Como manter a produção de camarão de cutivo na presença de ems e wssv sufang zhang

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张素芳

教授

中国鱼病研究会常务理事 中国鱼病研究会西部分会主任 四川省水产学会常务理事

Executive director of the China Fish diseases Research Society Director of the China Fish diseases Research Society in the western branch Executive director of the Fisheries Institute of Sichuan Province


Ms. Zhang 1978 – 1987 Institute of Aquaculture of Sichuan Province, China. Established the Department of Aquatic Animal Disease Control. 1987 – 1993 Professor. Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, the Southwest University, China. 1993 – Present Funder of Fangcao Pharmaceutical Co. Focusing on producing Chinese herb to treat and control aquaculture disease



2004

2000

1996


美国鲶鱼协会, 市场推广

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Two kinds of diseases have impact on the shrimp (Chinese shrimp, Penaeus chinensis)aquaculture! 两大疾病,对虾养殖业造成二次冲击!

1. Whites Spot Syndrome , WSS (白斑综合征) 2. Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease, EMS 肝胰腺坏死症(偷死病 )

However, infectious diseases are causing major aquaculture production losses in many countries, even having a significant

negative impact in Chinese economies.


The ecological prevention and control

technology of Whites Spot Syndrome(WSS) and Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease(EMS) (AHPNS) 对虾白斑综合症和肝胰腺坏死症生态防控技术


The ecological prevention and control theory and technology of WSS 白斑综合症生态防控理论与技术 The WSS disseminate is divided in two stage for individual occurrence and epidemic WSS在养殖对虾池塘中个体发生与流行分为二个阶段

—— First, WSS individual occurrence relate to water physical and chemical factors. The solution is that regulation of water physical and chemical factors to prevent and control the WSS occurred in the shrimp .

首先,WSS在养殖对虾种群中个体发生,与水体理化因子有关


The ecological prevention and control theory and technology of WSS 白斑综合症生态防控理论与技术 —— Sceond, the WSS epidemic in population relate to the heathy shrimp eating dead shrimp. The solution is that the introduction

of other species to form the predator-prey relation.


The ecological prevention and control theory and technology of WSS 白斑综合症生态防控理论与技术

-----The main reason for aquaculture population collapse is that the population structure of aquaculture ecosystem is too single. Lack of advantage competitors that can compete with health

shrimp feeding dead shrimp in pond .


The process of WSSV leading to shrimp aquaculture population system collapse WSSV导致养殖对虾种群系统崩溃过程

latent infection 潜伏感染

shrimp die of WSSV 因WSSV死亡对虾

Shrimp carried the WSSV 携带WSSV对虾

Healthy shrimp 健康对虾

latent infection 潜伏感染

Environmental stress--Fundamental niche Latent infection turn into acute infection

环境胁迫作用-基础生态位

潜伏感染转化为急性感染

The niche of individuals in a population of interaction

population collapse 种群崩溃

种群内个体相互作用生态位


The mode of Grass carp removing disease shrimp

Grass carp removes disease shrimp

disease shrimp appear

The spread of the WSSV

Grass carp Healthy shrimp disease shrimp dead shrimp

Shrimp began to die

The population began to collapse

The process of WSSV leading to shrimp aquaculture population system collapse

Healthy shrimp eat dead shrimp


Wss biological control mathematical model, experimental

and simulation WSS生物防控数学模型、实验和模拟


Selection of fish 鱼类的选择 Freshwater fishes 淡水鱼类 (1) Feeding habit 摄食习性 According to the breeding of fish feeding habits, freshwater fishes in China can be divided into: 根据养殖期鱼类摄食习性,可以将我国主要养殖淡水鱼类分为:

