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Volume: XIV Part I Section: 2 Chapter: 8 Page No:

69

Chapter 8: Community Development Block Kunihar 1. Data

TABLE NO:10

HORTICULTUR E CROPS

Almond Amla Amrood Apple Apricot/Chulli Banana Citrus Daroo Lemon Litchi Mango Peach Pears Plum

AREA

4 1 11 2.5 3 3 29.5 10 27 4 25 11 11 18

VARIETIES (LOCAL/IMPROVED)

IRRIGATED/UNIRRIG ATE

LOCAL % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

IRRIGA TED% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

IMPROVED % 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

UNIRRIGA TED% 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

MEAN FYM

12 3 5.14 4.5 9 3 7.27 5.35 5.32 30 6.81 6 3.67 7.12

MEAN YIELD

0.5 2 0.36 2.8 0 0.67 0.37 0.4 0.15 0 2.16 0.64 1.91 1

MEAN SALE

5000 25000 500 12000 0 1466.67 709.43 544.44 277.08 0 3652.17 10727.27 13100 8711.11

CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS YES%

NO%

100 100 71.43 100 100 66.67 76.92 80 64.29 100 61.54 66.67 44.44 100

0 0 28.57 0 0 33.33 23.08 20 35.71 0 38.46 33.33 55.56 0

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

PESTICIDES

YES% 100 100 71.43 100 100 100 46.15 80 71.43 100 38.46 100 44.44 87.5

NO% 0 0 28.57 0 0 0 53.85 20 28.57 0 61.54 0 55.56 12.5

SOURCE OF PLANT MATERIAL LOCAL % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

GOVT. % 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

NO % 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

AVAILABILIT Y OF TECHNICAL GUIDANCE YES NO % % 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0


Volume: XIV Part I Section: 2 Chapter: 8 Page No:

70

TABLE NO:11 AGRICULTURE CROPS

Barley Chame Kolth Maize Moong Mustard Paddy Potato Rajmash Urd Wheat

AREA

79 1.5 2.5 150.3 2 74.5 20.5 50 1.5 34.5 130.8

VARIETIES (LOCAL/IMPROVED) LOCAL% IMPROVED%

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

IRRIGATED/UNIRRIGATE IRRIGATED% UNIRRIGATED%

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5.26 0 0 4.44 0 3.12 18.18 4 0 0 2.5

94.74 100 100 95.56 100 96.88 81.82 96 100 100 97.5

MEAN FYM

MEAN YIELD

6.34 4.5 3.75 9.95 6 6.98 5.32 6 2.25 7.39 9.8

CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS YES% NO%

1.68 1.6 1.12 2.27 0.7 1.24 1.76 1.54 1.03 0.85 2.06

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

AVAILABILITY OF TECHNICAL GUIDANCE YES% NO%

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

TABLE NO:12 VEGETABLE CROPS

Bottle Gourd Brinjal Cabbage Capsicum Carrot Cauliflower Chilli French Beans Garlic Ginger Kaddu LadyFinger

AREA

1 12.2 8.7 9 0.5 5.2 7.1 19 13.5 13.3 5.5 2

VARIETIES (LOCAL/IMPROVED) LOCAL% IMPROVED%

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

IRRIGATED/UNIRRIGATE IRRIGATED% UNIRRIGATED%

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.25 5.88 0 0

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 93.75 94.12 100 100

MEAN FYM

MEAN YIELD

3 3.35 4.53 3.86 1.5 2.6 3.43 7.12 5.05 2.36 1.5 3

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

1 0.41 0.92 0.67 0 0.58 0.14 0.47 0.22 0.45 0.36 1

CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS YES% NO%

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

AVAILABILITY OF TECHNICAL GUIDANCE YES% NO%

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100


Volume: XIV Part I Section: 2 Chapter: 8 Page No:

