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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.1

Volume I: Section 4 Chapter 5: Floral Diversity of the Satluj Catchment 5.1

Introduction

This section of the report provides an overview of existing biodiversity profile of the project area. The catchment of Sutlej is spread over a very large variety of elevation,forest types, rainfall regimes, soil types and agronomical conditions.The Catchment Area of Satluj basin falls into seven districts of Himachal Pradesh, namely Shimla, Mandi, Kullu, Kinnaur, Solan, Bilaspur and Lahaul-Spiti. This chapter provides details of existing floral diversity of the catchment. It analyses its Importance Value Indices. It also identifies the best surviving, natural phyto sociology with a view to replicate natural models of floral diversity. This analysis of existing situation has provided the best options for bio engineering. Respected forest divisions which come under these districts are given below:

Sr. no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

District

Forest divisions

Shimla

Rampur, Theog, Shimla, Cotgarh Karsog, Suket Anni

Mandi Kullu Kinnaur Solan Bilaspur Lahaul and spiti

Kunihar -

5.1.1 Project area specific plant forest types Our project area consists of following different types of forests: a. b. c. d. e. f.

Dry alpine forest Moist alpine forest Sub-alpine forest Himalayan moist temperate forest Sub-tropical pine forest Sub-tropical broad leaved hill forest

All these plants have different types of architecture. It is discussed below.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.2 5.1.1.1

Dry alpine forest

These contain columnar or low spreading trees/shrubs with long trailing branches. Height can be upto 40 m. They are evergreen with needlelike and/or scale-like leaves. They can be either monoecious or dioecious. The roots are remarkable for their toughness, size, and tenacity to life, and roots readily grow from aerial parts of the plant.1 Following are the pictures of this kind of plants.

5.1.1.2

Moist alpine forest

This kind of forest is found in the Himalayas above the tree line up to 5500 m elevation in somewhat moist areas. Chief characteristic feature of the forests is dominance of dwarf, evergreen shrubby conifers and broadleaved trees along with prominent shrub layer under them Plants grow 3m- 30 m The leaves are spirally arranged and they also consist of many flowers.2 Following are the pictures of this kind of plants.

Juniperus sp Rhododendron sp

Salix sp Arenaria sp.

Globe caragan

Lonicera sp. 1

Dry alpine forest ,Wikipedia, free encyclopedia

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.3 5.1.1.3

Sub-alpine forest

Found at an elevation of 3500 m Chief characteristic feature of the forests is presence of some evergreen conifers and broad-leaved trees along with prominent shrub layer. Trees can grow upto height of 60m Long shoots, Crown broadly conical and branches horizontally spreading. Bark dark gray, rough and scaly. Flowers and fruits are present. Following are the pictures of this kind of plants.2

5.1.1.4

Himalayan moist temperate forest This type of forest is found at an elevation of 1700m - 3500m Chief characteristic feature of the forests is presence of tall (up to 45 m high) conifers, oaks or their mixture along with thin partly deciduous undergrowth. The bark of plants is thick and scaly, but some species have thin, flaking bark. The branches are produced in regular "pseudo whorls", actually a very tight spiral but appear like a ring of branches arising from the same point. The leaves are evergreen and needle-like, 8–60 mm long, arranged in an open spiral phyllotaxis on long shoots, and in dense spiral clusters of 15–45 together on short shoots. It gives drooping appearance to the plant3. Following are the pictures of this kind of plants.

Abies spectabilis

Cedrus deodara

Betulla utilis

Picea smithiana Cotoneaster sp

2

Sub alpine forest, Wikipedia, free encyclopedia

3

Wikipedia, free encyclopedia

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.4

Pinus mugo

Pinus wallichiana 5.1.1.5

Sub-tropical pine forest

This huge pine forest stretches for 3000 km across the lower elevations of the great Himalaya. It consists of large trees reaching 30-50 m with a trunk diameter of up to 2 m, exceptionally 3 m. The bark is red-brown, thick and deeply fissured at the base of the trunk, thinner and flaky in the upper crown. The leaves are needle-like, in fascicles of three, very slender, 2035 cm long and distinctly yellowish green. The cones are ovoid conic, 1224 cm long and 5-8 cm broad at the base. The seeds are 8-9 mm long, with a 40 mm wing, and are winddispersed4. Following are the pictures of this kind of plants.

5.1.1.6

Sub-tropical hill forest

broad

leaved

Moderately sized deciduous trees grow up to 25-30 m Leaves are alternate. Venation is pinnate or palmate. It has large tree cover. Leaves are bi-pinately compound, leaflets: 30 - 50 pairs. 5 Following are the pictures of this kind of plants.

Ficus glomerata

Pinus roxburghii

Acasia catechu

4

Sub-tropical pine forest, Wikipedia, free

encyclopedia

5

Sub-tropical broad leaved hill forest, Wikipedia, free encyclopedia

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.5

Importance Value Index = Relative density + Relative dominance + Relative frequency Density is number of species per unit area or volume.

Butea monosperma 5.2

Methodology for selection of plants

5.2.1 Surveys As it was not possible to conduct the primary survey to know the biodiversity at various elevations, we considered various secondary data, research articles for ecological assessments of project region. From such kind of data we considered the one which was latest (study conducted during 2005 to 2009)6. The survey was conducted for the phyto-sociological study in different catchments and the sampling sites were divided based on various elevations. 5.2.2 Study area The study was conducted in different catchments of Satluj, namely Hadaboi (Suket forest division), Kandhar (Kunihar forest division), Tatapani (Karsog forest division), Kotlu (Karsog forest division), Sunni (Shimla forest division), Matiana (Theog forest division). 5.2.3 Parameters The vegetation data was analysed for density, frequency and abundance. For our project purpose, we have considered Density and Importance Value Index (IVI) of plants.

Relative density is the number of a given species expressed as a percentage of all species present. Dominance is the degree to which a species is more numerous than its competitors in an ecological community, or makes up more of the biomass. Relative dominance is the basal area of a given species expressed as a percentage of the total basal area of all species present. Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. Relative frequency is the frequency of a given species expressed as a percentage of the sum of frequency values for all species present. Reference: A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 1998. Encyclopedia.com Primarily plants having Importance Value Index (IVI) greater than 10 have been considered. Further selection of plants is done depending upon their uses and which section/part of plant is of use. This parameter was important because if plants are required to be uprooted then such plants cannot be considered on large scale for the treatment of catchment. Ability of plants having soil and water erosion control capacity has also been considered as an important factor for selection. 5.2.4 Plant Architecture

6

Ecological assessment of forest areas falling under Kol dam hydroelectric Project, Himachal Pradesh. Final project report( April 2005 to March 2009) By: Dr. R.K. Verma, Scientist E, Principal Investigator

We studied physical characteristics of plants (plant architecture) also, as it was important for controlling the runoff during monsoon.

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.6 Plant architecture is defined as the three-dimensional organization of the plant body. For the parts of the plant that are above ground, this includes the branching pattern, as well as the size, shape and position of leaves and flower organs. Plant architecture has long been the only criterion for systematic and taxonomic classification, and, even today, it is the best means of identifying a plant species. But it is also of major agronomic importance, strongly influencing the suitability of a plant for cultivation, its yield and the efficiency with which it can be harvested. The architecture of plants affect the development of gullying and erosion, for trees with leaves that channel water towards the trunk operate as funnels, and water thus collected at the foot of the trunk can start to shear through the ridges, which will then drain off all the water contained in the furrows, giving rise to a gully. The other type of architecture is that of umbrella like plants, which send drops of water outwards and thus scatter their energy. 7 5.2.4.1

question of the green matter produced on the field, but more specifically of the vertical or better, slightly oblique – projection of cover provided. During major rainstorms, the angle of incidence of drops is generally less than 25o, except in the case of certain tornadoes, when it can be as much as 45o. It also depends upon the architecture of the plant structure i.e., the height of foliage above the soil and whether plants are funnel like and thus concentrate water or umbrella like and thus scatter the drops. So the plants which will naturally create effective plant cover on ground, has been selected for plantation. 5.2.4.2

Height of plant cover

Erosion is not only dependent upon plant cover but also on plant height above the ground. For example when plant cover is 100 % but is 4 meters high, erosion will be about 75 % of that on a bare plot; if the cover is 2 meters high, erosion will be about 50 % and if it is 50 cm high, erosion will be reduced to about 18 %9. Herbs and shrubs are thus considered on larger scale.

Plant cover8 5.2.4.3

Plant cover is effective in preventing erosion to the extent that it absorbs the kinetic energy of raindrops, covers a large proportion of the soil during periods of the year when rainfall is most aggressive, slows down runoff, and keeps the soil surface porous. However, it is difficult to assess the protective action of plant cover without a close look at the farming techniques involved. Erosion and to a lesser degree runoff – depends largely on the proportion of soil not covered by plants before the heaviest rains. It is not simply a 7

Produced by: Natural Resources Management and Environment Department Title: Land husbandry - Components and strategy. ... http://www.fao.org/docrep/t1765e/t1765e0h.html

Mulch

With reference to above discussion if there is mulch, erosion will be reduced to 3%. If reduced erosion concerns the percentage of soil covered by mulch, a very fast reduction is seen for a relatively small area. For example, for 10% of soil cover, erosion is no more than 78%, for 20% it is not more than 60%, and for 50% it is only 30% of that found on the bare control plot. This means that litter has a very quick impact on erosion. Mulching can be of use in erosion control even without covering the whole ground. If even as little as 20% is covered, erosion is reduced by 40%; if the mulch covers about 40%, erosion is reduced by 9

8

Produced by: Natural Resources Management and Environment Department Title: Land husbandry - Components and strategy. ... http://www.fao.org/docrep/t1765e/t1765e0h.html

Produced by: Natural Resources Management and Environment Department Title: Land husbandry - Components and strategy. ... http://www.fao.org/docrep/t1765e/t1765e0h.html

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.7 60%, and if 80% is covered, erosion is reduced by 90% from what would be found on bare soil. Mulching though very important but different to implement on large scale in the project area because of the slope and strong winds. Still it can be implemented in the in regions which are less degraded or have just started degrading. Based on all these parameters number of plants has been suggested and are provided in Annexures (b), (c) , (d), (e), (f), (g) and (h) whereas understanding of those plants and reason why they should be considered are given below in this chapter. Number of plants which are suggested for plantation, depend upon the density values of those plants which are mentioned in the annexures mentioned above.

Description: It is a deciduous tree, growing up to 14 m tall. Branchlets are minutely covered with starry hairs. Alternately arranged leaves are pinnate, with a single terminal leaflet (pinnae) at the end. The spine carrying the leaflets is up to 7 cm long. Leaflets are usually 5, each laterals opposite, ovate, base rounded, densely velvet-hairy when young. Flowers are unisexual, greenish, the male in compound and female in simple racemes. Sepals 4, about 1 mm long, broad ovate. Petals 4, 2 mm long, oblong, green yellow. Fruit is ovoid, compressed, in panicles, at the end of leafless branches. Flowering: January-March.11

A. Hadaboi catchment (Type similar for Sf, Sg, Sh, Si Subcatchments) (Refer Annexure (b)) 1. Trees 1.1. Description of trees Lannea coromandelica

Catchment has divided into two elevation-wise ranges, 650m - 1150m and 1150m - 1650m Trees having top five IVI values from both these elevations are compared and considered here. These are Lane coromandelica, Grewia optiva, Ficus religiosa, Terminalia bellirica, and Pistacia chinensis.

It is a very important plant as it has many uses. It can be used as Fuel wood. Fruits are valuable. It can also be useful in Agricultural implements and for preparing Basket and Mats.

