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Chapter 2: Extracts of Working Plan

Configuration of Ground: The tract is hilly and undulating between elevations 850m the confluence of Machhada Khad in Satluj River to Hans-beshan 5240 m. The tree growth extends up-to 3700 m above which lies extensive inaccessible area with grasses, rocks and snow. The slopes vary from moderate to steep and very steep to precipitous. Rugged and sharp edges cliffs are very common in the upper catchment of Nogli Khad. The gentle slopes on lower elevation are generally under agriculture and horticulture crops and steep to precipitous slopes on higher altitudes are under forests. “Shraikoti and Bhimakali “Temple at Sarahan forms places of pilgrimage where thousands of people visit through out the year. Interior areas of Bushahr can be developed for adventure tracking routes. Satluj can be developed for water sports at Nogli. The ridge Manewati Dhar – Gangdari Dhar – Hansbeshan – Krunshikring bifurcates the boundary of Rampur Forest Division and Kinnaur Forest Division.

to November are cool and bright. This tract is endowed with four distinct seasons: Spring, summer, Rains and winter. The spring season lasts from February to April in the lower valleys along the river where as on the higher altitude it is in the month of April to June. The rains come during the summer in the last week of June and extend up to September. Snow fall starts from November and last till the end of March on higher altitude. Snow fall occurs above 1600 metres, but some times goes down to 900 Meters, the snow seldom lies for long period below 2200 Metre. Autumn is generally very cold; May and June are very hot at low elevation. Due to great variation in altitude, the temperature also varies considerably. Minimum temperature goes down below zero degree during winter and maximum temperature exceeds 40 degree in the lower areas during the summers. Localised cloud bursts causes havoc to the vegetative growth and soil which results into severe floods.

Climate:

Water Supply:

The climate is temperate but due to variation in altitude, the tropical climate is found in sub-mountainous areas at the base of the Satluj valley to alpine in the upper reaches. Semi-arctic conditions prevail in some portions. March to April and October

The whole tract is covered with spellings Khads. The main perennial khads are Machhada Khad , Nogli Khad (fed by Suki Gad, Darkali Khad, Taklech Khad, Deothi Khad, Munish Kasha Khad), Racholi Khad, Gaura Khad, Dhoi Khad, Broni Khad,

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Maglad Khad (fed by Ramagad, Ucchi Khad), Rai Gad, Dharali Khad, Kandlu Khad (Chaura), Chaunda Khad (Nigulseri), Solding Khad, Panchot Khad. The tributaries are fed by rains as well as snow at the upper parts and finally draining into Satluj River. In Nichar Range on the left bank of the Satluj at elevations between 1850m to 3600m the slopes are densely covered, gradient is not steep and the aspect is cool These factors combined with a moderate rainfall produce an equable flow of water down the streams and sufficient moisture in the forests, springs being frequent. The main streams which are fed by snow do not dry up but flow of water varies considerably during various seasons whereas in other streams in dry months the water is sometimes insufficient even for paddy crops, fruits and vegetables .When drought or fire occurs and cause considerable damage to the forests growth and aggravates shortage of water. The water supply of the tributaries is perennial. Numerous water supply schemes have been implemented by the Government for supply of drinking water to the villages. In addition for irrigation purpose Hydro electric projects exist and planned on Nogli and Manglad Khad. Sufficient water is available for forest nurseries in most of the areas. Rights and Concessions: Forest settlement was finalised by Glover in 1921 when the right and concessions of the local people in the forests were investigated admitted and recorded. The record of rights which is detailed and which has been drawn for each demarcated forest is given in the Forest Settlement Report. There is record improvement in the economy of area from the cash crops such as apple. But the burden on the forests of the area is increased day by day. The rights and concessions of different areas are:

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Right to Timber for house construction and repair, Fuel wood, Grazing, Lopping, Minor Forest produces, Slate quarries, Leaf moulds, Phat burning, “Nautors� etc. Encroachments: Encroachments are common almost in all the categories of forests. The UPFs especially are most affected with this menace. Boundary pillars have been displaced and encroached upon. Part of the forests has been converted into apple orchards and agricultural field. Even the Reserved forests have not been spared. The encroachments detected during the inspections have already been mentioned in the Compartment descriptions. It was difficult to know the exact area of the concerned field staff of the Forest department. Therefore, it should be forests ensured to check and detect the exact number and area of encroachment in each forest. The Inhabitants: People are hard-working and tough and main occupation is Agriculture as well as Horticulture and rearing of sheep and goat for their livelihood is declining. The holdings are small, marginal and large. The number of people with large holdings very few. The field are situated on hilly slopes in terraces and flat fields are rarely met with. Main agriculture crops are wheat, paddy, Barley, Maize, Millets including potatoes and peas in some areas, in most of the areas people have resorted to apple orchards. In the lower elevation the people have raised stone fruits orchards like Almonds and Plum (Sentaroza). Due to change of climate the land use pattern is being changed day by day. The population is generally scattered over villages and in small hamlets. People live in houses generally made of wood in two

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storeys; the ground floor is used to keep animals and cattle while the upper storey is used for the family members as dwelling place. The houses are not spacious enough for the members of the family. In the areas where stone of good quality is available used to make walls along with timber. In areas where slates are available with in economical distances used for roofs, other-wise timber planks are used as roof cover especially in the interior and far flung areas. In some areas CGI sheets used for roofing. With the easy availability of building material like bricks, cement, iron etc. the construction pattern has undergone a sea change. Modern RCC houses are a common sight in place of old dwellings. The people are religious and have a blind faith in the local deities. Rampur Bushahr is the main town on Satluj River situated on National Highway 22. The road approaches in the area National Highway 22, Nogli – Taklech – Dandol – Deothi – Kareri, Rampur – Shingla -Shaneri – Dansa, Rampur – Kinnoo , Jeori – Sarahan, Nigulseri – Taranda, Plingi – Nichar - Bari. The Old Hindustan Tibbet road which was approach to Kinnaur is a bridle path from Daran Ghati – Sarahan – Chaura – Taranda – Nichar still exists. At some places it is not usable and few places converted into motor able road. The path can be improved for use for adventure tracking. Most of the migratory graziers of Kinnaur and lower Bushahr area use this route for migrating their Sheep & Goats to lower areas. The road construction and other construction works like quarries, Erection of high tension (HT) towers have chocked most of the nalas and destroyed the good plantation areas carrying huge silt to Satluj River. One of the example of the same is Broni Khad at Jhakri. High tension current flow causing disturbance to the lives of the inhabitants of the area.

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The Flora and Fauna: Vegetation/Forests: DIstribution of various forest types is mainly between the altitude of 700m to 3600m in these areas. Beyond the altitude of 3600m, the area is mainly covered with bushes, scrubs and alpine pastures. The ground flora presents a panaroma of species with the receding of winter and onset of monsoon the summer blooming of vast variety of flower presents a picturesque view of the area. The Forest types and the vegetation found in the area are as under: -(Kotgarh/ Rampur working Plan) Sq, Sn Sp(15/20 Sarahan range) Sub Group 5B/C2 Northern mixed deciduous forests: This type of forest is found above Rampur about 40 kms upstream of the river Satluj and its tributaries, scattered in patches or in strips, below Chirpine (1200) on the banks of the streams as well as river Satluj. The forests are largely of the scrub type but the quality improves slightly in depressions and in shades and grooves formed by the river. On the southern aspect it goes up to 500 m. On the alluvial soil, Sissoo occurs in good patches. The important tree species are Lannea grandi, Cedrela toona, Bouhinia variegat, Albizzia lebbek, A. procera. The Under growth consists of Desmodium tiliafolium, Rhus cotinus, Mallotus phillipinensis Plectranthus rugosus, Colebrookia oppositifolia ,Woodfordia floribunda, Rubus ellipticus, Adhatoda vesica, Zizyphus nunnularia, Elcholtzia polystachia, Berberis species, Myrsine Africana, Climbers :Rosa moschata, Clematis montana, Hedera helix. The herbs are Cannabis sativa, Girardiana

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heterophylla Ssccharum spontaneun -Kash. Euphorbia royaleana occurs in cliffson the hotter aspect but limit distribution. Important species are Bombax cieba, Dalbergia sissoo, Sapindus mukorossii,Bombax cieba. Sub group 5/IS2 Khair-Sissu Forest:

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light admixture or occasionally form an understory in pure forests. Pinus wallichiana makes its appearance in the upper most reaches and is some times found extending in to Chil Brawni Forests C-55.A peculiar association where Spruce going down along Chil and Kail also seen.