Onion Peas Sag Tomato

9.6 13.5 0.5 9.5

100 100 100 100

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

100 100 100 100

2.97 4.5 1.5 3.56

1.56 0.96 0 0.74

0 0 0 0

100 100 100 100

0 0 0 0

71

100 100 100 100

TABLE NO:13

LIVES STOCKS

NO OF LIVES

Buffalo Bullocks Cows Goat Heifers Sheep

23 65 103 56 7 7

HEALTH CARE YES%

NO%

17.65 15.62 28.21 25 0 0

82.35 84.38 71.79 75 100 100

NATURAL/AI SERVICE NATU BOTH AI% NO% RAL% % 0 82.35 0 17.65 0 3.12 0 96.88 61.54 20.51 17.95 0 87.5 0 0 12.5 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 0

BREED LOCAL IMPROVED % % 100 0 100 0 61.54 38.46 100 0 66.67 33.33 100 0

STALL FEEDING/GRAZING OR BOTH STALL GRAZING BOTH No % % % % 94.12 0 5.88 0 3.12 6.25 90.62 0 33.33 0 66.67 0 12.5 50 37.5 0 33.33 0 66.67 0 0 66.67 33.33 0

MEAN CONCEN TRATE FED

MEAN LACTATI ON

2.47 2.09 2.69 2.19 1.17 0.83

352.94 9.38 770.77 0 0 0

MEAN YIELD

1711.76 37.5 2183.59 0 0 0

AVAILABILIT Y OF TECHNICAL GUIDANCE YES NO % % 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100

TABLE NO 4 NO OF HOUSE HOLDS STUDIES GENERAL% CAST CATEGORY

SC% ST % OBC %

ELECTRICITY CONNECTION MOTORABLE ROAD TO VILLAGE

YES% NO% YES% NO% YES%

DISPENSARY/MEDICAL FACILITY IN VILLAGE

TAP WATER

NO% MEDICAL FACILITY DISTANCE (KM) YES% NO%

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

45 82.22 15.56 0 2.22 100 0 66.67 33.33 57.78 42.22 1.87 86.67 13.33


Volume: XIV Part I Section: 2 Chapter: 8 Page No:

86.67 13.33 128 112 7.0312 11.7188 21.0938 21.875 29.6875 8.5938 3.57 14.29 12.5 22.32 25.89 21.43 1572790 1803100 707000 230000 95842

YES%

TOILET

NO% TOTAL MALE

NO OF FAMILY MEMBER

TOTAL FEMALE DEGREE% +TWO% MATRIC%

EDUCATION(MALE)

MIDDLE% PRIMARY% ILLITRATE% DEGREE% +TWO% MATRIC%

EDUCATION(FEMALE)

MIDDLE% PRIMARY% ILLITRATE% SERVICE AGRI/HOTI

ANNUAL INCOME

72

LABOUR MISC TOTAL ANNUAL INCOME

TABLE NO:14(A) MARKETING PATTERN OF PRODUCE

SOCIAL PARTICIPATION MAHILA MANDAL %

22.22

YOUTH CLUB %

2.22

SHG %

4.44

MAHILA MANDAL /YOUTH CLUB %

2.22

MAHILA MANDAL /SHG %

2.22

CO-OP %

2.22

GRAM SMITI %

6.67

NO%

PRIVATE%

57.78

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

97.78

SOURCE OF BORROWING

CO-OP%

BANK%

CO-OP %

RELATIVES%

2.22

84.44

4.44

6.67

FRIENDS %

4.44


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FUEL/FODDER MANAGEMENT FUEL/FODDER

FUEL FODDER

REQUIREMENT % YES%

93.33 93.33 FUEL SOURCE

Forest LPG LPG,Forest LPG,Private Land LPG,Purchase No

AVALIBILITY%

NO%

6.67 6.67

SOURCE TO COVER GAP %

54.67 63.22

FODDER SOURCE

40 11.11 42.22 2.22 2.22 2.22

GAP %

31.11 31.22

SOURCE TO COVER GAP %

Forest Forest, Purchase No Private

57.78 22.22 6.67 6.67

Self Land

6.67

INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITIES EXISTING

INTERESTED

No

Sewing,Embroidery,Poultry,Bee-Keeping,Mushroom

MINOR FOREST PRODUCE(MFP) EXISTINGNAME

ANNUALINCOME

No

SUGGESTION

0

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Lack of knowledge about MFPs.Education is required.


