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NEW LI FEFOR URBAN MANUF ACTURI NG DI STRI CTS Nor t heas t er nUni ver s i t ySc hool ofAr c hi t ec t ur e| Fal l 2013


This publication has been prepared as a part of the 2013 Master’s Research Studio in the Northeastern University School of Architecture. All research and content in this publication was produced by the “New Life for Urban Manufacturing Districs” studio research team.

Published by Northeastern University School of Architecture 360 Huntington Avenue Boston Massachusetts, 02115 Copyright © 2013 by Northeastern University School of Architecture All rights reserved.


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NEW LIFE FOR URBAN MANUFACTURING DISTRICTS Northeastern University School of Architecture | Fall 2013

Contributors: Tim Love | Elizabeth Decorso | Chris Marciano | Ryan Matthew | Jonathan Miller | Rachel Mutschler | Nicole Pandolfo | Matthew Piccirillo | Eric Pereira | Jenna Principi

INTRODUCTION A Case For Urban Manufacturing A Case For Architects Relevance

1 3 5 7

FIELD RESEARCH

9

GEOGRAPHY / LOGISTICS Urban Industrial Parks Suburban Industrial Parks

43 45 59

STANDARDS Pallets Daylighting

69 71 81

TYPOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS Organizational Strategies Expressing The Contents Prototypes

83 85 91 99


A CASE FOR URBAN MANUFACTURING A CASE FOR THE ARCHITECT RELEVANCE

INTRODUCTION The goal of our research initiative was to understand how architects and urban designers can better impact the conception, planning, and design of manufacturing facilities as part of a healthy mixed-use urban neighborhood. Central to our analysis and speculative thinking are two foundational questions: What kinds of manufacturing (still) needs to be located in cities and why? Why do architects need to be at the center of the discussion about the proper program-mix, layout, spatial qualities, and expressive strategy of these kinds of facilities? These questions were posed not only to guide our research priorities, but also because our shared research was formulated and formatted to launch speculative design proposals by each of the eleven students on the research team.


INTRODUCTION

A CASE FOR URBAN MANUFACTURING REASONS WHY MANUFACTURING TAKES PLACE IN NORTH AMERICAN CITIES 1 Manufacturing needs to be close to designers and/or engineers because of

on-going adjustments and revisions to the design of the product. Examples include small batch prototyping for new medical instruments, “bespoke” fashion and leather goods, and custom architectural components. 2 Manufacturing needs to be close to parts suppliers for bespoke and small

batch production. Examples include the relationship between accessory suppliers (buttons, zippers, fabric, and thread) and manufacturers in the Garment District in New York. 3 Manufacturing needs to be close to a skilled work force with technical

proficiency in all areas of relevant production. Examples include sewers and other specialists in the Garment District in New York and precision metal fabricators that work for defense suppliers in Connecticut. 4 Manufacturing needs to be close to a targeted consumer group because

products are sold on-site in a showroom, testing room, or store. Examples include artisanal food production that appeals to nearby city residents and/or tourists drawn to a district by other destinations. 5 Manufacturers want to provide directly to retailers (and eliminate third-

party distribution from the supply chain). Examples include micro-breweries distributing directly to stores, bars, and restaurants via their own fleet of trucks. Each of the rationales for urban manufacturing has specific design implications, whether at the interface of people visiting the facility (designers, consumers, and/or potential new employees), the need to receive just-intime stock for manufacturing, and/or the need to efficiently park a fleet of small trucks – all in a dense urban neighborhood.

Facing Page: Men pulling racks of clothing on busy sidewalk in Garment District, NYC (World Telegram & Sun photo by Al Ravenna)


INTRODUCTION

A CASE FOR THE ARCHITECT FIVE REASONS FOR THE INVOLVEMENT OF AN ARCHITECT 1 The company both manufactures and sells products at the same location to

highlight the manufacturing process itself as part of the marketing strategy and/or to provide shelf space during the early phases of a product line roll out (before third-party distributors have agreed to carry the product). As a result, the quality and character of the customer experience during tours of the facility and in the showroom are essential to the success of the business. 2 The company wants to broadcast the business brand by the shape and color

of the building, applied graphics, transparency to the functions inside, and/or the character of the architecture itself. 3 Because of the physical characteristics of the neighborhood context, the

exterior planning and architecture of the facility needs to be compatible with adjacent buildings in terms of scale, materiality, and relationship to the sidewalk and larger urban realm. 4 Because

of land values and/or in-place development guidelines, manufacturing functions need or want to be part of a mixed-use building that includes other uses on the ground and/or upper floors.

5 Because of land values and/or in-place development guidelines, manufacturing functions need to be on multiple floors – thus complicating

freight access, ventilation, and structural solutions. Each of these overlays to the basic function of manufacturing requires an architectural response that balances the need for flexible high bay space with the idiosyncrasies of a specific business communication strategy and local context.

Facing Page: Craigieburn Train Maintenance Facility (HBO+EMTB)


INTRODUCTION

RELEVANCE DESIGNING HEALTHY MIXED-USE URBAN MANUFACTURING NEIGHBORHOODS Every large American city has a dedicated manufacturing and industrial district that was created from scratch in the late 1950s and 1960s to remove industry from the central business districts and to relocate manufacturing companies to the new interstate highway system. Many of the districts, such as Newmarket in Boston, Mill River in New Haven, CT, and Morris Point in the Bronx, still have vital companies, but not at the density that they had at their inception and through the 1970s. The question today is what to do with these districts from an economic development and urban design standpoint. Until recently, “post-industrial” sites were often seen as targets for mixed use residential/commercial/retail development – modeled on the mix of (non-industrial) uses that made up the traditional city. More recently, public policy has highlighted the need to preserve and attract manufacturing jobs to the city, casting these once-forgotten districts in a new light. This studio will begin by understanding why certain businesses still thrive in 1960s era industrial districts to understand models for densification. We will also look at rapidly gentrifying districts like Red Hook in Brooklyn, NULU in Louisville, and the LA Garment District to learn about new kinds of businesses like micro-breweries, artisanal food producers, and precision fabrication shops that are flourishing in industrial districts located near potential customers. Our goal will be to leverage these lessons to develop a tool-kit for urban design and architectural interventions that can maximize the density of these districts while attracting and maintaining as many manufacturing jobs as possible. The hope is to achieve levels of density that inspire pedestrian activity, resulting in the chance encounters that can create synergies between businesses based on shared technological know-how, transportation needs, and talent.

Facing Page: Research group at Artisan’s Asylum (Kate Schneider)


BOLT ARTISAN’S ASYLUM HIGHER GROUND HARPOON BREWERY TAZA RADLAB

FIELD RESEARCH In order to gain an in-depth understanding of urban manufacturing, our research team has visited and analyzed a targeted range of local businesses. The goal of these case studies is to better understand the advantages and challenges of an urban location and to understand the logistical and urban design issues that impact specific manufacturing facilities. While a wide range of manufacturing occurs in the greater Boston area, we identified four kinds of businesses that gravitate towards urban sites: large-scale manufacturing of consumer goods, “maker” spaces, urban agriculture, and food/ beverage production. We identified businesses from each of these categories in order to better understand the unique parameters of each type. Unfortunately, due to the heightened security surrounding large-scale facilities that manufacture consumer products, we were not able to gain access to or information about these facilities. We were, however, able to visit and document the remaining categories of manufacturers by visiting the following businesses: Bolt, Artisan’s Asylum, Higher Ground Farm, Harpoon Brewery, Taza Chocolate, and Rad Lab.

Through the analysis of these six local models, our research team was able to better understand the programmatic and spatial requirements of urban manufacturing across diverse scales of production and distribution. By visiting six facilities, we were able to compare dimensions, spatial adjacencies, and the flow of product during the production and distribution process. We also spoke with the business managers of each company to gain an understanding of the complex variables that affect their businesses. Through these visits our research team was able to see and hear firsthand how each of these businesses operates and learn about the challenges and advantages of operating a business in the city. More broadly, our research was guided by these questions: Which types and scales of manufacturing currently exist in the city? What non-industrial programs currently inhabit postindustrial buildings? What opportunities exist for mixed-use industrial sites?


BOLT “WE BUILD HARDWARE BUSINESSES”

UMD Field Research

Bolt, a short-term intensive program designed to accelerate hardware startups, inhabits part of a 71,000 square foot commercial space in downtown Boston. The beauty of Bolt is in their business model. A team of mentors provides guidance and expertise in everything from design for manufacturing, to funding, to getting the product on the shelf. Bolt’s facility is part machine shop, part office, and part event space. The space opens up to local innovators for weekly idea-sharing events.

Local

Custom

Small Batch

Regional

Fabricated

Medium Batch

National

Spec. Fabrication

Large Batch


Kate Schneider, Workshop


BOLT

ZONING & STATISTICS NEIGHBORHOOD Adjacent Zoning Additional Zoning

Commercial, Mixed Use N/A

SITE Zoning Land Use Distance To Freeway Distance to T Station Lot Area Loading Docks Truck Type Parking Spaces

Commercial Commercial 0.5 miles 0.1 miles * 0 N/A 0

BUILDING Owner Year Built Building area Total building height Total allowable height Number of floors F.A.R. Ceiling Height Open To Public?