1.1.1. Lannea coromandelica:

Description:

The bark of this plant is traditionally used in particular in the treatment of cuts, other wounds, bruises (sprains and strains) and diarrhea. The leaves like the bark are also used as curatives, particularly in the treatment of inflammation, arthritis, bruises and, generally, physical pain. It has antiinflammatory activity also it can be useful in cosmetic and dermopharmaceutical compositions.10

Grewia optiva is a small to mediumsized deciduous tree, 9-12 m in height; Branches smooth, pale silvery-brown; bark dark brown, thick and roughish, exfoliating in small woody scales; Flowers 1-8, together; peduncles solitary, leaf opposed or exceptionally a few axillary;0.8-1.8 cm long. Sepals 1-1.5 cm long, linear oblong, 3-ribbed, green outside, white, pale yellow or red

1.1.2. Grewia optiva:

11

10

Lannea coromandelica, flowers of india

Lannea coromandelica, flowers of india

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.8 inside; petals white or pale yellow, shorter than the sepals, linear, claw distinct. Fruit is a drupe, 1-4 lobed, each lobe about0.8 cm in diameter, olive green then black when ripe.12

1.1.4. Terminalia bellirica : This plant has tremendous uses. It can be used as Timber, Fodder. Fruits are useful in preparing ayurvedic medicine ‘Triphala’.15 It is also useful in preparing dye and tannin. Description:

Grewia optiva 1.1.3. Ficus religiosa : In Hindu culture, this is considered as a sacred tree. So it is a religious tree. Fruits are laxative, purgative. Bark is astringent and used in gonorrhea. This would be very important for reducing the runoff speed and this is because of its architecture i.e. the tree cover is.13

This herb, which is an important Ayurvedic herb, is a tree found throughout the Indian forests and plains. It is a large deciduous tree. Leaves are alternate, broadly elliptic or elliptic-obovate, puberulous when young but glabrous on maturity and the nerves are prominent on both surfaces. Flowers are in axillary, spender spikes longer than the petioles but shorter than the leaves. Calyx lobes are pubescent outside. The fruits are green and inflated when young and yellowish and shrink (nearly seen as ribbed) when mature. The nut is stony. 16

Description: It is a large dry season-deciduous or semi-evergreen tree up to 30 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 3 m. The leaves are cordate in shape with a distinctive extended tip; they are 10–17 cm long and 8–12 cm broad, with a 6 – 10 cm petiole. The fruit is a small fig 1-1.5 cm diameter, green ripening purple.14

Terminalia bellirica 1.1.5. Pistacia chinensis : This plant has limited use compared to the once mentioned above. Only bark is used as a fuel wood and in agricultural implements.17 Description: Ficus religiosa 12

Grewia optiva, flowers of India 13 Ecological assessment of forest areas falling under Kol dam hydroelectric Project, Himachal Pradesh. Final project report( April 2005 to March 2009) By: Dr. R.K. Verma, Scientist E, Principal Investigator 14 Ficus religiosa : Wikipedia , free encyclopedia

The tree grows up to 17 m or more tall. Leaves are compound with or

15

16

17

Ecplaza global Ecplaza global Pistacia chinensis: Wikipedia, free encyclopedia

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.9 without an end leaflet, 16-25 cm long. Leaflets are opposite or nearly opposite, almost stalkless, 7-9 in number, 9-12 x 2.2-3.2 cm, lanceshaped, with tapering tips. They are smooth, pale green on the undersurface. Male flower panicles are 0.81.2 cm long, drooping at maturity. Flowers are unisexual, and appear on separate trees. Sepals are 4, less than anthers in length, linear. Fruit is a drupe 5-6 mm broad, smooth, dry, greyish-brown in colour. Flowering: March-May.18

Pistacia chinensis

1.2. Comparison based on IVI

Pistacia chinensis

At both the elevations, Lannea coromandelica observed highest IVI and density; but it was slightly higher at 650-1150mcompared to 11501650m so it has been given first priority for plantation. Suggested number of trees are 267/ha and 220/ha for 650-1150m and 11501650m respectively. Ficus religiosa is

18

the second most important tree observed in this catchment for both the elevations. Followed to these, Grewia optiva, Terminalia bellirica and Pistacia chinesis are the important ones. It can be said that there is no major change in the importance value index for these plants in this particular catchment.

Pistacia chinensis: Wikipedia, free encyclopedia

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.10

2. Shrubs 2.1 Description of shrubs The elevation range of 650m - 1150m and 1150m - 1650m are considered. Shrubs having top five IVI values are compared and studied. These are Adhatoda zeylanica, Murraya koenigii, Mallotus philippensis, Rabdosia lophanthoides, Dodonaea viscosa. As mentioned above about the tree architecture and height of tree cover above the ground shrubs have more importance over trees. But as they have greater use by virtue of roots, leave stem etc the chances of uprooting them is higher. Himalayan region being favourable to such medicinal plant, therefore we had to consider them in our study. 2.1.1

Adhatoda zeylanica:

Leaves and roots of these plants are used in cough, chronic bronchitis, Asthma, Phthisis. Leaves especially are used in rheumatism, as an insecticide. Flowers, roots and leaves are antiseptic.19 Description: It is tall much-branched, dense, evergreen shrub, with large, lanceshaped leaves. Flowers are in dense, short spikes; stalks of the spike shorter than leaves. Leaves-like structure called bracts, present on the spikes; these are conspicuously veined. Corolla (the whorls of petals) of the flower is white few purplish markings. Fruits are capsular, 4-seeded.20

Adhatoda zeylanica 2.1.2 Murraya koenigii: Bark and roots of the plant are externally used to cure eruptions and bite of poisonous animals. Green leaves eaten raw as cure of digestion, bruised and applied externally to cure eruption, used in snake bite. It is also useful as a hedge plant. Description: A small spreading shrub, about 2.5 m high; the main stem, dark green to brownish, with numerous dots on it; its bark can be peeled off longitudinally, exposing the white wood underneath; the girth of the main stem is 16 cm Leaves, exstipulate, bipinnately compound, 30 cm long, each bearing 24 leaflets, having reticulate venation; leaflets, lanceolate, 4.9 cm long, 1.8 cm broad, having 0.5-cm-long petiole. Flowers, bisexual, white, funnelshaped, sweetly scented, stalked, complete, ebracteate, regular, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous, Fruits, round to oblong, 1.4 to 1.6 cm long, 1 to 1.2 cm in diameter, ripe fruits, black with a very shining surface; the number of fruits per cluster varying from 32 to 80. 21

19

Ecological assessment of forest areas falling under Kol dam hydroelectric Project, Himachal Pradesh. Final project report( April 2005 to March 2009) By: Dr. R.K. Verma, Scientist E, Principal Investigator 20

Medicinal plants

Murraya koenigii 21

Center for New Crops & Plant Products, at

Purdue University

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.11

2.1.3 Mallotus Philippensis: The uses of plants are in making dye and tannin, in agricultural implements, as a fuel wood and fodder. Glands and hairs on fruits are bitter, anthelmintic, cathartic and styptic. This shrub is most useful for soil and water conservation as it has good crown cover and height of it from ground is quite less.

branches. Cymes are helicoids, 11-13flowered, carried on stalks. Sepal cup is bell-shaped, about 2 mm, 1.7 mm wide at mouth. Flowers are white or rose, with purple spots on limb, 2-7 mm Tube is 3.7-5 mm, straight; upper lip 1.6-2 mm, lower lip slightly longer. Stamens and style protrude out. Flowering:November.23

Description: This can grow up to 10 m tall. Alternately arranged, ovate or rhombic ovate leaves are rusty-velvety. Male and female flowers occur in different trees. Female flowers are borne in lax spike like racemes at the end of branches or in leaf axils. Male flowers occur three together in the axils of small bracts. Capsule is trigonousglobular, covered with a bright crimson layer of minute, easily detachable reddish powder.22

Rabdosia lophanthoides 2.1.5

Dodonaea viscosa

This plant is used as a fish poison. Leaves are used in gout and rheumatisms, for wounds, swelling and burns. Also useful in a fuelwood, making of dye and timber. It has good leaf cover and strong root system. Therefore it has good soil and moisture retention capacity. Description:

Mallotus Philippensis 2.1.4

Rabdosia lophanthoides:

Extracts of these plants are mainly useful in preparation of chemicals. Description:

It is a shrub growing to 1-3m tall, rarely a small tree to 10m tall. It is commonly called 'hop bush' because the colorful fruits resemble the fruits used in brewing. The leaves are simple elliptical, 6-13 cm long and 2-4 cm broad, and secrete a resinous substance. The flowers are yellow to orange-red, produced in short racemes. The fruit is a capsule 2 cm broad, red ripening brown, with three wings.24

Grows up to 1-5 ft; oppositely arranged leaves, 5-10 cm long, are ovate, pointed tipped, toothed, and hairy beneath with rounded base, carried on 1-5 cm.long stalks. Flowers are tiny, borne in branched cymes forming a panicle at the end of 23 22

Mallotus phillipensis, Flowers of India

24

Rabdosia lophanthoides, Flowers of India Flowers of India

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.12 Dodonaea viscosa

2.2 Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

Adhatoda zeylanica observed highest IVI and density at both the elevations of 650m-1150m and 1150.-1650m. It has given first priority for plantation at both these elevations. The suggested number is 101676/ha and 7167/ha respectively. Other important shrubs show almost same importance at both the elevations. They are Murraya koenigii, Mallotus philippensis, Rabdosia lophanthoides and Dodonaea viscose. Thus in this catchment there is no major change in the important of these shrub at various elevation.

3. Herbs 3.1Description of herbs For both the elevations of 650m 1150m and 1150m - 1650m, herbs having top six IVI values are compared

and considered for giving description here. These are Euphorbia hirta, Rumex hastatus, Parthenium hysterophorus, Reinwardtia indica, Cynodon dactylon 3.1.1 Euphorbia hirta : Major use is for medicinal purpose. Used in the disease of children for worm, bowel complaints, cough. Juice of plants is used in dysentery and colic. Decoction of plants is used in bronchial affections and asthma. Latex is used as application for warts. It has good leaf cover and strong root system, so it has good soil and moisture retention capacity. Description: It is a slender-stemmed, annual hairy plant with many branches, growing up

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.13 to 40 cm. tall, reddish or purplish in color. Leaves are opposite, ellipticoblong to oblong-lacelike, 1-2.5 cm long, blotched with purple in the middle, toothed at the edge. Flowers, purplish to greenish in color, dense, axillary, short-stalked clusters or crowded cymes, about 1 mm in length. Capsules are broadly ovoid, hairy, three-angled, about 1.5 cm 25 Rumex hastatus 3.1.3 Parthenium hysteophorus

Euphorbia hirta 3.1.2 Rumex hastatus : Plant extract is useful in preparing chemicals and medicine. The leaf extract of plant are applied on wounds and cuts to check bleeding. Root is laxative alternative, tonic, and anti rheumatic and can be used in skin disease. Description: It is a fairly common small shrub, growing on dry slopes, rocks and walls between 700-2500 m, typically in north-Indian hill stations. It is a bushy shrub with many ascending stems. Stems woody at base, leaves narrow and arrow shaped with a pair of narrow spreading basal lobe. Leaves vary a lot in length and breadth. The stems have numerous thin branches with terminal very slender clusters of distant whorls of tiny greenish pink or pinkish green flowers. Flowers are very small and flower stalk lengthens in fruit. Leaves are broadly triangular, stalked, fruit is pinkish. Flowering:June-October.26

25 26

Flowers of India Flowers of India

It is very commonly observed everywhere. This plant produces toxin Parthenin which causes dermatitis in human and also in animals. It is allelopathic and kills other plants surrounding it. Though it is little toxic it can also be used as a tonic, febrifuge, emmenagogue and as an analgesic in neuralgia. A decoction of the root is used in the treatment of dysentery. The leaves can also be used as a biopesticide and for composting. It is useful in increasing nutrient quality of soil.27 This plant can act like foliage if grown proper species composition suggested in Annexure (b). Description: It is a fast-maturing annual (or, under certain conditions, a short-lived perennial) with a deep tap root and an erect stem that becomes woody with age. It may eventually reach a height of 2 m. Its leaves are pale green, branched and covered with soft fine hairs. The small white flowers (4 mm across) have five distinct corners and grow on the stem tips. Each flower produces 4-5 black wedge shaped seeds that are 2 mm long with thin white scales. As it has tap root system and good leaf cover, it can be used for soil and moisture conservation.28

27 28

Wikipedia, free encyclopedia Flowers of India

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.14

Reinwardtia indica

Parthenium hysterophorus

3.1.5 Cynodon dactylon: 3.1.4 Reinwardtia indica : This herb has very limited use. A yellow dye made from the flowers is used for dyeing clothes and making paints. It has good leaf cover and strong root system. So it has good soil and moisture retention capacity.29 Description: It is an erect to spreading shrub, up to 1 m tall. Leaves are elliptic to inverted lance-shaped. Each golden-yellow flower, 2" wide, lasts that one day and is described as being fugacious, meaning that the corolla withers and falls off easily. Looking face on, the corolla is composed of five petals fused to form the 2-cm tube. The corolla's golden-yellow color is improved by the presence of fine reddish veins; such lines are termed nectar guides or nectar lines, because they typically communicate to pollinating insects where to go to find a nectar reward. The five corolla lobes are cleverly overlapped (imbricate). Emerging from the floral tube are observed three curiously shaped green stigmas on three styles nearly 2 cm in length.30

It has some medicinal uses. Decoction of its roots is diuretic and used in dropsy, in secondary syphilis. Infusion of roots used for stopping blood from piles, crushed roots mixed with curd used in chronic fleet. Juice of plant is astringent, used as application to fresh cuts and wounds, used in hysteria, epilepsy, insanity, in chronic diarrhea and dysentery, also useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. It can also be used for worshipping. It is religious plant.31 Description: The blades are a grey-green coloured and are short, usually 4-15 cm long with rough edges. The erect stems can grow 1-30 cm, rarely to 3 ft, tall. The stems are slightly flattened, often tinged purple in color. The seed heads are produced in a cluster of 3–7 spikes (rarely two) together at the top of the stem, each spike 3–6 cm long. It has a deep root system. In drought situations with penetrable soil, the root system can grow to over 2 m deep, though most of the root mass is less than 60 cm under the surface. The grass creeps along the ground and root wherever a node touches the ground, forming a dense mat. It reproduces through seeds, through runners and rhizomes.32

31

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Wikipedia, free encyclopedia :Reinwardtia indica 30 Flowers of India: Reinwardtia indica

Ecological assessment of forest areas falling under Kol dam hydroelectric Project, Himachal Pradesh. Final project report( April 2005 to March 2009) By: Dr. R.K. Verma, Scientist E, Principal Investigator

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Flowers of India

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.15 Cynodon dactylon

3.2Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

At 650m-1150m important plant found was Euphorbia hirta. So it has given first priority for plantation. Numbers of herbs suggested are 6/sq.m At 1150m-1650m, highest IVI was observed for Rumex hastatus. Numbers of this herb suggested are 2/sq.m. The other important plants at both elevations are Dodonaea viscose, Parthenium hysterophorus, Reinwardtia indica and Cynodon dactylon. After comparing it can be seen that there is variation in the importance of shrubs at the different elevations. So at different elevation range different plants have importance.