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2. Analysis District Solan Community Development Block Kunihar The socio-economic conditions of Kunihar block are summarized in the following tables. Table: 1 Ethnic Group & Religion, Study Area, 2009-10. (Per cent) Religion Hindu 100.00 Category General 79.63 SC 18.52 OBC 1.85 It can be observed from the Table-1 that in study area the percentage of Hindu was 100.00. As far as caste category was concerned general category constituted the largest proportion accounting for 79.63 per cent. Next in importance was scheduled caste category (18.52 percent). The OBC constituted 1.85 percent of the total sampled households. Table: 2

Infrastructure Facilities, Study Area, 2009-10.

Village Level Motorable road to village Health facility in a village Average distance to be covered to get medical facility Electricity connection Tap water connection Toilet facility

Family level

(Per cent) Yes NO 72.22 27.78 64.81 35.19 1.56 K.M.* 100.00 88.89 82.88

0.00 11.11 17.12

*Kilometre Table -2 exhibits that 72.22 per cent of villages were connected with motorable roads. As far as health facilities in villages are concerned, 64.81 percent villages were having medical facilities. On an average people had to cover 1.56 K.M. to get medical help. Table further indicates that 11.11 per cent households were not having water connection and 17.12 per cent were going in open for defecation. As far as electricity connection is concerned all the sampled households were having electric connection in their houses. Table: 3

Distribution of selected families according to gender, Study Area, 2009-10. (Number)

Gender Male 173 Female 157 Total 330 Average size of family 6.11 Sex ratio* 907 *Number of females per thousand males The information on average size of family and gender- wise classification of sampled households has been presented in Table – 3. It can be observed form the table that on overall level, the average family consisted of 6.11 members. In the study area sex ratio was 907. Table: 4

Educational Level, Study Area, 2009-10

Educational Level Illiterate Primary Middle Matriculate

(Per cent) Male 8.67 31.79 21.97 21.39 Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Female 18.47 28.03 24.20 15.29


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Sr. Secondary 8.67 11.46 Degree 7.61 2.55 Table -4 represents the educational level of sampled population of the study area. Regarding the literacy of the family members, it was found to be higher among males as compared to females. The proportion of illiteracy in females was more. The majority of the females (28.03 per cent) had their education up to primary level. The proportion of the female population having studied up to middle, matriculation and sr. secondary standards was 24.20, 15.29 and 11.46 per cent, respectively. It can be seen from the table that only 2.55 per cent of the female population had their education up to degree level. Among the males, 31.79 per cent were having education up to primary level. The proportion of the male population having studied up to middle, matriculation and sr. secondary standards was 21.97, 21.39 and 8.67 per cent, respectively. The percentage of male population having education up to degree level was only 7.61. Table: 5 Distribution of Family Income, Study Area, 2009-10 Sr. No 1.

Particulars Service

2.

Horticulture/Agriculture

3.

Labour

4.

Miscellaneous Total

(Average) Annual family Income (Rs.) 44681 (41.33) 38079 (35.22) 21092 (19.51) 4259 (3.94) 108111 (100.00)

Note: Figures in parentheses represent percentages. In order to get an insight unto the annual family income as a whole an analysis was carried out on the basis of family as a unit. The major constituents of family income in the study area were service, horticulture/agriculture. A perusal of Table – 5 reveals that on an average, the total annual family income, per household, was worked out to be Rs. 1, 08,111. The major source of annual family income was service. It contributed 41.33 per cent towards total family income. Next in importance was horticulture/agriculture, as it contributed about 35.22 per cent. Labour was also an important source of family income. Its contribution was 19.51 per cent. Table: 6 Social Participation, Study Area, 2009-10 (Per cent) Participation (42.59) Mahila Mandal 25.93 Co-operatives 12.96 Self Help Groups 3.70 Youth Club 0.00 No Participation (57.41) Table – 6 shows the average social participation of households in study area. Overall only 42.59 percent were participating in Mahila Mandals, Co-operatives and Self Help Groups with 25.93, 12.96 & 3.70 percentages, respectively. The participation in youth clubs was nil. Table: 7