Chauncy Place Corporation 1910 9,796 SF of 71,000 SF * * * * 11’-0” Yes

Chauncy

MAP KEY Site Industrial Zoning Loading Dock

Non-Industrial Building Industrial Building Truck Access

Source: Boston Redevelopment Authority

0

300’

600’

1200’

Street


2

1

4

6

3

5

Production & Fabrication Production Space

30% 5% 10% Bolt is a venture capitalist company that helps to grow and build hardware start up companies. One of the features that make Bolt unique is the full time staff that is on hand to help each start-up team build their company and their product. Their full time mentoring staff have backgrounds in mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and industrial design. The main advantage of being a start up company with Bolt is that the mentoring staff help each design team refine prototypes of their design. This allows each team to figure out glitches in their design with additional expert guidance before sending their product out to manufacture.

Administration Space Storage Space Studio Space Open Studio Space Smaller Meeting Rooms Conference Room

40% 15%

Circulation


Kate Schneider, Ground Level Workstations


Ryan Matthew, Tools

Ryan Matthew, Breakout Rooms

Ryan Matthew, Sketches

Ryan Matthew, Basement Workshop


ARTISAN’S ASYLUM “THE BEST MAKERSPACE IN THE COUNTRY” -chris quintero, BOLT

UMD Field Research

Artisan’s Asylum, Inc. is a non-profit community craft studio launched in 2010 by robotics engineer Gui Cavalcanti. The organization’s mission is “to support and promote the teaching, learning and practicing of craft of all varieties,” whether that be in fiber arts or electrical fabrication. To support their mission and encourage DIY culture, Artisan’s Asylum offers a range of affordable, publicly-accessible classes taught by local artisans, monthly and daily membership plans, access to industrialgrade equipment for local artists and businesses, and on-site material storage. The 40,000 square foot facility is located in part of the former Ames Safety Envelope plant in Somerville, once a sprawling, multi-block operation over twelve buildings. Today, Artisan’s Asylum operates next door to diverse businesses including a clean energy idea incubator and a rockclimbing facility.

Local

Custom

Small Batch

Regional

Fabricated

Medium Batch

National

Spec. Fabrication

Large Batch


Kate Schneider. Artisan’s Asylum


ARTISAN’S ASYLUM

ZONING & STATISTICS NEIGHBORHOOD Adjacent Zoning Additional Zoning

Som

er vil

le A ve

Residential C, Light Industrial, Business Arts Overlay District

SITE Zoning Land Use Distance To Freeway Distance to T Station Lot Area Loading Docks Truck Type Parking Spaces

Light Industrial Manufacturing, Warehouse 1.7 miles 1.0 miles 131,816 SF 1 Semi Truck 187 Off-Street

BUILDING Owner Year Built Building area Total building height Total allowable height Number of floors F.A.R. Ceiling Height Open To Public?

JWF LLC 1910 40,000 SF of 132,041 SF 24’-0” 50’-0” maximum 2 1.01 24’-0” Yes

Tyle r

Stre

et

MAP KEY Site Industrial Zoning Loading Dock

Non-Industrial Building Industrial Building Truck Access

Source: City of Somerville Assessor’s Online Database

0

300

600’

1200’


3 2

4

2 5

1 3

Production & Fabrication Artisan’s Asylum is one of the largest and most efficiently run shared maker spaces in the country. They require membership to access and utilize their facilities. Their facility consists of roughly 40,000 square feet of space that is divided up among various tenants and shared production spaces. Their shared production spaces include: a wood shop, machine shop, welding shop, and bike shop. Their facility also has designated areas for hot crafts, electronics, screen-printing, and a chemical booth. In order to use any of the tools within a shop, members must become certified to work with that shop’s particular equipment. This ensures that all people using shop resources are properly trained, ultimately leading to less shop repairs and safer equipment use. All members also have access to the loading dock but must be present to receive their shipment orders. Artisan’s Asylum has a long wait list for open tenant space and not all members have tenant space. Many of the tenants of Artisan’s Asylum operate their small business out of their individual rented space.

30% 5% 10% 10%

Wood Shop Machine Shop Welding Shop Bike Shop Electronics Screen Printing Hot Craft

Loading Dock Administration Space Storage Space Maker Spaces Individual Tenant Spaces

35% 10%

Circulation


ARTISAN’S ASYLUM

PUBLIC PROGRAMMING Artisan’s Asylum opens its doors to the public throughout the day for various classes in its shared workspaces. Members serve as instructors in courses from jewelry making to welding.

DRAWING KEY

Midnight

Public Programming Open for Members

6:00p

6:00a Noon

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Bike Shop

Wood Shop

Machine Shop

Welding Shop

Multipurpose Room

Fiber Arts/ Glass


Kate Schneider, Artisan’s Asylum

Kate Schneider, Workstation

Kate Schneider, Toolbox


HIGHER GROUND FARM BOSTON’S FIRST ROOFTOP FARM...IN AN UNLIKELY PLACE

Local

Regional

“We are currently growing greens, tomatoes, and herbs, which we market through Boston restaurants and retailers.”

UMD Field Research

Currently, the farm provides bicycle deliveries to local restaurants three times a week. Current buyers include the Franklin Cafe, Neptune Oyster, Tavern Road, Ten Tables JP, Tres Gatos, Coppa, Toro, Sweet Cheeks, Anchovies, Giacomo’s, American Provisions, Clio, Teatro, and Bee’s Knees. In the future, farm founders Courtney Hennessey and John Stoddard hope to expand their offerings to include a CSA and a farm stand in the lobby of the Design Center.

Custom

Small Batch

Fabricated

Medium Batch

National

Spec. Fabrication

Large Batch


Ryan Matthew. Basil Leaves


HIGHER GROUND FARM

ZONING & STATISTICS NEIGHBORHOOD Adjacent Zoning Additional Zoning SITE Zoning Land Use Distance To Freeway Distance to T Station Lot Area Loading Docks Truck Type Parking Spaces BUILDING Owner Year Built Building area Total building height Total allowable height Number of floors F.A.R. Ceiling Height Open To Public?

General Industrial, Light Industrial, Mixed Use Restricted Parking District

General Industrial Manufacturing and Processing & Offices 0.3 miles 1.3 miles 160,010 SF 1 of 15 Box Truck, Semi Truck *

No

rth

ern

Av e

Boston Design Center LLC 1919 40,000 SF of 559,690 SF * * 8 3.5 N/A No

Drydock Ave

MAP KEY Site Industrial Zoning Loading Dock

Non-Industrial Building Industrial Building Truck Access

Source: Boston Redevelopment Authority

0

300

600’

1200’


Kate Schneider, Milk Crate Planters

Ryan Matthew, The Rooftop Farm

Ryan Matthew, Tomato Vines


HARPOON BREWERY THE LARGEST CRAFT BREWER IN NEW ENGLAND

UMD Field Research

Harpoon was an early participant in the major resurgence of local, craft brewing in the U.S. in the late 1980s. At the start, the founders set out to recreate the rich beer culture that they had experienced in their travels and sought to incorporate the brewery into the local community. Today, Harpoon has become famous for their weekend-long events and tours at the facility are often at capacity. While their location on the South Boston waterfront makes them difficult to access by public transportation, the brewery has easy access to interstate 93, an important connector to its Windsor, VT location and suburban distribution center in Woburn.

Local

Custom

Small Batch

Regional

Fabricated

Medium Batch

National

Spec. Fabrication

Large Batch


Ryan Matthew. Brewery Tour


HARPOON BREWERY

ZONING & STATISTICS NEIGHBORHOOD Adjacent Zoning Additional Zoning SITE Zoning Land Use Distance To Freeway Distance to T Station Lot Area Loading Docks Truck Type Parking Spaces BUILDING Owner Year Built Building area Total building height Total allowable height Number of floors F.A.R. Ceiling Height Open To Public?

Industrial N/A

Industrial, Economic Development Manufacturing, Retail 0.4 miles 1.4 miles 50,000 SF 2 Semi Truck 51

No

rth

ern

Av e

Economic Dvlpmnt. & Industrial Corp. of Boston 1920 45,000 square feet 43’-7” N/A 2 0.9 28’-0” Yes

Drydock Ave

MAP KEY Site Industrial Zoning Loading Dock

Non-Industrial Building Industrial Building Truck Access

Source: Boston Redevelopment Authority, Boston Assessing Dept.

0

300

600’

1200’


2 1 3 6

7 8

4

5

9

9

Selling Space 10%

Beer Hall & Retail Space

Production & Fabrication Brewing

Harpoon Brewery is all about the beer experience and bringing Europe’s rich beer culture to the United States. The founders of Harpoon have always aspired to have a beer hall that emulated the models found throughout their European travels. Recently they were able to make this dream a reality. They have a large beer hall which also doubles as rentable event space. The beer hall looks out onto the second story of their custom beer bottling machine. This allows customers to be directly connected to the manufacturing process, allowing them to watch part of the beer making process while drinking their favorite Harpoon Ale. Harpoon also offers daily tours which leave from the beer hall and take customers on a catwalk over the brewery, where customers can learn about the brewing process.

