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Chapter 2: Extracts of Working Plan Configuration of Ground:

The tract is hilly and undulating and lies between elevation 663 m at the confluence of Behna Khad in Satluj River to Shrikhand Mahadev 5167 m. The tree growth extends up-to 3700 m above which lies extensive inaccessible area with grasses, rocks and snow. The gentle slopes on lower elevation are generally under agriculture and horticulture crops and steep to precipitous slopes on higher altitudes are under conifer forest with broad leaved in nalas and shady areas in depression. Sarahan Bashleo Thach area forms Eco- tourism spot and Shrikhand Mahadev forms a place of pilgrimage where thousands of people visit during July-August , causing ecological disturbance in the region . The area is traversed by ridges:1. Shrikhand Dhar: The inner saraj is separated by the branch of Shrikhand Dhar taking off from Shrikhand Mahadev Tibba and passing through Jalori pass and Raghupur Fort. 2. Latands Dhar: It originates from Nauhanu Kanda and proceeds towards Satluj near Koel village through Srahar. 3. Adashi Dhar: It also originates from Nauhanu Kanda and proceeds towards Satluj near Anus village through Chebari, Anus.

5. Mungri Dhar: It originates from 1/18 Bhon and proceeds towards Satluj near Behana village through Mungri. Climate: The climate of the area subtropical to alpine ; broad zones of vegetation have been divided based on Climatic conditions which are mainly temperature and rainfall .The climate is typical of temperate zone at high altitude above 1000 meter and sub tropical at lower elevations. Generally April to June and October to December are dry months. The major precipitation is received in the months of July and August while snow and rain precipitate in the area during January to March. Snow fall occurs above 1600 metres, but some times goes down to 899 Meters, the snow seldom lies for long period below 2200 Metre. Autumn is generally very cold; May and June are very hot at low elevation. Localised cold bursts causes havoc to the elevation. Localised cloud bursts causes havoc to the growth and soil which results into severe floods. Water Supply: Good water springs exist throughout the track and supply of drinking water is generally satisfactory in Kurpan valley where as the area facing Satluj has scarcity of water especially during

4. Palehi Dhar: It originates from Kul Kanda and proceeds towards Satluj near Gothana village thorgh Tandi and Tihani. Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

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summer months . The main streams which are fed by snow do not dry up but flow of water varies considerably during various seasons whereas in other streams in dry months the water is sometimes insufficient even for crops and in olden times floating of timber was done. The drought or fire occurs and causes considerable damage to the forests growth and aggravates shortage of water. The main tributaries of the track originate from the hill ranges which are covered with snow during major part of the year. Numerous water supply schemes have been implemented by the Government for supply of drinking water to the villages. In addition for irrigation purpose water have been lifted from River Satluj by two lift irrigation schemes at Moin and Behna. But due to excessive silt load in Satluj the schemes were not successful. Sufficient water is also available for forest nurseries in most of the Sub/Micro Watersheds. Rights and Concessions: All the forests are burdened with rights and concessions recorded at the time of forest settlement. These rights are recorded in the records of rights register. The important rights are ; Right to Timber for house construction and repair, Fuel wood, Grazing, Lopping, Minor Forest produce, Slate quarries, Leaf moulds, “Phat” burning,” Nautors.”. Encroachments:


The result is that the person whose ‘nautor misle’ has been prepared takes possession unauthorisedly even before the grant of such ‘nautors’ thus increasing the encroachments. Land and forest settlement has not been completed as yet in Kullu district after 1911. The Inhabitants: People are hardworking and tough and main occupation is Agriculture as well as Horticulture and rearing of sheep and goat for their livelihood. The holdings are marginal and small and large. The number of people with large holdings is very few. The field are situated on hilly slopes in terraces and flat fields are rarely met with. The population is generally scattered over villages and in small hamlets. The biggest village of the area is Nirmand which has developed into a town now. The villages live in traditional houses with slate roof which are scattered all over as hamlets. With the easy availability of building material like bricks, cement, iron etc. the construction pattern has undergone a sea change. Modern RCC houses are a common sight in place of old dwellings. Main motorable roads in the sub catchments are Dalash, Jajjar, Luhri, Behna, Neither, Doraha, Bagipul to Nirmand and Koel-Neither road, Sarahan and Bagipul, Luhri – Mungri. Bagipul to Jaon. The dumping material of these roads construction has chocked the nalas and damaged many forest areas.