 Herbivores : Parabramis pekinensis, bighead carp, silver carp, etc. 植物食性:鳊、鳙、鲢等。

 Carnivorous: Herring, Eel, Mandarin fish, Southern Catfish, Leiocassis longirostris, Snakehead, Channa maculata, Acipenser schrenckii, Erythroculter ilishaeformis, Protosalanx hyalocranius, Clarias leather, Chinese black sleeper, etc 动物食性:青鱼、鳗鲡、鳜鱼、南方大口鲶、长吻鮠 、乌鳢、斑鳢、 史氏鲟 、翘嘴红鲌、大银鱼、革胡子鲶、中华乌塘鳢等。

 Ominivorous: Grass carp, Carp, Crucian carp, Ricefield eel, Loach, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Spinibarbus sinensis, Spinibarbus denticulatus, Squaliobarbus curriculus, Dace, Plagiognathops microlepis, Xenocypris argentea Gunther, Hemibarbus maculates, Mystus guttatus, Channa asiatica, Mullet, Plecoglossus altivelis, Pond Smelt, Carassius auratus, Tilapia mossambica, etc. 杂食性:草鱼、鲤、鲫、黄鳝、泥鳅、黄颡鱼、中华倒刺鲃、 光倒刺鲃 、赤眼鳟、鲮鱼、细鳞斜颌鲴 、银鲴、花鱼骨、 斑鳠、月鳢、胭脂鱼、香鱼、池沼公鱼、金鱼、罗非鱼等。


(2) According to the fish feeding ability, feeding method, activity , following freshwater fish can be used as a ecological control advantages fish of shrimp diseases : 根据鱼类摄食能力、摄食方式、活动能力以及获得的容易程度,可以作为对虾病害生物 防控优势鱼类:

乌鳢 鳜鱼 斑鳢 罗非鱼 中华乌塘鳢 南方大口鲶 长吻鮠 草鱼 翘嘴红鲌 青鱼 革胡子鲶 史氏鲟 大银鱼 鳗鲡

Ophicephalus argus siniperca chuatsi Channa maculate Tilapia Bostrychus sinensis Silurus soldatovi meridionalis Leiocassis longirostris Ctenopharyngodon idellus Erythroculter ilishaeformis Mylopharyngodon piceus Clarias leather Aclpenser Schrenckii whitebait Anguilla japonica

鲈形目攀鲈亚目鳢科鳢属 鲈形目鮨科鳜亚科鳜属 鲈形目鳢科鳢属 鲈形目鲈形亚目丽鱼科罗非鱼属 鲈形目 塘鳢科 乌塘鳢属 鲶形目鲶科鲶属 鲶形目鲿科鮠属 鲤形目鲤科雅罗鱼亚科草鱼属 鲤形目鲤科红鲌属 鲤形目鲤科青鱼属 鲤形目胡子鲶科胡子鲶属 鲟形目鲟科鲟属 鲑形目银鱼科银鱼属 鳗鲡目鳗鲡科鳗鱼属


Marine fishes 海水鱼类 (1) Feeding habit 摄食习性 According to the breeding of fish feeding habits, Marine fishes in China can be divided into: 根据养殖期鱼类的摄食性质,可以将主要养殖海水鱼类分为:  Herbivorous : Barracuda, Mugil cephalus, etc. 植物食性:梭鱼、鲻鱼等。  Carnivorouse: Lates calcarifer, Lateolabrax japonicus, Epinephelus akaara, Epinephelus daemelii, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Trachinotus ovatus, cobio, Lutjanus argentimaculatusm, Lethrinus nebulosus, sparuslatus, Plectorhinchus cinctus, Hapalogenys nitens, Takifugu rubripes, Takifugu ocellatus, Paralichthys lethostigma, Pseudosciaena crocea, etc. 动物食性:尖吻鲈、花鲈 、赤点石斑鱼 、斜带石斑鱼 、鞍带石斑鱼 棕点石斑鱼、卵形鲳鲹 、军曹鱼 、紫红笛鲷 、 星斑裸颊鲷、黄鳍鲷 、花尾胡椒鲷 、斜带髭鲷、 红鳍东方鲀 、弓斑东方鲀 、漠斑牙鲆、大黄鱼等。