This type of forest is restricted along the river Satluj. Forests are found on gravely and sandy loam soil. Accacia catechu is conspicuous by its absence through out the tract and the crop comprises of , open to very open Dalbergia sissoo,with fairly dense shrubby undergrowth of Adhatoda vesica, Zizyphus nunnularia, Elcholtzia polystachia , Arundodonax is very common .while Ssccharum spontaneun 窶適ash occurs only on the exposed sandy soils.

Under open stands of Chil Pistacia integerima is common as a low squat tree amongst a fairly dense growth of Woodfordia floribunda, Rhus cotinus, Desmodium tiliafolium, Rubus ellipticus and occasional plants of Lillium thomosonianium in heavy grass clumps. Higher up and under a more regular canopy bush growth is lesser in extentand here Desmodium species, Berberis species Myrsine Africana, Indigophera pulchella and Cotoneaster bacillarisis are found with Plectranthus rugosus and other species of composite family as the common herb such as Frageria vesica etc.

Sub-group 9/c 1 Himalayan Sub-tropical pine forest:

Group 12 Himalayan Moist temperate forests:

This type occurs between 1000m to 2000m elevation, overlapping the tropical dry mixed deciduous forests on lower and giving way to temperate forests above. ThE Principal species is Pinus roxburghii which occurs in pure and gregarious form constitutes stable sub climax due to biotic factors. The crop is generally irregular and mature trees are few and widely scattered.Where pure quartzite formation occurs, as noticeable near Pashada, Brawni and Badhal, the crop improves in quality and stocking. Admixture of other species occurs along the upper limits as well as along the lower streams and damp ravines. The associates are Quercus leuco-tricho-phera,, Rhododendron arboretum , Lyonia ovalifolia and associational trees of Cornus species and Albizzia. Procera. The associates may occur either in

The type extends wet zone track between the Chil pine forests below and the alpine formation higher up with altitudinal donation between 1500m to 3300mthese limits varying distinctly according to aspect, configuration of ground and the drainage. The chief characteristic of this type is the extensive development of the coniferous forests with little admixture of broad leaved.species.In these forests deciduous shrubby undergrowth is always present Evergreen shrubs such as Sarcococca saligna, Skimmia laureola are usually met with Strobilabthes species occur gregariously over considerable areas .Climbers of temperate zone Rosa moschata Clematis Montana and Hedera helix are frequent. Arundinaaria falcate forms extensive brakes.

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Sub group 12/C 1a Ban Oak forest:

Sub group 12 DSI/Ic Moist Deodar Forest:

Quercus leucoco trichofera is the common oak of the moiust zone between 1500m to 2100m , common companion of the blue pine , deodar , spruce , Pure Ban oak forests occurs in sheltered belt in Nogli valley and Machadda vallaey , Ahar , and in Narenti block. Chief associates are Rhododendron arboretum , Lyonia ovalifolia with some Machilus odoratissima, Litsea corymbrosa , Cedrella serrata ,Cornus species , Carpinus viminea , Acer pictum, Aesculus indica in damp ravines. There is good deal of shrubby undergrowth chiefly Berberis lyceum , Indigofera gerardiana Sarcococca saligna , Daphne papyracea Desmodium tiliafolium Myrsine africana , Prinsepia utilis, Spiraea canescens , Lonicera quinquelocularis, Viburmun species, Rubus species.

