more consumers will take advantage of RBRC’s free and easy Call2Recycle program and do their part to help the environment,” continued B.r o e

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Call2Recycle is the most comprehensive rechargeable battery and cell phone recycling progr am available nationwide. The program provides a convenient way to collect and recycle old cell phones and used rechargeable batteries found in cordless electronic products, such as laptop computers, cordless power tools, two-way radios, cordless and cellular phones, digital cameras and camcorders.


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Report reveals flawed U.S. e-waste policies

In a harsh review of U.S. hazardous waste laws, independent government invest electronic waste in a new report. A Government Accountability Office (GAO) re quantity’ of discarded electronics, such as computers, televisions, and cell dismantled in conditions unsafe to workers and dangerous to the environment.‘ used electronics is among the narrowest in the industrialized world and the l a minor degree,’ the report said. The international shipping of electronic wa Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and requires signatories to notify developing nations of incoming hazardous waste country not to ratify the convention. U.S. residents removed more than 300 mi according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). At least 80 perc is frequently sold to brokers who ship it to the developing world, mainly Asi products and often burn the remains in the open air or dump it into nearby wa

Products with cathode-ray tubes (CRTs), such as televisions and computer moni Exporters must obtain EPA consent before exporting the products, which contai who posed as overseas and domestic scrap brokers uncovered 43 businesses that consent during a three-month period. ‘The export of CRTs from the United Stat the report noted. The report recommends that the EPA take stronger action to the role of the GAO to lobby Congressional action, the report also suggests t ratification of the Basel Convention.’ In the EPA’s comments on the report, a challenges in appropriately controlling the management of e-waste, both domes convinced that developing a regulatory scheme to address these issues is the advocates voluntary measures. The GAO responded that voluntary measures are o enforcement recourse against reluctant participants.’The United States is not problem. As more consumers discard their used electronics, 20-50 million metr United Nations Environment Programme estimates. Some companies are improving amount of e-waste generated. According to Greenpeace’s ‘Greener Electronics G


ISSUES

tigators highlighted the need for improved regulation of eport released on Wednesday said a ‘substantial phones, are sent to the developing world where they are ‘The United States’ regulatory coverage of exported, little regulation that does exist has been enforced to only aste, or ‘e-waste,’ is regulated by the 1989 Basel Their Disposal. The agreement, ratified by 170 countries, e shipments. The United States is the only industrialized illion electronic devices from their households in 2006, cent of the e-waste is sent to domestic landfills. The rest ia and West Africa, where workers dismantle the ater bodies.

itors, are the only exported e-waste that the EPA regulates. in harmful levels of copper and lead. GAO officers t were willing to export the items without obtaining EPA tes in apparent violation of the CRT rule seems widespread,’ enforce its hazardous waste laws. While it is not that the EPA foster debate in Congress ‘to compel administrators wrote, ‘EPA is well aware of the numerous stically and internationally. However, we are not most appropriate course of action.’ The response instead often ineffective because ‘the agency has no t the only contributor to the world’s growing e-waste ric tons of e-waste is generated worldwide each year, the the recyclable content of their products to reduce the G u i d e , ’ c e l l p h o n e m a n u f a c t u r e r N o k i a l e a d s t h e c o m p e t i t i o n . 

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F C

Br F C

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and

toner

Earth friendly ink and toner tipsSaving on printer ink isn’t just about saving money, but also lessening the impact on the environment. Ink and toner cartridges are made from plastic and plastic is made from oil. There’s also the energy that goes into making the cartridge itself - more oil or coal burned to generate the electricity on that side of things. Some years back many printer manufacturers tried to scare consumers away from refilling and reusing cartridges by stating that this practice would void their printer warranties. I believe it’s been upheld in most western courts that this is not the case. Refilling your own cartridges, will a little messy at times, saves millions of empty cartridges winding up in landfill. Depending on the cartridge and how you use it, you can refill them dozens of times. One of the tricks to extending the life of a cartridge is to never let it run totally dry. Each time you print without ink, it wears out the print head very quickly. You should refill your cartridge when it gets down to around the 25% full mark. Another earth friendly tip for saving on ink refills - buy in bulk. Instead of purchasing “single-shot” refillers, buy your ink in larger containers; again, less plastic, less landfill that won’t break down for hundreds o f

ink

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on

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Saving

[84] ISSUES


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y

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[86]