 Omnivorouse: Sciaenops ocellatus, Lutjanus sanguineus, pagrosomus major, Rhabdosargus sarba, Takifugu obscurus, etc. 杂食性:眼斑拟石首鱼 、红笛鲷 、真鲷、平鲷、暗纹东方鲀等。


(2) According to the fish feeding ability, feeding method, activity and easy to get, following seawater fish can be used as a ecological control advantages fish of shrimp diseases 根据鱼类 摄食能力、摄食方式、活动能力以及获得的容易程度,可以作为对虾生物防控优势鱼类: 尖吻鲈

Lates calcarifer

鲈形目尖吻鲈科尖吻鲈属

Lateolabrax japonicus

鲈形目鮨科花鲈属

赤点石斑鱼

Epinephelus akaara

鲈形目鮨科石斑鱼亚科石斑鱼属

斜带石斑鱼

Epinephelus coioides

鲈形目鮨科石斑鱼亚科石斑鱼属

鞍带石斑鱼

Epinepheluslanceolatus

鲈形目鮨科石斑鱼亚科石斑鱼属

棕点石斑鱼

Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

鲈形目鮨科石斑鱼亚科石斑鱼属

卵形鲳鲹

Trachinotus ovatus

鲈形目鲹科鲳鲹亚科鲳鲹属

军曹鱼

Rachycentron canadum

鲈形目军曹鱼科军曹鱼属

紫红笛鲷

Lutjanus argentimacularus

鲈形目笛鲷科笛鲷属

Lethrinus nebulosus

鲈形目裸颊鲷科裸颊鲷属

黄鳍鲷

Sparus latus houttuyn

鲈形目鲷科鲷属

花尾胡椒鲷

Plectorhynchus cinctus

鲈形目石鲈科胡椒鲷属

花鲈

星斑裸颊鲷


3). Fish for health and activity weak shrimp feeding selectivity 鱼类对健康对虾和活动力弱对虾的摄食选择性 3.5g/tail shrimp 3.5克/尾的虾 (input amount:health and activity weak shrimp both are 30 tail ) (投入量:各30尾健康虾和活动力弱的虾)

0.6g/tail shrimp 0.6克/尾的虾 (input amount:health and activity weak shrimp both are 30 tail ) (投入量:各125尾健康虾和活动力弱的虾)

14%

21%

79%

健康虾(尾)

86%

活动力弱的虾(尾)

健康虾(尾)

活动力弱的虾(尾)

Health shrimp activity weak shrimp Health shrimp activity weak shrimp 100 g/tail cobia on a variety of specifications to Litopenaeus vannamei feeding capacity 100克/尾军曹鱼对各种规格凡纳滨对虾的摄食选择性


c12

To determine the capacity of fish in controlling WSS, we performed the experiments in four sizes of shrimps (1.3 g, 2.5 g, 5.0 g, 7.8 g). We released one 1-kg grass carp with 750 healthy shrimps in 10 m2 tank. In this setting, we released different number of infected shrimps (see Exp. Table 4). Stars (*) represent the number of infected shrimps successfully controlled by one 1-kg grass carp while clear circles (o) represent the number of infected shrimps that failed to be controlled by one 1-kg grass carp. Based on the model 3, we simulated to determine the threshold (red line) of the number of infected shrimps controlled by one 1-kg grass carp. The red line is simulated highest value of one 1kg fish that can control the number of infected shrimps with different weights of shrimps.


The ecological prevention and control technology of Whites Spot Syndrom 对虾WSS生物防控技术 (1) Grass carp biological prevention and control of WSS 对虾WSS草鱼生物防控技术