With the ever increasing demand of land due to increase in population, encroachments have been taking place in the past. One of the main reason of such encroachments is that the III rd class forest areas are not measured and secondly normally the revenue department has been granting ‘NAUTORS’ in the IIIrd class forests without the knowledge of the Forest Department. Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

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Flora and Fauna:

9C-I(b) Upper or Himalayan Chil Pine forests:

The Vegetation/Forests:

This type occurs between 1000m to 2000m elevation in 2/6 Gadamawa, 2/3 Siarunal, 15/20-III, Bindraban, NarayangarhIII, 1/8 Lohr, 1/17 Gohan, 1/36 paleini Chalaon of Arsu, Nither and Chowai Ranges. It gradually merges into dry scrub forests in Chowai and Niether Ranges and gives way to the temperate broad leaved and conifer forest above. The predominant species among the coniferous is Pinus roxburghii. It forms open, poor quality crops on the hot southern aspect on rocky and shallow soils. But on the northern aspect there are few good patches of poles and middle ages crops in all kind of forests viz 1st class, 2nd class and 3rd Class. The crop is generally irregular and mature trees are few and scattered except in recently raised established Chil plantations where the crop is even aged. Admixture of other species occurs along the upper limits as well as lowers down in the streams and damp nallas. The common associates are Querus incana, Rhododendron arborium, Pieris, ovalifolia, Pyrus pashia, Bauhinia variegate, Albizzea species etc. The associates may occur either in light admixture or occasionally may from an under storey in the pine forests. Kail (Pinus wallichiana) and sprinkled Deodar makes its appearance in the upper reaches and is sometimes extending into Chil areas in the cooler aspect as is noticed in the 15/20-III forests of Arsu Range.

The area of Sub-catchment (Sm) falls in Sub-Tropical Zone with respect to its location from the equator. Because of its location in Himalayas and consequently great variation in altitude from 738 Mtr to 5227.7Mtr combined with topographical condition including in aspect the track embraces climatic zone of sub tropical, temperate and Alpine. Therefore, various types of forests from sub tropical to Alpine occur in the area at various places. The aspect, slope ecology and the edaphic factors influence the type of vegetation giving rise to the local variations, in the general altitudinal zonation. Generally on all altitudinal zones various forests types are found but aspect slope moisture and soil play and great role in local variations. From the lower zone to the higher zone, Chil, Kail, Deodar, Spruce and Silver Fir are conifers found in the forests of area. The various broad leaved species like Walnut, Aesculus, Anus, Acer, Birdcherry etc are found along the Khads and nallas in the valleys. Pure forests of Kharsu Oaks are located in the higher reaches while Mohru Oak in the middle and Ban Oak in the lower zones. Alongwith Silver Fir and Kharsu Oak few scattered Betula is found. In the lower-most zone particularly along the river Satluj, Shisham trees are found scattered. 5BI C-II Northern dry deciduous forest: This type is found to a limited extent along Satluj near Behna and Luhri. Scattered. Cedrella toona, Dalbergia Sissoo, Pistacia Intergerrima and Bombex ceiba are met with. Under growth is that of Adhatoda vasica, Mayyaya koenigii Carissa opaca.

