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PREPARATION Assembled by: Chuck-JOHNEL

I'm still waiting on permission to quote from the book on shelters; but in the meantime I would like to present some thoughts on items to have for "barter", items that will be in demand when supplies are short, and on thoughts about how to survive (mostly attitude). These reports are by design to help you understand what you can store that will prove helpful in `hard times' and how to `mentally and emotionally' cope with troubles and emergencies. We provide them so that you can collect this series on "preparation" in a folder at home for future and ready reference as well as for study and prayer. These lists were provided by Richard-DANIEL and Jim-REPHEAL and transcribed by Leith. Submitted by Richard-DANIEL ( Quote) "At some point, the need to live and function "in the field" for a variety of reasons may come up and confront us. This may require tactical knowledge and practical skills and equipment that fall outside of our daily lives, routines and experiences. We need pray about this and think this through now , not later when the need arises, Skill Areas that need to be developed are: First Aid, Fire, Food/Water, Shelter and Navigation. Enemies to overcome/survive are: Boredom/Loneliness, Pain, Thirst, Fatigue, Temperature Extremes, Hunger and Fear. Forget about carrying everything in a backpack. Some have worked out the limits to carrying "stuff' in a backpack to about 15% of a person's weight., if they are in good physical shape/condition. If you're a man weighing 200 lbs, then figure about 30 pounds or less as your cross-country carrying limit.

Here are some books that I can recommend to start with: SURVIVAL: A MANUAL THAT COULD SAVE YOUR LIFE by Chris & Gretchen Janowsky, THE SAS ESCAPE, EVASION & SURVIVAL MANUAL by Barry Davies, THE SAS SURVIVAL HANDBOOK by John Wiseman, INTO THE PRIMITIVE ADVANCED TRAPPING TECHNIQUES by Dale Martin and TRACKING: A BLUEPRINT FOR LEARNING HOW by Jack Kearney." (Unquote)


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These items generally meet all of the following criteria for Barter: High consumer demand. Not easily home manufactured. Durable in storage. Divisible in small quantities. Authenticity easily recognizable.

Liquid detergent Laundry detergent Rubbing alcohol Bleach Toothbrushes Razor blades Toilet paper Aluminum foil Writing paper, typing paper, pens, pencils, erasers Soap Salt, pepper Cloth diapers (500 ct.) Candles Knife sharpeners (small hand-held) Menstrual pads ( Washable—do web search) Scissors Chapstick

Shoelaces, string, cord, rope Fishing line Insect repellent Water repellent Paint, varnish Matches Watches Tape Light bulbs Needles, thread zippers, buttons Fuels (all types) Quarts of multi-pis motor oil Anti-freeze Wire Glues Bolts, screws, nails Honey Seasonings MRE's

Aspirin, vitamins, other drugs Seeds, grain, sugar Coffee, liquor, cocoa, tea, cigarettes Anti-biotics, burn ointments Safety pins Manual can opener Knives Canning jars, lids, rings Shoes, boots, socks, nylon stockings Underwear Winter clothes (gloves, sweaters, pants, j ackets) Coats Blankets Hand guns, rifles, ammunition, ammo reloading equipment (primers, powder, etc.


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March 12, 2008

As a former PMI (U.S. Marine shooting instructor) here is my 2 cents on the ammo that will be most valuable and why: 12 and 20 gauge shotgun shells. More Americans own shotguns than any other type of long gun. I recommend buck shot for deer and defense and #6 - #8 shot for putting meat (birds and small game) on your table. Rifle Ammo: .22 LR- more Americans own .22s than any other type of rifle .30/30 - the most popular deer round for the past 50 years .30/06 - 2" d most popular .308 Winchester - 3" most popular .270 4 th - most popular .223 15.56 Nato standard M-16 round 7.62 x 39 fits many soviet assault rifles

Handguns: 38 special also fits .357 magnum, but NOT the other way around 9mm Nato / Parabellum 45 ACP I know there are other calibers out there, but these outsell the others 10 to 1. All wiII be excellent barter material if "the balloon goes up." Store in steel ammo cans with good rubber gaskets in a cool, dry, place. I shot a box of 40 year old .22s stored this way a few years ago. ..every one fired perfectly. You can COUNT on ammo being banned if martial law is declared. ..by all you can NOW. (All quotes from the book, DEEP SURVIVAL, by Laurence Gonzales, W.W. Norton and Company, New York, @2003)

(NOTE: Words in parentheses are Laurence Gonzales' implied words from context. Words in brackets are Jim-REPHEAL's commentary, usually for clarification's sake.) ...it's not (the survival items you've got) that separates the quick from the dead. It's not even what's in your mind. Corny as it sounds, it's what's in your heart. The first lesson is to remain calm, not to panic. Because emotions are called "hot cognitions," this is known as "being cool." The (survivors) turned fear and anger into focus. ..they were able to concentrate their attention on the matter at hand.