25% 5% 15% 15% 15% 15%

Loading Dock Administration Space Storage Space Grain & Hops Storage Post-packaging Storage

Bottling & Packaging Circulation


Ryan Matthew, Harpoon Brewery Beer Hall


Ryan Matthew, Pedestrian Catwalk

Ryan Matthew, Vintage Cans

Ryan Matthew, Packaging

Ryan Matthew, Northern Avenue Gates


TAZA CHOCOLATE STONE GROUND CHOCOLATE

UMD Field Research

Two years ago, Taza Chocolate opened its Factory Store and began offering public tours. Since then, Taza has become known for its many food-culture events and for its holiday celebrations. This focus on in-factory programming has resulted in an increased demand for its products in grocery stores regionally. Despite these public programs, Taza struggles with finding its place in a continuously evolving neighborhood. While the factory is located in an industrial enclave that is experiencing an uptick in activity, it feels separated from the larger demographic forces that are making Somerville a center for entrepreneurial activity. Currently, the area is accessible by car, but the location is off the beaten track for pedestrians. With the extension of the Green Line to nearby Union Square, the neighborhood between Taza and Union Square is likely to be filled in with additional retail, entertainment venues, maker spaces, and arts-related organizations; thus improving Taza’s visibility and impact.

Local

Custom

Small Batch

Regional

Fabricated

Medium Batch

National

Spec. Fabrication

Large Batch


Kate Schneider, Equipment Repair


TAZA CHOCOLATE

ZONING & STATISTICS ster Web

Residential, Commercial Arts Overlay District

SITE Zoning Land Use Distance To Freeway Distance to T Station Lot Area Loading Docks Truck Type Parking Spaces

Transit Oriented Development 135 Industrial Warehouse 1.3 miles 1.0 miles 27,481 SF 1 Semi Truck *

BUILDING Owner Year Built Building area Total building height Total allowable height Number of floors F.A.R. Ceiling Height Open To Public?

Millers River Realty Trust 1920 83,224 SF 65’-0” * 5 3.0 12’-0” Yes

Ave

NEIGHBORHOOD Adjacent Zoning Additional Zoning

Windsor Pl

Cambri

dge Str

eet

Source: City of Somerville Assessor’s Online Database

0

300

600’

1200’


1

12

11 4

3 9

2

8

10

5

7 6

12

5%

Selling Space Production & Fabrication

20% 5% Taza Chocolate has sought to bring the rich tradition of Mexican chocolate to the United States. The company utilizes the same methods that have been used to make chocolate in Mexico for centuries. They even utilize hand carved granite millstones in the production process, which are carved using the same techniques used by traditional Oaxacan chocolatiers. Alex Whitmore, one of the company’s co-founders, still carefully carves each millstone and has only revealed the carving technique to one other Taza employee. This technique is very important because it is precisely this milling process that gives Taza chocolate its distinctive texture and bright distinctive flavor.

Roasting Room Hot Room & Molding Cold Room Demolding Room

Loading Dock Administration Space Staff Space Office Space

25% 10% 15%

20%

Storage Space Packaging & Shipping Automated & Hand Packaging Shipping

Circulation


Kate Schneider, Entry

Kate Schneider, Chocolate Machine


Kate Schneider, Chocalate Sample

Ryan Matthew, Loading Dock

Kate Schneider, Chocolate Beans


RADLAB A MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN & FABRICATION FIRM

UMD Field Research

During co-founder Matt Trimble’s education at MIT, he was intrigued by his classmates’ innovative use of scripting as an integrated part of the design process. Through the use of tools like the laser cutter, 3D printer, and CNC router, Trimble “began to see a range of potential commercial applications for ‘design computing’ (modeling, scripting, programming, animating, rendering). These applications included architecture, but were not limited to architecture.” At RadLab, Trimble and his small team of industrial designers and programmers work as consultants for architects, product designers, and entrepreneurs. The office has recently completed work across scales: from a retail interiors scheme to high-volume production of tactile braille graphics.

Local

Custom

Small Batch

Regional

Fabricated

Medium Batch

National

Spec. Fabrication

Large Batch


Kate Schneider, Crafted Wood


RADLAB

ZONING & STATISTICS NEIGHBORHOOD Adjacent Zoning Additional Zoning

Residential C, Institutional, Mixed Use N/A

Industrial Manufacturing 0.1 miles 0.1 miles 11,615 SF 1 Box Truck 5

BUILDING Owner Year Built Building area Total building height Total allowable height Number of floors F.A.R. Ceiling Height Open To Public?

Spice Street LLC * 3,000 SF of 29,548 SF * N/A * 2.5 20’-0” No

ice

Sp

SITE Zoning Land Use Distance To Freeway Distance to T Station Lot Area Loading Docks Truck Type Parking Spaces

et

e Str

MAP KEY Site Industrial Zoning Loading Dock

Non-Industrial Building Industrial Building Truck Access

Source: Boston Redevelopment Authority

0

300’

600’

1200’


Kate Schneider, Workstation

Kate Schneider, Wood Paddles

Kate Schneider, Lobby


INTRODUCTION URBAN INDUSTRIAL PARKS SUBURBAN INDUSTRIAL PARKS

GEOGRAPHY / LOGISTICS Although manufacturing centers first developed within dense urban centers to be near ports and rail terminals, industrial districts were moved out to the suburbs in the mid to late twentieth century because of the implementation of the essential components of the interstate highway system. This shift was compelled by not only a shift to truck transport, but also because of relatively low property values and government action that included urban renewal and new regulations that aimed to remove noxious manufacturing from the central city. This chapter will analyze five different manufacturing centers in Massachusetts, four of which still exist in dense, urban contexts. Through these case studies, we hope to better understand the larger distribution networks that have developed as a result of this shift to suburban industrial parks. as well as the role urban manufacturing centers play in this network. In addition, by studying one of these suburban industrial parks, we hope to uncover the perceived and actual benefits of shifting manufacturing industries out of city centers.


BOSTON WORCESTER

PROVIDENCE

FALL RIVER

NEW BEDFORD


GEOGRAPHY/LOGISTICS

URBAN INDUSTRIAL PARKS THE GREATER BOSTON AREA

I-93 I-95

The circumferential system of highways that surround greater Boston, known as the Route 128 Loop and now an amalgam of linked segments of MA 128, I-95, and I-93, serves as the spine of a regional truck transportation network. Industrial parks and districts along and within this loop together constitute a co-dependent eco-system of manufacturing and goods distribution. Land value, delivery times, and cost of transportation, among other financial and spatial factors, influence the mix of businesses, rents, and relative economic health of each of the industrial areas within the network.

RT 1

WOBURN

CHELSEA REVERE

I-90

BOSTON

NEWTON

RT 3 I-95

I-93

QUINCY NORWOOD

WALPOLE

Against this regional system, Newmarket, the Boston Marine Industrial Park, and the industrial area along the Cambridge/Somerville boundary were studied to understand the particular issues of urban industrial areas in terms of logistics and urban design. Although these areas host a variety of industries at a wide range of scales, they are all historically rooted in raildependent manufacturing. Municipal and state leaders are currently looking for ways to preserve these industrial districts by allowing for a wider bandwidth of compatible uses while keeping out residential and commercial development that can drive up land values.


CAMBRIDGE / SOMERVILLE “INTELLECTUAL CENTER WITH INDUSTRIAL ROOTS”

UMD Geography+Logistics

Cambridge has a long history of manufacturing and was one of the main industrial cities of New England in the 1920s. From Carter’s Ink Company to the New England Glass Company, Cambridge hosted many major manufacturers at the time. After World War II, however, most of the industrial base left and Cambridge began its transition to an intellectual center of Boston. It was not until the 1980s that Cambridge brought in high-technology startups to reinvigorate its urban manufacturing heritage.

“Boston, Massachusetts.” Map. Google Maps. Google, 25 October 2013.


ZONING MAP KEY Waterfront Industrial Industrial A Industrial B Mixed Use Residential A Residential B Residential C

ZONING ANALYSIS The industrially zoned regions in Cambridge and Somerville demonstrate a palimpsest of historical manufacturing roots, a progression to repurposed initiatives in the late 20th century, and a resurgence of manufacturing sentiments today. In Cambridge specifically, there is a clear divide between intellectual urban property, what Cambridge is most known for today, and a smattering of light manufacturing and technology companies promoting fabrication, prototyping, and production. Somerville contains similar disjointed elements of largely residential areas broken only briefly by industrially purposed manufacturing buildings and workshops.

