Page 1

Volume: XI Chapter 2: Page No:


Chapter 2: Extracts of Working Plan Configuration of Ground:


The tract is hilly and undulating and lies between elevation 855 m the confluence of Kurpan Khad in Satluj River to Ghushu Pishu 5690m. The tree growth extends upto 3700 m above which lies extensive inaccessible area with grasses, rocks and snow. The gentle slopes on lower elevation are generally under agriculture and horticulture crops and steep to precipitous slopes on higher altitudes are under forest. Shrikhand Mahadev forms a place of pilgrimage where thousands of people visit during July-August. The area is traversed by ridges. Few places in 15/20 can be developed for adventure tracking routes. Shrikhand an off-shoot of great Himalayan Range drops down to Khad named Sukha Chho/Mohali Khad finally named Sumej Khad separates from 15/20 areas of Shimla District which ultimately joins at Satluj in east.

tropical climate is found in sub mountainous areas at the base of of the Satluj valley to the alpine in the upper reaches. Semi arctic conditions prevail in some portions.

March to April and

October to November are cool and bright. The tract is endowed with four distinct seasons: spring, summer, Rains and winter. The spring season lasts from February to April in the lower valleys along the river satluj whereas on the higher altitudes it is in the month of April to June.

The Rains come during the

summer in the last week of June and extends upto September. Snow fall starts from November and lasts till the end of March on higher altitudes. Water Supply:

This Khad bifurcates the

Khandhar from the boundary of Arsu Range of Kullu District. The boundary of Sarahan Range of Rampur Forest Division and Rupi Range of Sarahan Wild Life Forest Division bifurcates at the ridge from Ghushu Pishu – Ghata Kanda – Jhandyoday – down at Shrikhand Dhar to Satluj.

The climate is temperate but due to variation in altitude, the

The whole tract is covered with spellings Khads.

The main

perennial khads are Kurpan Khad, Kasholi Khad, Kuni Gad, Kaju Khad,

Sukacho (Sumej Khad), Ganvi Khad, Kut Khad, Sorang

Khad, Slaring Khad and Kandru Khad which are fed by various small snowfed tributaries at the upper parts and finally draining

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume: XI Chapter 2: Page No:

into Satluj River. Good springs exist throughout the track and supply of drinking water is generally satisfactory.

varies considerably during various seasons whereas in other streams in dry months the water is sometimes insufficient even When drought or fire occurs and cause

considerable damage to the forests growth and aggravates shortage of water.

The main tributaries of the track originate

from the hill ranges which are covered with snow during major part of the year.

Numerous water supply schemes have been

implemented the Government for supply of drinking water to the villages. In addition for irrigation purpose water was lifted from River Satluj by lift irrigation schemes at Averi.

With the ever increasing demand of land due to increase in population, encroachments have been taking place in the past. One of the main reason of such encroachments is that the IIIrd class forest areas are not measured and secondly normally the revenue department has been granting ‘NAUTORS’ in the IIIrd class forests without the knowledge of the Forest Department. The result is that the person whose ‘NAUTORS MISLE’ has been prepared takes possession unauthorisedly even before the grant of such ‘NAUTORS’ thus increasing the encroachments. The Inhabitants:

But due to

excessive silt load in Satluj the schemes were not successful and washed away by flood.


The main

streams which are fed by snow do not dry up but flow of water

for paddy crops.


Sufficient water is also available for

forest nurseries in most of the areas. There is scarcity of water

People are hard working and tough and main occupation is Agriculture as well as Horticulture and rearing of sheep and goat for their livelihood. The holdings are marginal and small and large.

in Shuttle Dhar and Avary.

The number of people with large holdings is very few.

The field are situated on hilly slopes in terraces and flat fields Rights and Concessions:

are rarely met with. Main agriculture crops are wheat, paddy,

All the forests are burdened with rights and concessions recorded at the time of forest settlement.

