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Year 10 REVISION


Exam: June 19th 2009  You have TWO exams, ONE CHEMISTRY,

ONE PHYSICS.  Topics to revise are the following: Chemistry – C1a  Patterns in Properties  Making Changes Physics – P1b  Now you see it, now you don’t  Space and its mysteries


Patterns in Properties CHEMISTRY Year 10 Revision


Patterns in Properties Elements and Atomic Structure:  symbol, relative atomic mass, atomic number (p106), atomic structure (p112) Group 1: The Alkali Metals:  Trends: which is most/least reactive? (p114/115) Group 7: The Halogens:  Trends: which is most/least reactive? (p118/119) Group 0: The Noble Gases:  Uses of Helium, Neon, Argon (p116/117) Colourful Chemistry:  Colour of precipitates (p111) Forensic Science:  Flame test colours, how to do a flame test (p125)


ELEMENTS AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE

COLOURFUL CHEMISTRY

FORENSIC SCIENCE

Patterns in Properties GROUP 1: THE ALKALI METALS

GROUP 7: THE HALOGENS

GROUP 0: THE NOBLE GASES


Example: Sodium

Relative Atomic Mass

Symbol

Atomic Number Relative Atomic = number of protons and number of neutrons Atomic Number = number of protons Number of protons = Number of electrons


The Atom: Check It Out! 

Draw a labelled diagram of the atom showing the:    

Nucleus Protons Neutrons Electrons

Particle

Charge

Relative Mass

Protons

Positive (+)

1

Electrons

Negative (-)

Negligible

Neutrons

No charge

1


Comparing Trends Group 1: The Alkali Metals  As you go down group 1, the alkali metals become MORE reactive. Group 7: The Halogens  As you go down group 7, the halogens (nonmetals) become LESS reactive.  Fluorine is the MOST reactive. Group 0: The Noble Gases  The noble gases do not react with anything.


Transition Metals Summary Table of Transition Metal Colours: Colours of transition metals when reacted with sodium hydroxide:

Transition Metal Cobalt Copper Iron (II) Iron (III) Manganese Nickel Zinc

Colour of Precipitate Blue (turns grey) Pale Blue Dark Green (turns brown) Orange-Brown Pale Brown Green White

What is a precipitate?


Flame Tests METAL

FLAME TEST COLOUR

LITHIUM

RED

SODIUM

ORANGE

POTASSIUM

LILAC

CALCIUM

YELLOW-RED

BARIUM

PALE GREEN

COPPER

GREEN-BLUE

How do you do a flame test?


Making Changes CHEMISTRY Year 10 Revision


Revision: Testing for Gases Make a leaflet or poster to show how you would test for the following gases: 1. Test for Oxygen Oxygen Hydrogen 2. Test for Hydrogen Carbon Ammonia 3. Test for Carbon Dioxide Dioxide 4. Test for Ammonia Include:  A diagram of how you would set up the equipment.  A description of what you would see or hear if the specific gas is present. 


TESTING FOR OXYGEN

TESTING FOR HYDROGEN

Making Changes TESTING FOR CARBON DIOXIDE

TESTING FOR AMMONIA


Upward Delivery If gas is less dense than air, e.g. hydrogen, ammonia


Downward Delivery If gas is denser than air, e.g. carbon dioxide


Collecting Gases over Water Gas is bubbled through a trough of water into an upturned gas jar filled with water Used for insoluble gases, e.g. oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide


Hazard Symbols TOXIC

OXIDISING

HARMFUL

Toxic

Highly Flammable Harmful Oxidising

CORROSIVE

HIGHLY FLAMMABLE

IRRITANT

Corrosive Irritant


Now you see it, now you don’t PHYSICS Year 10 Revision


Now you see it, now you don’t Transverse and Longitudinal Waves:  draw a labelled diagram of a transverse wave showing amplitude, wavelength, crest, trough, oscillation (p250)  draw a labelled diagram of a longitudinal wave sowing wavelength (p251)  give the definition of amplitude, speed of a wave, wavelength and frequency (p250) Reflecting Waves:  A sound wave generated by a jet aeroplane travels 2000m from the aeroplane to a person on the ground. It takes 10s. Calculate the speed of the sound wave (p252)  what is ultrasound? (p253)  advantages and disadvantages of scanning by reflection (p253) The Wave Equation:  draw the electromagnetic spectrum of waves (p257)  The frequency of an ultrasound wave is 500Hz. The wavelength is 0.5m. Calculate the speed of the wave. (p256) Uses of waves:  what are the uses of waves? (p258-263)  what are the harmful electromagnetic waves? (p264) Digital Information:  advantages and disadvantages of analogue and digital (p266-267)  Draw a labelled diagram to show how light is totally internally reflected off the inside of a glass fibre (p267)


TRANSVERSE AND LONGITUDINAL WAVES

REFLECTING WAVES

DIGITAL INFORMATION

Now you see it, now you don’t THE WAVE EQUATION

USES OF WAVES


What are Waves? ďƒ˜ Waves are

vibrations that transfer energy from place to place without matter - solid, liquid or gas - being transferred. ďƒ˜ Think of a Mexican wave in a football crowd. The wave moves around the stadium, while each spectator stays in their seat only moving up then down when it's their turn.

What are Waves? http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/waves/anintroductio


Amplitude, Wavelength, Frequency

Frequency

What are Waves? Amplitude and Frequency: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/waves/anintroductiontowavesact.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edex


TRANSVERSE WAVES: Light and other types of electromagnetic radiation are transverse waves. Water waves and S waves (a type of seismic wave) are also transverse waves. In transverse waves, the vibrations are at right angles to the direction of travel.

LONGITUDINAL WAVES: Sound waves and waves in a stretched spring are longitudinal waves. P waves (relatively fast moving longitudinal seismic waves that travel through liquids and solids) are also longitudinal waves. In longitudinal waves, the vibrations are along the same direction as the direction of travel.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/waves/anintroductiontowavesrev2.shtml


Ultrasound and Reflective Waves ďƒ˜ When ultrasound waves reach a

boundary between two substances with different densities, they are partly reflected back. The remainder of the ultrasound waves continue to pass through.

Ultrasound and Reflective Waves: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/waves/soundultrasoun


ďƒ˜ What is the shape of a transverse wave?

ďƒ˜ What is the shape of a longitudinal wave?

All types of electromagnetic radiation: are transverse waves travel at the same speed in a vacuum - empty space


EM Spectrum Low Frequency Radio Micro Infra Waves Waves Red

Longer Wavelength

High Frequency Visible Light

UV Light

X Rays Gamma Rays

Shorter Wavelength

The Electromagnetic Spectrum: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/waves/theelectromagneticspectrumact.shtml


Radio Waves  carry information across the Earth by reflecting the waves. Microwaves  Carry information to mobile phones and satellites. Heat food by being absorbed by water. Infra–red (Heat radiation)  Carry information from remote controls, heat detecting cameras, and cook food


Visible Light  carry information down optic fibres and endoscopes. Ultra-violet  sun tanning and security coding. X rays  taking shadow pictures of bones. Gamma rays  Sterilising surgical equipment and treating cancer.


Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation 

   

Over-exposure to certain types of electromagnetic radiation can be harmful. The higher the frequency of the radiation, the more damage it is likely to cause to the body: microwaves cause internal heating of body tissues infrared radiation is felt as heat and causes skin burns X-rays damage cells, causing mutations (which may lead to cancer) and cell death gamma rays also damage cells, causing mutations (which may lead to cancer) and cell death

Electromagnetic Spectrum: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/waves/theelectromagnet


Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation  microwaves cause internal heating of

body tissues  infrared radiation is felt as heat and causes skin burns  X-rays damage cells, causing mutations (which may lead to cancer) and cell death  gamma rays also damage cells, causing mutations (which may lead to cancer) and cell death


Total Internal Reflection


Analogue vs Digital Signals ANALOGUE:  Music and speech create sound waves that vary continuously in frequency and amplitude.  Analogue signals can vary in frequency, amplitude or both.  FM: frequency modulated  AM: amplitude modulated

DIGITAL:  Digital signals are a series of pulses consisting of just two states, on (1) or off (0).  There are no values in between.  DAB: Digital Audio Broadcast radio – it is transmitted as digital signals.