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Uncontrolled electronic waste recycling threat to children, says EC

Current EU policy on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) highlights the need for recycling of electrical and electronic equipment to limit the total quantity of waste going to landfill. However, research carried out in China suggests that if rec is not carried out safely then there is risk to human health and the environment. The researchers from Hong Kong studied Guiyu, a village in southeast China which has a significant electronic circuit board recycling industry. Villagers melt solder from the circuit boards and sort electrical components, which they sell to electrical appliance factories. Circuit boards contain many toxic metals. The researchers tested dust from the recycling works also from the nearby road, food market and schoolyard. They found high levels of dangerous heavy metals which would have an impact on the health of the recycling and would pose a high risk to children. The researchers tested for the metals cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead an cause both acute and long-term to high levels of lead and copper were the concern. High lead levels are associated with IQ in children. Other research has shown that both children in Guiyu have a high incidence of bone disease, as well as digestive, neurological and respiratory pr which may be linked to metal toxicity. A risk assessment indicated that recycling workers could exposed to 50 times the safe oral lead transport the metals into their homes from the dust, transferring the dust to their children. In separate study, children of circuit board workers were found to have higher levels of lead in their blood than those whose parents recycled plastics. The metals get into the body through the skin or when dust is inadvertently breathed in. The health risk to children at all locations around the village was around eight times greater than that Few studies to date have determined the extent of the problems caused by uncontrolled electronic waste recycling. Similar waste is commonly recycled in Afr as well as India and Vietnam. Awareness of the c uncontrolled recycling could prevent some of mistakes being repeated in these countries. The amount generated in the European Community is growing rapidly Policy makers would like to see more WEEE recycling. The EU WEEE directive seeks to encourage safe recycling, addressing issues such as managing the risks of handling hazardous components, which as this case study shows, can cause conce if recycling is not carried out safely.


ISSUES

[87]

>

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cycling a significant

and

hops,

workers

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[88]

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Nokia’s aptly named phone, the Remade, is an example of “upcycling”—it’s made of aluminum cans and other recycled materials. Automakers ha lon g giv en t h e i r b e s t d e s i g n e r s f r e e r e i n ve to come up with “concept cars”— prototypes that highlight some new design or h igh-techf eature but aren’t meant for the production line. Bac k in February, mobile-phone maker Nokia borrowed this idea and unv eiled a concept phone called the Remade. The hook? It was ntirel y of recycled made almost e materials, such a s aluminum ic bottles, and even cans, plast old car tires. The Remade is upcycling, a form a n example o f o f r e c y c l i n g t h a t t a k e s u s e d or recycled materials an d creates a new product with a quality or value higher than that of the original materials. Materials that are designed to be upcycle d Tr a d i t i o n a l r are called technical nutrients. sometimes described as downcycling ecycling is because the qual the material degrades wit h each li f e ity of y c p l e. Recyc ap er; c isn’t as nice as newly printed led pape r r ecycle d as strong as newly forged steel. (T h e e steel is n’t in- betw e t h e r e c y c l e d m a t e r i al i s b a s i c a l l y t h e n form— wh ere rs , same as the orig m a t e r i a l — i s c a l l e d c l o s e d-l o o p r e c y c l inal ing.) Si x bi ll io generate an awful lot of e-waste (or fo t n hu ma ns he hyp n ewaste) in the form of discarded compute o ito r h e n - a v e r s e , m and other electronic gewgaws. The process of c s, ycel l p h o n e s , components or metals is called e-cycling (or of te nc l i n gt hi ), en g and it’s been getting a lot of press latel y—and r e g necycl a e i lot of new lingo. Indeed, e-scrap has the dubious hon erati o being the fastest growing segment of the garbage sy r r st g o .n f

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The sheer quantity of all this WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) is bad enough, but then there are all its toxic heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, and mercury, which leach out, harming nearby ecosystems. That’s why many municipalities around the world now mandate that old electronic appliances must be e-cycled. (According to Discover magazine, a new British law explicitly includes sex toys as an example of e-waste that must not be tossed out.) It’s no wonder we’re starting to see lots of reclaimers, which are firms that process so-called brown goods — obsolete electronic products such as radios and televisions. Reclaimers divide brown goods into historic scrap (or historic waste), which refers to obsolete electronics manufactured by a company that’s still in business, and orphan scrap (or orphan waste), obsolete items made by a firm that’s gone out of business. Reclaimers reclaim as much as they can, not only from computers and cellphones (which contain millions of dollars worth of copper, gold, silver, and other precious metals) but also an increasingly wide range of electronic goods, including VCRs, CD players, calculators, radios, stereos, CB radios, fax machines, and answering machines.