(2) Cat

fish biological prevention and control of WSS

对虾WSS革胡子鲶生物防控技术

(3) Grass

carp

and Cat

fish biological prevention and control of WSS

对虾WSS草鱼和革胡子鲶联合生物防控技术

(4)

sciaenops ocellatus biological prevention and control of WSS

对虾WSS美国红鱼生物防控技术

(5) Cobio biological prevention and control of WSS 对虾WSS军曹鱼生物防控技术

(6) Rrouper biological prevention and control of WSS 日本囊对虾WSS石斑鱼防控技术

(7) Tilapia biological prevention and control of WSS 罗非鱼WSS生物防控技术


Acknowledgments Dr. Jianguo He Zhongshang University in China


2 . Shrimp Hepatopancreati Necrosis

ecological control technology 对虾肝胰腺坏死症生态防控技术

EMS AHPNS


Etiology analysis of shrimp hepatopancreas necrosis 对虾肝胰腺坏死症病因分析

Normal liver pancreas 正常肝胰腺

Hepatopancreas necrosis 肝胰腺坏死症


Causes for shrimp hepatopancreas necrosis 对虾肝胰腺坏死症发生的原因 (1) When shrimp seed carrying large numbers of pathogens, the shrimp seed will die in 10 days. (2) During the early stage of cultivation, toxic algae or a large amount of algae death in pond , will result in massive of shrimp death in 2-3 days (3) During the late stage of cultivation, when the toxic and harmful physical and chemical factors of pond water exceed the standard ,will result in shrimp chronic poisoning and pathogenic diseases. (4) During the late stage of cultivation, toxic algae or a large amount of algae death in pond ,will form environmental stress. After that pathogenic diseases will happen.

The former two cases commonly referred to Early Mortality Syndrome(EMS). The latter two cases generally referred to as "the secretly death “. In fact, all the four cases are result of action of environmental stress and pathogenic. The primary factor are the physical and chemical factors and poisonous , harmful algae and dead algae.

The fundamental reason is that the amount of shrimp aquaculture is large than environmental capacity. So, we call them all hepatopancreas necrosis.


Environment

Immunity Resistance 2014/11/17

Pathogens


1, Before breeding shrimp must clean up the pond

by dredging, washing, turning over, insolating, disinfecting , flooding the pond. Those method need 30 days.


2 Culture water 培水 The death of toxic and harmful algae and algae is one of the reasons leading to massive of shrimp suddenly died during the early stage of cultivation and the the shrimp gradually died during the late stage of cultivation. Overfertilization of the pond will lead to excessive algae. Improper measures and the changes weather , also easy to cause the death of algae. Shrimp in poisonous and harmful algae environment , feeding poisonous or harmful algae, feeding a large number of death algae will die. Therefore, algae is unfavorable overmuch before the shrimp seed putting into the pond. And the water colour is un favorable too dark. The transparency of water shoud be 60-80cm. And shound not see the the bottom of the pond.

Poorer water quality areas are not suitable for aquaculture shrimp. The main reason is the need to improve the water quality .


3 苗种数量和质量 Strictly control the number of shrimp seed Closed culture mode 封闭式养殖模式

严格控制苗种数量miao

Seedling density of ordinary White Prawn is 3-4 million tail /acer. Seddling density of fast growth White Prawn varieties are 2-3 million tail /acer.

Intensive penaeid shrimp culture 高位池养殖模式 (1) If the pond is small than 2 acres , the common shrimp should be less than 100000 tail / acre, the fast growth White Prawn varieties should be less than 70000 tail / acre. (2) If the pond is around 2 acres , the common shrimp should be around 700000 tail / acre, the fast growth White Prawn varieties should be less than 50000 tail / acre. (3) If the pond is big than 5 acres, the seedling density should be corresponding to further reduce.


4 Strictly control the feeding quantity 严格控制饲料投喂量

For example, in closed ponds, if put the fast growth shrimp of 50000 tail / acer into the pond, and the feed coefficient is 1.2 , breeding weight is 60-80 tail /kg, breeding time is about 70 days, the feed bait should be about 600 kg/acer; If you put the same density of ordinary shrimp, and

farming time is 70 days, the feed bait should be about 300kg/acer. In order to reduce the environment stress, in the breeding process, the putting feed bait for a total volume of 600 kg should be in 100 days, rather than in 70 days.