Marketing Pattern of Produce, Study Area, 2009-10 (Per cent) Private 98.15 Cooperatives 1.85 Government 0.00 Table – 7 reveals that majority of the respondents (98.15 per cent) were selling their produce to private parties followed by co-operatives with 1.85 percentages, respectively. Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


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Table: 8

Source of Borrowings, Study Area, 2009-10 (Per cent) Bank 81.48 Cooperative Society 3.80 Friends & Relatives 11.12 Any other 3.60 The source of borrowings by the sampled households is presented in Table – 8. The majority of the respondents (81.48 per cent) had taken loan from banks. About 11.12 per cent of people borrowed loans from relatives and friends. The table further reveals that 3.80 per cent of households had taken loan from cooperative societies. The percentage of households who had taken loans from other sources was 3.60. Table: 9Income Generating Activities, Study Area, 2009-10 (Activities) Interested Bee Keeping, Sewing, Embroidery, Mushroom, Poultry Table – 9 presents the existing and those income generating activities in which people were interested for future. No income generating activities existed in the study area, but the people showed interest in Bee Keeping, Sewing, Embroidery, Mushroom & Poultry. The mushroom and poultry had more attention. Existing Nil

Table: 10 Fuel/Fodder Management, Study Area, 2009-10 (Per cent) Sources to cover gap by household Fuel 100.00 57.96 42.04 Forests (53.33) LPG (33.21) Kerosene (13.46) Fodder 94.44 64.54 35.46 Forest (62.89) Market (37.11) Table – 10 shows the fuel and fodder management by the respondents in study area. It can be seen from the table that on average people were able to manage 57.96 percent fuel from their own farms and to cover the gap 53.33 per cent households were dependent on forests. As far as fodder is concerned, to cover the gap which was 64.54 percent, majority of the people (62.89 per cent) were dependent on forests. Requirement

Availability

Gap

Suggestions • Rural infrastructure like village roads, drinking water, and sanitation needs to be developed and strengthened. •

Health sub-centers may be provided with proper building and staff at Gram Panchayat level.

Family planning and health education campaign needs to be started at Gram Panchayat level. Awards should be given to Gram Panchayats with low decadal variation from the average of state.

The occurrence of school dropouts has been quite high as we move from matriculation to senior secondary and above.

In order to raise the socio-economic status, increase employment opportunities and generate self confidence, the top priority is to be given for their education. The education will not only help in providing their participation in economic activities but add to their productivity also.

The overall literacy rate of women is low as compared to men folk. Girls often have to drop out of school to assist their mothers. This reinforces gender roles Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


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and denies girls access to education. Keeping in view the active role played by women in maintaining and improving the wellbeing of their families and the whole society, special schemes should be introduced to get her more educated. Increasing literacy rates are preconditions for and expressions of a fundamental cultural change that brings empowerment and new responsibilities. •

Social participation should be encouraged. There is a need to educate the people about the importance of co-operatives, self help groups. In study area the existence of youth clubs is nil. There is dire need to educate the young generation about youth clubs and their functioning. Further, they may be motivated to establish these rural institutions. While using the People Rural Appraisal (PRA), it is noted that most of the people were not having knowledge about development activities. Thus, their participation in such institutions may be encouraged to improve their knowledge about developmental activities.

Majority of people in study area are marketing their produce to private parties but resentment was also there among the people that private parties are not purchasing their produce at proper rates. Government should do efforts in this respect.

The banks already working in the study area has to gain more confidence among local people. People still prefer to borrow money from relatives, friends and money lenders. Bank people are required to establish rapport with villagers to win their confidence.