These rights are

recorded in the records of rights register. The important rights are ; Right to Timber for house construction and repair, Fuel wood, Grazing , Lopping , Minor Forest produce, Slate quarries, Leaf moulds, Phat burning, “Nautors,”

Barley, Maize, Millets including potatoes and peas in some areas. In some areas people have resorted to apple orchards. In the lower elevation the people have raised stone fruits orchards like Almonds and Plum (Sentaroza). The population is generally scattered over villages and in small hamlets. People live in houses generally made of wood in two storeys, the

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

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ground floor is used to keep animals and cattle while the upper

in Himalayas and consequently great variation in altitude from

storey is used for the family members as dwelling place.


855 Mtr to 5690Mtr combined with topographical condition

houses are not spacious enough for the members of the family.

including in aspect the track embraces climatic zone of sub

In the areas where stone of good quality is available used to

tropical, temperate and Alpine.

make walls alongwith timber.

In areas where slates are

forests from sub tropical to Alpine occur at various places. The

available with in economical distances used for roofs, other-wise

aspect, slope ecology and the edaphic factors influence the type

timber planks are used as roof cover especially in the interior

of vegetation giving rise to the local variations, in the general

and far flung areas. The people are religious and have a blind

altitudinal zonation.

faith in the local deities. With the easy availability of building

forests types are found but aspect slope moisture and soil play

material like bricks, cement, iron etc. the construction pattern

and great role in local variations.

has undergone a sea change.

higher zone, Chil, Kail, Deodar, Spruce and silver Fir are conifers

Modern RCC houses are a

common sight in place of old dwellings.

Opposite the Rampur

Therefore, various types of

Generally on all altitudinal zones various

found in the forests of Catchment.

From the lower zone to the

The various broad leaved

town on Satluj River Brow and Jagatkhana are developing where

species like Walnut, Aesculus, Anus, Acer, Bird cherry etc are

many RCC building have come up and many buildings are

found along the Khads and nallas in the valleys. Pure forests of

coming up. The road approaches in the area are Bajir bawri –

Kharsu Oaks are located in the higher reaches while Mohru Oak

Nirmand, Bazir Bawri – Tunan – Sumej – Sarpara – Sarga –

in the middle and Ban, Oak in the lower zones. Alongwith Silver

Kharga – from National Highway 22 Jeori – Ganvi –Kiao - Kaobil,

Fir and Kharsu Oak few scattered Betula is found. In the lower-

Chaura – Rupi – Chotakamba- Barakamba.

most zone particularly along the river Satluj, Shisham trees are

Maximum of the

area is approachable by Ropeways/Footbridges.

The dumping

found scattered.

material of these roads construction has chocked the nalas as well as created huge silt load in the tributaries.

5BI C-II Northern dry deciduous forest: This type is found to a limited extent along Satluj near Behna and Luhri.

Flora and Fauna:


Cedrella toona, Dalbergia Sissoo, Pistacia Intergerrima and

The Vegetation/Forests:

Bombex ceiba are met with. Under growth is that of Adhatoda

The area of Sub-catchment (Sp) falls in Sub-Tropical Zone with

vasica, Mayyaya koenigii Carissa opaca.

respect to its location from the equator. Because of its location Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume: XI Chapter 2: Page No:


9C-I(b) Upper or Himalayan Chil Pine forests: This type occurs

continus, Buddleia

between 1000m to 2000m elevation in 2/6 Gadamawa, 2/3

pashia, Desmodium tiliaefolium, Colebrochia oppositifolia, Rubus

Siarunal, 15/20-III, Bindraban, Narayangarh-III, 1/8 Lohr, 1/17

ellipticus vibrunum Zyanthozylen alantum are common.

Gohan, 1/36 paleini Chalaon of Arsu, Nither and Chowai Ranges.

up and under a more regular canopy hush growth is less

It gradually merges into dry scrub forests in Chowai and Niether

rampant and some Desmodium species, Berbaries species,

Ranges and gives way to the temperate broad leaved and

Indigofera are found with Plectranthus rugosus, Elsholtzia

conifer forest above. The predominant species among the

polystachya and other composite as the common herbs. On the

coniferous is Pinus roxburghii. It forms open, poor quality crops

southern aspect the shrubby undergrowth is very light due to

on the hot southern aspect on rocky and shallow soils. But on

regular burning and grazing.