1. Trees 1.1. Description of trees Elevations of this catchment are divided into two ranges,800m-1100m and 1100m -1400mTrees having top five IVI values from both these elevations are compared and considered for giving description here. These are Lannea coromandelica, Ficus roxburghii, Anogeissus latifolia, Ougeinia oojeinensis, Bombax ceiba, Mallotus philippensis. Out of these, Lannea coromandelica and Mallotus philippensis found in earlier catchment also. So they are not included in this catchment study.

B. Kandhar catchment (Type similar for Sf, Sg, Sh, Si subcatchments) (Refer Annexure (c))

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.16 1.1.1 Ficus roxburghii : The fruits are very good for eating and the jelly-like substance contained in them makes them very tasty. It is used to make Jams. The leaves are used as fodder It also has some medicinal properties. It has good tree cover and and height is also quite less thus can be good for soil and water conservation. Description:

wider leaves. Trunk is straight and cylindrical or sometimes more poorly shaped, branchless for 8 m, up to 80 cm in diameter. Bark is smooth or with scales, pale to dark gray. Branches are drooping. Leaves are oppositly or nearly- oppositely arranged, simple, entire, with grayish-yellow or whitish hairs below. Stalkless flowers are borne in dense, spherical heads on stalks in leaf axils or at the end of branches. Flowers are small and have parts in fives.35 This tree does not have dense branch system.

A deciduous woody tree, having a short trunk, which soon divides into a few stout laterals, which further- branch irregularly, spreading in all directions; height. 10-12 metres; bark, smooth, gray, with a tinge of yellow or green. Leaves, exstipulate, petiolate, each having a 8.5 cm-long petiole, deciduous, obtuse, cordate, entire to undulate, alternate, 21.5 cm long, 23.5 cm broad, having reticulate venation. Male and female flowers are present.33 Anogeissus latifolia 1.1.3 Ougeinia oojeinensis The bark of this plant is febrifuge. When incised furnishes a Kino like exudation which is used in dysentery and diarrhea, in decoction given when the urine is highly colored. Used as fish poison.36 Description: Ficus roxburghii 1.1.2 Anogeissus latifolia: The bark of this plant is bitter, astringent. It is used to cure scorpion sting and snake bite. It is used as fuelwood and timber.34

It is a medium-sized, semi-deciduous tree, commonly attaining 7-14 meters in height. Leaves pinnately trifoliate, smooth above and lightly pubescent below. Obovate leaflets generally 6-12 cm long, 2-15 cm wide, sizes varying greatly. Leaf margins entire.37

Description: It is a small to medium-sized tree, growing up to 20 m tall. The species name latifolia is in reference to its 35

33

Flowers of India : Ficus roxburghii 34 Ecological assessment of forest areas falling under Kol dam hydroelectric Project, Himachal Pradesh. Final project report( April 2005 to March 2009) By: Dr. R.K. Verma, Scientist E, Principal Investigator

Flowers of india : Anogeissus latifolia Ecological assessment of forest areas falling under Kol dam hydroelectric Project, Himachal Pradesh. Final project report( April 2005 to March 2009) By: Dr. R.K. Verma, Scientist E, Principal Investigator 36

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Agro forestry tree database

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.17 Description:

Ougeinia oojeinensis

This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flowers with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. It produces a capsule which, when ripe, contains white fibres like cotton. Its trunk bears spikes to deter attacks by animals. Although its stout trunk suggests that it is useful for timber, its wood is too soft to be very useful.39

1.1.4 Bombax ceiba Timber is useful. It can be used for agricultural implements and fodder. It is religious plant. It has many medicinal properties. Roots are stimulant form a tonic and are chief ingredient in the musla semul, a medicine which is aphrodisiac, given in impotence. Roots and bark emetic, gum aphrodisiac haemostatic, astringent, tonic, used in diarrhoea, dysentery. Flowers and fruits used in snake bite.38

Bombax ceiba

1.2 Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

38

Ecological assessment of forest areas falling under Kol dam hydroelectric Project, Himachal Pradesh. Final project report( April 2005 to March 2009) By: Dr. R.K. Verma, Scientist E, Principal Investigator 39

Wikipedia, free encyclopedia

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.18 A very interesting observation here is that Ficus roxburghii observed highest IVI at 800m– 1100m but Lannea coromandelica observed highest IVI at 1100m -1400m Density of Lannea coromanelica was 130/ha at 800m– 1100m which was higher than Ficus roxburghii having 26.67/ha at same elevation. So Lannea coromanelica has given highest priority for plantation at 800m– 1100m. The number suggested for plantation is 130/ha. Lane coromandelica has highest IVI as well as density at 1100m -1400m. Therefore this has given first priority for plantation at this elevation. Number of plants suggested are 277/ha. Followed to this, Ougeinia oojeinensis, Anogeissus latifolia, Mallotus philipensis and Bombax ceiba are the important ones.

particular pattern and in large bunches somewhat as shown in the photograph displayed below. Description: It is a deciduous densely tufted bamboo with culms 8-16 m high, 2.5-8 cm in diameter, pale blue green when young, dull green or yellow on maturity, much curved above half of its height. The most peculiar aspect of the plant is the solid culm as there is no hollow part in it. Leaves are linearlanceshaped, small in dry localities, up to 25 cm long and 3 cm broad in moist areas, rounded at the base into a short petiole, tip is sharply tapering with twisted point. Inflorescence is a large panicle of large dense globular heads 4-5 cm apart. Long stamens protrude out of the flowers.40

2. Shrubs 2.1 Description of shrubs For both the elevations of 800m1100m and 1100m -1400m, shrubs having top seven IVI values are considered here. These are Dendrocalamus strictus, Murraya koenigii, Woodfordia fruticosa, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Bauhinia vahlii, Leptodermis lanceolata, and Mallotus philippensis. Out of these shrubs, Murraya koenigii and Mallotus philippensis also found in earlier catchment, so they have described earlier. 2.1.1 Dendrocalamus strictus This species is one of the two most important bamboos in India. It is found suitable for reclamation of ravine land. It is extensively used as raw material in paper mills and also for a variety of purposes such as construction, agricultural implements, musical instruments, furniture etc. Young shoots are commonly used as food. Decoction of leaves and nodes and silicious matter is used in the traditional medicine13. This species can be used for reducing the velocity of raindrop but only if planted in

Dendrocalamus strictus 2.1.2 Woodfordia fruticosa Dried flowers are astringent used in dysentery, menorrhagia, in derangements of the liver, disorder of mucous membrane and in hemorrhoids, considered a safe stimulant in pregnancy. Description: A much-branched, beautiful shrub, with fluted stems and long, spreading branches, 1-3 m high, rarely up to 7 40

Flowers of India

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.19 m, commonly occurring throughout North India, ascending to an elevation of 1,500 m in the Himalayas, but rather scarce in South India. It is sometimes cultivated in gardens for its flowers, which are borne during the summer months. Bark reddish brown, peeling off in thin, fibrous strips; leaves lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; flowers numerous, brilliant red in dense axillary paniculate-cymose clusters; capsules ellipsoid, membranous; seeds brown, minute, smooth obovate.41

Description: It is a branched shrub, growing to 1-3 m tall. Light colored stems are stout. There are many pale branches which are hairy when young. Oppositely arranged light green leaves are crowded at branch ends. The leaves are oblong, lance like, finely serrated, 10-15 cm long. Numerous tiny white flowers occur in panicles of upright spikes, 5-10 cm long. The flower spikes look hairy, and resemble squirrel's tail. Flowering: December-March.42

Colebrookea oppositifolia 2.1.4 Bauhinia vahlii Woodfordia fruticosa 2.1.3

Colebrookea oppositifolia

It is religious plant. It is also used as fodder and fuelwood. Roots are used in epilepcy. Leaves are applied to wounds and bruises. This shrub can be used for reducing the velocity of the rain and runoff thus in turn can be used for soil and water conservation.

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Seeds are aphrodisiac, tonic, leaves are temulic and mucilaginous. It can also be used for preparation of the dye and tannin. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of fevers, gastric troubles, diarrhoea and dysentery, also applied on wounds.43

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.20 Description :

2.1.5 Leptodermis lanceolata

It is the largest creeper in India, and can grow up to 10-30 m long. The woody stem can get as thick as 20 cm. The spreading stout branches are covered with rusty fine hair. The stout tendrils are coiling and occur in pairs. Large leaves are 10-45 cm, 2-lobed with a broad cut. The white flowers, 23 cm across, turn yellow when old. The flowers are borne in rounded clusters. They have 3 fertile stamens and 7 staminodes. Fruit is a flat woody pod with fine rusty hairs, 20-30 cm long. Flowering: April-June.44

The plant is used for worshipping purpose so it is considered as religious. Also used as a fodder. It has some medicinal uses also.45

Leptodermis lanceolata

Bauhinia vahlii

2.2 Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

45

Ecological assessment of forest areas falling under Kol dam hydroelectric Project, Himachal Pradesh. Final project report( April 2005 to March 2009) By: Dr. R.K. Verma, Scientist E, Principal Investigator

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Flowers of India

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.21 At the elevation 800m – 1100m Dendrocalamus strictus has highest IVI. 2111 of this shrub/hectare are suggested. At 1100m -1400m Murraya koenigii found highest IVI. 3694 no. of this shrub/ha are suggested for this elevation. It can be seen that in this catchment at these elevation ranges the importance of these plants vary considerably. Colebrookea oppositifolia and Bauhinia vahlii were not observed at 1100m – 1400m Other important plants found at 800m – 1100m are Woodfordia fruticosa, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Bauhinia vahlii, Murraya koenigii, Mallotus philippensis, Leptodermis lanceolata.

3. Herbs 3.1Description of herbs For both the elevations of 800m1100m and 1100m-1400m, herbs having top four IVI values are considered here. These are Nepeta ciliaris, Triumfetta rhomboidea, Corchorus olitorius, Cassia tora, Bindens pilosa. Interesting fact is none of them were found in earlier catchments. 3.1.1 Nepeta ciliaris Oil isolated from Nepeta by steam distillation is a repellent against insects, in particular mosquitoes, cockroaches and termites. Description: Nepeta species can be subshrubs, herbaceous perennials or annual herbs. They are usually aromatic. The flowers are located in verticillasters grouped on spikes; or the verticillasters are arranged in opposite cymes, racemes, or panicles. The calyx is tubular or campanulate, they are slightly curved or straight, and the limbs are often 2lipped with five teeth. The lower lip is larger, with 3-lobes, and the middle lobe is the largest.46

Nepeta ciliaris 3.1.2 Triumfetta rhomboidea Leaves, flowers and fruits are mucilaginous, demulcent, astringent, given in gonorrhea. Roots are bitter, diuretic; a hot infusion is taken to facilitate child birth or to hasten the inception of parturition when it is delayed. Bark and fresh leaves used in diarrhea and dysentery.47 Description: Erect woody herb or shrub 75-150 cm in height. Stems are glabrous, longitudinally grooved. Leaves simple, alternate; blade ovate to rhomboid in shape with 3-5 lobes, sometimes nearly as wide as broad, and 2-10 cm long. Leaf margins irregularly serrate, leaf surfaces softly-pubescent with stellate hairs, blade palmately veined. Flowers small yellow clustered, clustered on the leaf axils. Five yellow, obovate petals about 5 mm long. Stamens 10-15. Fruit a subglobose bur with the body 3-4 mm in diameter, covered with 75-100 hooked spines 1.0 to 1.5 mm long.48

Triumfetta rhomboidea 47

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Wikipedia, free encyclopedia: Triumfetta rhomboidea 48 Flowers of india : Triumfetta rhomboidea

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.22 3.1.3 Bindens pilosa It has only medicinal uses. Used in the treatment of coughs, conjunctivitis, Dysentry Haematuria, urethritis, custitis, cloudy urine, benign prostratic hypertrophy, Kidney Stones.

oblong. Petals 5 mm long, oblong spathulate. Stamens 10 to many, free, filaments short, anthers small, bilobed Capsules 3-6.5 cm long, thin, cylindric erect.50

Description: A weak annual herb usually a meter or less in height, with spreading branches. Leaves are in opposite pairs, this, soft and hairy, mostly divided but also undivided. The flowers (summerautumn), technically heads of tiny flowers, terminate all branches and branchlets. Each head has five or so white ‘petals’ (rays) around a dense cluster of orange florets. These rapidly mature to star-heads of the dry pronged fruitlets.49

Corchorus olitorius

3.1.5 Cassia tora Used as a coffee substitute. It is very useful in treating skin diseases like ringworm and itching or body scratch and psoriasis. Cassia tora acts as a liver stimulant, mild laxative and heart tonic. The herb helps the body in maintaining the normal level of cholesterol. This herb can be used for soil and moisture conservation if planted massively as shown in second photograph displayed below.