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Only 10 to 20 percent of people can stay calm and think in the midst of a survival emergency. They are the ones who can perceive their situation clearly; they can plan and take correct action, all of which are key elements of survival. Confronted with a changing environment, they rapidly adapt. (In a hard situation) the first rule is: Face reality. Good survivors aren't immune to fear. They know what's happening, and it does "scare the living * * * * out of them." It's all a question of what you do next. (Survivors) look death in the face and still come up with a wry smile. In a true survival situation, you are by definition looking death in the face, and if you can't find something droll [amusing] and even something wondrous and inspiring in it, you are already in a world of hurt. [Survivors often find at least some humor in their situations] Because if you let yourself get too serious, you will get too scared, and once that devil is out of the bottle, you're on a runaway horse. Fear is good. Too much fear is not. Plato understood that emotions could trump reason and that to succeed we have to use the reins of reason on the horse of emotion. ...the system we call emotion (from the Latin verb emovere, "to move away") works powerfully and quickly to motivate behavior. Emotion is an instinctive response aimed at self-preservation. . .(when one yields to their emotions) various chemicals flood the body top put it in a state of high readiness for whatever needs to be done. How well you exercise (self-control) often decides the outcome of survival situations. Stress [or any strong emotion] erodes the ability to perceive. ..Stress causes most people to focus narrowly on the thing that they consider most important, and it may be the wrong thing. ...play puts a person in touch with his environment, while laughter makes the feeling of being threatened manageable. Laughter ... can help temper negative emotions.


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It is not the lack of fear that separates elite performers [like highly accomplished athletes, politicians, etc.] from the rest of us. They're afraid, too, but they're not overwhelmed by it. They manage fear. They use it to focus on taking corrective action. ...(humans) react in predictable ways. It is only by managing and working with those predictable, inborn reactions that you're going to survive. Survival, then, is about being cool. It's about laughing with an attitude of bold humility in the face of something terrifying. Psychologists who study survivors of shipwrecks, plane crashes, natural disaster, and prison camps conclude that the most successful are open to the changing nature of their environment. When a patient is told that he has six months to live, he has two choices: to accept the news and die, or to rebel and live. People who survive cancer in the face of such a diagnosis are notorious. The medical staff observes that they are "bad patients," unruly, troublesome. They don't follow directions. They question everything. They're annoying. They're survivors. The hero (survivor) is (often) farthest from his goal when he triumphs. Once an emotional reaction is underway [vs. a cool, rational response], there can be an overwhelming impulse to act. Some give up and die. Others stop denying and begin surviving. You don't have to be an elite performer [in a tough situation]. You don't have to be perfect. You just have to get on with it and do the next right thing. One of the toughest steps a survivor has to take is to discard the hope of rescue, just as he discards the old world he left behind and accepts the new one. There is no other way for his brain to settle down. One of the many baffling mysteries concerns who survives and who doesn't. "It's not who you'd predict, either," (author Kenneth) Hill, who has studied the survival rates of different demographic groups told me. "Sometimes the one who survives is an inexperienced female hiker, while the experienced hunter gives up and dies in one night, even when it's not that cold. The category that has one of the highest survival rates is children six and under." Despite the fact that small children lose body heat faster than adults, they often survive in the same conditions better than experienced hunters, better than physically fit hikers, better than former members of the military or skilled sailors. And yet one of the groups with the poorest survival rates is children ages seven to twelve.