paniculata, Mallotus phillipinensis, Pyrus


the northern aspect there are few good patches of poles and middle ages crops in all kind of forests viz 1st class, 2nd class and

DS-I Himalayan Sub tropical scrub: The extensive growing areas

3rd Class. The crop is generally irregular and mature trees are

used as grazing grounds and hay fields be the villagers forms

few and scattered except in recently raised established Chil

this forest type. They are spread over in between Chil forest in

plantations where the crop is even aged. Admixture of other

the Chil zonation.

species occurs along the upper limits as well as lowers down in


the streams and damp nallas. The common associates are

Malformed scattered Chil trees are found with scrub species like

Querus incana, Rhododendron arborium, Pieris, ovalifolia, Pyrus



pashia, Bauhinia variegate, Albizzea species etc. The associates



may occur either in light admixture or occasionally may from an

Indigofera pulchella and Adiantum species. This type occupies

under storey in the pine forests.

the south western aspect in the Outer Seraj. This type is due to

Kail (Pinus wallichiana) and


There is frequent burning and large scale















sprinkled Deodar makes its appearance in the upper reaches

heavy biotic interference of grazing and burning.

These areas

and is sometimes extending into Chil areas in the cooler aspect

can be regenerated naturally or artificially by restricting the

as is noticed in the 15/20-III forests of Arsu Range.

biotic interference. DS-II Sub tropical Euphorbia scrub: Euphorbia roylana and

The flora constituting the under growth varies in types and

Opuntia constitute this type of forest which spread along river

density according to the Chil, Woodfordia, floribunda, Rhus Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume: XI Chapter 2: Page No:


Satluj particularly near Luhri, Behna, Khegsu, with Zizyphus

12C 1(b) Mohru Oak forest: This type is generally found in

jujuba and other broad leaved species like Bauhinea and Ficus

patches in Deodar Zone from 2000 to 2500m and pure forest of

species etc.

Quercus dilatata do not exist in this area.

Different grass species are also found. This type is

associated with lime stone formation.

There is greater

admixture of secondary species mainly of decidous trees in the

12-1 (a) Lower West Himalayan temperate forest Ban Oak

top storey and a well marked ever green second storey of

forest: This type of forest is spread over in depression and is


found in small proportion mixed with Chil, Kail and Deodar

Rubus,Spiraea and Vibrnum with some ever green such as

forests. It occupies the lower elevation in the northern slopes

Skimmia and Sarcococea.

and along nalla. In comparison with other moist temperate type,

Ban Oak which displaces it on dry ridges.

it occupies drier as well as warmer sites and may be viewed as

Mohru Oak is generally used as the most popular leave fodder

their least mesophytic form. Geological formation has very little

and hence is heavily lopped.

influence on the distribution of the Oak forest which builds good

can be seen near Tharvi village of Arsu range and 2/28 Jalori

soil rich in humus. The ground is naturally well drained and the

forest Chowai Range.

oak occupies really wet soil. This types can be seen in 15/20-III

The upper canopy consists of Quercus dialatata,

or Arsu Range and 2/21 patal forest in Niether, Naraingarh III in

Abies pindrow, Aesculus indica .The middle canopy consists of

Chowai Range.

Top and middle storey consist of Quercus

IIex dipyrena, , Rhamnus, Rhododendron Cedrella toona etc.

incana, Rhododendron arboretum, Lyonia, Machilus edoratisima,

The under growth consists of Rosa macrophylla, Berberis,

Litsea umberosa, Pieris, ovalifolia, Illex dipvrena, Rhus cotinus

Prinscpia, Indigofera, Deutzia, Daphne Saraca etc.

and Pyrus pashia etc. The undergrowth consists of Berbaries

climbers are Hedera helix, Clematis etc.