Bindens pilosa Description: 3.1.4 Corchorus olitorius It is mainly used for preparation of jute. The tender leaves can be eaten as vegetable. Also useful for preparation of basket and mats. The leaves are used in the treatment of chronic cystitis, gonorrhoea and dysuria. Description: It is an annual, much-branched herb 90-120 cm tall. Leaves 6-10 cm long, 3.5-5 cm broad, elliptic-lanceolate, serrate. The lower serratures on each side prolonged into a filament-like appendage over 6 mm long. The leaves are rounded at the base; leaf stalks 22.5 cm long. Flowers pale yellow; bracts lance-like. Sepals 3 mm long, 49

Flowers of India : Bindens pilosa

An annual herb, with a height of 30 to 90 cm. It has pinnate leaves, which are about 10 cm long. Each leaf has three pairs of leaflets that are opposite, ovate, oblong and oblique at the base. The yellow-colored flowers are bearded in the axel of the leaves. The flowers comprises of five petals, each about half inch in diameter. The seeds of Cassia Tora are rhombohedral and brown in color, about 30 to 50 in number. The plant bears flowers in the rainy season and fruits in the winter.51

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olitorius 51

Indian herbs

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.23

Cassia tora

3.2Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

Nepeta ciliaris has highest IVI at elevation of 800-1100m whereas it was not at all found at 1100m-1400m.The most important herb at second elevation is Triumfetta rhomboidea. At 800m – 1100m Corchorus olitorius and Cassia tora were not found. Other important plant observed was Bindens pilosa. In other words only two species namely Triumfetta rhomboidea and Bindens pilosa are common at both the elevation ranges and that to with IVI high at one elevation and low in the other elevation.

C. Tatapani catchment (Type similar for Sf, Sg, Sh,Si subcatchment) (Refer Annexure (d))

1. Trees 1.1 Description of trees Elevation has divided into two ranges, 700m–1000m and 1000m-1300m Trees having top five IVI values are compared and considered for giving description here. These are Acasia catechu, Lannea coromandelica, Bombax ceiba, Grewia optiva, Aegle marmelos. Out of these, Lannea coromandelica Bombax ceiba and Grewia optiva found in earlier catchment also. Description of remaining two trees is provided below. 1.1.1.

Acasia catechu

It is used as fodder, fuelwood. Also used in agricultural implements. Timber is also useful. It can be

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.24 considered as religious plant. It is used against leprosy and other skin ailments. Various plant parts are used in sore mouth, pain in chest, cancer, colic pain, gravel, dysentery, phthisis, bronchitis, asthma, constipation and strangulation of intestine. Description:

long, 2.2 cm wide, ovate to lanceolate having reticulate pinnate venation;petiole, 3.2 cm long. Flowers, greenish white, sweetly scented, bisexual, stalked; stalk, 8 mm long; diameter of a fully open flower is 3 cm; flowers, borne in lateral panicles of about 10 flowers, arising from the leaf axils. It has a woody-skinned, smooth fruit 5-15 cm in diameter.53

A moderate sized deciduous tree, 9-12 m in height with dark grayish or brown rough bark and hooked short spines, leaves bi-pinately compound, leaflets: 30 - 50 pairs, main rachis pubescent with a large conspicuous gland near the middle of the rachis; flowers pale yellow, sessile in peduncled axillary spikes; fruits flat brown pods, shiny and with a triangular beak at the apex and narrowed at the base.52

Acasia catechu 1.1.2.

Aegle marmelos

Aegle marmelos

It is mainly considered as religious plant. Used for worshipping of lord ‘Shiva’. The juice is strained and sweetened to make a drink similar to lemonade, and is also used in making Sharbat. All parts of this tree, viz., root, leaf, trunk, fruit and seed, are used for curing one human ailment or another. Description: Grows up to 15 meters tall and bears thorns and fragrant flowers. Leaves are alternate, pale green, trifoliate; terminal leaflet, 5.7 cm long, 2.8 cm broad, having a long petiole; the two lateral leaflets, almost sessile, 4.1 cm 52

Ayushveda informatics

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Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.25 1.2 Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

2. Shrubs. Acasia catechu observed the highest IVI as well as density at both the elevations i.e. 700m–1000m and 1000m-1300m Therefore it has given highest priority for plantation. For 700m–1000m elevation, suggested no. of Acasia catechu trees are 126/ha and for 1000m-1300m the number suggested is 183/ha. The second most important tree at both these elevation is Lannea coromandelica. Followed to these, Bombax ceiba, Grewia optiva and Aegle marmelos are important plants.

2.1Description of shrubs At both the elevations i.e. at 700m1000m and 1000m-1300m,same shrubs were observed as found at earlier elevations. Shrubs having top four IVI values have considered. Their comparison at both these elevations is given below

2.2Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.26 Dodonaea viscosa observed highest importance and density for both elevations. Number of plants suggested are 500/ha and 2654/ha for elevation of 700m-1000m and 1000m1300m respectively. Other important plants observed for both the elevations were, Adhatoda zeylanica, Dendrocalamus strictus and Murraya koenigii.

3. Herbs Pouzolzia zeylanica

3.1Description of herbs For both the elevations of this catchment, the new herbs found are, Pouzolzia zeylanica, Vernonia cinerea. 3.1.1 Pouzolzia zeylanica Plant is used in syphilis, gonorrhea and snake poison. Description: It is a perennial herb, growing up to 20-40 cm tall. It is erect to suberect, hairy to smooth plant. Leaves are opposite or rarely alternate, with 4-12 mm long stalk. Leaf blade is lanceshaped- rhomboid ovate, 1-2.5 cm long, 4-15 mm broad, wedgeshaped or flat at the base, entire, pointed. Flowers are pale green, in loose axillary clusters, covered with hairs, female stalkless, male with 2 mm long stalk. Flowering: JulyOctober.54

3.1.2 Vernonia cinerea The juice of the plant is given to children with urinary incontinence. The leaves are eaten as a potherb. A decoction of it is also given in diarrhea, stomachache and for cough and colic. Description: The stem is slender, grooved and ribbed. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly elliptic or lanceolate, membranous or rather coriaceous. The flowers are pinkish and purple, in minute heads in rounded or flat-topped corymbs. The achenes are oblong, terete, & slightly narrowed at the base.55

Vernonia cinerea

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Flowers of india : Pouzolzia zeylanica

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.27 3.2Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

It can be observed from the graph above that there are two species at elevation 700m to 1000m which are not present in 1000m to 1300m elevation. Whereas there is one species from 700m to 1000m elevation which is not present in 1000m to 1300m range.

1200m- 1600m, and 1600m – 2000m Trees having top five values have considered. New trees found are Pinus roxburghii, Sterculia villosa, Toona ciliata, Pinus wallichiana, Cedrus deodara, Rhododendron arborium and Pinus roxburghii. 1.1.1 Pinus roxburghii

Euphorbia hirta found highest importance at an elevation 700m1000m No. of plants suggested are 2 herbs/sq.m The second important plant here is Corchorus olitorius at 1000m1300m Vernonia cinerea found highest importance but it was not at all observed at 700m-1000m Suggested no. of herbs for this elevation are 4/sq.m Rubus ellipticus and Pouzolzia zeylanica were not observed at second elevation. The other important plant found at both the elevations is Parthenium hysterophorus.

D. Kotlu catchment (Type similar for Si subcatchment) (Refer Annexure (e)) 1. Trees

It is a resinous tree capable of yielding resin continuously. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. The wood is diaphoretic and stimulant. It is useful in treating burning of the body, cough, fainting and ulcers. Description:

1.1 Description of trees This catchment is divided into 3 elevation ranges. 800m-1200m,

Erect, round-headed evergreen tree with one or more trunks. Grows at moderate rate to 30 ft., with spread of 20 ft at maturity. The bark is red-

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.28 brown, thick and deeply fissured at the base of the trunk, thinner and flaky in the upper crown. The leaves are needle-like, in fascicles of three, very slender, 20-35 cm long and distinctly yellowish green. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by wind. The cones are ovoid conic, 12-24 cm long and 5-8 cm broad at the base when closed, green at first, ripening glossy chestnut-brown when 24 months old. They open slowly over the next year or so.56

borne in panicles 15-30 cm long, rusty velvety, pendulous. Flowers are unisexual, with stalks 4-8 mm long. The column of stamens is 4-5 mm long, recurved, anthers 10. Seed-pods are 5, stalkless, 4-6 cm long, leathery, rusty pubescent, many-seeded, red when ripe. Seeds oblong, smooth, black. Flowering: December-March.58

Sterculia villosa 1.1.3 Toona ciliata

Pinus roxburghii 1.1.2 Sterculia villosa This plant is mainly used to prepare shuttle and bobbins. Gum of this tree is used as substitute for tragacanth, used in throat infections. Leaves and tender branches when stepped in water yield a mucilaginous extract useful in pleurapneumonia in cattle.57 Description: It is a medium sized, native to India. Leaves carried on 25-40 cm long stalks, are palmately 5-7 lobed, 20-40 cm long and broad, heart-shaped at the base, lobes somewhat oblong or obovate entire or 3-fid. Flowers are 56 57

It is used as fodder and fuelwood. It is also useful in agricultural implements. It has an ornamental value. Red wood prepared from this plant is used in furniture making, building and ornamental woodwork. This plant again can be important for soil and water conservation due to its architecture. Description: It is a large deciduous tree generally with a wide spreading and handsome crown attaining a height of 45 m and a stem diameter of 2 m Flowers are white, fragrant, in a large pyramidal panicle at the ends of the branchlets. Individual flowers about 5 mm long. Flowering period is in spring. Leaves are alternate, pinnate, consisting of five to seventeen leaflets. Leaflets opposite or irregularly alternate, ovatelanceolate, 4-13 cm long, often drawn out to a long point at the tip, unequal at the base.59

Flowers of India : Pinus roxburghii Ecological assessment of forest areas falling

under Kol dam hydroelectric Project, Himachal Pradesh. Final project report( April 2005 to March 2009) By: Dr. R.K. Verma, Scientist E, Principal Investigator.