Cedrus deodara this type between 1800m to 2400m but may go a little lower down in depressions or nallas and cooler aspect and higher up on the hot aspect . Deodar is poorly represented in the heavy rainfall zone of the Manglad catchment and areas adjoining Sarahan where it generally clings to rocky ridges. Here a few small patches occur on well drained rocky grounds as in C59 Gopalpurand C-61 Dofda . The undergrowth consists of Viburnum foetens and Indigofera pulchella , Rosa species ,Jasminum species .

Sub group 12/C 1b Mohru oak forest. Q. himalayana: These type of forests are in small patches abve the Ban forests 2100m to 2500Mand more mesophytic type . There is great admixture such as Cedrella serrata ,Acer pictum ,Rhus semialata , Aesculus indica , Prunus corunata ,Pyrus pashia , Juglans regiaetc This formation merges with Kharshu oak in the upper reaches . The crop is irregular with a preponderance of over mature trees and deficient of regeneration this type met within Comptt. 63 (a to h ) namely Marau, Dhua-Rua , Jlabhai dhar ,Kabai dhar ,Deoridhar , Runpu , Bangi saran ,Dhara DPF in the Manglad catchment , all along the valleys of Suga, Ganvi, and Kut.

Sub group 12 DSI/Id Western mixed coniferous forests: This type as mixed conifers but also includes pure spruce and spruce and silver types and mixed Deodar, Kail and spruce forests above pure deodar forests at altitudes 2400m – 3000m or more. High level blue pine is found both in and above it and the fir- oak mixture above it. Commercially important mixture of coniferous trees often of very fine growth such as spruce , deodars , blue pine and silver fir with a varying amount of evergreen and deciduous B L undergrowth in strips or patches like Aesculus indica , Corylus colurna , Juglans regia, Prunus corunata etc.

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Sub group 12 DSI/Ie Moist temperate deciduous forests: The coldest aspects and all re-entrants and ravine bottoms of the spruce belt between 2100m to 3000m are entirely occupied by a rich mixture of broad leaved species to the exclusion of coniferous except scattered spruce and a very occasional deodar.The oaks are only occasional member of this types, which is commonly known in Bushahr as Thach (grazing land) owing to the richness of the shrubby growth and the quantity of lopping, which the mixed broad leaved species provide. The common trees are Acer pictum, A. Caesium, Pyrus pashia, Lyonia ovalifolia, Rhododendron arboretum, Rhus cotinus, R,punjabensis, Celtis australis, Corylus colurna, Aesculus indica, Alder, Walnut, Birdcherry, Populus ciliate and less commonly the Box wood, Ash and Yew. The shrubby growth is a mixture of Skimmia laureola, Cotoneaster, bacillaris : Deutizia corym bosa, Viburnum foetens, Lonicera quinquelocularis, Litsea species etc. Herb growth is poorly eeveloped except in a few rather specialized types of canopy e.g. a dense growth of Chaerophyllus reflexum under a pure stand of Pyrus pashas, Galium species. Rubia Speccies, Salvia Species, Voila species, Adiantum fern under a pure stand of Horsechestnut and under the very dense growth of the Corylus and Pyrus stands a herb growth of Viola species and Ainliana species instead of shrubs.

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Sub Group 12 wallichiana):

DSI/If

Low

level

blue

pine

forest

(Pinus

The blue pine is second only to deodar in its importance as a commercial timber, and it accompanies the deodar throughout the whole field of the letter’s distribution. The blue pine has two altitudinal zones which are well defined although the specie is quite common on intermediate grounds between these two habitats. The low level from, depending on a moderately good monsoon rainfall and northern aspect is well developed in Shimla hills and lower Bushahr. The high level type is dependent on a heavy and long lying winter snowfall and is confined to upper forest limits in the inner hills. This species is a wonderful colonizer and has established itself over large areas during the last 100 years. Of all the large trees species of the moist zone, the blue pine is undoubtedly nearest to deodar in its ecological requirements and in its love for a warm well drained soil. Hence, deodar is following blue pine and establishing itself in ever increasing number in this belt assisted, of course, by judicious thinning and cleanings under the working plan prescriptions. Sub Group 12/DS 1 Oak scrub: This serial type occurs near habitations between 1500m to 2200m elevation and covers mostly UPFs where heavy lopping and browsing as well as unregulated fellings for fuel and agricultural implements have reduced oaks to low, stunted,