This type is more mesophytic than

This is found in Deodar zone and

Q .incana,


lyceum, Daphne, Desmodium, Rubus elipticus, Indegofera, Viburnum Lonicera, Strobilanthes etc. The ground consists of

12 C-IC-Moist Deodar (Cedrus deodara forest): This forest type

Pteridium, Plectranthus, Salvia glntionsa, and other grasses. The

is occur in all the Ranges of Outer Seraj between 1500m to


2000m on northern aspects it descends down and ascends to


semicordata etc.







even 3000m on sunny ridges. The snow fall is a must for the existence of these forests. The Deodar prefers comparatively

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume: XI Chapter 2: Page No:


heavy soil formed by the disintegration of granite rocks and

Spruce, Deodar- Spruce. These forests are the most attractive

quarries well drained soil.

The good quality Deodar stumps are

in the Himalayas with varying mixture of coniferous trees often

found on such soils all over the tract and can be seen at 1/5

of very fine growth, Spruce, Silver Fir, Blue pine and Deodar and

Kandu Shilla and R/3 Juguta of Arsoo Range R/4 Margi Kalon,

a varying inter mixture of evergreen and deciduous Broad

1/15 Lot Kayon, 1/16 Shilla Niether Range R/5 Ghanar, R/6

leaved trees and strips and patches of broad leaved forest.

Jharanu, R/7 Takrasi and R/8 Kaikalon Chowai Range.

These forests lie at an elevation of 2300m to 3200m.


predominates in the lower elevation and is associated with Deodar generally occurs pure but some times mixed with Kail at

Deodar on spurs. Kail is confined to southern slopes, ridges and

the lower extremes and spruce on the higher reaches. The pure

shallow soil. In the higher reaches generally silver Fir comes in

beautiful forest of Deodar can be seen in 1/3 Ramgarh Kandi C-I

the pure crop and spruce occupying on the ridges and warmer

in Arsu range 1/14 Maharah Kod Niether range 1/13 Trijhakhar


C-II, 1/27 Bung Bindraban C-II of Chowai Range.

regia, Corylus colurna are found in depression and nallas.

The top

Broad leaved trees such as Aesculus inica, Juglans In

storey consists on Cedrus deodar and Pinus wallichiana while the

many areas young crop is generally absent and the regeneration

middle storey consists of Quercus incana or generally absent.

is a problem. These forests are generally found away from the

The under storey is generally absent. The under storey consists

habitation. A thick layer of un decomposed humus is found in

of Rosa moschata, Berberis, Launicere, Dentizia, Dedmidium,

the forest where there is no grazing and inhibits the natural

Viburnum, Carpinus, Cedrela serata, Juglans regia, Aescrlus


indica etc. are found in moist location such as nallas and

formation and soil all over the tract.


occurs in these forests.

The ground flora consists of Fregeria, vasica, Gallium Viola.,

during the monsoon and a variety of ferns dies and completely

Salvia glubinosa.

flatten by the winter snow. Snow stays from December to April.

The main climbers are Vitis semcordata,

Hedra helix, Jasmium officinalies and \Rosa moschata etc.

Silver Fir and spruce occur on all types of rock The Arundinaria falcate

Rich herbaceous vegetation grows

There is also a good deal of moss and lichen on the trees and the climbers are not so common. The beautiful forest of these

12 CI (d) Western mixed coniferous forest: This type is

types can be seen in R/1 Shilligirchi, R/2 P:araligirchi, 2/10 Mul,

commonly known as mixed coniferous forest but it also includes

2/11 Kaleo, 2/16 Barnagi, R/3 Jugut etc. of Arsoo Range 2/20

pure Spruce and Silver Fir and mixed forest of Silver FirComprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume: XI Chapter 2: Page No:

Daman 1/9 Bujuri, 1/8 Lohr, 1/10 Bashad Niether Range.

The middle storey consists of Corylus colurna, Cornus capotata, Rhus

The upper canopy consists of Abies pindrow, Picea smithiana, Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana.







Euonymus species.

The middle canopy

consists of mostly Quercus semicarpifolia and other broad

12C-2(a) Upper West Himalayan temperate forest Kharshu Oak

leaved species like Acer, Aesculus, Corylus colurna, Juglans

forest: This type of forests is found in all over the Outer Seraj

regia etc.