0

1000

2000

4000


28

28

CAMBRIDGE/SOMERVILLE

BUILDING USE ANALYSIS FABRICATION

24%

6%

Bolt Beraneck & Newman Inc

International Service Conslnts

Boston Precision Parts CO

L Singer Fire Alarm Line

Brankamp Process Automation, Inc

Massachusetts Foundry Inc

Cambridge Electric Motor Service

Mass Gas & Electric Of Boston Inc

Cambridge Keys & Security

Norel Service CO Inc

China Fair

Nuclead Inc

Ck Estores LLC

Patricio Sandoval Oilfield Supply

DISTRIBUTION Alien Industries Bayard Industries Inc SUPPLY 1087systems Incorporated

3 Precibio Medical Devices, LLC Soy Soul Candles Holleran Daily Grind

2nd Gear, Inc

Medisense Inc

Abcam

Opteon Corp

Adaptive Optics Associates Inc

Oscomp Systems Inc

Airgas East

Perkinelmer, Inc

am Dutch Distribution Products

Perkinelmer Inc

Amplitude Laser Inc

Harvard Observatory Model Shop

Best Mold Removal Of Cambridge

President Fllows Hrvard Cllege

Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc

Pro Line Printing Ink Of New Eng

Biospace Lab Usa

Pvi (America) Inc

Bmr Rogers St LLC Fire / Elevator Lines Quaker Case Licsw

45%

10%

Boston Biochem

Sed Physics

Brankamp Process Automation

Senior Spring Productions

FOOD PROCESSING/WHOLESALE Cambridge Brands Inc

Savenor Supply Company

Candy Cupboard Confectionery Co

Siegel Egg Co Inc

Christinas Spice & Specialty Foods

Superior Nut Company Inc

SERVICE/OTHER

15%

Accumet Corp

Intelligent Medical Devices, Inc

IDTechEx

Spiroll International Corp

5 College Storage

Hold Everything

AAA Warehousing & Dstrbtn

Joseph Barrell Plbg & Htg

Academy Movers

Ligon Discovery

All Star Storage & Moving CO

Lyman Real Estate Trust

0

1000

2000

4000


1. CAMBRIDGE BREWING COMPANY AREA: 12,500 SF FLOORS: 6 USE: MANUFACTURING

3. FLANN MICROWAVE CO. AREA: 25,000 FLOORS: 12 USE: FABRICATION

0

250

500

1000

2. GOLDEN CANOLLI SHELLS CO. AREA: 2,500 FLOORS: 2 USE: MANUFACTURING

4. CAMBRIDGE BRANDS INC - TOOTSIE ROLLS AREA: 12,000 SF FLOORS: 6 USE: FOOD/WHOLESALE

5. WAAV INC + RIVE TECHNOLOGY AREA: 150,000 SF FLOORS: 6 USE: FABRICATION


BOSTON MARINE INDUSTRIAL PARK “MANUFACTURING ON THE WATERFRONT”

UMD Geography+Logistics

The Boston Marine Industrial Park is a 191-acre industrial area located on the eastern end of South Boston waterfront on the site of former South Boston Naval Annex, a military base that was decommissioned in 1974. The district is primarily known for its seafood processing and wholesale companies. Under Mayor Thomas Menino’s initiative to reinvigorate and enhance business growth in the area, the Marine Industrial Park has been attracting new businesses that use innovative new manufacturing processes. “Boston, Massachusetts.” Map. Google Maps. Google, 25 October 2013. “Boston Marine Industrial Park, Massachusetts.” Map. Google Maps. Google, 15 October 2013.


ZONING MAP KEY Waterfront Industrial Industrial A Industrial B Mixed Use Residential A Residential B Residential C

ZONING ANALYSIS The City of Boston has decided that manufacturing in this location provides a diversity of jobs and provides important cultural returns. The Boston Redevelopment Authority, because it controls the parcels and buildings in the district, has been able to attract and retain businesses through targeted marketing and rents that are geared to manufacturing businesses.

0

500 1000

2000

4000


BOSTON MARINE INDUSTRIAL PARK

BUILDING USE ANALYSIS FABRICATION

15%

Adcotron EMS Inc.

Lumenpulse

Bitwise International Tech.

Reflex Lighting Group

Matt J. McDonald Co. Inc.

Coastal Cement

Loki Custom Furniture

Design Communications

Fort Point Cabinet Makers DISTRIBUTION Genalco Grainger

10%

HADCO

Amramp Megellan Distribuition Wagner Solar Back Stage Hardware

SUPPLY

5%

Calvin Fabrics

Discover Tile

Koplow Games

Again Faster Equipment

FOOD PROCESSING/WHOLESALE

30%

30%

Commercial Lobster

Atlantic Coast Seafood Inc.

F.J. O’Hare

Beau’s Seafood Inc.

Fresh Water Fish Co.

Puritan Fish Co.

Globe Fish Co.

Stavis Seafod

North Coast Seafood

Ideal Seafood Inc.

P.J. Lobster

Frasher Fish Ltd.

John Nagle Co.

Jonh Mantia & Sons Co.

Sousa Seafood Inc.

Red’s Best

Sunny’s Seafood

Sea Jem Imports Inc.

B& M Fish Company

Pangea Shellfish

25

SERVICE/OTHER Allegra Print and Imaging

Computer Science Corp.

Blanchard Press

Tide Street Tech Center

Copy Cop

R & R Builders

Seaport Graphics

Bachtel

Sir Speedy

First Call Trucking

Waterfront Printing

Boston Buffalo Express

Recycles Printing Co.

Portside Truck Repair

Francine Zaslow Photography

Baker Design Group

John Holt Studio

Philips Design Group

Boston Art

Silverman Trykowski Design

Casewell Framing

Peter King Design Co.

24

0

500 1000

2000

4000


4

5

3

1. THE BRONSTEIN BUILDING AREA: 400,000 SF FLOORS: 8 USE: Multiple Services

4. FISHING PIER AREA: 270,000 SF FLOORS: 3 USE: Seafood Distribution

6

1

2. 88 BLACK FLACON AVE AREA: 200,000 SF FLOORS: 3 USE: Multiple Services

5. HARPOON BREWERY AREA: 112,000 SF FLOORS: 2 USE: Beer Manufacturing and Distribution

0

500

1000

2000

2

3. NORTH COAST SEAFOOD AREA: 140,000 SF FLOORS: 2 USE: Seafood Distribution

6. NEW BOSTON SEAFOOD CENTER AREA: 80,000 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: Seafood Distribution


NEWMARKET INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT “DEDICATED MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUED GROWTH”

UMD Geography+Logistics

In the 1950s, Newmarket Square was built as a modern new home for the meatpacking and food processing companies that were being relocated from Faneuil Hall and Haymarket to allow for redevelopment of the area for retail, restaurants and office space. After the establishment of Newmarket, manufacturing and distribution continued to locate in the area, resulting in the establishment of the Newmarket Business Association in 1976. The organization was charged with maintaining continued business growth, encouraging collaboration between businesses, and advocating policies that would improve the economic health of the district. Today, Newmarket has grown substantially and though it now hosts a diversity of businesses, it still remains true to its core as a historically manufacturing-based district. Most food processing companies that were relocated in the late 50s are still alive and flourishing.

“Boston, Massachusetts.” Map. Google Maps. Google, 25 October 2013.


ZONING MAP KEY Waterfront Industrial Industrial A Industrial B Mixed Use Residential A Residential B Residential C

ZONING ANALYSIS The arrangement of industrially zoned regions in Newmarket display two key points in understanding manufacturing in an urban context: the arrangement, and the location. The arrangement is reminiscent of a historically dedicated manufacturing district that has steadily grown since its original founding. This is evident as the zones are still largely contiguous, and less scattered as is evident in other urban areas that had at some point severed from their industrial history. Furthermore, the location of industrial zones is largely connected to arteries, projecting out and around the intersection of the two major automotive arteries.

0

500

1000

2000


NEWMARKET INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT

BUILDING USE ANALYSIS FABRICATION

5%

20%

5%

Atel

Harry Miller Company

O’Bass Electronic

The Harvard Common Press

DISTRIBUTION Accurate Fasteners Inc.

P.J. O’Donnel Co.

Harrison Supply

Portland Pine & Fitting Co.

R & R Sales

Royal Fire Door Company Inc.

Waldo Bros Co.

The Waterproofing Company

Whitney Building Products

Chester Brown Wholesale Florist

SUPPLY New England Wood Floor

Maxwell Box Company

Capitol Wood Floor Supply Inc.

The Waldwin Group

18

FOOD PROCESSING/WHOLESALE Atlantic Seacove Inc.

Katsiroubas Bros.

Foley Fish Company

Chinese Spaghetti Factory

Slade Gorton Co.

City Packing Company

16

Steve Connolly Seafood Company Costa Provision

30%

30%

Boston Briske Co.

Dancing Deer Bakery

Boston Lamb and Veal Co.

Mutual Beef

J & D Imports

Boston Salads & Provision

J. Carter Veal Co.

Lun Fat Produce

Metropolitan Meat SERVICE/OTHER Eagle Elevator

Boston Body Work

Morgan Linen & Uniform Service

Dorchester Tire Company

Guigliano Corp

Middlesex Truck & Coach

Suffolk Construction

American Ice Co.