In order to make the people economically better off, there is dire need to introduce new income generating activities as suggested by them. Proper training should be imparted to them to start new activities. Existing income generating activities should be strengthened by making them more trained. Women folk should be trained to improve their economic status. Improved economic status will lead to increase in empowerment of women and also enable them to participate increasingly in decision making in the family and society, which at present is more or less the exclusive domain of the men folk.

There exists a gap in fodder requirement and which is mostly met with from forests. To meet put this gap new species of fodder trees and grasses and improved management practices (Agronomic practices and fertilization application) should be popularized.

To cover the gap in fuel majority of people are dependent on forests for fuel wood. To release the pressure of forests alternative sources like solar energy, bio-gas should be encouraged. An investment in this direction can be cheaper and more eco-friendly source of electrification.

Pressure cookers should be provided to them on subsidized rates.

Training should be imparted to women to save energy. Wood saving devices like improved chullas should be introduced.

Agriculture/horticulture is one of the major sources of family income. Every farmer that wants to expand or even maintain his or her business invariably needs cash. The need for cash implies a need for credit, and as most small scale farmers need relatively small amounts of credit. Microcredit is not always the solution farmers are looking for, and they benefit from it less than other sectors. Their need for credit may be relatively small, but it is larger than that of the average micro-entrepreneur. Farmers need access to credit over along period of time as they have to wait until harvest time or later, until they can pay back a loan. Unlike other micro-enterprises, agriculture cannot sustain above market interest rates as the financial returns are not high enough. Keeping this in view Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


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government should make efforts for microfinance instead of microcredit. •

To improve the livestock output, farmers should be provided with free or highly livestock subsidized livestock services, especially when it comes to animal health.

3. Costing DEVELOPMENT BLOCK KUNIHAR

• • • • •

Basic Statistics No of MWs in the CD Block falling in Satluj Catchment Range of general slope of land Farmers' owned land area Irrigated area Fodder supply against demand* • Green fodder • Dry fodder Improvement Expenditure to be met from CAT Plan

• Cost of 0.5% additional area(5 ha) to be brought under irrigation(@ Rs. 1.0 Lakh/ha) Cost of 1 % area (9 ha) to be brought under organic farming (@ Rs. 10,000/= per ha)(Only incentive portion)*** • Rejuvenation of senile orchards {0.5 % of area (5 ha) @ Rs.15,000/= per ha} (Only incentive portion)*** • Area expansion under Hort. Crops {0.5% of area (5 ha) @ Rs. 60,000/= per ha}( Only incentive portion)*** • 0.5 % of area (5 ha) to be Bench Terraced (@ Rs.1,06,882/= per ha)**** • One Farm Pond (125 CM) for each micro-watershed (3 Nos.) @ Rs. 2,96, 000/= per pond**** • 0.5 % of farmers’ owned land (5 ha ) to be brought under grassland improvement (@ Rs. 1.0 Lakh/ha)***** • Fodder cultivation****** i). Kharif fodder cultivation on 4 ha @ Rs.19120/= per ha ii). Rabi fodder cultivation on 4 ha @ Rs. 22800/= per ha • One Natural Breeding Centre (NBC) in each micro-watershed (3 Nos.) @ Rs. 25,000/= per centre****** • Cost of one Gosadan to accommodate 100 cattle heads 1. Recurring cost@ Rs.40/= per cattle per day 2. Recurreing cost of 4 attendants @ Rs. 120/=/per day/per attendant 3. Fixed cost for raising Gosadan structures

3 ** 30 to 85 %** 868 ha** < 10 %** 40 % 64 % Rs. In Lakhs 5.00

Total Source * ** *** **** ***** ******

Block Dev.Office/Distt. Statistical Office NERIL Survey Cost norms as per Hort.Tech. Mission, GOI/Deptt. of Hort. H.P. Deptt. of Agri. H.P norms Dept. of Ani. Husbandry, H.P. norms Mid Himalayan Project norms Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

0.90 0.75 3.00 5,34

8.88 5.00

0.76 0.91 0.75

14.60 1.73 5.00 52.62


vol3 - Kunihar