The under growth consists of Viburnum Contoneaster

varying from elevation of 2700m to 3500m generally the

bacillaries, Ilex deprena, Lonicera species, Deutiza,corymbosa,

Quercus semicarpifolia occupies the ridges on the higher

Berberis species, Prinsepia, Arundianaria, Sacococa species,

reaches and sometimes constitute pure strips on the top portion


of the compartment.




Valeriana, Frageria, Anemone, Ferns and grasses from the under

On the northern aspects and moist location, kharsu Oak often

ground flora.,The common climbers found are Hedera helix,

comes down and is found in mixture with Silver Fir - Spruce and

Vitis, and Jasminum etc.

forms the under storey.

In the upper reaches elsewhere it is

found mixed with Rhododendron and Betula species.

All age

12 CI(e) Moist temperate deciduous forests: This type occurs

classes are reproduced and natural regeneration is adequate.

almost in the whole Outer Seraj with fir Zone from 1800 –

The tree is lopped for fodder by graziers mostly and often by the

2750m in moist hollows and depressions often as strips along


the hill streams and also on many of the gentler slopes unsuited

Picea smithiana, Abies pindrow, Acer Spps and Betula alnoides,

for coniferous.

Such broad leaved patches are found in 2/17

Middle canopy consist of Rhododendron compenulatum, Ilex

Dadai, 2/18 Rachokri, 2/19 Mandrow of Arsu Range and 2/20

depyrana, Prunus padus, Betula species, Acer species Taxus

Daman Nither Range.

bacatta etc.

The top canopy consists of Quercus semicarpifolia,

The under growth consists of Cotoneaster, Viburnum Rosa, The upper canopy consists of Aesculus, Acer Carpinus, Ulmus,

Strobilanthes, Salix elegans, Jasminum wellichiana, Frageria,

wallichaiana, Betula alnoldes, Juglans regia, Fraxinus, Quercus

Vesica, Rumex, Viola, Anemone, Polygonum etc.

semicarpifolia, Abies pindrow Prunus padus etc.

are Vitis, Climaties etc. This type occurs in the forest such as

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

The climbers

Volume: XI Chapter 2: Page No:


2/8 Sanpatu, 2/4 Dobda, 2/9 Galol, 2/11 Koleo in Arsoo Range

and form thickest excluding all other shrubs.

and 2/28 Jalori in Chowai Range.

bamboos are used for basket making by the local inhabitants.

12C(b) West Himalayan Upper Oak Fir Forests:


Their presence inhibits natural regeneration of main species.

storeyed high forest occurs above 2800 m elevation all over the

This type is found in 2/16 Barnagi, R/1 Shilligirchi, R/2

tract. Silver Fir Occurs singly or in bands and groups over Oak

Paraligirchi of Arsoo Range and 2/21 Patal in Nither Range.

and other evergreen deciduous trees.


These hill

The Oaks carry a

conspicuous mantle of mosses.

12 DS 2 Himalayan temperate park land: This type of forest is

Top canopy consists of Abies pindrow, Picea-smithiana and

mainly confined to the Fir Zone. These are like open park land

middle canopy consists of Acer species Taxus baccata, Quercus

with scattered large, misshapen and often moribund trees of the

semecarpifolia, Pyrus-lanata, Betula alopides, Quercus dialatata,

species typical of the temperate deciduous forests of without

Rhododendron companulata etc. under growth consists of Rosa

coniferous trees also over a grassy tuft full of flowers in springs.


Generally some Silver fir, Birdcherry, Mapple and Kharshu,


Viburnum Berberris







Spirea serpens,






Cotoneaster acuminata, Lonicera angustifolia Salix elegans,

cotinifolium and Berberris species are found.

Asparagus, Sarcococa etc.

Ground flora consists of Fragerea


Ainsliaea sptera Valeriana

wallichi, Podophyllum Polygonum

Delphinium, Polygonum and Ranunculus species.





kuroo, Salvia, viola etc. climbers are Vitis semicordata, Hedeera






The ground is



The grass

lands are heavily grazed. This type is found in 2/19 Mandrow, 2/11 Kaleo in Arsu Range.

helix and Clematies etc.This type is found in R/3 Jugut, 2/19 Mandrow, 2/14 Danda, 2/15 Dwari danda of Arsu Range.