Alternate Concepts Inc.

Peninsula of Boston Inc.

Paul Revere Transportation

Castle Self Storage Inc.

Boston Freightliners

Planet Self Storage

C & L Auto

Howard Storage

First Call Trucking

New England Storage Warehouse

Boston Veterinarian

Public Storage

Salami’s Truck Center

Patriot Self Storage

United Waste 0

500

1000

2000


5 2

1

6 3

4

1. KATSIROUBAS PRODUCE AREA: 15,000 SF FLOORS: 2 USE: WHOLESALE

4. CHESTER BROWN AREA: 80,000 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: DISTRIBUTION

0

200

600

1000

2. SLADE GORTON & CO. AREA: 50,000 SF FLOORS: 2 USE: WHOLESALE

5. STEVE CONNOLY SEAFOOD AREA: 20,000 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: WHOLESALE

3. BOSTON LAMB AND VEAL CO. AREA: 50,000 SF FLOORS: 2 USE: WHOLESALE

6. BOSTON FOOD TERMINAL AREA: 100,000 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: WHOLESALE


BOSTON WORCESTER

PROVIDENCE

FALL RIVER

NEW BEDFORD


GEOGRAPHY/LOGISTICS BROCKTON

SUBURBAN INDUSTRIAL PARKS

RT 24

FALL RIVER, NEW BEDFORD, ROUTE 24, ROUTE 140 LOOP Fall River and New Bedford are two cities that developed working waterfronts adjacent to protected natural harbors that were well-located for whaling and the global trade network of the early 19th century. With the establishment of an extensive regional and national rail network in the late nineteenth century, both cities shifted focused to the textile industry. At the same time that industrial areas were moving from urban centers to suburban areas to be more accessible to the interstate system, both cities experienced a decline in industrial production due to larger market forces. To address this trend, both Fall River and New Bedford developed suburban industrial parks along either Route 24 or Route 140, which connect the cities to Boston and Providence.

TAUNTON I-495 TAUNTON MIDDLEBOROUGH

I-495

RT 140

Although some industrial production still occurs along the waterfront in Fall River, most of its historic mill structures have been adapted to new uses, in particular retail and residential. As a result, the historic industrial zone of the city has been re-zoned for mixed use and has developed into the city’s downtown. Unlike Fall River, New Bedford’s waterfront is still primarily zoned for industrial uses given the continuing strength of maritime industries including fishing, although there has been some introduction of mixed use zoning and a few cases of adaptive reuse of its historic mill structures.

I-195

RT 24

FALL RIVER

I-195

RT 140

NEW BEDFORD

The following pages will analyze both the urban industrial area along New Bedford’s waterfront and its suburban industrial park along Route 140. It is our hope that through this analysis we can understand the limitations of urban industrial areas and the actual and perceived benefits of suburban industrial “parks.” With this analysis, we hope to be able to propose benefits and strategies for maintaining an industrial presence along the urban waterfront instead of rezoning the area for retail and residential as was done in Fall River.


NEW BEDFORD WATERFRONT “THE WHALING CAPITAL OF THE WORLD”

UMD Geography+Logistics

New Bedford’s waterfront is an industrial area that has grown organically over time. Its early industrial development was centered on whaling; however, when the industry began declining in the 1880’s, New Bedford shifted its focus towards to cotton textile production, which had already established itself in places such as Lowell and Pawtucket. By the end of the 19th century, New Bedford was one of the largest producers of cotton yarns and textiles in the country. Over the last century, industry in the area has shifted to electronic circuitry production, needle trade, and other types of manufacturing. In addition, some of the historic mill buildings in the area have been adapted to other uses such as light manufacturing, small businesses, professional offices, and residential use.

“New Bedford, Massachusetts.” Map. Google Maps. Google, 15 October 2013.


ZONING MAP KEY

16 15

Waterfront Industrial Industrial A Industrial B Mixed Use Residential A Residential B Residential C

ZONING ANALYSIS While historic mill buildings still define the northern half of the New Bedford’s industrial area, a large quantity of Butler buildings have been constructed in the southern end of the district because urban renewal removed most of the historic industrial buildings in the oldest part of the port. These Butler buildings primarily house seafood wholesale and distribution companies, the predominate business type in the district. The industrial zones in the area exist along the waterfront, reflecting the industry’s historic connection to the water. These industrial areas are separated from adjacent residential zones by the JFK Memorial Highway (Route 18). A pocket of mixed use zoning defines New Bedford’s “downtown” at the intersection of the JFK Memorial Highway and Route 6. This mixed-use zoning has begun to spread as some of the historic mill buildings are repurposed for other uses such as residential and business.

0

1000

2000

4000


16

NEW BEDFORD WATERFRONT

15

BUILDING USE ANALYSIS FABRICATION

21%

11%

ABCO Electric Inc.

Marine Hydraulics Inc.

Bobby T. Machine Co.

Mass Fabricating & Welding

Continental Plastics Inc.

Oberon Co. (safety equipment)

CL Machining

Revere Copper Inc.

Crystal Ice Co.

Whaling City Iron Co.

Evergreen Sheet Metal DISTRIBUTION Bruce's Splicing & Rigging

NGN Transport

Crystal Ice Company

Packaging Products Corporation

New Bedford Ice & Cold Storage

West Terminal Cold Storage

SUPPLY

15%

CAT Marine Equipment

Marine Enterprises

Global Co-Op Warf (oil & fuel)

New Bedford Ship Supply Co.

Lighthouse Marine Supply

New Bedford Welding Supply

Luzo Fishing Gear

NStar Power Plant

FOOD PROCESSING/WHOLESALE American Pride Seafood

Northern Pelagic Group

Big G Seafood

Pier Fish Company

Eastern Fisheries

Saraiva Enterprises (wine/beer)

Hygrade Ocean Products

Sea Trade International

Kylers Seafood Market

Skip's Marine Seafood Packaging

Marder Trawling Inc.

Sea Watch International

Mariner

Tichon Seafood

Mar-Lees Seafood

Top Quality Seafood Inc.

M&B Sea Products

32%

SERVICE/OTHER Dockside Repairs

New Bedford Glass Museum

Fishermen's Pier Visitor Center

Ryder Transportation Services

Goyette Auto Part Recycling

Shuster Machine Engineers

Knuckle Head Bar & Grill

State Pier & Ferry Terminal

LECH Auto Body

21%

Warf Tavern

Mill Stores Factory Outlet 0

1000

2000

4000


6

4

3

5 2 1

0

250

500

1. OBERON SAFETY EQUIPMENT AREA: 42,532 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: MANUFACTURING

2. CL MANUFACTURING AREA: 190,514 FLOORS: 4 USE: BUSINESS/LIGHT MFG.

3. SEA WATCH INTERNATIONAL AREA: 28,252 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: WHOLESALE/DISTRIBUTION

4. FISHERMAN’S PIER AREA: 32,160 FLOORS: 1 USE: BUSINESS/DISTRIBUTION

5. SKIP’S MARINE SEAFOOD PCKG AREA: 43,346 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: WHOLESALE/DISTRIBUTION

6. HYGRADE OCEAN PRODUCTS AREA: 46,677 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: WHOLESALE/DISTRIBUTION

1000


NEW BEDFORD BUSINESS PARK “NEW ENGLAND’S MOST COST EFFECTIVE LOCATION”

UMD Geography+Logistics

The New Bedford Business Park is comprised of 150 acres of industrially zoned land. The area currently employs over 2,500 employees and accounts for approximately $650 million in sales revenue. The New Bedford Business Park advertises itself as “New England’s most cost effective location” thus demonstrating the trend of moving industrial centers out of cities with high property values to the more affordable suburbs. The park is located adjacent to Route 140 and is located 40 miles from Boston and 25 Miles from Providence. In addition the park has access to three airports within an hour’s commute time. “New Bedford, Massachusetts.” Map. Google Maps. Google, 15 October 2013.


FABRICATION ABCO Electric Inc.

Marine Hydraulics Inc.

Bobby T. Machine Co.

Mass Fabricating & Welding

Continental Plastics Inc.

Oberon Co. (safety equipment)

CL Machining

Revere Copper Inc. 140 ute Ro Whaling City Iron Co.

Crystal Ice Co. Evergreen Sheet Metal 7

ZONING MAP KEY Waterfront Industrial Industrial A Industrial B Mixed Use Residential A Residential B Residential C

ZONING ANALYSIS The New Bedford Business Park, adjacent to undeveloped greenfield sites, is zoned exclusively for industrial uses. The Park is also adjacent to a small mixed use zone near the Route 140 interchange. Unlike many organically grown urban industrial areas, this area is a result of planned development and is run by a separately established management company, the Greater New Bedford Industrial Foundation. As a result, it is constantly undergoing infrastructure improvements and provides it employees many services within the park including a daycare, restaurants, and a career center for job recruiting.

