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Dementia risks What's best for your bones?

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The danger of raw milk Milk Poses Health Risks Without Benefits, Study Shows, with disease outbreaks linked to unprocessed milk rising in the United States, a review published in the January 1, 2009 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases examines the dangers of drinking raw milk. Milk and dairy products are cornerstones of a healthy diet. However, if those products are consumed unprocessed, they can present a serious health hazard because of possible contamination with pathogenic bacteria. An average of 5.2 outbreaks per year linked to raw milk have occurred in the United States between 1993 and 2006—more than double the rate in the previous 19 years, according to coauthors Jeffrey T. LeJeune and Päivi J. Rajala-Schultz of the College of Veterinary Medicine in Columbus, Ohio. Contamination can occur at the time of collection, processing, distribution, or storage of milk, the authors write. Many pathogens can be found in the dairy farm

environment, which can contaminate the teat skin of dairy cows and consequently the milk at the time when cows are milked. For example, Salmonella and E. coli have been reported in pooled milk collected from farms., Outbreaks of salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and E. coli related to raw milk consumption have been reported since 2005. Raw milk advocates claim that unpasteurized milk cures or prevents disease, but no scientific evidence supports this notion. Testing raw milk, which has been suggested as an alternative to pasteurization, cannot ensure a product that is 100 percent safe and free of pathogens. Pasteurization remains the best way to reduce the unavoidable risk of contamination, according to the authors.

Beating cancer Clean living way to beat cancer. Over 40% of breast and bowel cancer cases in rich countries are preventable through diet, physical activity and weight control alone, experts says. Simple measures like cycling to work and swapping fatty foods or fruit can make all the difference for these and many other cancers, they say. Globally, each year there are millions of these preventable cancer cases, the World Cancer Research Fund estimates. Its report makes recommendations for "clean living" policies. According to the report, about a third of the 12 most common cancers in high-income countries and about a quarter in lower income countries could be prevented through diet, exercise and weight control. This includes cancers of the throat, lung and bowel. After not smoking, it is clear that diet, physical activity and weight are the most important things people can do to reduce their cancer risk” says Mike Richards – Professor, National Clinical Director for Cancer.

Dementia risks Long hours links to dementia risks. Long working hours may raise the risk of mental decline and possibly dementia, research suggests. The Finnish-led study was based on analysis of 2,214 middle-aged British civil servants. It found that those working more than 55 hours a week had poorer mental skills than those who worked a standard working week. The American Journal of Epidemiology study found hard workers had problems with shortterm memory and word recall. Lead researcher Dr Marianna Virtanen, from the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, said: "The disadvantages of overtime work should be taken seriously."

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Saving wheat crops? CSIRO Plant Industry scientists and international collaborators have discovered the key to overcoming three major cereal diseases, which in epidemic years cost wheat growers worldwide in excess of $7.8 billion. In a paper published today in entists from CSIRO Plant Industry, the University of Zurich and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center have identified a wheat gene sequence which provides protection against leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew. “Genetic disease resistance is highly desirable in plants as it is more environmentally friendly and profitable than strategies like spraying pesticides,” says a senior principal research scientist at CSIRO Plant Industry, Dr Evans Lagudah. “The newly identified resistance gene product – known as Lr34 transporter protein – is the first of its kind to be found in a commercial crop that is capable of delivering broadspectrum control of multiple pathogens.”

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What’s best for YOUR BONES ? Calcium is a mineral that the body needs for numerous functions, including building and maintaining bones and teeth, blood clotting, the transmission of nerve impulses, and the regulation of the heart's rhythm.


inety-nine percent of the calcium in the human body is stored in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1% is found in the blood and other tissues. The body gets the calcium it needs in two ways:  One is by eating foods that contain calcium or taking calcium supplements.

Good sources include dairy products (yoghurt, UHT milk etc), which have the highest concentration per serving of highly absorbable calcium, and dark leafy greens or dried beans, which have varying amounts of absorbable calcium.  The other way the body gets calcium is by pulling it from bones. This happens when blood levels of calcium drop too low, usually when it's been awhile since having eaten a meal containing calcium. Ideally, the calcium that is "borrowed" from the bones will be replaced at a later point. But, this doesn't always happen. Most important, this payback can't be accomplished simply by eating more calcium. All about dairy products Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. They are usually highenergy-yielding food products. A production plant for such processing is called a dairy or a dairy factory. Raw milk for processing generally comes from cows, but


occasionally from other mammals such as goats, sheep, water buffalo, yaks, or horses. Dairy products are commonly found in European, Middle Eastern and Indian cuisine, whereas they are almost unknown in East Asian

cuisine. Below you can find the most important dairy products obtained from milk, butter, cheese and yogurt and a complete selection in the table above (the selection presented in this table consist of products that you don’t find in supermarket/hypermarket usually) Types of dairy products Milk. It must pass several processes in several grades of bacteria Streptococcus lactis and Leuconostoc citrovorum, before you can consume it without any risks. The most safe process is known as ultra-high temperature processing or (less often) ultraheat treatment (both abbreviated UHT) is the partial sterilization of food by heating it for a short time, around 12 seconds, at a temperature exceeding 135°C (275°F), which is the temperature required to kill spores in milk. Even if this process is popular among milk products the process is also used for fruit juices, cream, yogurt, wine, soups, and stews for many years. Crème fraîche, slightly fermented cream with its smetana -a Central and Eastern European variety of sour cream – and clotted cream (a thick and spoonable cream made by heating). Cultured buttermilk, fermented concentrated (water removed) milk using the same bacteria as sour cream . Kefir, fermented milk drink resembling buttermilk but based on different

yeast and bacteria culture. Butter, mostly milk fat, produced by churning cream. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking applications such as baking, sauce making, and fry-

ing. Butter consists of butterfat, water and milk proteins. Butter is an emulsion which remains a solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32–35 °C (90–95 °F). Cheese, produced by coagulating milk, separating from whey and letting it ripen, generally with bacteria and sometimes also with certain molds. It is produced by coagulation of the milk protein casein. Typically, the milk is acidified and addition of the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are then separated and pressed into final form (see table). Dairy products obtained from cheese: cottage cheese, quark and fromage frais. Yogurt, milk fermented by Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus sometimes with additional bacteria, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus . Dairy products obtained from yogurt: ayran and lassi. Gelato, slowly frozen milk and water, lesser fat than ice cream Ice cream, slowly frozen cream and emulsifying additives. In some stores you can also find: ice milk, frozen custard and frozen yogurt (yogurt with emulsifiers that is frozen). Other similar products: kumis/airag, viili, kajmak, kefir, filmjölk, piimä, vla, dulce de leche and Uloo kao patha laeen ka.

More about milk, butter and cheese dairy products Milk powder: produced by removing the water from milk. Condensed milk: milk which has been concentrated by evaporation, often with sugar added. Ricotta cheese: milk heated and reduced in volume, known in Indian cuisine as Khoa. Butter milk: the liquid left over after producing butter

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from cream, often dried as livestock food. Ghee: clarified butter, by gentle heating of butter and removal of the solid matter. Anhydrous: milkfat. Curds: the soft curdled part of milk (or skim milk) used to make cheese (or casein). Whey: the liquid

drained from curds and used for further processing or as a livestock. Cream cheese: produced by the addition of cream to milk and then curdled to form a rich curd or cheese made from skim milk with cream added to the curd.


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