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Flowers of India : Sterculia villosa Flowers of India : Toona ciliata

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.29

1.1.5 Cedrus deodara It is used in agricultural implements. Timber is also useful. By looking at the architecture we can say that this plant is also useful for soil and water conservation. Description: Toona ciliata 1.1.4 Pinus wallichiana Timber of this plant is useful. It can also be useful as fuelwood. Description: The tree is distinguished by its clusters of long cylindrical hanging cones, and it needle-like blue-green leaves. The tree grows up to 50 m tall, symmetric and pyramidal in shape. The bark is slategrey which becomes rough and shallowly fissured on old trees. Leaves are 15-20 cm long, needle-like. Cones are 15-25 cm long, in clusters of 2-3. Cone scales are wedge-shaped, wide near the apex - basal scales are usually not, or only slightly, reflexed, very resinous. Its wood is highly resinous, and is used for local contruction, carpentry and making tea-chests. It is good as firewood, but the smoke is pungent due to the resins. Flowering: April-June.60

It is a large evergreen coniferous tree reaching 40-50 m tall, exceptionally 60 m, with a trunk up to 3 m diameter. It has a conic crown with horizontal branches and drooping branchlets. The leaves are needle-like, mostly 2.5-5 cm long, occasionally up to 7 cm long, slender (1 mm thick), borne singly on long shoots, and in dense clusters of 20-30 on short shoots; they vary from bright green to blue-green in colour. The female cones are barrel-shaped, 713 cm long and 5-8 cm broad, and disintegrate when mature (in 12 months) to release the winged seeds. The male cones are 4-6 cm long, and shed their pollen in autumn.61

Cedrus deodara

Pinus wallichiana

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Flowers of India : Cadres deodara

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.30 1.1.6 Rhododendron arborium Young leaves of this plant are poisonous but can be applied to forehead or headache. Flowers are used in diarrhoea and dysentery.62 Description Its name means "tending to be woody or growing in a tree-like form". It has been recorded as reaching heights of up to 20 m, although more usually it has a height and spread up to 12 m (36 ft) x 12 m (36 ft).In early- and mid-spring, trusses of 15-20 bellshaped flowers, 5 cm (2 in) wide and 3–5 cm (1.25–2 in) long are produced in red, pink or white. They have black nectar pouches and black spots inside.63

1.2 based on IVI elevation range

Comparison at different

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Ecological assessment of forest areas falling under Kol dam hydroelectric Project, Himachal Pradesh. Final project report( April 2005 to March 2009) By: Dr. R.K. Verma, Scientist E, Principal Investigator.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.31 Elevation for Kotlu catchment has divided into three ranges i.e. 800m1200m, 1200m-1600m, 1600m-2000m Pinus roxburghii has the highest IVI and as well as density at both 800m1200m and 1200m-1600m elevations. So it is considered on first priority for plantation at both of these elevations. The suggested number for plantation is 207/ha and 183/ha respectively.

arise in catkins. Male catkins are woolly-haired. Nuts are ovoid, to 1.5 cm, half covered by the involucral cup when mature. Flowering: April-May.64

Pinus wallichiana has the highest IVI and density at 1600m - 2000m So the suggested no. for plantation is 317/ha; but it was not at all observed at 800m1200m while it has little importance at 1200m-1600m Other important plants observed at first elevation are Sterculia villosa, Lannea coromandelica, Grewia optiva, Ficus religiosa and Toona ciliata. Out of these trees, Sterculia villosa, Lannea coromandelica, Cedrus deodara and Rhododendron arborium were not at all observed at 1200m-1600m and Sterculia villosa, Lannea coromandelica, Grewia optiva and Ficus religiosa were not at all observed at 1600m-2000m.

2. Shrubs 2.1Description of shrubs Top seven shrubs from all the three elevations are considered. New shrubs found are Rosa moschata, Quercus leucotrichophora, Berberis aristata, and Rubus ellipticus. Description of those shrubs is given below. 2.1.1. Quercus leucotrichophora

Quercus leucotrichophora 2.1.2. Rubus ellipticus A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit. The plant is grown to deter soil erosion and is good for soil conservation. Fruits are edible. It can be used as hedge plant.65 Description: It is a shrub, growing up to 2 m tall. It is clothed with prickles and reddish hairs. The alternate leaves are compound with three round to blunt leaflets 5-10 cm long. The undersides of the leaves are lighter than the upper surface and covered with downy hairs. The flowers are small, white with five petals. The fruit is a round yellow cluster of druplets easily detaching from the receptacle. The fruits are edible and frugivorous birds spread the seeds. Rubus ellipticus (Himalayan raspberry) can invade disturbed habitats and displace other plant species. Flowering:February-April.66

It is used in agricultural implements and as a fuelwood and fodder. Description: It is an evergreen tree to 25m, found in the Himalayas. It is a large or medium sized tree, with leathery dull green leaves, sharply toothed leaves, 6-16 cm long. Leaves have dense white-woolly hairs on the underside. The species name leucotrichophora means carrying white hairs. Flowers

64

Flowers of India : Quercus leucotrichophora Plants for a future.: http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Rubus +ellipticus 66 Flowers of India : Rubus ellipticus 65

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.32 2.1.4. Berberis aristata It is used for preparing dyes and tannin. Also used as a fuelwood, hedge plant.Used in the treatment of malaria, eye complaints, skin diseases, menorrhagia, diarrhoea and jaundice. If we check the shrub architecture it can be said that this shrub is good for soil and moisture conservation. Description : Rubus ellipticus 2.1.3. Rosa moschata An essential oil obtained from the flowers is used in perfumery. Young leaves, fruits and stems whether raw or cooked, can be eaten.67 Description: R. moschata is a shrub (to 3m) with single white 5 cm flowers in a loose cyme, blooming on new growth from late spring until late autumn in warm climates, or from late summer onwards in cool-summer climates. The sepals are 2 cm long with slender points. The flowers have a characteristic "musky" scent, emanating from the stamens, which is also found in some of its descendants. The prickles on the stems are straight or slightly curved and have a broad base. Small, ovate fruits called hips are borne, turning orange-red in autumn.68

It grows to 4 m high and 0.5 m wide. Leaves, in tufts of 5-8, lance-like, simple spiny, toothed, leathery, stalkless, pointed, 4.9 cm long, 1.8 cm broad, deep green on the dorsal surface and light green on the ventral surface. Spines (which, in fact, are modified leaves) are three-branched and 1.5 cm long. Flowers, stalked, yellow, in simple to corymbose raceme, with 11-16 flowers per cluster. The average diameter of a fully opened flower is 12.5 mm Six yellow sepals (3 small, 3 large), with 6 petals, yellow, 4-5 mm long.69

Rosa moschata 67

Medicinal herbs : http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/r/rosa -moschata=musk-rose.php 68 Flowers of India : Rosa moschata

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Flowers of India : Berberis aristata

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.33 2.2

Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

Different elevation ranges show different occurrence and distribution of shrubs. In this catchment plenty of variations are seen. There are certain shrubs which are at not present at 1600m-2000m and there are certain shrubs which are not present at 800m1200m, whereas majority of the shrub can be seen at 1200m-1600m elevation.

3.1.1 Urtica dioica Juice of the plant is used as an external irritant. Decoction of plant is diuretic, astringent, emmenagogue, used in nephritis, haematuria, menorrhagia, constipation and jaundice. Leaves are edible and can be used for preparing drinks.70 Description:

Dendrocalamus strictus has the highest importance as well as density at 800m1200m as well as 1200m-1600m while Rosa moschata is the highly important plant at 1600m-2000m.

3. Herbs 3.1Description of herbs The new herbs found at first two elevations i.e 800m-1200m and 1200m-1600m.are Urtica dioica, Artemisia parviflora, Boehmeria platyphylla. At third elevation, 1600m2000mnew herbs found are Anemone vitifolia, Gigardiana diversifolia, Rumex nepalensis, Plantago major. Their description is given below.

It is a perennial herb, 3-7 ft tall, dying down to the ground in winter. It has widely spreading rhizomes and stolons, which are bright yellow as are the roots. The soft green leaves are 3-15 cm long and are borne oppositely on an erect wiry green stem The leaves have a strongly serrated margin, a heart-shaped base and a long-pointed tip with a terminal leaf tooth longer than adjacent laterals. Each leaf has a pair of elliptic stipules at the base. This is a distinguishing feature of the plant. 70

Ecological assessment of forest areas falling under Kol dam hydroelectric Project, Himachal Pradesh. Final project report( April 2005 to March 2009) By: Dr. R.K. Verma, Scientist E, Principal Investigator.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.34 It bears small greenish or brownish numerous flowers in dense clusters in leaf axils. The leaves and stems are very hairy with non-stinging hairs and also bear many stinging hairs, whose tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a needle that will inject several chemicals: acetylcholine, histamine, 5-HT or serotonin, and possibly formic acid. This mixture of chemical compounds causes a painful sting.71

3.1.3 Boehmeria platyphylla Plant is used as fuelwood and fodder. Description: Boehmeria is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants. The species include herbaceous perennials, shrubs and small trees. Although related to nettles, this genus does not have stinging hairs. Some species are known commonly as false nettle.73

Urtica dioica 3.1.2 Artemisia parviflora Boehmeria platyphylla

The only use of this plant is, it is used for preparation of dye and tannin.

3.1.4 Anemone vitifolia Description: It is a large, diverse genus of plants with between 200 to 400 species belonging to the daisy family Asteraceae. It comprises hardy herbs and shrubs known for their volatile oils. They grow in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere, usually in dry or semi-dry habitats. The fern-like leaves of many species are covered with white hairs.72

Artemisia sp. 71 72

Flowers of India : Urtica dioica Wikipedia , free encyclopedia : Artemisia

It Relieves pain, it is milder than an analgesic. Treats rheumatism. Treats toothache (temporary measure only) and other problems of the teeth and gums. Expels and kills internal parasites. It can also act as biopesticide.74 Description: It is a robust perennial herb, growing up to 1-3 ft tall. The stem is branched above and there are umbels of few large white flowers at the top of the branches. Flowers are white, 3.5-5 cm across, borne on long silky-haired stalks. Petals are broadly ovate, silky haired beneath. Ovaries are clustered in a woolly sphere at the center, surrounded by numerous stamens with yellow anthers. The flower buds are 73

Wikipedia, free encyclopedia : Boehmeria platyphylla 74 Aussie gardening: http://www.aussiegardening.com.au/findplants/pla nt/Anemone_vitifolia

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.35 white-woolly. Lower leaves are rounded-heart-shaped, 10-20 cm across, shallowly 5-lobed. Leaves below the flower-stalks are much smaller, short- stalked.75

Rumex nepalensis 3.1.6 Plantago major

Anemone vitifolia 3.1.5

Rumex nepalensis

Leaf extract is applied to skin sores. Leaf infusion is given in colic and applied to syphilitic ulcers. Leaves are rubbed on the affected part for relief from irritation caused by Bichchhoo plant. Description: These are erect plants with long tap roots. The fleshy to leathery leaves form a basal rosette at the root. The basal leaves may be different from those near the inflorescence. The inconspicuous flowers are carried above the leaves in whorl-like clusters. The fertile flowers are mostly hermaphrodite, or they can be functionally male or female. The flowers and seeds grow on long clusters at the top of a stalk emerging from the basal rosette. Each seed is 3sided achene. Plants can contain quite high levels of oxalic acid, which is what gives the leaves of many members of this genus an acid-lemon flavor.76

It has only medicinal uses. Seeds are used as a tonic stimulant, useful remedy for dysentery. Leaves and roots are astringent, used in fever, leaves applied to bruises. Description: It is a perennial herb, variable with short stout, erect, truncate, rootstocks and numerous adventitious roots. Leaves appear in rosettes, spirally arranged, stalked, and sometimes not clearly distinguished into stalk and the blade. Leaves are ovate-elliptic or rarely circular, 10-20 cm long, 4-9 cm broad, rounded at the tip, entire, nearly entire or slightly toothed, 3-9 nerved, nerves divergent at the base. Leaf bases taper into long sheathing stalks usually equaling the blade. Flowers are greenish or yellowish white, 2-4 mm long, petals ellipticovate to narrowly triangular, 1-1.15 mm long, obtuse or acute, reflexed. Flowering: August-October.77

Plantago major 75 76

Flowers of India : Anemone vitifolia Flowers of India : Rumen nepalensis

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Flowers of India

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.36

3.2

Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

Utrica dioica has highest importance at an elevation 800m-1200m whereas Artemisia parviflora has highest importance value index at 1200m1600m and Anemone vitifolia is highest important herb at 1600m-2000m. Trend of IVI is similar at 800m-1200m and 1200m-1600m elevation only with major disparity of Artemisia parviflora. Anemone vitifolia, Gigardiana diversifolia, Rumex nepalensis and Plantago major occur only at 1600m2000m. Also Utrica dioica, Artemisia parviflora, Boehmeria platyphylla and Euphorbia hirta have high importance at third elevation but they did not occur at other two elevations i.e. at 800m-1200m and 1200m-1600m.

E. Sunni catchment (Type similar for Sh, Sj, Sk, Sm, Sn, subcatchments) (Refer Annexure (f)) 1. Trees 1.1 Description of trees Elevation range is divided into two, 650m-1100m and 1100m – 1550m IVI wise top five plants are taken for comparison. Trees observed in Sunni catchment are similar to that of Hadaboi catchment the variation is only seen in its IVI and density.