0

1500

3000

4500


FABRICATION NEW BEDFORD BUSINESS PARK

ABCO Electric Inc.

Marine Hydraulics Inc.

BUILDING USE ANALYSIS

Bobby T. Machine Co.

Mass Fabricating & Welding

Continental Plastics Inc.

Oberon Co. (safety equipment)

CL Machining FABRICATION Titleist Ball Plants 2 & 3

C.P. Bourg

Morgan Technical Ceramics

Polyneer

Symmetry Medical New Bedford

Poyant Signs

Massachusetts State Lottery

GEC Durham

HighTech Manufacturing

Zapp Precision Strip

New England Plastics

A & R Machining

Five Star Companies

AFC Cable Systems

Crystal Ice Co. Evergreen Sheet Metal

Revere Copper Inc. 40 e1 t Whaling City Iron Co. u Ro

7

Aerovox

45% DISTRIBUTION Lighthouse Masonry

Milhench Supply

Symmetry Medical

Schaefer Marine

Edson

Horacio’s Welding & Sheet Metal

23% ASSEMBLY

16%

Better Image Apparel

Epec Engineered Technologies

Nameplates for Industry

Vectrix/Gold Peak Industries

SUPPLY Butler Architectural Woodworking Maximum Weather Instruments

13% 3%

Imtra Marine Products Ahead Inc.

FOOD PROCESSING / DISTRIBUTION Reinhart Food Service 0

1500

3000

4500


4

5

3

1

6

2

0

500

100

1500

1. AMERICAN CABLE SYSTEMS AREA:100,000 FT2 FLOORS:1 DOCKS: 7 USE: MANUFACTURING

2. MASSACHUSETTS STATE LOTTERY AREA: 100,000 FT2 FLOORS: 1 USE:MANUFACTURING

3. TITLEIST AREA: 100,000 FT2 FLOORS: 2 USE: MANUFACTURING

4. NEW ENGLAND PLASTICS AREA: 40,000 FT2 FLOORS: 1 USE: MANUFACTURING

5. IMTRA MAXIMUM AREA: 30,000 FT2 FLOORS:1 USE: MANUFACTURER

6. AEROVOX AREA: 60,000 FT2 FLOORS:1 USE: MANUFACTURER


PALLETS DAYLIGHTING

STANDARDS The dimensional logic of modern manufacturing and distribution buildings is built up from the dimensions of a standard pallet: 40 by 48 inches, The pallet is the driving metric for the entire shipping and manufacturing industry since 80% of all US trade is carried on pallets. The metrics of pallets influence four elements: Pallet Transportation, Pallet Entry (into the building), Pallet Lifts, and Pallet Stacking. Each one of these categories, the stacked pallets of materials define spatial volumes and the logistics of truck transport and forklift operations. As a result, the architect must fully understand these systems in order to design buildings that meet the needs of the contemporary global distribution network.


PALLETS A DRIVING METRIC FOR MANUFACTURING The standard pallet size used in the US is 40” x 48”

UMD

The Service Duty of a palette is understood using the following weight categories: Light-Duty (1000 pounds); Medium-Duty (2000 pounds); Heavy-Duty (3000 pounds). For ‘Heavy-Duty’, stacking no more than 60” is allowable.

Standards

Once the pallets are assembled, it is a matter of determining which truck type is best suited for the delivery. The truck chosen influences which manufacturing buildings are accessible and which are not. The storage of pallets is governed by the Pallet Lift. These range from 15.5 to 42’ of vertical reach. The lower-end of the scale is most common, and this becomes the parameter for racking. A tri-level racking is possible when using a 15.5’ Lift.

40”

48”


PALLETS

PALLET TRANSPORTATION The transportation of pallets into and out of the building occurs via the truck. The type of truck that is most likely to be servicing the building brings with it a unique set of constraints that must be anticipated when designing the building. The maximum legal truck width (without a special permit) is 8’6”, and the maximum trailer height is 13’6”. The width of the truck is critical to consider in determining the width of a truck bay. The necessary response is to create a 9’0“ bay. This makes the unloading of pallets manageable and allows for a greater leniency in terms of truck alignment when backing into a designated bay.

LOW BOY

CITY

SEMI

CONTAINER

62” 55 48 25

Pictured to the right are four primary truck types used for shipping:

LOW BOY The Low Boy has a bed height of 25”. CITY The City has a bed height of 48”. SEMI The Semi has a bed height of 55”. CONTAINER The Container has a bed height of 62”.

Porter, W. (2013). Loading dock design. Retrieved from http://loadingdocksupply.com/


PALLETS

PALLET ENTRY CANTILEVER

OPEN

The entry of pallets into the building occurs at the loading dock. An Exterior strategy (of which there are three options) is the most common due to its cost effectiveness. When an exterior arrangement is created, it is preferable to have an 1-2% incline in the tarmac leasing up to the dock. Although this is difficult to achieve in urban environments, it is considered ideal due to its water mitigation capabilities. Pictured to the left are the four ways in which the actual threshold itself may be handled:

* CANTILEVER In this scenario, the dock face projects past the exterior wall of the building. This is desirable because it helps to protect the building itself in the case that the bumper fails.*

FLUSH

ENCLOSED

OPEN The Open loading dock is preferred by the USPS, and its implementation is less cumbersome as compared to the Cantilever. The issue is there is little in terms of drainage. FLUSH The Flush scenario is the most common, as it is the most cost effective; relying solely on the bumper. It is necessary that this bumper projects a minimum of 4.5� from the wall. ENCLOSED The Enclosed condition is widely used by package handlers and those exchanging sensitive materials. In this case, special care must be given to how the space is ventilated.

Porter, W. (2013). Loading dock design. Retrieved from http://loadingdocksupply.com/


PALLETS

PALLET LIFTS The vertical storage of pallets is governed by the Pallet Lift. These machines tend to have a maximum vertical reach of 42’, with a lift capacity that ranges from 2,500 to 36,000 pounds. This then becomes the parameter for racking height and speed of storage. Pictured to the right are four common types of Pallet Lifts:

DEEP REACH AISLE The Deep Reach Lift requires that the aisles between pallet racks must be a minimum of 9’ in width. The vertical reach of this type of lift is 42’.* COUNTERBALANCED The Counterbalanced Lift requires that the aisles between pallet racks must be a minimum of 12’ in width. The vertical reach of this type of lift is 15.5’.

DEEP REACH 9’ AISLE

COUNTERBALANCED 12’ AISLE

42’ Lift*

ORDER PICKER The Order Picker Lift requires that the aisles between pallet racks must be a minimum of 4’ in width. The vertical reach of this type of lift is 30.5’. TURRET TRUCK The Turret Truck Lift requires that the aisles between pallet racks must be a minimum of 4.5’ in width. The vertical reach of this type of lift is 41’.

ORDER PICKER 4’-5’ AISLE

TURRET TRUCK 4.5’-5.5’ AISLE

Gandall, D. (2013). Pallet rack estimator. Retrieved from http://webtools.cisco-eagle.com/rack/


PALLETS

PALLET RACKING

18’-0”

6’-0”

28’-0”

5’-0”

42”

Gandall, D. (2013). Pallet rack estimator. Retrieved from http://webtools.cisco-eagle.com/rack/

In the design of a contemporary factory building, the ideal ceiling height is 28’. This very specific ceiling height is due (in part) to the parameters set by the Pallet Lift. The most common lift, for economical reasons, is the Counterbalanced Lift. With this machine limited at 15.5’ in vertical reach, a trilevel racking system is ideal. The total height of such a system is 18‘, with each individual segment being 6’ tall. This, in turn, leaves 9’8” of space for decking, lighting, and refrigeration. The critical dimension to consider for the refrigeration unit is its height; 4’8”. Not every warehouse facility requires such an apparatus, but this parameter then leaves 5’ of clear space between the top-most filled pallet and the underside of the refrigeration unit. This specific relationship can be seen illustrated in the diagram to the left.


Length

SEMI

60’ Overall, 53’ Trailer Height (bed) 45”-55”

CONTAINER

Length 60’ Overall, 53’ Trailer Height (bed) 55”-62”

FLAT BED

Length 60’ Overall Height (bed) 46”-62”

LOW BOY

Length 60’ Overall, 53’ Trailer Height (bed) 19”-25”

CITY

Length 40’ Overall Height (bed) 45”-48”

Gandall, D. (2013). Pallet rack estimator. Retrieved from http://webtools.cisco-eagle.com/rack/


PALLETS

APRON SPACE

130’

When designing a manufacturing building, the Apron Space is the area immediately outside of the loading docks that must be provided so that the trucks can successfully maneuver into their designated bay. The rule of thumb for predicting this distance is through the following formula: 2(LENGTH OF TRUCK + TRAILER) + 10’

130’

130’

SEMI The Semi truck has an overall length of 60’, thus the apron space required is 130’ = 2(7’ + 53’) + 10’ CONTAINER The Container truck has an overall length of 60’, thus the apron space required is 130’ = 2(7’ + 53’) + 10’ FLAT BED The Flat Bed truck has an overall length of 60’, thus the apron space required is 130’ = 2(60’) + 10’

130’

90’

LOW BOY The Low Boy truck has an overall length of 60’, thus the apron space required is 130’ = 2(7’ + 53’) + 10’ CITY The City truck has an overall length of 40‘, thus the apron space required is 90’ = 2(40’) + 10’. The City truck is an ideal means of shipping for tight urban conditions. Certain scales of manufacturing, however, will require servicing via a Semi.