EM Radiation: Gamma

Uses: Kills harmful bacteria in food, sterilising surgical equipment, killing cancer cells.

Dangers:

High doses can kill cells. Lower doses can cause cells to become cancerous.


EM Radiation: X rays

Uses: Shadow pictures of luggage and inside the human body.

Dangers:

High doses can kill cells. Lower doses can cause cells to become cancerous.


EM Radiation: Ultraviolet

Uses: Sun beds, fluorescent lamps and security marking.

Dangers:

High doses can kill cells. Lower doses can cause cells to become cancerous.


EM Radiation: Light

Uses: Seeing and endoscopes

Dangers: Blindness


EM Radiation: Infrared

Uses: Remote controls (TV/VCR), radiant heaters, grills, optical fibre communication, night vision.

Dangers:

Skin burns


EM Radiation:

Microwaves

Uses: Satellite communication, mobile phone networks, cooking, RADAR.

Dangers: Internal tissue heating.


Radio waves

EM Radiation:

Radio waves

Uses: Communication and astronomy.

Dangers:


Space and its mysteries PHYSICS Year 10 Revision


ďƒ˜

What do all of the following have in common?


The Solar System The solar system consists of:  a star - the Sun  planets and dwarf planets in orbit around the Sun  satellites - moons - in orbit around most of the planets  comets and asteroids in orbit around the Sun


The Solar System ďƒ˜ The Sun's gravity keeps the planets,

dwarf planets, comets and asteroids in orbit. The gravity of a planet keeps its satellites in orbit. ďƒ˜ The planets take different amounts of time to go around the Sun. A single orbit is called the planet's year, and the further out a planet is the longer its year takes


Planets and The Solar System ďƒ˜ Why is pluto considered to not be a planet?


Stars and Galaxies ďƒ˜

ďƒ˜

Our Sun is a star. It seems much bigger than other stars in the sky because it is much closer to Earth. Stars form immense groups called galaxies. A galaxy can contain many millions of stars, held together by the force of gravity. Our Sun is in a spiral galaxy called the Milky Way. The Sun is about half-way from the centre of the galaxy, on one of the arms.


Life Cycle of a Star  What is our star?  Our star is a typical star, some are

much brighter, some are much older, some are much bigger.  The coolest part of The Sun is around 6000°C and about 5billion years old. The Sun’s diameter is about 100 times bigger than the Earth. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/space/planetsstarsandgalaxiesact.shtml


Life Cycle of a Star Task: ďƒ˜ Make up a story to remember the order of the life cycle of a star.


A Trip into Space On my way into space I passed the life cycle of a small star. First I passed… A Nebulla Then… A Protostar Then… A Star Then… A Red Giant Then… A White Dwarf Then… A Black Dwarf


A Trip into Space On my way into space I passed the life cycle of a large star. First I passed… A Nebulla Then… A Protostar Then… A Massive Star Then… A Super Red Giant Then… A Supernova Then… A Black Hole or a Neutron Star


Space ďƒ˜ Put the following in order of size (from

smallest to biggest):

Galaxy The Sun Mercury England South Shields Earth Solar System Universe


Space ďƒ˜

Put the following in order of size (from smallest to biggest): South Shields England Earth Mercury The Sun Solar System Galaxy Universe

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/space/planetsstarsandgalaxiesact.shtml


Space and its mysteries 1. Define the following: Gravity, Mass, Weight, Acceleration, Gravitational Field. 2. Where do planets reflect their light from? 3. What makes up the solar system? 4. Put the following in order of size: Sun, Jupiter, Galaxy, Earth, Saturn, Universe, Neptune 5. Make fact cards on the planets, include the following: A description of the planet Distance from the Sun Time it takes to orbit the Sun 6. Explain the life cycle of a star.

Science  

physics motions

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