12 DS 3 Himalayan temperate pastures: This type occurs in Kharsu Oak zone and is characterized by the absence of tree

12 DS 1 Montane Bamboo Erakes (Arundinaria falcate and


Aspathiflora): These two bamboos occur as undergrowth in the

These are found all over the tract in Deodar, Fir Zone.

mixed coniferous forests.

Arundineria falcate confines to the

ground flora is the same as under 12 DS 2 above. The area is

lower zone and Arundineria spathiflora occurs in spruce and

grazed by the grazier migratory as well as local in summer after

Silver fir zone.

These are grassy blanks devoid of any tree growth.

They generally occupy moist northern slopes Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin


Volume: XI Chapter 2: Page No:

melting of snow.

The type occurs in the forests shown under

12 DS 2 above.


dense undergrowth of Rhododendron with a varying amount of small shrubs in and under the letter. The over wood is absent in hollows leaving more or less pure Rhododendron, Spruce and

12 ISI – Himalayan moist temperate forests Alder (Alnus)

occasional Quercus semicarpifolia may be found in this type in

forests: This type is found mainly along the banks of river

the moist zone.

Top canopy consists of Abies pindrow, Picea

streams and nallahs allover the tract with or without under-



growth depending upon the site. In the lower course of streams


where fringe of Alder is the only remaining tree growth there is


often an undergrowth of thorny shrubs, while on the better

Deutizia, Berberris species and Juniperous, wallichiana.

wooded tract progression starts early and other

ground flora consists of Anemone, Geranum, Trillium and viola

species like

blue pine and other coniferous are usually present.

This type

occurs from 1000m to 3000m species grows on fresh alluvial soil













padus, Smilax,



Viburnum, The

This type is found in the forest 2/14 Dands, 2/15

Dwaridanda and R/2 Praligirchi of Arsu Range.

and landslides. This type is found along the Kurpan Khad, Anni Khad, Shasmsher Gad of the tract.

14 CI (b) West Himalayan Sub-Alpine, birch Fir Forests: As per

The top storey consists of Alnus neplanses, Poplus ciliate, Celtis

description of 14C-1(b) top canopy consists of Abies pindrow

australis, Toona ciliate, Morus, serrata, Ficus species etc. and


the middle storey consists of Crategus, spiraea and the



undergrowth consists of Catoneaster acuminate, Rosa Sercea,






nepalensis, Polygounum polygonatum etc. Vitis is the main








Quercus The

Lonicera Rubus niveus and Smilex.

climber species. 14 DSI – Sub Alpine pasture: This type is found near the tree 14 C-1(a) West Himalayan Sub-alpine high level fir forest: This

limit which extends to the alpine zone.

type is found above 3000m elevation over the whole tract. Fir,

out-line patches of sub alpine forests and shrub. Chiefly in the

birch and Rhododendron may be found mixed in varying

form of colony of betula and Rhododendron. Extensive patches


of dwarf, Rhododendron and dwarf Juniperous are also met with.

Pure dense crop of Fir may occur but the most

usual form is an open crop of Fir with birch between and a Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

This type consists of

Volume: XI Chapter 2: Page No:


The climate is too cold for the growth of tree and precipitation is

low deciduous scrub formation usually about 1 meter in height

usually in the form of snow which last more than six months.

forming the cover.

Thus limiting the growing season.

Top and middle storey

consists of Betula utilis and Rhododendron.

The undergrowth

15 – EI Dwart Rhododendron Scrub: The crop in such type

consists of Salix species, Lonicera species, Berberris species and

consists of stunted growth of Rhododendron species and occurs

Rosa species. The ground flora consists of Aconitum. This type

on elevation from 3200m to 3800m.

occurs in the forest of 2/14 Danda, 2/15 Dwaridanda of Arsu

species are conspicuously absent. The ground flora is same as


under type 15-CI.

Other Broad leaved

Such forests are found in 2/34 chul in

Chowai and 2/18 of Arsu Range. 15 C-1 Birch-Rhododandron Scrub forests: This type is found all over the tract of Outer Seraj in the Alpine Zone.