62,500 SF

25 BAYS 50’X50’

40,000 SF

16 BAYS 50’X50’

22,500 SF

9 BAYS 50’X50’

10,000 SF

4 BAYS 50’X50’

2,500 SF

1 BAYS 50’X50’

Gandall, D. (2013). Pallet rack estimator. Retrieved from http://webtools.cisco-eagle.com/rack/

Pallet Racks 784 Pallets 4704

Pallet Racks 484 Pallets 2904

Pallet Racks 256 Pallets 1536

Pallet Racks 90 Pallets 540

Pallet Racks 15 Pallets 90


In a Semi Truck, one can fit 52 pallets (double stacked). In a 62,500 sf facility, it would take 91 Semi Trucks to fill that amount of storage space.

In a Semi Truck, one can fit 52 pallets (double stacked). In a 40,000 sf facility, it would take 56 Semi Trucks to fill that amount of storage space.

In a Semi Truck, one can fit 52 pallets (double stacked). In a 22,500 sf facility, it would take 30 Semi Trucks to fill that amount of storage space.

In a Semi Truck, one can fit 52 pallets (double stacked). In a 10,000 sf facility, it would take 11 Semi Trucks to fill that amount of storage space.

In a Semi Truck, one can fit 52 pallets (double stacked). In a 2,500 sf facility, it would take 2 Semi Trucks to fill that amount of storage space.

PALLETS

STORAGE SPACE The 50’ x 50’ column grid is ideal in a manufacturing setting. Beyond the reasons of structural justification, the ideal nature of this number comes from the dimensional constraints of the singular pallet. A 50’ x 50’ grid works in such a way that 90 pallets can be stored (assuming 2,000 pounds/pallet and a trilevel racking system. A total of 15 pallet racks can fit into that amount of space, while leaving the obligatory clear space in the aisles for the Pallet Lift to maneuver. In this arrangement, the weight per beam level would be 4,000 pounds, and the price of the racking system would be approximately $115.42 per pallet. The matrix to the left displays the capacities of varying warehouse square footages. The figure, which illustrates the number of semi trucks needed to fill the space, is assuming a double-stacking of the pallets within the semi. It is important to note that while the truck bay doors typically come in heights of 8, 9, and 10’, only the 10’ height is capable of properly servicing a double-stacked semi.


DAYLIGHTING STRATEGIES The concept of passive daylighting strategies is not a new idea for the manufacturing industry. Factories from the first half of the 20th century can be useful for determining daylighting strategies for the future of manufacturing. The following 3 examples represent ideas worth considering:

54255

25805

12274

5838

2776

1320

lux

STRATEGY 1: CLERESTORY The clerestory is an ideal response to alternating bay heights. STRATEGY 2: DIFFUSED LIGHT Diffused light allows for visual privacy from the exterior. STRATEGY: SAW TOOTH ROOF Saw tooths (or monitors) can be used for capturing north-light. This is ideal for precision manufacturing.

CLERESTORY

DIFFUSED

SAW TOOTH

Illuminance study conducted at 10:00 AM

Illuminance study conducted at 10:00 AM

Illuminance study conducted at 10:00 AM


ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES EXPRESSING THE CONTENTS PROTOTYPES

TYPOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS Like modern housing and office buildings, manufacturing facilities have both essential program components and time-tested circulation armatures that both provide access to and organize the relationship between the parts. When considered through a completely pragmatic lens, the determinants of space organization in factories are more complex than other building types because circulation patterns and space arrangement needs to suit the needs of both personnel and product movement. In addition, most manufacturing spaces need to account for spaces that can handle the machinery process as well as storage for stock items and completed goods before they are shipped. These competing demands on the layout of a factory need to be balanced with the desire for flexibility to allow for changes in manufacturing processes because of technology and/or changes in production runs. As a result, a natural tension exists between the desire for universal space, on the one hand, and specialized spaces of specific tasks, on the other. Given these pragmatic and efficiencydriven parameters, factory design has recently been the purview of industrial engineers and not architects. The goal of our analysis is to take a half a step back to understand whether an architectural framework can point in innovative new directions.


ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES ANALYZING BUILDING ARRANGEMENT TECHNIQUES THROUGH PRECEDENT STUDIES AND PROTOTYPICAL DIAGRAMMING.

UMD Typological Considerations

The arrangement of high and low-bay spaces provides the essential organizational structure of industrial buildings. Highbay spaces are designed to accommodate a flexible area for both industrial production and the efficient warehousing of stock materials and finished goods for distribution. These spaces are directly linked to the larger supply chain by loading docks that determine the dimensional rhythm of the building elevation. Contrasting the high-bay space are the low-bay spaces that contain support functions such as office suites, research labs, and service areas. The arrangement of high-bay and low-bay spaces establishes the basic organization schema of an industrial building.

The Life & Style Kameha Grand Bonn Hotel (Karl-Heinz Schommer)


Gira Giersiepen GmbH (Ingenhoven Overdiek Architekten)


ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES

PLAN ARCHETYPES ANALYZING PLAN ARRANGEMENTS USING HIGH AND LOW BAY SPACES. Taking into consideration the importance of the loading dock as the foremost factor in determining the layout of factory space, a variety of low spaces were placed around an adjacent high bay space to understand the effects these programs have on both the scale and use of an industrial building. The effective use of low bay space allows for a more efficient use of manufacturing space. 3

Detached

Long Side

The admininistrative program is physically disconnected from the the manufacturing

The admininistrative program is arranged along one side of the manufacturing

4

Short Side

Embedded

The admininistrative program is arranged along one side of the manufacturing

The admininistrative program is centrally located, dividing the manufacturing space

5

1 6

‘Sandwich’

Absent

The admininistrative program is arranged along two sides of the manufacturing

The admininistrative program is removed

2

7

8


12

17 34

13

27 21

18

22 14

19 35 23

20

15

28

9

10

29

24

11

16

25

30

31

26

32

33

36


ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES

SECTION ARCHETYPES

18

ANALYZING SECTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS USING HIGH AND LOW BAY SPACES. Section archetypes analyze a productive use of vertical space. Issues such as pallet stacking, and machine processing are impacted by both sectional arrangement and overall building height. Sectional strategies may also generate spatial efficiencies that can reduce a building’s footprint. Five typical section arrangements emerged out of a study of high bay and low bay section relationships.

10

5

20 Above

Stacked Adjacent

The low-bay program is located above the high-bay program.

The low-bay program is stacked adjacent to the high-bay program.

29

Hung Within

Detached

The low-bay program is located within the high-bay space as a mezzanine.

The low-bay program is separated from the high-bay program.

Absent There is no low-bay program.

8 19

36


2

30 9

11

26

25

23

22

16 28

12

27

24


EXPRESSING THE CONTENTS STRATEGIES FOR EXPRESSING THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS AND THE COMPANY BRAND

UMD Typological Considerations

Expressive strategies help convey either a message about the company or the product they manufacture, and are often conceived as part of a broader branding strategy. Companies can use a wide range of strategies, from painting an exterior wall the company color to including large expanses of glass to expose the production process to people passing by. Many companies choose to express the company brand through the architecture but wish to conceal, for various reasons, actual production. An example of this can be seen in a printing press with large letters wrapping around its facade. For other companies, the plant tour is a central part of the marketing strategy. Often, the architects for these buildings have included special viewing areas such as elevated mezzanines and catwalks. Understanding this range of expressive strategies equips the architect and client with a shared framework to make decisions about the design of a building for a specific company and site.

Printworks Veenman (Neutelings Riedijk)


EXPRESSING THE CONTENTS

Expressive Building Shape

DECORATED SHED/DUCK Using both building shape and graphic representation on the building skin, this type of building contains a publice image, but does not actually reveal what happens inside. This is often a tactic to only convey a specific message, or is due to a necessity of privacy or safety for the specific program of the building. As a tool, this type of image strategy can be useful to both maintain an amount of necessary privacy while still addressing the public.

Graphic Skin Expression


VEENMAN PRINTING PRESS This building for a printing press company uses their facade material to hint at what is happening inside. The use of letters on the facade creates a public message or theme for the building without actually exposing the machinery within.

DHC ENERGY PRODUCTION This energy production plant takes a unique approach to public relations. Due to the types of processes taking place within, it cannot expose its interior spaces. Instead, it places a large LED screen on its exterior that shows the type of energy production happening inside at the moment, as well as how much energy has been produced that day.