It seems that, occurrence of plants at first two elevations is similar. They occur almost with same importance; but the plants observed in next two elevations are totally different. Elevation matters for composition and distribution of plants.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.37 1.2

Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

Elevation for Sunni catchment has divided into two ranges i.e. 650m1100m and 1100m – 1550m. At both elevation range Pinus roxburghii have highest IVI and density. The number suggested is 300/ha and 271/ha at 650m-1100m and 1100m – 1550m respectively. Other important trees at both of these elevations are Toona ciliata, Pistacia chinensis, Acasia catechu and Bombax ceiba. Bombax ceiba has lower IVI at second elevation compared to the first.

flowers with ruffled petals. From one to several flowers may be borne on a twig, one being terminal, the others lateral and solitary. The odorless but colorful flowers are large, 1 1/2 to 3 inches in length, campanulate or cylindrical, and generally reddish but sometimes yellow to white.78

2. Shrubs 2.1Description of shrubs IVI wise top eight shrubs have taken into consideration for comparison. New shrub found here is Punica granatum. 2.1.1

Punica granatum

Punica granatum

The fruit is edible. Fruit juice is cooling refrigerant. Root and stem bark is astringent, anthelmintic specific in tapeworm. Rinds of fruits combined with aromatics like clove are useful in diarrhea, dysentery. Seeds are used in stomach trouble. Description: The pomegranate is a shrub, usually with multiple stems, that commonly grows 6-15 ft tall. The slender branches start out upright, and then droop gracefully. Pomegranates have beautiful orange-red trumpet shaped

78

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.38 2.2Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

The most important shrub at an elevation 650m-1100m is Murraya koenigii and at 1100m-1550m is Dodonaea viscosa. For both these elevations, the second important plant is Dendrocalamus strictus. Other important plants for both these elevations are Adhatoda zeylanica, Woodfordia fruticosa, Rubus ellipticus, Rabdosia lophanthoides, and Punica granatum.

stinging hairs. Some species are known commonly as false nettle.79

3. Herbs 3.1 Description of herbs IVI wise top six herbs from both the elevations are taken for comparison. New herbs found here are Boehmeria rugulosa, Oxalis corniculata, Phyllanthus fraternus, and Acalypha ciliata. Their description is given below. 3.1.1 Boehmeria rugulosa Plant can fuelwood.

be used

as fodder and

Description: Boehmeria is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants. The species include herbaceous perennials, shrubs and small trees. Although related to nettles, this genus does not have

Boehmeria rugulosa 3.1.2 Oxalis corniculata Leaves are cooling refrigerant, stomachic, and anti-scorbutic. It is used in preparing drinks. Plants used as cure for scurvy. Description: It has beautiful yellow flowers. Branching from the base and often rooted at the nodes, the upper portion is ascending or weakly erect, smooth or hairy. The leaves are arranged alternately along the stems. A single long stalk arises from the axils of the leaf, from which extend three flower 79

Wikipedia, free encyclopedia

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.39 stalks, each with a single flower. The flowers are 7-11 mm wide and have 5 yellow petals. The fruit is a capsule, 11.5 cm long, cylindrical, pointed apically, and 5-ridged in cross section.80

Phyllanthus fraternus 3.1.4 Acalypha ciliata Plants are emetic, expectorant, and useful in bronchitis, pneumonia and asthma. Leaves are laxative used in scabies and in snake bite. Oxalis corniculata 3.1.3 Phyllanthus fraternus Whole plant is diuretic, useful in dropsy, genitourinary tract diseases, jaundice, and intermittent fever. Description Gulf Leaf-Flower is a slender scruffy to nearly hairless erect annual herb, growing up to 80 cm, usually 30-40 cm, with angular branches. Leaves are carried on 0.5 mm long stalks. They are elliptic-oblong to elliptic oblanceolate, 5-13 x 1.5-5 mm, blunt or rounded at apex and base, or sometimes tapering to the base. Leaves are dark green above, paler and grayish beneath. Male flowers have 1 mm long stalks. Female flowers are carried on 1.5-2 mm long stalks. Fruits are round, trilobate, 1.7-2 mm diameter, smooth. Flowering: AugustSeptember.81

80

Wikipedia, free encyclopedia

81

Flowers of India

Description: Monoecious, annual herb grows upto 1 m Stems are hairy, simple 2 mm long. Flowers present.82

Acalypha ciliata

82

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.40

3.2 Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

Gigardiana diversifolia has the highest importance value index at 650m1100m while Phyllanthus fraternus has the highest importance value index at 1100m-1550m. Some other important plants are Euphorbia hirta, Boehmeria rugulosa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Oxalis corniculata, Acalypha ciliate. Out of those, Gigardiana diversifolia was not seen at an elevation range of 1100m1550m, while Phyllanthus fraternus and Acalypha ciliata did not present at an elevation 650m-1100m.

1.1.1 Populus ciliata It has a reasonably fast growth rate and produces abundant strong lateral roots with little taper. It is therefore extensively used to bind soil as an erosion control measure. Bark is a tonic, stimulant and blood purifier. Wood is used for making boxes for packing grapes; also for poles, trucks and barrow-trays, coaches, furniture. It can also be used as fodder and fuelwood.83 Description:

F. Matiana catchment (Type similar for Sj, Sk, Sm, Sn subcatchments) (Refer Annexure (g)) 1. Trees 1.1 Description of trees Elevation is divided into two ranges, 1700m-2050m and 2050m-2400m. Based on IVI top seven trees are considered for comparison at both elevations. Four new plants found are Populus ciliate, Albizia chinensis, Juglans regia, Cupressus tolurosa. They are considered as follows.

It is a large deciduous tree with tall and broad rounded crown. The bark of young trees is smooth greenish-grey and that of the old trees dark brown with deep vertical fissures. Leaves resemble those of Pipal to earn it the name Pahari pipal. They are broadly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, with serrulate-crenate and ciliate margins, 7.5-18.0 cm long, base usually heartshaped, 3-5 nerved. Leaf stalk is 512.5 cm long, compressed above.Flowers are borne in drooping raceme-like catkins appearing before or with leaves. Male flowers are bellshaped and female flowers bluntly toothed. Flowering: March-April.84 83 84

Ayushveda informatics Flowers of India : Populus ciliata

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.41

Albizia chinensis Populus ciliate 1.1.3 Juglans regia 1.1.2 Albizia chinensis Dried Fruits of this plant are edible. Important browse tree in hilly areas; also grown for shade on plantations and for the manurial value of the fallen leaves. The branches are used for fodder at the end of the growing season when the leaves are past their succulent stage. Description: It is a large deciduous tree with broad flat-topped crown and smooth grey bark. Leaves are double compound, like those of Gulmohar, but the final leaflets are very numerous, 10 mm long. Flowers are yellowish white, in clusters occurring either in the leaf axils or at the end of branches. Long white numerous stamens make it look like a powder-puff flower.85

Description: It is a large deciduous tree attaining heights of 25–35 m, and a trunk up to 2 m diameter, commonly with a short trunk and broad crown, though taller and narrower in dense forest competition. It is a light-demanding species, requiring full sun to grow well.86

Juglans regia

85

Flowers of India : Albizia chinensis

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Flowers of India : Juglans regia

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.42 1.2 Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

The most important tree at both the elevations 1700m–2050m and 2050m2400m is Cedrus deodara as it has highest IVI. Suggested no. of plants are 83/ha and 456/ha. Other important plants at first elevation observed were Pinus roxburghii, Pinus wallichiana, Quercus leucotrichophora, Populus ciliata, Albizia chinensis, Juglans regia and Cupressus tolurosa. Out of these plants, Albizia chinensis, Juglans regia were not at all present at 2050m2400m

Description: This shrub has an ultimate height of 2.7m / 9ft and spread of 3.7m / 12ft. It is a perennial deciduous shrub with cream flowers in late winter. It grows well in semi-shade and direct sun, and prefers high levels of water. Flowering: April-May.88

2. Shrubs 2.1 Description of shrubs IVI wise top four shrubs have considered for comparison. New shrubs found are Prinsepia utilis, Indigofera cassioides

Prinsepia utilis

2.1.1 Prinsepia utilis Cholesterol free oil extracted from its fruits is used for cooking, religious and medicinal purpose. Plants are grown as hedge and due to extensive root system used for soil conservation works. Leaves are used as fodder. The oil cake is used for washing clothes and as manure. Also used in treatment for rheumatism, muscular pain87.

2.1.2 Indigofera cassioides A decoction of the roots is used in the treatment of coughs. The root is dried, ground into a powder and applied externally in the treatment of pains in the chest.

87

International conference on biodiversity, livelihood & climate change in the himalayas, 2010 dec 12-14,

88

Australian naturopathic network

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.43 Description: The species are mostly shrubs, though some are herbaceous, and a few can become small trees up to 5–6 m (16– 20 ft) tall. Most are dry-season or winter deciduous. The leaves are pinnate with 5–31 leaflets and the terminal leaflet present. Leaf sizes vary from 3–25 cm (1.2–9.8 in). The flowers are small, produced on racemes 2–15 cm (0.79–5.9 in) long. Indigofera species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Turnip Moth.89

2.2Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

89

Indigofera cassioides

Flowers of India

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.44 Both the elevations i.e. 1700m-2050m and 2050m-2450m have same highest important shrub Berberis aristata. Its IVI is almost same for both these elevations. So it has given highest priority for plantation. Suggested number of this plant for elevation 1700m- 2050m is 3384/ha and for elevation 2050m-2450m it is 2333/ha.

African violet foliage. The low rosette of wonderful foliage is topped in early spring with light pink flowers that sit atop the foliage - a great, bold, textural plant for the open woodland garden.91

Other important plants for both of these elevations are Prinsepia utilis, Rabdosia lophanthoides, and Indigofera cassioides.

3. Herbs 3.1Description of herbs IVI wise eight herbs from both the elevations are considered for comparison. Many different new herbs are found. These are Bergenia ciliata, Fragaria vesca, Oxalis corymbosa, Viola biflora, Erigeron alpinus, and Salvia moorcroftiana. Description of those plants is given below.

Bergenia ciliata 3.2.2 Fragaria vesca The berries are eaten fresh and have a wonderful strawberry-wine flavor. Roots are used in diarrhea, urinary disorders.

3.2.1 Bergenia ciliata

Description:

The flowers are boiled and then pickled. The root is used as a tonic in the treatment of fevers, diarrhoea and pulmonary affections. The root juice is used to treat coughs and colds, haemorrhoids, asthma and urinary problems. Externally, the root is bruised and applied as a poultice to boils and ophthalmia, it is also considered helpful in relieving backache. The root of this plant has a high reputation in indigenous systems of medicine for dissolving stones in the kidneys.90

A small herbaceous plant usually 4-10" high, spreading out up to 12". They will reseed very easily and often, small plants will pop up throughout the garden. The white flowers are followed by white berries which either turn red when ripe (some varieties), or stay white, but whose seeds begin to brown when ripe.92

Description: Deciduous perennial with large (12") round hairy leaves with undulating edges. Pale pink flowers on 6" stems are flushed with rose in spring and summer. Prefers a good fertile soil but tolerates heavy clay soils. The large, fuzzy leaves, to 12" wide, feel like

Fragaria vesca 91

90

Medicinal herbs

92

Flowers of India

www.tradewindsfruit.com

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.45 3.2.3 Oxalis corymbosa Leaves and leafstalks - raw or cooked can be eaten. It has some medicinal uses.

have long stalks. It is found on open slopes, shrubberies and forests in the Himalayas, at elevations of 2400-4500 m Flowering: May-July.94

Description: Perennial, grows upto 0.15 m. It is in flower from July to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires welldrained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil.93

Viola biflora 3.2.5 Erigeron alpinus Description: The species are annuals, biennials or perennials. They are well-branched plants with erect stems, characterized by their numerous white, lavender or pink ray flowers and yellow disc flowers.95

Oxalis corymbosa 3.2.4 Viola biflora Plant is antipyretic, diaphoretic and febrifuge; flowers are demulcent, used in biliousness and lung troubles. Petals made in to syrup used as a remedy for infantile disorders, roots are emetic. Description: It is a common perennial herb of the Himalayan Mountains, with erect stems up to 10 cm or more. It sports bright yellow flowers with streaks of dark purple on the petals towards the center. Flowers occur singly or in pairs, hence the species name biflora. Flowers are about 1.5 cm across, with oblong, blunt out pointed sepals. Leaves are kidney shaped, 1-3 cm wide with rounded toothed margin, and

93

Erigeron alpinus 3.2.6 Salvia moorcroftiana The roots are used in the treatment of colds and coughs. The seed is emetic. It is used in the treatment of dysentery, hemorrhoids, colic and, 94

Flowers of India: Viola biflora Ecological assessment of forest areas falling under Kol dam hydroelectric Project, Himachal Pradesh. Final project report (April 2005 to March 2009) By: Dr. R.K. Verma, Scientist E, Principal Investigator.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.46 externally, boils. A poultice of the leaves is used as a dressing for wounds and is also applied to itchy skin. Stems are occasionally eaten. Description: It is a white-woolly perennial herb, commonly found in the Kashmir valley. Pale blue, nearly white, flowers are borne in spikes arranged in separated whorls, forming a branched cluster. Flowers are about 2.5 cm long. Flower tube is distinctly longer than the sepal tube. Leaves are mostly 15-25 cm long, ovate to elliptic, long-stalked. Stem is 1.5-3 ft tall, branched above. It is found in the Himalayas at elevations of 1500-2700 m. Flowering: May-June.96

Salvia moorcroftiana

3.2Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

96

Plants for a future.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.47 Bergenia ciliata is the highest important herb at an elevation 1700m2050m while Rumex nepalensis has the highest importance value index at an elevation 2050m-2400m. Some other important plants are Fragaria vesca, Oxalis corymbosa, Plantago major, Viola biflora, Salvia moorcroftiana, Erigeron alpinus. Out of these plants, Bergenia ciliata and Oxalis corymbosa did not occur at 2050m-2400m.

with male and separate trees.97

G. Pooh catchment (Type similar for subcatchments 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,18,19, 20,21,22,23,24 ) (Refer Annexure (h))

female

catkins

on

Salix alba 1.1.2. Juniperus polycarpos

1.