The flora constituting the under growth varies in types and density according to the Chil, Woodfordia, floribunda, Rhus continus, Buddleia paniculata, Mallotus phillipinensis, Pyrus pashia, Desmodium tiliaefolium, Colebrochia oppositifolia, Rubus ellipticus vibrunum Zyanthozylen alantum are common. Higher up and under a more regular canopy hush growth is less

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rampant and some Desmodium species, Berbaries species, Indigofera are found with Plectranthus rugosus, Elsholtzia polystachya and other composite as the common herbs. On the southern aspect the shrubby undergrowth is very light due to regular burning and grazing. DS-I Himalayan Sub tropical scrub: The extensive growing areas used as grazing grounds and hay fields be the villagers forms this forest type. They are spread over in between Chil forest in the Chil zonation. There is frequent burning and large scale burning hence this type forms regressive seral stage. Malformed scattered Chil trees are found with scrub species like Dodonea vascosa, Rhus parviflora, Woodfordia floribunda, Berberis species .Cotoneaster species Prinsepia utilis, Indigofera pulchella and Adiantum species. This type occupies the south western aspect in the Outer Seraj. This type is due to heavy biotic interference of grazing and burning. These areas can be regenerated naturally or artificially by restricting the biotic interference. DS-II Sub tropical Euphorbia scrub: Euphorbia roylana and Opuntia constitute this type of forest which spread along river Satluj particularly near Luhri, Behna, Khegsu, with Zizyphus jujuba and other broad leaved species like Bauhinea and Ficus species etc. Different grass species are also found. This type is associated with lime stone formation.


12-1 (a) Lower West Himalayan temperate forest Ban Oak forest: This type of forest is spread over in depression and is found in small proportion mixed with Chil, Kail and Deodar forests. It occupies the lower elevation in the northern slopes and along nalla. In comparison with other moist temperate type, it occupies drier as well as warmer sites and may be viewed as their least mesophytic form. Geological formation has very little influence on the distribution of the Oak forest which builds good soil rich in humus. The ground is naturally well drained and the oak occupies really wet soil. This types can be seen in 15/20-III or Arsu Range and 2/21 patal forest in Niether, Naraingarh III in Chowai Range. Top and middle storey consist of Quercus incana, Rhododendron arboretum, Lyonia, Machilus edoratisima, Litsea umberosa, Pieris, ovalifolia, Illex dipvrena, Rhus cotinus and Pyrus pashia etc. The undergrowth consists of Berbaries lyceum, Daphne, Desmodium, Rubus elipticus, Indegofera, Viburnum Lonicera, Strobilanthes etc. The ground consists of Pteridium, Plectranthus, Salvia glntionsa, and other grasses. The common climbers are Hydra helix, Rosa moscheta Vitis semicordata etc. 12C 1(b) Mohru Oak forest:

This type is generally found in patches in Deodar Zone from 2000 to 2500m and pure forest of Quercus dilatata do not exist in this area. There is greater admixture of secondary species mainly of decidous trees in the top storey and a well marked ever green second storey of Rhododerdron Ilex etc. and Shrubby undergrowth of Rubus,Spiraea and Vibrnum with some ever green such as Skimmia and Sarcococea. This type is more mesophytic than Ban Oak which displaces it on dry ridges. Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

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Mohru Oak is generally used as the most popular leave fodder and hence is heavily lopped. This is found in Deodar zone and can be seen near Tharvi village of Arsu range and 2/28 Jalori forest Chowai Range. The upper canopy consists of Quercus dialatata, Q .incana, Abies pindrow, Aesculus indica .The middle canopy consists of IIex dipyrena, , Rhamnus, Rhododendron Cedrella toona etc. The under growth consists of Rosa macrophylla, Berberis, Prinscpia, Indigofera, Deutzia, Daphne Saraca etc. The climbers are Hedera helix, Clematis etc.