METALSA This building for automotive manufacturer Metalsa has a saw-toothed roofline that is reminiscent of old industrial buildings and the nearby mountains. Designed to create an impression, it easily does so with its entirely metal facade.


EXPRESSING THE CONTENTS

TRANSPARENCY Using transparency as a tool for literally exposing the contencts of a manufacturing space can be an interesting way to engage the public. In an era advocating for business and political transparency, as well as a strong environmental movement, exposing a clean manufacturing process can go a long way to boost public approval and actively engage consumers.

Transparent Skin


BIOMASS PLANT This biomass plant attempts to be as transparent as possible. The main building is entirely made of glass, exposing all spaces, including both administrative as well as production. A wood screen wraps around the top portion of the building, providing very little privacy, but leaving the bottom most portion totally open, where the manufacturing actually occurs.

THE DAILY JOURNAL This off-set printing press was built in the paper’s beginning stage, and was also to act as a publicity buliding for the new paper. The building was wrapped in glass, and had brightly painted printing presses to be seen from the road.

MORS DISTRIBUTION CENTER This project for Mors Distribution is built as an exposed entrance and show-area being revealed from within the larger structure. The exposed area includes a showroom with machinery used by Mors as well as an entrance lobby and office spaces.


EXPRESSING THE CONTENTS

VIEWING THE PROCESS This type of project takes expression one step further. It creates and environment inside the manufacturing space that allows for the public to enter into it and experience the production. Regardless of how the exterior addresses the public, this strategy allows for an extensive interactive relationship between the consumer and the product.

Designed Viewing Area


HARPOON BREWERY With the inclusion of a Beer Hall with their main Brewery in Boston, MA, a large part of Harpoon’s business plan includes customer interaction. The Beer Hall opens up to the production line with a large interior window. Several tours a day take place, weaving through the production area on catwalks built to expose visitors to the brewing process.

TAZA CHOCOLATE Taza chocolate has a local buisness model, and their on-site store brings in much of their business. Two large windows show the most interesting piece of the chocolate production: the melting and mixing machine, which includes piping to move the melted chocolate through the room. A guided tour takes visitors through the production line.

BMW FACTORY This BMW Factory, by Zaha Hadid, takes a different approach to both building layout and experience. The vehicles move through the office spaces while partially completed to different areas of production on raised tracks, bringing employees closer to the actual production process.


PROTOTYPES A COMPREHENSIVE SET OF PROTOTYPICAL BUILDING DESIGNS.

UMD Typological Considerations

After analyzing a wide range of manufacturing facilities to uncover common organizational and expressive strategies, a series of prototypes were developed that synthesized the analysis. The three basic design elements analyzed earlier in this chapter - the relationship of the high-bay to low-bay space, the roofline, and the façade strategy – were recombined in a variety of configurations. These prototypes are not conceived to be off-the-shelf solutions, but rather a starting point for an iterative design process that takes into account the specific demands of the site, manufacturing process, logistics, and brand of the business.

Wallen Forestry Center (Samyn and Partners)


1. EMBEDDED ABOVE DECORATED DUCK

2. EMBEDDED ABOVE TRANSPARENT BOX

3. EMBEDDED WITHIN DECORATED DUCK

4. EMBEDDED WITHIN TRANSPARENT BOX

5. EMBEDDED STACKED DECORATED DUCK

6. EMBEDDED STACKED TRANSPARENT BOX

7. SHORT-SIDE ABOVE DECORATED DUCK

8. SHORT-SIDE ABOVE TRANSPARENT BOX

9. SHORT-SIDE STACKED DECORATED DUCK

10. SHORT-SIDE STACKED TRANSPARENT BOX

11. SHORT-SIDE WITHIN DECORATED DUCK

12. SHORT-SIDE WITHIN TRANSPARENT BOX


13. SHORT-SIDE DETACHED DECORATED DUCK

14. SHORT-SIDE DETACHED TRANSPARENT BOX

15. LONG-SIDE ABOVE DECORATED DUCK

16. LONG-SIDE ABOVE TRANSPARENT BOX

17. LONG-SIDE STACKED DECORATED DUCK

18. LONG-SIDE STACKED TRANSPARENT BOX

19. LONG-SIDE WITHIN DECORATED DUCK

20. LONG-SIDE WITHIN TRANSPARENT BOX

21. LONG-SIDE DETACHED DECORATED DUCK

22. LONG-SIDE DETACHED TRANSPARENT BOX

23. SANDWICH ABOVE DECORATED DUCK

24. SANDWICH ABOVE TRANSPARENT BOX


25. SANDWICH STACKED DECORATED DUCK

26. SANDWICH STACKED TRANSPARENT BOX

27. SANDWICH WITHIN DECORATED DUCK

28. SANDWICH WITHIN TRANSPARENT BOX

29. SANDWICH DETACHED DECORATED DUCK

30. SANDWICH DETACHED TRANSPARENT BOX

31. DETACHED STACKED DECORATED DUCK

32. DETACHED STACKED TRANSPARENT BOX

33. ABSENT ABOVE DECORATED DUCK

34. ABSENT ABOVE TRANSPARENT BOX

35. ABSENT ABSENT DECORATED DUCK

36. ABSENT ABSENT TRANSPARENT BOX


1

SOMERSET INDUSTRIES 2009 | Heller Inc | Somerset, NJ 296,161 sf | Warehouse

2

AWM 2002 | Allman Sattler Wappner | Germany 16,539 sf | Vehicle Depot

3

EDISON INDUSTRIAL 2009 | Costar | Edison, NJ 44,00 sf | Warehouse

4

FACTORY FOR PLASTIC 2009 | David Haid | Wheaton, IL 69,000 sf | Factory

5

MORS 1988 | Benthem Crouwel | Netherlands 296,161 sf | Distribution

6

FRAMINGHAM 2009 | Northeast Properties | MA 13,900 sf | Warehouse

7

METALSA 2013 | Brooks + Scarpa | Mexico 55,000 sf | Manufacturing

8

SCHWARZENBERGER 1993 | Michael Jockers | Germany 8,398 sf | Distribution + Storage

9

CRAIGBURN 2012 | HBO+EMTB | Australia 215,278 sf | Train Maintenance


10

STADWERKE 1996 | Christoph Mackler | Germany 2,673 sf | Steam Station

11

LIPTON TEA PLANT NA | John B. Parkin Assoc. | Canada 155,000 sf | Tea Processing

12

DHC 2008 | Alday Jover Arch. | Spain 19,375 sf |Power Plant

13

FOURNITURES SELECT 2010 | Blouin Tardif | Dorval, Canada 13,400 sf | Restoration Equipment

14

BIO MASS 2009 | Matteo Thun & Part. | Germany 10,763 sf | Power Plant

15

AGMONT 2009 | Lemay et Assoc. | Canal Lachine 5,000 sf | Textiles

16

LOUIS LEITZ FACTORY 1950 | Heinrichs and Muller | Germany 55,000 sf |Office Materials

17

SCHWARZENBERGER 1993 | |Michael Jockers | Germany 8,398 sf | Distribution + Storage

18

CRAIGBURN 2009 | Costar | Edison, NJ 44,00 sf | Warehouse


19

WALLOON FORESTRY 1995 | Samyn and Partners | Belgium 12,497 sf | Timber Production

20

EKZ 1994 | EKZ GmbH | Germany 25,920 sf | Warehouse

21

EDISON INDUSTRIAL NA | PCG | Southborugh, MA 148,725 sf | R&D

22

ERCO LEUCHTEN 2001 | Schneider + Schumacher | Germany 23,449 sf | High bay Storage

23

GIRA 2002 | lngenhoven Overdiek | Germany 38,976 sf | Electronics Production

24

FAUSTINO WINERY 2010 | Foster + Partners| Spain 1,345,488 sf | Wine Production

25

TOBIA GAU 1998 | Bothe Richter Teherani | Germany 43,077 sf | Assembly

26

CARTIER FACTORY 1992 | Jean Nouvel | Switzerland 18,019 sf | Watch Production

27

IWB 1999 | Baader Architekten | Switzerland 62,969 sf | Storage


28

MACHINE FACTORY NA | Werner Luz | Germany 215,278 sf | Machine Tool Production

29

DAILY JOURNAL NA | SOM | IN 11,000 sf | Printing Press

30

FACTORY WAREHOUSE NA | Bert Allemann | Switzerland 19,375 sf | Factory Warehouse

31

MODEL F 2010 | D.I.G Architects | Japan 1,515 sf | Home Manufacturing

32

ELECTRONICS FACTORY NA | Foster and Partners | England 32,000 sf | Electronics Factory

33

AGMONT 2001 | KPMB | Canada 15,930 sf | Wine Production

34

RICOLA STORAGE BUILDING 1987 | Herzog | Switzerland 4,843 sf | Storage

35

SHIPYARD 1995 | Bois Consult Natterer | Switzerland 12,271 sf | Ship Construction

36

KAUFMANN 1992 | Hermann Kaufmann | Austria 104,787 sf | Timber Storage



MIDREVIEW - New Life for Urban Manufacturing Districts