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"Some people just give up, (said author) Ken Hill. "(For) fifteen years I've been studying this, and I can't figure out why." A Positive Mental Attitude (is the) number one item (of survivors). Once fatigue sets in, though, it is almost impossible to recover from it under survival conditions. It is not just a matter of being tired. It's more like a spiritual collapse, and recovery requires more than food or rest. In survival situations, people greatly underestimate the need for rest. [A person in a survival situation said,] "I fell to my knees and I prayed. Faith is a very important thing in your will to survive." Helping someone else is the best way to ensure your own survival. It takes you out of yourself. It helps you to rise above your fears. Now you're a rescuer, not a victim. And seeing how your leadership and skill buoy others up gives you more focus and energy to persevere. The cycle reinforces itself: You buoy them up, and their response buoys you up. Many people who survive alone report that they were doing it for someone else (a wife, boyfriend, mother, son) back home. Doctors and nurses often survive better than others because they have someone to help. They have a well-defined purpose. Purpose is a big part of survival, but it must be accompanied by work. Grace without good works is not salvation. The survivor plans by setting small, manageable goals and then systematically achieving them. Hence the. . .(piloting) notion which my father drilled into me: Plan the flight and fly the plan. But don't fall in love with the plan. Be open to a changing world and let go of the plan when necessary so that you can make a new plan. Then, as the world and the plan both go through their book of changes, you will always be ready to do the next right thing. People survive better in numbers. (Author) John Leach puts it this way: "When the personality is ripped away there has to be a core remaining to carry the person through. ..If a person can carry all his support within him [for Christians, this is JESUS] then it matters little what the external environment comprises." Turning fear into focus is the first act of a survivor. At least 75% of people caught in a catastrophe either freeze or simply wander in a daze, according to some psychologists. They can't think (or) act correctly.


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(Survivors) take bold action while exercising great caution. A sense of humor "is not a luxury," (Author) Leach writes, "it is a vital organ for survival." (Shipwreck/castaway survivor Kiley) began praying to keep herself focused. Survival psychologists have long observed that successful survivors pray. even when they don't believe in a god. ( A survivor) doesn't blame others, nor turn to them. He takes responsibility for himself. (Survivor Yossi Ghinsberg who was stranded in the Bolivian jungle for three weeks) began telling himself, "Don't cry. Don't break now. Be a man of'action... When I found myself feeling hopeless, I whispered my mantra, `Man of action, man of action.' I don't know where I had gotten the phrase. ..1 repeated it over and over: A man of action does whatever he must, isn't afraid, and doesn't worry." Survivors find wealth and happiness in the smallest things. They never say, "Why me?" or, "I can't take it anymore." Survival is the celebration of choosing life over death. (Survivors) know that safety is an illusion and being obsessed with safety is a sickness. The first rule of survivaI (is) to believe that anything is possible. [I would add: "with God "]

Take advantage of all training [re. Preparation, survival, etc.] that is available. Stay calm (use humor, use fear to focus). In the initial crisis, survivors are making use of fear, not being ruled by it. ..They understand at a deep level about being cool and are ever on guard against the mutiny of too much emotion. They keep their sense of humor therefore keep calm. Think/analyze/plan (get organized; set up small, manageable tasks). Survivors quickly organize, set up routines, and institute discipline. . They push away thoughts that their situation is hopeless, . .(They act) with the expectation of success.


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Celebrate your successes (take joy in completing tasks). Survivors take great joy from even their smallest successes. That is an important step in creating an ongoing feeling of motivation and preventing the descent into hopelessness. It also provides relief from the unspeakable stress of a true survival situation. Count your blessing (be grateful—you're alive!). This is how survivors become rescuers instead of victims. There is always someone else they are helping more than themselves... . Never give up (let nothing breakyour spirit). There is always one more thing that you can do. Survivors are not easily frustrated. They are not discouraged by setbacks. They accept that the environment is constantly changing. They pick themselves up and start the entire process over again, breaking it down into manageable bits. Survivors always have a clear reason for going on.

PREPARING? —THE ITEMS THAT DISAPPEAR FIRST IN CALAMITIES: I (Jim-REPHEAL) got this from Jim Sinclair's site. It's from a Sarajevo war survivor's post elsewhere. You might want to read the list before you need the items* Generators (good ones cost dearly. Gas storage, risky. Noisy. ..target of thieves: maintenance, etc.) * Water filters/ purifiers. * Portable toilets. * Seasoned firewood. Wood takes about 6 -12 months to become dried, for home uses. * Lamp oil, wicks, lamps (First choice: Buy CLEAR oil. If scarce, stockpile ANY!) * Coleman fuel. Impossible to stockpile too much. * Guns, ammunition, pepper spray, knives, clubs, bats & slingshots. * Hand-can openers, & hand egg beaters, whisks. * Honeylsyrups/white, brown sugar. * Rice-beans-wheat. * Vegetable oil (for cooking). Without it food burns/must be boiled, etc. * Charcoal, lighter fluid (will become scarce suddenly). * Water containers (urgent item to obtain). Any size. Small: HARD CLEAR PLASTIC ONLY - note - food grade for drinking. * Propane cylinders (urgent: definite shortages will occur.) * Survival guide book. * Mantles: Aladdin, Coleman, etc. (without this item, longer-term lighting is difficult). * Baby supplies: diapers/formula, ointments, aspirin, etc. * Washboards. Mop bucket with wringer (for laundry).