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unsound and bushy trees often of coppice origin. Mostly ban and mohru areas are in this state but some kharsu areas along Narenti, Narkanda and Baghi ridge have also been reduced tol scrub state due to heavy lopping by villagers and gujjars. Rhododendron arborium and Lyonia ovalifolia are common associates, while undergrowth consists of thorny and unplantable bushes of Berberis lyceum, Prinsepia utilis,Rosa macrophylla R. moschata, Rubus niveus, Spiraea lindleyana, Sacrococca, saligna Wikstroemia canescens, Salvia glutinosa etc., regeneration of oaks is almost absent due to heavy pressure of grazing, browsing, lopping and unrestricted fellings for fuel etc. These areas are getting gradually denuded. Sub Group 12/C 2 Upper west Himalayan temperate forests: (i) 12/C 2a Kharsu oak forests (Quercus semecarpifolia): This type generally occure between 2400m to 3400m elevation and is met with along Narenti Narkanda dhar, Hatu ridge and form fairly extensive belts from Baghi to Moral Kanda and along Daranghatti Hansbeshan Ridge, Swalar etc. These Kharsu Oak forests are slowly gaining importance on account of their demand for various commercial use. Kharsu seeds well and generates easily as compared to other oaks. It finds good expression on the Southern aspects at the top of the Ridges in a belt of pure forests. In their upper reaches, the dense oak forests end abruptly at the edge of alpine pasture. On other exposures in Sarahan range, this oak descends down the nallas and depressions and occurs as scattered trees or in large pure groups amongst the open silver fir stands, other trees of second storey being Betula utilis, B. alnoides and Texus baccata. This mixture advance towards the higher regions into the alpine pastures rather

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than the pure Kharsu does. The herbaceous cover is usually coarse and consists of the following species:- Anaphalis species, Frageria vesca, Primula denticulate, Caultheria trichophylla, Saxifraga lingulata etc. The common climbers are Schizandra grandiflora and Vitis semicordata. (ii) 12/C West Himalayan upper oak/fir forests: This type occurs between 2500m to 3300m elevation especially on the Northern aspects and sheltered sites. Te forests are covered with snow for several months in the winters. Abies pindrow and A. spectabilis the low and the high level silver fir together form a high level forest belt throughout the wet zone with much the same distribution as the spruce.Kharsu oak, forms a belt of pure forest ob the southern aspects in the main and side Valleys of Sutlej in the wet zone between 2500m to 3400m to the complete exclusion of the silver fir, the dense oak forest stopping abruptly at the edge of the alpine grass lands. On the exposures in pandrabis of Sarahan range this oak occurs as a scattered trees or in large pure groups amongst the open silver fir stands, other trees of second storey being species of Betula alnoides, B.utilis, Euonymus tingens, Texus baccata. The mixture goes up the hill much higher into the alpine pasture than the pure Kharsu does. I this type, silver fir, regenerates itself freely whenever the Oak and other broad leaved trees from a light under storey in the fir forests. Excellent examples of this may be observed in fir forests along the upper ridges in the Ganwi, Suga, Kut and Manglad Valleys of this area.