The under storey is generally absent. The under storey consists of Rosa moschata, Berberis, Launicere, Dentizia, Dedmidium, Viburnum, Carpinus, Cedrela serata, Juglans regia, Aescrlus indica etc. are found in moist location such as nallas and depressions. The ground flora consists of Fregeria, vasica, Gallium Viola., Salvia glubinosa. The main climbers are Vitis semcordata, Hedra helix, Jasmium officinalies and \Rosa moschata etc. 12 CI (d) Western mixed coniferous forest:

This type is commonly known as mixed coniferous forest but it also includes pure Spruce and Silver Fir and mixed forest of This forest type is occur in all the Ranges of Outer Seraj Silver Fir- Spruce, Deodar- Spruce. These forests are the most between 1500m to 2000m on northern aspects it descends attractive in the Himalayas with varying mixture of coniferous down and ascends to even 3000m on sunny ridges. The snow trees often of very fine growth, Spruce, Silver Fir, Blue pine and fall is a must for the existence of these forests. The Deodar Deodar and a varying inter mixture of evergreen and deciduous prefers comparatively heavy soil formed by the disintegration of Broad leaved trees and strips and patches of broad leaved granite rocks and quarries well drained soil. The good quality forest. These forests lie at an elevation of 2300m to 3200m. Deodar stumps are found on such soils all over the tract and can Spruce predominates in the lower elevation and is associated be seen at 1/5 Kandu Shilla and R/3 Juguta of Arsoo Range R/4 with Deodar on spurs. Kail is confined to southern slopes, Margi Kalon, 1/15 Lot Kayon, 1/16 Shilla Niether Range R/5 ridges and shallow soil. In the higher reaches generally silver Ghanar, R/6 Jharanu, R/7 Takrasi and R/8 Kaikalon Chowai Fir comes in the pure crop and spruce occupying on the ridges Range. and warmer places. Broad leaved trees such as Aesculus inica, Juglans regia, Corylus colurna are found in depression and Deodar generally occurs pure but some times mixed with Kail at nallas. In many areas young crop is generally absent and the the lower extremes and spruce on the higher reaches. The pure regeneration is a problem. These forests are generally found beautiful forest of Deodar can be seen in 1/3 Ramgarh Kandi C-I away from the habitation. A thick layer of un decomposed in Arsu range 1/14 Maharah Kod Niether range 1/13 Trijhakhar humus is found in the forest where there is no grazing and C-II, 1/27 Bung Bindraban C-II of Chowai Range. The top inhibits the natural regeneration. Silver Fir and spruce occur on storey consists on Cedrus deodar and Pinus wallichiana while the all types of rock formation and soil all over the tract. The middle storey consists of Quercus incana or generally absent. Arundinaria falcate occurs in these forests. Rich herbaceous Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin 12 C-IC-Moist Deodar (Cedrus deodara forest):

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vegetation grows during the monsoon and a variety of ferns dies and completely flatten by the winter snow. Snow stays from December to April. There is also a good deal of moss and lichen on the trees and the climbers are not so common. The beautiful forest of these types can be seen in R/1 Shilligirchi, R/2 P:araligirchi, 2/10 Mul, 2/11 Kaleo, 2/16 Barnagi, R/3 Jugut etc. of Arsoo Range 2/20 Daman 1/9 Bujuri, 1/8 Lohr, 1/10 Bashad Niether Range. The upper canopy consists of Abies pindrow, Picea smithiana, Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. The middle canopy consists of mostly Quercus semicarpifolia and other broad leaved species like Acer, Aesculus, Corylus colurna, Juglans regia etc. The under growth consists of Viburnum Contoneaster bacillaries, Ilex deprena, Lonicera species, Deutiza,corymbosa, Berberis species, Prinsepia, Arundianaria, Sacococa species, Strobilanthes, Polygonum, Polygonatum, Podophyllum, Valeriana, Frageria, Anemone, Ferns and grasses from the under ground flora.,The common climbers found are Hedera helix, Vitis, and Jasminum etc. 12 CI(e) Moist temperate deciduous forests: This type occurs almost in the whole Outer Seraj with fir Zone from 1800 – 2750m in moist hollows and depressions often as strips along the hill streams and also on many of the gentler slopes unsuited for coniferous. Such broad leaved patches are found in 2/17 Dadai, 2/18 Rachokri, 2/19 Mandrow of Arsu Range and 2/20 Daman Nither Range. The upper canopy consists of Aesculus, Acer Carpinus, Ulmus, wallichaiana, Betula alnoldes, Juglans regia, Fraxinus, Quercus semicarpifolia, Abies pindrow Prunus padus etc.