This type

15C – 3 Alpine Pasture: This type stretches above the tree

forms a low evergreen forest entirely of Rhododendron but with

growth limit to the line of perpetual snow. In

some Birch and other deciduous trees on northern and moist

Range of medicinal herbs of valuable commercial value like


Mecopopris, Oitebtila, Caltha, Aconite, Gentians Karoo etc are

The growth is so dense as to be difficult to penetrate particularly

met with.

this type of wide

in uphill directions as owing to snow pressure. The stems are all covered up from more or less horizontal or downward bent base.

The extensive alpine lands are used for sheep and goat grazing

The trunks are short and mosses and ferns cover the ground.

by the migratory as well as local people. A variety of Wild Life is

The top canopy consists of Betula utilis, Rhododendron and

also found at these elevations including muskdeer. In June and

Quercus semicarpifolia.

The middle canopy consists of

July Wild strawberries of excellent flavour are plentiful in the



Alpine pastures.





Gentians Karoo, Aconite, Podophyllum are

undergrowth consists of Berberris, Lonicera and Polyginum

extensively exported as medicinal and dhup for incense.The

species. The ground flora consists of Primula species.

meadows are composed mostly of mesophytic herbs.


conspicuous herbs are Primila, Anemone, Iris, Gentiana, with ISC – Deciduous Alpine Scrub: This type of forest is found in

many ranunculaceae and compositae family plants.

Jalori forests of Chowai and 2/18 Dawaridanda of Arsu Range. A Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume: XI Chapter 2: Page No:


16 EI Dwarf Juniper Scrub: This type of forests occurs on very

basis to ensure to stop over exploitation from the natural

dry and exposed sites.

zone/forests. The public awareness campaign is required to be

The soil is dry loose sandy.


forests are found on higher reaches of Arsu and Chowai Range.


amongst the right holders/Middle man and the

buyers regarding paucity and use more medicinal plants and Non Timber forest Produce:


Himachal has an old tradition of dealing with medicinal plants.


The collection of a large number of crude drugs has been carried out by local people since ancient times. carried






Forest settlement




The main Wild Life species found in the area are:Animals:

formalised the right to collect, extract and exploit these NTFPs. The local people, Right holders have continued to exercise these rights to collect, Bater, Sell medicinal herbs, Rootsk, flowers, fruits and aromatic plants from the forests. It is estimated that the source of 80% of Ayurvedic, 46% of Unani and 33% of Allopathic medicines are found in Western Himalayan. In HP out of







approximately are actively found in the area.



Some of the

important medicinal herbs are Sam Jalori, Kadwi Patish, Karoo,

Panther or Leopard, Leopard Cat, Snow Leopard, Himalayan black



Brown Yellow








Common weasel,

Himalayan thar jemlahicus, Blue sheep, Himalayan Ibex, Ghoral, Seraw, Barking dear, Musk deer, Porcupine, Common house rat, Squirrel, House mouse, Monkey, Common Langoor, Gray Musk Shrew, Horse shoe bat. Birds:

Dhoop, Bankakari, Chora, Banaksha, Mushak Bala, Rewand chini, Shingali Mingali, Mamira, Saski, Ban Ajwain, Balladona,

Cheer Pheasant, Jungle Fowl, White crested Koklas Monal

Guchhi, Dori, Kakkarsinghi, Salam mishri, Mithi Patish, Thuth,

Pheasant, Tragopan, Common quail, Mountain quail, Bush quail,

Bramhi, Kashmiri patta, Gloe, Salam Panja, Nihani, Birch,

Chakor Partridge, Black partridge, Wood partridge,

Rasaunth. There is urgent need for regulation of NTFPS species wise for its exploitation. People are required to be encouraged for large scale plantation or medicinal plants on commercial Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

2Working plan extracts_Sp  
2Working plan extracts_Sp  

The whole tract is covered with spellings Khads. The main perennial khads are Kurpan Khad, Kasholi Khad, Kuni Gad, Kaju Khad, Sukacho (Sumej...