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Sub-group 12/C 1/DS 2 Himalayan temperate Secondary scrub, Thach Parkland: This serial type occurs mostly between 2400m to 3600m elevation for more in the Mohru, Kharsu and Fir forests and is the result of heavy grazing, lopping and fires which have thinned out the forest to a varying degree, destroyed all under growth except for patches of inedible species and reduced the shrubby ground cover to a grassy turf. The thach consists of an open park like land with scattered usually mature mis-shaped and after moribund trees standing over a grassy tur full of flowers in springs, The common tree at such places are of Birdcherry, Acer and Kharsu. These thaches are heavily grazed year after year by enormous flock of sheep and goats. Due to thick humus deposits and luxuriant weed growth, the regeneration of fir and other broadleaved is not coming up at all and the ground is being replaced by grassy turf. Examples of this may be seen in all over the wet zone less rarely in dry and arid tracts e.g. in Gaura, Manglad forests of Sarahan range, Narenti, Khudlu, Jammunda, DPFs of Kumarsain range and forest numbers 18-C4 (Punan), 20-C 1 to C 4 (Kungal Munder), 21, (Bahali), 22 (Bai) and 23 (Andela ) of Nogli range are typical examples of this type. Group 14 Sub-alpine Forests: Sub-group 14/C 1 West Himalayan sub-alpine birch/fir forests (Betula/Abies):This type occurs above 3000m elevation and extends upto 3400m. It comprises of mostly Undemarcated protected forests and upper fringes of forests No. 30 (C-8) Sharan Jarashi, 35 Kuki Darkali and 36 Dibridansa of Nogli range and Hatu DPFs. The principal species in this type are kharsu oak mixed with scatterrred fir and Maple and occasional Betula utilis along upper

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limits. Amongst under growth, Viburnum foetens, Rosa serecia, Cotonbeaster acuminate are commonly found. Medicinal herbs like Aconitum heterophyllum (Patis) Gentiana kuroo (Karu) etc. occur in this type. Large flocks of local sheep and goats graze in these areas during summer months. Group 15 Moist alpine scrub: This type occurs from 3300m to the limit of tree growth at 3900m. It consists of evergreen scrubby growth, usually upto 1m high forming a dense cover over big patches broken by grass. Outlying patches of alpine forests, the colonies of the large Rhododndron campanulatum some times, occur in this zone. The shrub species are Salix elegans, Lonicera parviflora,

Polygonum vaccinifolium. Herbs are Aconitum heterophyllum (Dhoop) and Gentiana Karoo (Karu). 15/C 1 Birch/Rhododendron Scrub forests: This forms the upper limit of alpine forest and occurs as patches of varied size in this sheltered sites and usually on northern and western aspects. The Rhododendrons with its various species occur as a dense mat in which Betula utilis, Salix elegans, etc. occur in varying proportions. The whole mass of vegetation is well adapted to stand heavy snow. The common shrubs are Salix elegans, Cotoneaster microphylla, Lonicera parviflora & herbs are Patontilla species, Primula denticulate, Aconitum heterophyllum etc.

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Fauna: The main Wild Life species found in the area are:Animals: Panther or Leopard, Leopard Cat, Snow Leopard, Himalayan black bear, Brown bear, Himalayan fox, Wolf, Common mongoose, Yellow throated marten, Himalayan weasel, Himalayan thar jemlahicus, Blue sheep, Himalayan Ibex, Ghoral, Seraw, Barking dear, Musk deer, Porcupine, Common house rat, Squirrel, House mouse, Monkey, Common Langoor, Gray Musk Shrew, Horse shoe bat.

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pharmaceutical industry in the country to put in the maximum output meeting the public demands, it is most essential that utmost attention is given to the production of raw materials for the industry at home. The information that follows is thus primarily concerned with the collection, exploitation and export etc, problem of the medicinal wealth of the area. Commonly used or economically extracted medicinal herbs and plants occurring naturally are Patis, Kashmal, Kala zira, Seski, Shingli Mingli, Karoo, Bankakri, Somlata, Dhop, Mushkbala, Kuth, Charita, Banafsha, Mitha Khanor, Khanor, Brahmi, Diar, etc.

Birds: Cheer Pheasant, Jungle Fowl, White crested Koklas Monal Pheasant, Tragopan, Common quail, Mountain quail, Bush quail, Chakor Partridge, Black partridge, Wood partridge, Sno cock, Bustard quail, Black breasted quail. Non Timber forest Produce: The area is very rich in medicinal plants so far not much scientific efforts have been made to preserved and propagate the minor forest produce. This is especially important when we are importing drugs from abroad worth crores of rupees every year. Not only this but even to enable the expanding

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Vol 12 - Working plan extract  

Vol 12 - Working plan extract

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