The middle storey consists of Corylus colurna, Cornus capotata, Rhus cotinus, Taxus baccatta, Rhododendron arboretum Euonymus species. 12C-2(a) Upper West Himalayan temperate forest Kharshu Oak forest: This type of forests is found in all over the Outer Seraj varying from elevation of 2700m to 3500m generally the Quercus semicarpifolia occupies the ridges on the higher reaches and sometimes constitute pure strips on the top portion of the compartment. On the northern aspects and moist location, kharsu Oak often comes down and is found in mixture with Silver Fir - Spruce and forms the under storey. In the upper reaches elsewhere it is found mixed with Rhododendron and Betula species. All age classes are reproduced and natural regeneration is adequate. The tree is lopped for fodder by graziers mostly and often by the villagers. The top canopy consists of Quercus semicarpifolia, Picea smithiana, Abies pindrow, Acer Spps and Betula alnoides, Middle canopy consist of Rhododendron compenulatum, Ilex depyrana, Prunus padus, Betula species, Acer species Taxus bacatta etc. The under growth consists of Cotoneaster, Viburnum Rosa, Strobilanthes, Salix elegans, Jasminum wellichiana, Frageria, Vesica, Rumex, Viola, Anemone, Polygonum etc. The climbers are Vitis, Climaties etc. This type occurs in the forest such as 2/8 Sanpatu, 2/4 Dobda, 2/9 Galol, 2/11 Koleo in Arsoo Range and 2/28 Jalori in Chowai Range.

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12C(b) West Himalayan Upper Oak Fir Forests: This two storeyed high forest occurs above 2800 m elevation all over the tract. Silver Fir Occurs singly or in bands and groups over Oak and other evergreen deciduous trees. The Oaks carry a conspicuous mantle of mosses. Top canopy consists of Abies pindrow, Picea-smithiana and middle canopy consists of Acer species Taxus baccata, Quercus semecarpifolia, Pyrus-lanata, Betula alopides, Quercus dialatata, Rhododendron companulata etc. under growth consists of Rosa macrophylla, Viburnum foetens Rubus nivenus, Spirea canescens, Berberris Strobilanthes wallichi, Viola serpens, Cotoneaster acuminata, Lonicera angustifolia Salix elegans, Asparagus, Sarcococa etc. Ground flora consists of Fragerea Ainsliaea sptera Valeriana wallichi, Podophyllum Polygonum Jurinea-macrocephala, Aconitum heterophyllum, Picorhiza kuroo, Salvia, viola etc. climbers are Vitis semicordata, Hedeera helix and Clematies etc. This type is found in R/3 Jugut, 2/19 Mandrow, 2/14 Danda, 2/15 Dwari danda of Arsu Range. 12 DS 1 Montane Bamboo Erakes (Arundinaria falcate and Aspathiflora): These two bamboos occur as undergrowth in the mixed coniferous forests. Arundineria falcate confines to the lower zone and Arundineria spathiflora occurs in spruce and Silver fir zone. They generally occupy moist northern slopes and form thickest excluding all other shrubs. These hill bamboos are used for basket making by the local inhabitants. Their presence inhibits natural regeneration of main species. This type is found