1VI4L L11 16 411V4 YVI Li 1v11111NLI it i C ai aLuwll r e 1 nC L7 La THE ITEMS THAT DISAPPEAR FIRST IN CALAMITIES: (continued)

* Cookstoves (propane, Coleman & Kerosene). * Vitamins. * Propane cylinder handle-holder (urgent: small canister use is dangerous without this item). * Feminine hygiene/hair-care/skin products. * Thermal underwear (tops and bottoms). * Bow saws, axes & hatchets, wedges (also, honing oil). * Aluminum foil regular and heavy duty (great cooking and barter item). * Gasoline containers (plastic & metal). * Garbage bags (impossible to have too many). * Toilet paper, Kleenex, paper towels. * Milk - powered & condensed (shake liquid every 3 to 4 months). * Garden seeds (non-hybrid) (A MUST). * Clothes pins/line/hangers (A MUST). * Coleman's pump repair kit. * Tuna fish (in oil). * Fire extinguishers (or large box of baking soda in every room). * First aid kits. * Batteries (all sizes. ..buy furthest-out for expiration dates). * Garlic, spices & vinegar, baking supplies. * Big dogs (and plenty of dog food). * Flour, yeast & salt. * Matches ("strike anywhere" preferred.) Boxed, wooden matches will go first. * Writing paper/pads/pencils, solar calculators. * Insulated ice chests (good for keeping items from freezing in wintertime.) * Work-boots, belts, Levis & durable shirts. * Flashlights/LIGHTSTICKS & torches, "No. 76 Dietz" lanterns. * Journals, diaries & scrapbooks (jot down ideas, feelings, experience; historic times.) * Plastic garbage cans (great for storage, water, transporting - if with wheels.) * Men's hygiene: shampoo, toothbrush/paste, mouthwash/floss, nail clippers, etc. * Cast iron cookware (sturdy, efficient). * Fishing supplies/tools. * Mosquito coils/repellent, sprays/creams. * Duct tape. * Tarps/stakes/twine/nails/rope/spikes. * Candles. * Laundry detergent (liquid) * Backpacks, duffel bags. * Garden tools & supplies. * Canned fruits, veggies, soups, stews, etc.


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* Scissors, fabrics & sewing supplies.

* Bleach (plain, NOT scented: 4 to 6% sodium hypochlorite.) * Canning supplies, (jars/lids/wax). * Knives & sharpening tools: files, stones, steel. * Bicycles. - .tires/tubes/pumps/chains, etc. * Sleeping bags & blankets/pillows/mats. * Carbon monoxide alarm (battery powered). * Board games, cards, dice. * d-con rat poison, MOUSE PRUFE II, roach killer. * Mousetraps, ant traps & cockroach magnets. * Paper plates/cups/utensils (stock up, folks). * Baby wipes, oils, waterless & antibacterial soap (saves a lot of water). * Rain gear, rubberized boots, etc. * Shaving supplies (razors & creams, talc, after shave.) * Hand pumps & siphons (for water and for fuels). * Soy sauce, vinegar, bullions/gravy/soup base. * Reading glasses. * Chocolate/cocoa/Tanglpunch (water enhancers). * "Survival-in-a-can." * Woolen clothing, scarves/ear-muffs/mittens. * Boy Scout handbook. Also, Leaders Catalog. * Roll-on window insulation kit (MANCO). * Graham crackers, Saltines, pretzels, trail mix, jerky. * Popcorn, peanut butter, nuts. * Socks, underwear, t-shirts, etc. (extras). * Lumber (all types). * Wagons & carts (for transport to and from). * Cots & inflatable mattresses. * Gloves: work/warming/gardening, etc. * Lantern hangers. * Screen patches, glue, nails, screws, nuts & bolts. * Teas/coffee. * Cigarettes. * Wine/Liquors (for bribes, medicinal, etc.) * Paraffin wax. * Chewing gum/candies. * Atomizers (for cooling/bathing). * Hats & cotton neckerchiefs. * Goats/chickens.