Trees

1.1. Description of trees : The altitude of this catchment is divided into 3 ranges. 2700m-3200m, 3200m-3700m and 3700m-4200m. IVI wise top 5 trees have considered for comparison at these three elevations. Description of those plants is given below:1.1.1. Salix alba Timber of this plant is useful. The bark was used in the past for tanning leather. It can also be used as a fuel wood. It eases the aches and pains and reduces fevers. Description: It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree growing up to 10–30 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter and an irregular, often leaning crown. The bark is grey-brown, deeply fissured in older trees. The shoots in the typical species are grey-brown to greenbrown. The leaves are paler than most other willows, due to a covering of very fine silky white hairs, particularly on the underside; they are 5–10 cm long and 0.5–1.5 cm wide. The flowers are produced in catkins in early spring, and pollinated by insects. It is dioecious,

It is religious plant and used to prepare Dhoops and incense sticks. Plant mainly used in stomach pain, cough, pectoral infections, diarrhea, impotency, indigestion, leucorrhoea, paralysis, piles and skin diseases. Description: It is a large gregarious shrub or small tree up to 18m, with a stout trunk. Foliage Light open spreading sharp pointed, linear leaves on lower branches and scale like leaves on the upper branches and branchlets. Leaves closely pressed to the stem giving it a smooth cord like appearance, with a large resinous gland at the back. Fruit is bluish black, resinous with 2 or more seeds.98

Juniperus polycarpos 97

Wikipedia, free encyclopedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salix_alba 98 By : Dr. R.K. Verma and Dr. K.S. Kapoor, (2009), Plant wealth in cold deserts : Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.48 Populus alba 1.1.3. Populus alba Its green-and-white leaves make it an effective ornamental tree. It is planted to strengthen coastal sand dunes because of its extensive root system and tolerance of salt. Description:

1.1.4. Prunus armeniaca Seeds or kernels of the apricot are so sweet that they may be substituted for almonds. They are used in the treatment of cancer, heart diseases. They can be eaten as dry fruits.

It is a medium-sized deciduous tree, growing to heights of up to 16-27 m (rarely more), with a trunk up to 1 m diameter and a broad rounded crown. The bark is smooth and greenish-white to grayish-white with characteristic diamond-shaped dark marks on young trees, becoming blackish and fissured at the base of old trees. The young shoots are covered with whitish-grey down, including the small buds. The leaves are 4-15 cm long, five-lobed, with a thick covering of white scurfy down on both sides but thicker underneath; this layer wears off the upper side but not the lower, which stays white until autumn leaf fall. The flowers are catkins up to 8 cm long, produced in early spring; they are dioecious, with male and female catkins on separate trees.99

Description:

99

100

Wikipedia, free encyclopedia :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Populus_alba

It is a small tree, 8–12 m tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm diameter and a dense, spreading canopy. The leaves are ovate, 5–9 cm long and 4–8 cm wide, with a rounded base, a pointed tip and a finely serrated margin. The flowers are 2–4.5 cm diameter, with five white to pinkish petals; they are produced singly or in pairs in early spring before the leaves. The fruit is a drupe similar to a small peach, 1.5– 2.5 cm diameter (larger in some modern cultivars), from yellow to orange, often tinged red on the side most exposed to the sun; its surface is usually pubescent. The single seed is enclosed in a hard stony shell, often called a "stone", with a grainy, smooth texture except for three ridges running down one side.100

Wikipedia, free encyclopedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apricot

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.49 Prunus armeniaca

1.2. Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

At first altitude i.e. 2700 m – 3200 m, Salix alba has the highest importance while at second altitude i.e. 3200 m – 3700 m Juniperus polycarpos has high importance. Absolutely no any trees were found at third altitude i.e. at 3700 m - 4200 m. The other important trees found are Populus ciliata, Populus alba, Prunus armeniaca.

2.

curved with broad dilated bases. Leaves are 3-8 cm long. Petioles are glabrous or glandular –pubescent, often prickly. Leaflets 5-9 , oblong or obovate, glabrous or pubescent beneath, coarsely serrate except towards the base. Flowers usually solitary, pink. Fruit red, ovoid or globose. Flowering and fruiting occurs in July- September.102

Shrubs

2.1Description of shrubs Top 8 shrubs depending upon IVI, are taken for altitude wise comparison. Their description is given below:

2.1.1. Rosa webbiana: Fruit is eaten whether raw or cooked. The seeds are the source of vitamin E. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. Also used in indigestion.101 Description: Deciduous shrub with glabrous twigs; prickles numerous, straight or slightly 101

Plants for a future : http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Rosa+ webbiana

102

By : Dr. R.K. Verma and Dr. K.S. Kapoor, (2009), Plant wealth in cold deserts : Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.50

Sorbaria tomentosa

Rosa webbiana 2.1.2. Sorbaria tomentosa It has some chemical properties which can be used to prepare medicines. Description: It is a slender, graceful, spreading shrub, growing up to 3 m or taller. It has long pinnate leaves, and large terminal, pyramidal branched clusters of tiny white flowers. Leaves are 20-40 cm long. Leaflets are lancelike, slender-pointed, 5-10 cm long, with double toothed margins. Leaflets are hairy beneath. The flower clusters are 20-45 cm long. Flowers are tiny 5-7 mm across, with rounded petals and protruding stamens. It is commonly found at altitudes of 1800-2900 m. Flowering: June-August.103

2.1.3. Salix denticulata It can be used as a fodder. Description: Small tree or shrub whose twigs are pubescent, glabrous and stipules minute. Petiole 2-6 mm long. Lamina 2.5-6.5 x 1.2-2.4 cm, elliptic, oblong or ovate margin denticulate, tip obtuse to acute, bright green above, lighter on the lower side; pubescent when young specially along midrib, becoming glabrous. Fruiting catkin 4-12 x 0.8-0.9 cm, not dense. Flowering Period: AprilMay.104 2.1.4. Lonicera orientalis : It is mainly used in herbal cough medicines. Description: These are arching shrubs or twining vines. The leaves are opposite, simple oval, 1–10 cm long; most are deciduous but some are evergreen. Many of the species have sweetlyscented, bell-shaped flowers that produce sweet, edible nectar. Breaking of the Honeysuckle's stem will release this powerful sweet odor. The fruit is a red, blue or black berry containing several seeds; in most species the berries are mildly poisonous, but a few species (notably Lonicera caerulea) have edible berries. The plant is eaten

103

www.Flowers of India.com: http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Kash mir%20False%20Spirea.html

104

www.efloras.org, flora of Pakistan : http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5 &taxon_id=242100167

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.51 by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species.105

height.106

Abelia triflora Lonicera orientalis

2.1.5. Abelia triflora It is used as fuelwood. Wood of this plant is hard, close and even-grained. Used for walking sticks. As flowers are aromatic it is used as an ornamental plant. Description: It is a perennial deciduous shrub with white flowers in late spring. It grows well in direct sun, and prefers medium levels of water. It has low drought tolerance and low flood tolerance. This shrub has an ultimate height of 4m / 13.1ft and spread of 3m / 9.8ft. It can take 11-15 years to reach its ultimate

2.1.6. Juniperus indica: It is used as incense or as ingredient in incense sticks also useful in ayurvedic medicines.107 Description: It is a shrub growing to 50-200 cm tall, with largely horizontal branching. The leaves are dark grey-green, dimorphic, with adult plants having mostly scalelike leaves 1-3 mm long, while young plants have mostly needle-like leaves 5-8 mm long, but needle-like leaves can also be found on shaded shoots of adult plants. The leaves are borne in whorls of three on strong stout main stem shoots, and opposite pairs on thinner, slower-growing shoots. It is dioecious, with male (pollen) and female (seed) cones on separate plants. The mature seed cones are 106

Plant database : http://plantdatabase.in/abelia_triflora 107

105

Wikipedia ; free encyclopedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honeysuckle

www.maya-ethnobotanicals.com : http://www.maya-ethnobotanicals.com/buyjuniperus-indica-%28black-juniper%29

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.52 ovoid, berry-like, 6-10 mm long, glossy black, and contain a single seed; the seeds are dispersed by birds which eat the cones, digest the fleshy cone pulp, and excrete the seeds in their droppings.108

feature distinguishes it from the other very similar Entire-leaved Cotoneaster. Leaves are dark-green above and bristly-haired beneath. Small white flowers, about 8 mm across, appear in leaf axils, either singly or in groups of 2-3. Sepals are densely hairy. This plant is loved for its showy scarlet berries. It is found in the Himalayas, from Afghanistan to SW China, at altitudes of 2000-5400. Flowering: May-June.110

Juniperus indica 2.1.7. Cotoneaster microphyllus : A rose-tan dye is obtained from the fruit. The leaves are used for incense. The plant has an extensive root system and a creeping habit above ground. It makes a good soil binder. The branches are used for making baskets. Wood is hard, close and even grained. Plant is also used for fuel. The stolons are said to be astringent.109 Description:

Cotoneaster microphyllus 2.1.8. Juniperus communis The plant can be used as fuel wood and ornamental purpose. Also useful in making Dhoops and incense sticks. It is used to cure kidney disorders. Description:

It is a prostrate, mat-forming shrub which will climb over rocks. It is a strong contender for the plant found at highest altitudes. Leaves are 6-13 mm, elliptic-ovate, with pointed tip. This

This shrub is more or less procumbent. Leaves remain in 3 whorls, linear or boat shaped, sharply pointed, spreading nearly at right angles from the branches. Flowers are dioecious,

108

Wikipedia, free encyclopedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juniperus_indica 109 Plants for a future : http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Cotone aster+microphyllus

110

www.flowers of india.net : http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Rocks pray%20Cotoneaster.html

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.53 axillary. Fruit are subglobose, blue-black, glaucous. Seeds are 1-3.111

Juniperus communis

2.2

111

Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

By : Dr. R.K. Verma and Dr. K.S. Kapoor, (2009), Plant wealth in cold deserts : Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh.

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.54 Rosa webbiana is the highest important plant at first and second altitudes but its maximum IVI was observed at 3200 m – 3700 m. Juniperus indica is the most important shrub at third altitude, i.e. at 3700m – 4200m but this shrub did not occur at first elevation. Also Cotoneaster microphyllus and Juniperus communis were not observed at first altitude. Sorbaria tomentosa, Salix denticulata, Lonicera orientalis were not at all observed at third elevation. While Abelia triflora did not occur at second elevation. This shows that existence of plants differ altitude wise.

3.

dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.112

Herbs

3.1Description of herbs Top 8 herbs depending upon IVI are selected for their comparison at three altitudes. Their description is given below 3.1.1 Artemisia scoparia : The plant is anticholesterolemic, antipyretic, antiseptic, cholagogue, diuretic and vasodilator. It has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Bacillus dysenteriae, B. typhi, B. subtilis, Pneumococci, C. diphtheriae, mycobacterium etc. It is used in the treatment of jaundice, hepatitis and inflammation of the gall bladder. The plant is also used in a mixture with other herbs as a cholagogue. Description: Artemisia scoparia is a species in the genus Artemisia, in the family Asteraceae. Its common name is Redstem Wormwood. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires

Artemisia scoparia 3.1.2 Malva rotundifolia : It can be grazed by livestock only in case of drought. Used to cure gastrointestinal disorders, constipation, colitis, hemorrhoids. Description: Annual, 10-25 cm. Stems many, procumbent. Leaves with blade orbicular to reniform, crenate, and lobed. Flowers white with pink veins. Flowering: March-April. Habitat: Waste areas.113

112

www.mamaherb.com : http://www.mamaherb.com/artemisia-scoparia 113 www.fao.org : http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/agpc/doc/GBASE/new _species/malrot.htm

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.55

Origanum vulgare

Malva rotundifolia 3.1.3 Origanum vulgare: It is used to extract essential oil. It is also used in tonic, cold, hysteria fever. Description: Erect branched, hairy herb, 30-60 cm high. Leaves are petioled, broadly ovate, and sparsely hairy. Cymes are corymbose, sometimes forming panicles. Bracts are large, imbricating, green or purplish. Flowers are polygamous, larger ones bisexual, smaller ones pistillate. Calyx is belshaped enlarged in fruit. Corolla is pink or white. Habitat type: moist slopes, flowering and fruiting: June – 114 September.