in 2/16 Barnagi, R/1 Shilligirchi, R/2 Paraligirchi of Arsoo Range and 2/21 Patal in Nither Range. 12 DS 2 Himalayan temperate park land: This type of forest is mainly confined to the Fir Zone. These are open park like land with scattered large, misshapen and often moribund trees of the species typical of the temperate deciduous forests of without coniferous trees also over a grassy tuft full of flowers in springs. Generally some Silver fir, Birdcherry, Mapple and Kharshu, Occasional clumps of Cotoneaster bacillaris, Viburnum cotinifolium and Berberris species are found. The ground is covered by Frageria vasca, Anemone, Potentila, Viola, Delphinium, Polygonum and Ranunculus species. The grass lands are heavily grazed. This type is found in 2/19 Mandrow, 2/11 Kaleo in Arsu Range. 12 DS 3 Himalayan temperate pastures: This type occurs in Kharsu Oak zone and is characterized by the absence of tree growth. These are grassy blanks devoid of any tree growth. These are found all over the tract in Deodar, Fir Zone. The ground flora is the same as under 12 DS 2 above. The area is grazed by the grazier migratory as well as local in summer after melting of snow. The type occurs in the forests shown under 12 DS 2 above. 12 ISI – Himalayan moist temperate forests Alder (Alnus) forests: This type is found mainly along the banks of river streams and nallahs allover the tract with or without under-growth depending upon the site. In the lower course of streams where fringe of

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Alder is the only remaining tree growth there is often an undergrowth of thorny shrubs, while on the better wooded tract progression starts early and other species like blue pine and other coniferous are usually present. This type occurs from 1000m to 3000m species grows on fresh alluvial soil and landslides. This type is found along the Kurpan Khad, Anni Khad, Shasmsher Gad of the tract. The top storey consists of Alnus neplanses, Poplus ciliate, Celtis australis, Toona ciliate, Morus, serrata, Ficus species etc. and the middle storey consists of Crategus, spiraea and the undergrowth consists of Gerardiana heterophylla, Rumex nepalensis, Polygounum polygonatum etc. Vitis is the main climber species. 14 C-1(a) West Himalayan Sub-alpine high level fir forest:


14 CI (b) West Himalayan Sub-Alpine, birch Fir Forests: As per description of 14C-1(b) top canopy consists of Abies pindrow while middle canopy consists Betula utilizes, Quercus semicarpifolia, Rhododendron campanulantum. The undergrowth consists of Catoneaster acuminate, Rosa Sercea, Lonicera Rubus niveus and Smilex. 14 DSI – Sub Alpine pasture: This type is found near the tree limit which extends to the alpine zone. This type consists of out-line patches of sub alpine forests and shrub. Chiefly in the form of colony of betula and Rhododendron. Extensive patches of dwarf, Rhododendron and dwarf Juniperous are also met with. The climate is too cold for the growth of tree and precipitation is usually in the form of snow which last more than six months. Thus limiting the growing season. Top and middle storey consists of Betula utilis and Rhododendron. The undergrowth consists of Salix species, Lonicera species, Berberris species and Rosa species. The ground flora consists of Aconitum. This type occurs in the forest of 2/14 Danda, 2/15 Dwaridanda of Arsu Range.

This type is found above 3000m elevation over the whole tract. Fir, birch and Rhododendron may be found mixed in varying proportions. Pure dense crop of Fir may occur but the most usual form is an open crop of Fir with birch between and a dense undergrowth of Rhododendron with a varying amount of small shrubs in and under the letter. The over wood is absent in 15 C-1 Birch-Rhododandron Scrub forests: hollows leaving more or less pure Rhododendron Spruce and occasional Quercus semicarpifolia may be found in this type in This type is found all over the tract of Outer Seraj in the Alpine the moist zone. Top canopy consists of Abies pindrow, Picea Zone. This type forms a low evergreen forest entirely of smithiana while middle canopy consists of Rhododendron Rhododendron but with some Birch and other deciduous trees compenulatum, Taxus baccatta, Prunus padus, and the on northern and moist aspects. undergrowth consists of Strobilanthes, Smilax, Viburnum, Deutizia, Berberris species and Juniperous, wallichiana. The The growth is so dense as to be difficult to penetrate particularly ground flora consists of Anemone, Geranum, Trillium and viola in uphill directions as owing to snow pressure. The stems are all species. This type is found in the forest 2/14 Dands, 2/15 Dwaridanda and R/2 Praligirchi of Arsu Range. Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

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covered up from more or less horizontal or downward bent base. The trunks are short and mosses and ferns cover the ground. The top canopy consists of Betula utilis, Rhododendron and Quercus semicarpifolia. The middle canopy consists of Viburnum Rhododendron and Cetoneaster, while the undergrowth consists of Berberris, Lonicera and Polyginum species. The ground flora consists of Primula species.