Too much bait is the main cause of the pond environment stress. 饵料过量投喂是池塘环境胁迫的最主要原因

In order to improve the environment, not only control the seedling density, regulation of water

quality,but also control the feeding amount of bait per unit time per unit area.


Table 1. the feeding amount in the former 20 days 表1 养殖前20天饵料投喂量参考表 日龄

增加量 (公斤\天\10万尾)

日投喂量 (公斤\天\10万尾)

料型

白虾

草虾

花虾

白虾

草虾

花虾

白虾

草虾

花虾

1

0

0

0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0

0

0

2

0.2

0.1

0.1

1.2

0.6

0.6

0

0

0

3

0.2

0.1

0.1

1.4

0.7

0.7

0

0

0

4

0.2

0.1

0.1

1.6

0.8

0.8

0

0

0

5

0.2

0.1

0.1

1.8

0.9

0.9

0

0

0

6

0.2

0.1

0.1

2.0

1.0

1.0

0

0

0

7

0.2

0.1

0.1

2.2

1.1

1.1

0

0

0

8

0.2

0.1

0.1

2.4

1.2

1.2

0+1

0

0

9

0.2

0.1

0.1

2.6

1.3

1.3

0+1

0

0

10

0.2

0.1

0.1

2.8

1.4

1.4

0+1

0

0

11

0.3

0.2

0.2

3.1

1.6

1.6

1

0+1

0+1

12

0.3

0.2

0.2

3.4

1.8

1.8

1

0+1

0+1

13

0.3

0.2

0.2

3.7

2.0

2.0

1

0+1

0+1

14

0.3

0.2

0.2

4.0

2.2

2.2

1

0+1

0+1

15

0.3

0.2

0.2

4.3

2.4

2.4

1

0+1

0+1

16

0.4

0.3

0.3

4.7

2.7

2.7

1

1

1

17

0.4

0.3

0.3

5.1

3.0

3.0

1

1

1

18

0.4

0.3

0.3

5.5

3.3

3.3

1

1

1

19

0.4

0.3

0.3

5.9

3.6

3.6

1

1

1

20

0.4

0.3

0.3

6.3

3.9

3.9

1

1

1


Table 2. Feed type conversion, feed table amount and feed measuring time reference table 表2 料型转换、料台量及测料时间参考表

age(day)

1

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

料型

0

0+1

1

1+2

2

2

2+3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

料台量%

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.5

1.5

1.5

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.5

2.5

2.5

/

/

/

测料时间

/

/

/

2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.45

0.45


Measuring water, Regulation of water, farming shrimp 测水调水养虾 The critical values of some water quality index represents healthy shrimp environmental carrying capacity, or the critical value of shrimp infected by the pathogen tolerance to environmental stress. Determination of physical and chemical indexes of some water, through the regulation of water quality and technology to provide scientific basis for prevention of HPNS. Table 3 test water water physical and chemical index. 正常范围