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THE ITEMS THAT DISAPPEAR FIRST IN CALAMITIES: (continued) From a Sarajevo War Survivor: Experiencing horrible things that can happen in a war—death of parents and friends, hunger and malnutrition, endless freezing cold, fear, sniper attacks. 1. Stockpiling helps, but you never know how long trouble will last, so locate near renewable food sources. 2. Living near a well with a manual pump is like being in Eden. 3. After awhile, even gold can lose its luster. But there is no luxury in war quite like toilet paper. Its surplus value is greater than gold's. 4. If you had to go without one utility, lose electricity—it's the easiest to do without (unless you're in a very nice climate with no need for heat.) 5. Canned foods are awesome, especially if their contents are tasty without heating. One ofthe best things to stockpile is canned gravy—it makes a lot of the dry unappetizing things you find to eat in war somewhat edible. Only needs enough heat to "warm", not to cook. It's cheap too, especially if you buy it in bulk. 6. Bring some books—escapist ones like romance or mysteries become more valuable as the war continues. Sure, it's great to have a lot of survival guides, but you'll figure most ofthat out on your own anyway—trust me, you'll have a lot of time on your hands. 7. The feeling that you're human can fade pretty fast. I can't tell you how many people I knew who would have traded a much needed meal for just a little bit of toothpaste, rouge, soap or cologne. Not much point in fighting if you have to lose your humanity. These things are morale-builders like nothing else. 8. Slow burning candles and matches, matches, matches.

General Comments: Research has shown that the single most important factor affecting a person's physical and mental health during a crisis is the quality of the food available. It is hard to make radical changes overnight. This is especially true for children. In some cases children have been known to starve rather than to eat unfamiliar food. So have a case of jam and some peanut butter to keep the kids from starving_ They say that the best food program is to store what you eat and eat what you store, but I personally don't know anyone who does it.

This brings us to the issue of rotation. Some things like dehydrated vegetables, powered milk, cheese and eggs are not that tasty when compared to fresh items. This makes them harder to rotate into the daily diet. It would be good to grow a garden every year and get in the habit now of canning fruits and vegetables every year. Stockpile a seven year supply of canning lids and rings. Stockpile at least several years worth of non-hybrid garden seeds. Get together with friends and start buying things by the case wholesale. Start putting away quantities of things you


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General Comments: (continued) can't can up yourself. Don't forget sprouts and vitamins. Most of the food in your storage program is dead. It will supply you with bulk, carbohydrates, some protein and sugar but it is void of enzymes, and vitamins. Storing seeds and beans for sprouting is highly recommended. The following list gives an idea of what and how much to store. Alfalfa (48 oz.), lentils (24 oz.), alaskan peas (24 oz.), mung beans (48 oz.), soy beans (24 oz.), buckwheat (24 oz.), unhulled sunflower (8 oz.), garbanzo beans (24 oz.) and rye (24 oz.). Also, digestive supplements are a must! Most dehydrated food is very hard to digest and can create a lot of gas. This can make you fairly unpopular in a crowded shelter environment (it might even get you thrown outside.) The Effects of Radiation on Food: Many people misunderstand the real effects of radioactive fallout on food. If food is exposed to radioactive fallout, it does not necessarily make the food itself radioactive. If the food is enclosed in sealed containers any fallout which has settled on it can be cleaned off before opening the container. The contents of any such container can be safely consumed. Food can be safely grown in soil which has been contaminated by fallout from a nuclear detonation as long as the crops are planted a month after the fallout occurred. Food such as clams, mussels, and organs of mammals should not be eaten because they act as filters and concentrate contaminates. Livestock can be butchered and eaten if the meat is boned and the fat discarded. Milk from dairy cattle grazing on contaminated ground will be unsafe to drink for 30 days after a nuclear event. After 30 days, the milk can be safely used. Root crops, seeds, fruit and berries grown in contaminated soil should not be eaten because of water-borne contaminates they absorb through their roots and concentrate in the plant. A second crop would be safe to eat. A good practice, if material and time facilitates, is to cover garden areas with PVC plastic sheeting. This will catch and keep fallout particles from soaking into and contaminating the earth. The PVC can be removed once the fallout is over and radiation levels are low enough to go outside of your shelter. This garden area can be immediately used for planting and any subsequent crops safely eaten. Access: Unless your food is accessible when needed, it is of no value. While a 7-month supply should be organized and accessible inside the shelter, determination must be made where to place the rest of the stock (if any) during its period of storage. The following considerations will arise: A year supply of basic low-moisture food will require roughly 15 cubic feet of storage space per person. To place additional years of food in a shelter in what could be useful living space, with life-support systems, etc. is probably not justifiable. Shelter space is valuable and expensive. Less expensive structures can be constructed outside of shelter space that will adequately store food. Large amounts of food may be inside the shelter, but they might be so jam-packed that the containers in back are virtually inaccessible. Floor space must be allowed to sort