Alpine pastures. Gentians Karoo, Aconite, Podophyllum are extensively exported as medicinal and dhup for incense.The meadows are composed mostly of mesophytic herbs. The conspicuous herbs are Primila, Anemone, Iris, Gentiana, with many ranunculaceae and compositae family plants.

ISC – Deciduous Alpine Scrub: 16 EI Dwarf Juniper Scrub: This type of forest is found in Jalori forests of Chowai and 2/18 Dawaridanda of Arsu Range. A low deciduous scrub formation usually about 1 meter in height forming the cover.

This type of forests occurs on very dry and exposed sites. The soil is dry loose sandy. These forests are found on higher reaches of Arsu and Chowai Range.

15 – EI Dwart Rhododendron Scrub: Fauna: The crop in such type consists of stunted growth of Rhododendron species and occurs on elevation from 3200m to 3800m. Other Broad leaved species are conspicuously absent. The ground flora is same as under type 15-CI. Such forests are found in 2/34 chul in Chowai and 2/18 of Arsu Range. 15C – 3 Alpine Pasture: This type stretches above the tree growth limit to the line of perpetual snow. In this type of wide Range of medicinal herbs of valuable commercial value like Mecopopris, Oitebtila, Caltha, Aconite, Gentians Karoo etc are met with. The extensive alpine lands are used for sheep and goat grazing by the migratory as well as local people. A variety of Wild Life is also found at these elevations including muskdeer. In June and July Wild strawberries of excellent flavour are plentiful in the

The main Wild Life species found in the area are:Animals: Panther or Leopard, Leopard Cat, Snow Leopard, Himalayan black bear, Brown bear, Himalayan fox, Wolf, Common mongoose, Yellow throated marten, Himalayan weasel, Himalayan thar jemlahicus, Blue sheep, Himalayan Ibex, Ghoral, Seraw, Barking dear, Musk deer, Porcupine, Common house rat, Squirrel, House mouse, Monkey, Common Langoor, Gray Musk Shrew, Horse shoe bat. Birds: Cheer Pheasant, Jungle Fowl, White crested Koklas Monal Pheasant, Tragopan, Common quail, Mountain quail, Bush quail, Chakor Partridge, Black partridge, Wood partridge, Snow cock, Bustard quail, Black breasted quail.

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Non Timber forest Produce:

approximately are actively found in the Outer Seraj Forest area.

Himachal has an old tradition of dealing with medicinal plants. The collection of a large number of crude drugs has been carried out by local people since ancient times. Forest settlement carried out in 19th century in different erstwhile states formalised the right to collect, extract and exploit these NTFPs. The local people, Right holders have continued to exercise these rights to collect, Bater, Sell medicinal herbs, Rootsk, flowers, fruits and aromatic plants from the forests. It is estimated that the source of 80% of Ayurvedic, 46% of Unani and 33% of Allopathic medicines are found in Western Himalayan. In HP out of 3000 plants species identified at least 300 species

There is urgent need for regulation of NTFPS species wise for its exploitation. People are required to be encouraged for large scale plantation or medicinal plants on commercial basis to ensure to stop over exploitation from the natural zone/forests. The public awareness campaign is required to be intensified amongst the right holders/Middle man and the buyers regarding paucity and use more medicinal plants and herbs, The are also required to formalise with the zinepale, conservation felling for the future generation.

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

2Working plan extracts_Sm  
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5. Mungri Dhar: It originates from 1/18 Bhon and proceeds towards Satluj near Behana village through Mungri. 2. Latands Dhar: It originates...