必须采取措施的阈值

测定周期

pH

8.2-8.8

﹤8 或﹥9或日波动0.5

2次/天

DO

3-6

﹤3

2次/天

氨氮

0-0.1

﹥0. 15

1次/天

亚硝基氮

0-0.1

﹥0.2

1次/天

硫化氢

0-0.01

﹥0.015

1次/天

余氯

0

﹥0.1

1次/5天

盐度

按虾种和季节定

透明度

30-50

﹥60或﹤20

1次/3天

总碱度

80-160

﹤60

1次/7天

测定指标

1次/5天

总硬度

1次/7天

弧菌

0-500;虾苗菌落数少于150个

﹥ 3000个/ml,虾苗菌落数大 于150个

1次/10天

总磷

100-300ppm

﹥300或﹤50

1次/15天

可溶性钙

20-50

﹥100或﹤10

1次/15天

白班病毒、 IHHNV

0

﹥100个/mg组织

1次/15天


GPS area measurement instrument 测亩仪


Water Quality Analyzers parameters

Range 测试范围

检测参数

Ammonia

氨氮

0.05 - 12.0 mg/l

Dissolved oxygen

溶解氧

0.5 - 20 mg/l

Copper

0.01 - 3.0 mg/l

Chlorine

余氯

0.02 - 1.0 mg/l

Hydrogen sulfide

硫化氢

0.004 - 0.35 mg/l

Nitrite

亚硝酸盐 0.005 - 1.3 mg/l

PH

酸碱度

9.0 - 14.0

Phosphate

磷酸盐

0.02 - 1.2 mg/l

The total iron

总铁

0.01 - 5 mg/l

Chrome

0.01-1mg/L

Total alkalinity

总碱度

0 - 300 mg/l

Total hardness

总硬度

0 - 300 mg/l


Use the non specific virus shrimp to do the detection of vibrio 使用无特定病毒虾苗,进行弧菌检测 1.Shrimp WSSV, IHHNV, TSV and YHV should not be detected. 虾苗WSSV、IHHNV、TSV和YHV不得检出(PCR一步法检测技术、LAMP检测技术、荧光定量 PCR检测技术)

2.The method of detection of Shrimp (length <0.5cm) using

the TCBS plate detection.

虾苗(全长<0.5cm)用TCBS平板检测 The content of Vibrio not more than 30 CFU/ tail. The conten of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

(green bacteria) must not exceed 3 CFU/ tail. The method of detection of Shrimp (length of 0.51.0cm) using the TCBS plate detection. The content of Vibrio not more than 50 CFU/ tail. The conten of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (green bacteria) must not exceed 6 CFU/ tail.



Shrimp Diseases(虾病) Not found the Shrimp diseases timely 发现太晚

Not prescribe specific medicine for illness 不能对症下药

Not use the right treatment 用错了产品


Approved products in Aquaculture by the State Ministry of Agriculture in China Chinease Herb Chemical


The principle of Chinese herbal medicine 中草药的原理 1.Traditional Chinese medicine fundamentally cure the disease and prevention has long history. 2.It contain various chemicals play a role.


Not easy to find lethal Dose Effective Dose of great No withdrawal period 无休药期

Disease Terminator 治本

中草药优点

Advantages of Chinese herbal

No resistance 无耐药性


Use Tips 1.Prevention is major 2.Combination of Chemical or Antibiotics for treatment.


The effect factors of Chinese herbal


Intestine(肠道)


Production Process Grinding

80-120盎


Ultrafine comminution technology

Cell wall Membrance Chloroplast Plant Cell

Nucleus Vacuole Cytoplasm


Exposure of effective components


Electron microscopy


Quality of traditional Chinese medicine and the seasons


The relationship between quality and price of traditional Chinese Medicine


promlem

Only qualitative, not quantitative


Color Look


Smell


Taste


Touch


Equipment

thin layer chromatography; thinlayer

chromatography

HPLC



Medicine and Bait Mixer 药饵搅拌机



Stress



Control aflatoxin from feed Parasite Vibrio Viruses ………….


Other problems in China

Labor is more expensive • Electricity is more expensive • Human negligence are increasing •

What shall we do?


Aerator under water 微孔曝气增氧 The oxygen increasing machine is placed in the water at the bottom of pond , have the aeration pipe, gas explosion plate etc.. 放置于水体底部的增氧,有曝气管、爆气盘等。


Microporous Aerator

微孔增氧


Substrate Modifying Aerator / Swell Aerator (底质改良机/涌浪机) Not too much water, saving energy, promotes the overall water cycle,improved substrate.


原理


Remote Aerator Monitor and Controller 程增氧控制器


用户案例


用户案例


用户案例


用户案例


用户案例


Customer use smartphone 用户案例 to control Aerator


用户案例

Customer learn to use mobile phone to control in field


The function of remote controller (鱼儿乐远程控制器的功能)

• 24 hours of uninterrupted monitoring water temperature, dissolved oxygen •

Real-time transmission to the user's mobile phone

• Unlimited distance, whenever and wherever possible management pond • Know problems by the Data Graph, prevention is better than rescue

• Automatic, manual, timing, remote start stop aerator








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