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The reclaimers sell what they can to manufacturers who Upcycle the materials into new goods. What’s left requires Certified destruction, in which an e‑scrap item such as a computer Is carefully and completely Dismantled so that it poses no danger to the environment. The hidden riches in cellphones and other electronic gear have been called green gold Because they’re realized Only through e-cycling programs. Large companies handle most Of this, but some individuals Want a slice of the pie too. These urban miners prize discarded Electronics but also scour cities for scrap Metal. This aboveground mining is usually aboveboard, but some Underhanded individuals have taken To cutting down bronze statues, tearing down iron fences, and Even stealing manhole covers, committing a crime known as materials theft. Consumers are getting hip to the Recycling problems inherent in electronics and are starting to precycle, or

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Choose gadgets based On how recyclable they are. Some manufacturers take responsibility for their products cradle to cradle, extending a productâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life cycle to include recycling it into Something new. If the manufacturer Also handles these recycling duties, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s called an Extended producer. Most such manufacturers also offer voluntary take-back Programs, in which consumers can return end-of-life devices at no charge. Of course, you could also Follow the lead of a nut-orchard owner in australia, Who wanted to attract birds That would eat pests. His solution? Convert the shells of Old macintosh computers into birdhouses!

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The acidification of the world’s oceans, caused by t accelerating at an unprecedented rate, threatening marine ecosystems and the live International Symposium on the Ocean in a High The meeting, attended by 32 countries, was organized by UNESCO’s Intergovern on Oceanic Research (SCOR), the International At Geosphere Biosphere Programme of the Prince Albert II several other partners. “Our oceans are sick. We don’t quite know ocean chemistry in changing, that as a result some ma need to sit up and take notice,” said James Acidification results from the ocean’s capacity to absorb vast quantities of car of fossil fuels. Currently, t billion tonnes of CO2 annually that would otherwise role in mitigating global w “Since the industrial re ocean surface waters has increased by 30 percent. This change is greater experienced in many millions


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the absorption of huge volumes of carbon dioxide, is elihoods of tens of millions of people, concluded scientists attending the Second CO2 World held in Monaco from 6-9 October. 250 marine scientists from nmental Oceanographic Commission, the Scientific Committee tomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International (IGBP), with the support of Monaco Foundation and how sick, but there is enough evidence now for us to say that rine organisms will be affected, and that decision makers Orr of the IAEA and Chairman of the meeting. rbon dioxide, about one-third of what we emit to the atmosphere from combustion the ocean absorbs about eight stay in the atmosphere. It thus plays an important warming. But at what price? volution, the acidity of and happening about 100 times faster than for previous acidification events of years,â&#x20AC;? said Dr. Orr.


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“Published research indicates that by 203 0, the Southern Ocean will start to becom e corrosive to the shell s of some marine snails that swim in surfac e waters. These snails provide a major source of food for Pacifi c Salmon. If they decline or disappear in some regions, such as the North Pacifi c, what will happen to the salmon – and th e salmon fishing industry? And what will happen a s ocean acidification increasingly affects coral reef s, which are home to one-quarter of th e world’s fish during at leas t part of their lifetim e, and which support a multi-billio n dollar tourist industry?” he continue d. “Previous acidification events provide a clu e,” said Carole Turley from th e Plymouth Marine Laboratory (U.K). “The evidenc e indicates mass extermination of shell bearing organism s for example. This bears out with studies of the ocean floo r around existing natural CO2 vents today, where the sea water i s already highly acidified, and which show a steep decline in biodiversit y and the appearance o f invasive species.” The scientist s attending the Monaco conference agree d that much more research is needed to understand th e implications and impact of the acidification occurring toda y. They also insisted that reducing carbon emissions would b e the only effective way o f stabilizing or reversing th e acidification process, and argue d that, despite the reticence of many government s, this was both achievable and affordable. Hermann Held of th e Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (Germany ), told the participants that the cost of achievin g zero carbon emissions over the next centur y could be less than 1.5 percent of globa l Gross Domestic Produc t.


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