3.1.4 Verbascum thapsus The flowers provide dyes of bright yellow or green, and have been used for hair dye. Plant is also used in febrifuge, diarrhoea and ringworm. Description: It is an erect herb. Stems are 40-90 cm tall, stout, simple winged with long decurrent leaf lobes, densely clothed with grayish-yellow tomentum. Leaves are 10-17 x 2.5 -3.5 cm. obovate or oblanceolate, entire or crenate, acute or acuminate. Flowers are 1-1.2 cm long, yellow; crowded in woolly terminal spikes 20-40cm long; calyx 45 mm long, wooly outside, lobes are nearly equal. Corolla is 1-1.2 cm long, tube is very short, lobes are 5, nearly equal woolly.115

114

By : Dr. R.K. Verma and Dr. K.S. Kapoor, (2009), Plant wealth in cold deserts : Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh.

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By : Dr. R.K. Verma and Dr. K.S. Kapoor, (2009), Plant wealth in cold deserts : Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.56

Ephedra gerardiana Verbascum thapsus 3.1.6 Bergenia stracheyi 3.1.5 Ephedra gerardiana: Dries twigs of this plant are used for Asthma, hay fever and rashes if allergic origin. Decoction of stems and roots are used as remedy for rheumatism. Nasal spray prepared from the drug is used in asthmatic attacks and inflammation of mucous membrane. Description: It is a low growing rigid tufted plant 30-60 cm, with numerous densely clustered erect slender smooth green jointed branches, arising from a branched woody base. Branches have scales at the joints. Male cones are ovate 6-8 mm, solitary or 2-3 with 4-8 flowers each with 5-8 anthers with fused filaments and rounded fused bracts. Female cones are usually solitary. Fruit is ovoid 7-10 mm with fleshy red succulent bracts enclosing the 1-2 seeds. Occurs in drier regions. Flowering and fruiting occurs in MayJune.116

116

By : Dr. R.K. Verma and Dr. K.S. Kapoor, (2009), Plant wealth in cold deserts : Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh.

This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds. It is used in the treatments of blisters, kidney stones and liver disorders. Description: It is erect, fleshy and perennial herb with stout creeping root stock. Leaves are obovate to oblong- obovate, base is cuneate and apex is rounded. Margins are crenate to dentate, ciliate, glabrous or puberulous. Scape usually 10-20 cm long, pink tinged. Flowers are white or liliac, in terminal loose corymbs.117

117

By : Dr. R.K. Verma and Dr. K.S. Kapoor, (2009), Plant wealth in cold deserts : Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh.

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.57 They also close when it's about to rain.119

Bergenia stracheyi Stellaria media

3.1.7 Stellaria media Stellaria media is edible and nutritious, and is used as a leaf vegetable, often raw in salads.118

It is used in the internal pain.

Description:

Description:

It is an annual, but is somewhat unusual in that it often germinates in the fall (though it also germinates year-round), and hangs on through the winter, flowering and setting seed in the early spring, and dying off by summer. It greatly prefers cool and damp conditions, and will not survive where it's dry and hot. It is just about always flowering, except in the dead of winter. It has tiny white flowers, about a quarter inch in diameter, in the leaf axils or in terminal clusters, with five deeply notched petals that look like ten, and five green sepals that are longer than the petals. The flowers close at night and open in the morning.

It is a tall, stout perennial herb, growing from 1 ft to 7 ft tall. Long stalked leaves are circular–heartshaped or kidney- shaped, 10-60 cm long, tip rounded or pointed. Flowers are borne in dense- flowered panicles, in leaf axils and at the end of branches. Flowers are small, 2 mm across, pale yellowish. Fruit oblong or orbicular, notched at both ends. It is very common in the Himalayas, from Pakistan to W. Nepal, at altitudes of 2400-4300 m. Flowering: June-July.120

3.1.8 Rheum webbianum:

119

118

Wikipedia, free encyclopedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellaria_media

www.Flowers of India.Com : http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Chick weed.html 120 www. flowers of india.com: http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Indian %20Rhubarb.html

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.58

Rheum webbianum

3.2Comparison based on IVI at different elevation range

All the three altitudes have different herbs having their highest importance. At first altitude, i.e. at 2700 m- 3200 m, Artemisia scoparia has the highest importance, at 3200 m-3700 m, Origanum vulgare is the most important herb while at 3700 m4200m, Bergenia stracheyi is the important herb.

3700m. Ephedra gerardiana and Malva rotundifolia did not occur at second and third elevation i.e. at 3200m – 3700m and 3700m-4200m. Ephedra gerardiana did not occur at 3200m3700m also. Other important herbs are Origanum vulgare, Verbascum Thapsus, Stellaria media and Rheum webbianum.

Bergenia stracheyi did not occur at 2700 m-3200m as well as at 3200m-

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.59 Replicating Biodiversity

I. Introduction The Himalayan region consists of wide range of altitude difference. Composition of plants varies with altitude. It mainly depends upon Temperature, Rainfall and soil conditions of those particular regions. According to TOR, plantation should be given integral priority in the project region. The concept behind replicating

Overview of subcatchments We have total 33 sub-catchments namely Sf, Sg, Sh, Si, Sj, Sk, Sm , Sn, Sp, Sq, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6 ,7 ,8, 9,10,11,

biodiversity is that, the existing plants from biodiversity survey having high importance values are suggested for plantation in other sub-catchments of similar atmospheric conditions. Therefore, the species suggested for the sub-catchment have specific intervals in altitudes.

II. Overview of Sub-catchments

12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18,19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24. Presently we have suggesting plantation for all sub-catchments except Sp, Sq, 1, 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.60

III. Parameters considered for replicating the biodiversity: A. Rainfall

Overview of rainfall pattern in subcatchments Rainfall conditions of Sf, Sg and Sm are similar i.e. they have rainfall in the range 1000 mm – 1500 mm. Subcatchments Sh, Sj, Sn and Sk have rainfall in the range 1500mm – 2000 mm. Si has rainfall above 2000 m. and

Sp, Sq,1,2,3,5,6 have rainfall range 750-1000mm. Subcatchments 7,8,9,10,11,13,14,15, 23 have 700 750 mm of rainfall and the extreme higher subcatchments 15,16,17,18,20, 21, 22 have rainfall less than 700mm.

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.61 B. Soil

Overview of soil types in the subcatchments Soil type of subcatchments namely Sf, Sg and Sk is mainly shallow or medium deep, somewhat excessively drained, thermic, loamy-skeletal soils on moderately steep slopes with loamy surface. There is severe erosion and strong stoniness, associated with Rock outcrops. Soil type of subcatchments namely Sh, Si, Sj, Sm, Sn is deep, well drained and thermic. There is also fine-loamy soils on moderate slopes with loamy surface Moderate erosion to severe erosion occurs.

Soil type of subcatchments Sp, Sq, 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9,10 is medium deep or shallow, excessively or well drained, thermic or mesic loamy-skeletal soils which occurs on moderate or very steep slopes with loamy surface. There is possibility of severe erosion due to moderate to slight stoniness. Soil type of subcatchments 11,12, 13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23 and 24 is medium deep to shallow and excessively drained. Loamy-skeletal calcareous soils occurs on very steep slopes with loamy surface. Severe erosion can occur due to moderate stoniness.

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.62 C. Soil and rainfall

Overview of soil and rainfall pattern in subcatchments Overviewing the rainfall and soil types together, it can be concluded that, subcatchments Sf, Sg, Sh, Si and Sj, Sk, Sm, Sn have almost similar atmospheric conditions suitable for plantation. Subcatchments Sp, Sq and 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 have similar atmospheric conditions but we have not presently included them for plantation. While subcatchments 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22, 23 and 24 have similar climatic conditions.

IV.

Plant species for suggestion

Plant species are selected depending upon available data of rainfall, soil conditions and importance of those

plants in the particular regions. Their suggested numbers at particular elevations is provided in annexures (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h).

A. Plantation suggested for subcatchments Sf, Sg, Sh, Si Rainfall in these subcatchment regions lies between 1000 – 2000 mm. Soil is shallow or medium deep, somewhat excessively drained, thermic, loamyskeletal. On the basis of soil and rainfall conditions, following species are the most suitable to Sf, Sg, Sh and Si subcatchments. Therefore they are recommended on priority. They are given below:

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.63 1. Trees Lannea coromandelica, Grewia optiva, Ficus religiosa, Terminallia bellirica, Pistasia chinensis, Acacia catechu, Ficus roxburghii, Bombax ceiba, Anogeissus latifolia.

2. Shrubs Adhatoda zeylanica, Murraya koenigii , Mallotus philippensis, Dodonaea

viscosa, Dendrocalamus strictus, Bauhinia vahlii, Woodfordia fruticosa, Berberis lyceum, Leptodermis lanceolata,Lantana cammara.

3. Herbs Rumex hastatus, Euphorbia hirta, Dodonaea viscosa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cynodon dactylon, Bidens pilosa, Triumfetta rhomboidea.

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) showing biodiversity and plantation in Sg subcatchment.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.64

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) showing biodiversity and plantation in Sh subcatchment.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.65

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) showing biodiversity and plantation in Si subcatchment.

B. Plantation suggested for subcatchments Sj, Sk, Sm, Sn The soil in these regions is deep, well drained and thermic. Rainfall is 1000 – 2000 mm. On the basis of soil and rainfall conditions, following species are the most suitable to Sj, Sk, Sm and Sn subcatchments. Therefore they are recommended on priority. They are given below :

1. Trees Toona ciliata , Dalbergia sissoo, Pistacia chinensis, Pinus roxburghii, Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Quercus leucotrichophora, Populus ciliate, Juglans regia, Picea smithiana, Cupressus tolurosa.

2. Shrubs Punica granatum, Berberis aristata, Indigofera cassioides, Prinsepia utilis, Woodfordia fruticosa, Cotoneaster microphyllus, Murraya koenigii, Dendrocalamus strictus, Rubus

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.66 ellipticus, Adhatoda zeylanica, Murraya koenigii

3. Herbs

Fragaria vesca, Viola biflora, Anaphalis contorta ,Parthenium hysterophorus, Euphorbia hirta, Oxalis corniculata, Boehmeria rugulosa.

Oxalis corniculata, Rumex nepalensis, Salvia moorcroftiana, Plantago major,

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) showing biodiversity and plantation in Sj subcatchment.

C. Plantation suggested for subcatchments 11-24 As this region comes under high elevation, its rainfall is very less i.e. less than 750mm. Loamy-skeletal calcareous soils occurs on very steep

slopes with loamy surface. Also the soil is excessively drained. Considering these climatic conditions, following plants are the most suitable in this region and therefore they are recommended.

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Volume I: Part I: Section 4: Chapter 5: 4.5.67 1.

Trees

Other references:

Salix alba, Juniperus polycarpos, Prunus armeniaca, Populus ciliata, Populus alba, Cedrus deodara, Alnus nitida, Robinia pseudoacacia

2.

Shrubs

Rosa webbiana, Sorbaria tomentosa,Saliix denticulata, Lonicera orientalis, Hippophae rhamnoides, Juniperus communis, Abelia triflora, Cotoneaster microphyllus

3.

Herbs

Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia brevifolia, Rheum webbianum, Malva rotundifolia, Thymus linearis, Verbascum Thapsus, Origanum vulgare

1. Upendernath Kanjilal; Forest Flora of the Chakrata , Dehradun,, Saharanpur Forest Divisions; (1969) Publicity & Liaison Br.FRI& Colleges ; DEHRADUN 2. Singh Jagdish, Sharma.KD, Kumar S (March, 2005) Agro Forestry species for different Agro climatic Zones of H.P.; The Package and Practice , HFRI (ICFRE) Shimla171009. 3. Annon. (2005) Principal Tree, Shrub and grass species of H P; with their uses and Plantation Methodology: [Hindi Version] Publicity Division Shimla, H P Forest Department. 4. Forest Working Plans of Rampur – Kotgarh and Outer Seraj Forest Divisions, H P Forest Department.

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

4.5_Floral Diversity  

4.5.1VolumeI:PartI:Section4:Chapter5: Respected forest divisions which come under these districts are given below: All these plants have dif...

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