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through the mass or careful planning in place to "eat your way" progressively into it. Food inside the shelter is more easily defended, assuming the shelter is defendable. Food in an obvious container outside of a shelter may be a tempting object of theft. Food buried outside in a non-obvious manner is not likely to be noticed or stolen. But the more hidden the food, the more difficult it will be to retrieve. If excavation is needed to uncover a food storage cache, that activity might expose the cache at a bad time. When burying food it is wise not to put it directly into the ground (in buckets or cans for example) but rather to put it inside a larger tank or other container first for the following reasons: 1) Buckets are not waterproof or airtight, despite conventional theories to the contrary. Ground moisture will infiltrate the container eventually, thus spoiling the food. 2) Al! small containers lack the strength to withstand the weight of vehicles on top. They will split and spill the contents. 3) Digging up the cache will be a lot harder than burying it. You will probably dig up most of it just to find one particular container. 4) Food that is buried outside can be lost or forgotten. Presence of the food and its exact location must be known to friends and anyone likely to be supervising further work in the nearby proximity. Buried buckets and barrels have been accidentally unearthed by bulldozers (and destroyed in the process). Such a situation does no one any good; it's just a waste of time, money and effort. Optimum Storage Environment: The cooler the storage environment, the longer will be the storage life of the food. Living areas of the shelter will be warmer when in use than buried structures for food storage outside. Food stored in areas exposed to summer heat and temperature extremes will degenerate rapidly. Food Storage Life Expectancy: Description: Nutritive Storage Life: Indefinitely Grains and beans 1-2 years Brown rice 3-5 years + White rice 10 years + Sprouting seeds Powdered milk, 5 years

Storage Life Before Snoila2e: Indefinitely Not good for storage Approx. 3 years Indefinitely

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Powdered butter

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Powdered cheese Garden seeds

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General Comments: (continued) Food Storage Life Expectancy: Description: Nutritive Storage Life:

Storage Life Before Spoilage:

Salt Freeze dried foods Dehydrated foods Capsulated herbs Vitamin C Olive Oil Commercially canned

Indefinitely Up to 15 years Up to 15 years Indefinitely 10 years Indefinitely Up to 3 years

Indefinitely 7-15 years 7 years 3 years + 2 years Indefinitely 6 mo-I year

Note: The one factor that has the greatest effect on the longevity of food storage is a cool stable temperature. Food subjected to the fluxuations of summer heat and winter cold will degenerate quickly. Nutritive Storage Life = The length of time a particular food can be stored and still retain most of its original nutrients. Storage Life Before Spoilage= The length of time food can be stored before it spoils and thus becomes dangerous to eat. Identification: Contents of each container should be clearly marked, including the date of packaging. The owner's name should be on each box, can or bucket if more than one party is occupying the storage area. Organization in Storage and Kitchen: Be organized! Place food into storage according to a workable plan. If the cook can't find the food item she/he wants, what good is it? Whatever the scenario that would require people to take shelter, food can be one of the most comforting and normalizing elements for the shelter occupants. Therefore, the cook is one of the most important people you have. She/he must be given all the assistance possible to prepare decent meals. This means a kitchen that is intelligently planned out, food that is accessible, an accurate inventory, a pre-planned menu and reasonable privacy for the cook to work in. Post a map in the kitchen of where all the food is stored, so that if the original cook doesn't show up in time, somebody else will know where to start. Practice using the kitchen. Have the ingredients for the first week's menu all laid out. Those who spend some time in their shelter and actually prepare meals there will be miles ahead of those who have never put their system to work. Last of all, don't forget a good can opener and a bucket opener for 5 gallon plastic pails.

End of "Preparation" Mardi 12, 2008


March 12th, 2008: Preperation