NEO-L ND N MAP
2.5 Dimensional Urban Landscape Architectural Thesis & Project by Yung-En Lin
COLLEGE L ND N
MArch AVATAR 2
THESIS & PROJECT BY
YUNG-EN LIN TUTOR:
NEO-LONDON MAP 2.5 Dimensional URBAN Landscape
Postcode : W1D
The map was made by a city traveler who recorded the fragments of city through out a journey, and then reproduced an individual London map based on his experience, imaginations and memories. The 2.5 dimensions is used as a technique of visual description, presenting an unique visual experience that neither 2D nor 3D can present. The 2.5D not only illustrates the real depths, which is more dynamic than 2D, but also freely connect the fragments of the city in the vision with multiple perspectives, which overwhelmed the limitations of time and distance in 3D. Therefore, 2.5D map could be utilised as a visual technique when presenting the city; people are able to observe the city, events and spaces everyday from different aspects.
Introducti n This research is dealing with the fragment of spatial experience in vision with 2.5 dimensional presentations. When people recall their city travels, the most memorable sites may be some impressive places such as iconic buildings and plazas. Although people view the city as a series space, it is quite difficult to remember every street and building they have been. Therefore, these memorable places are the fragments of spatial experience stored in peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s memory. Generally, a fragment is one part of bigger units. In this research, however, fragment can be seen as a part of urban images in which people have remember. The spatial experience focuses on vision because people recognise and understand what the city should look like via visual record. The argument in this research is how people can be more accurate in visualising their travel experience when they are describing a city, a space, and a event. Although the languages and the photos can help people in their descriptions, the differences of gaps of spatial experience and imagination could be a limitation between the speaker and listener. Hence, creating an appropriate method in visual description is going to be the main aim through this whole research. The 2.5 dimensional presentation is as this possible method which is used for this experiment. The first purpose of this research is to investigate how can the 2.5 dimensional presentations describe the experience of people travelling in the city; and also how its presentation can give people an alternative way to re-interpret the city. Another purpose of this research is to define the value of 2.5 dimensional presentation in describing a city as well as used a map to visualise the city. In this experiment, instead of using a 2 and 3 dimensional presentations, 2.5D is chosen as a technique and method to describe urban images. The map as a description and notation of city is one of the suggestive presentations to demonstrate the result of this experiment with 2.5 dimensional models. The thesis is divided into four sections, which are sections A, B, C, and D. The section A will clarify the motivation and the purpose of choosing this argument. In section B, three methodologies will describe the progress of how 2.5 dimensional technique could be created appropriately in the presentation of this research. Section C mentions the development of the 2.5 dimensional technique for mapping out the cities before it is being constructed onto a map. For the final part, the value of this research will be presented in section D.
C NTENTS A : Clarification B : Methodologies C : Application D : Evaluation
Extra drawings and images Acknowledgemnet
7 15 61
Spatial Experience in Visi n The Naked City - Urban Travel Experience Composed by Fragments Limitati ns of 2 and 3 Dimensions in Vision
Cubist Architecture The Definiti n of 2.5 Dimensions
Spatial Experience in Vision
When people use the underground to connect between one place to another place in the city, the physical movement between the two points is practically real. However, the distance and the experience of such movement of the journey could be ignored sometimes. Indeed, most of the tube stations are so similar that passengers may not be able to distinguish the differences between the stations they depart and the station they arrive. The only difference for the passenger to recognise is the first scene he or she encounters when leaving the station. Thus, people are able to distinguish different places based on different fragments of spatial experience in vision. As time passes by, these fragments contribute partial recognition of the city image in peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s memory.
The Naked City
Guy Debord, The Naked City, 1957
Urban Travel Experience Composed by Fragments The Naked City, is composed by nineteen fragments of Paris’s map made by Guy Debord, which presents how the city could be described and experienced with fraction. Each fragments of map is linked by directional arrows is connected with one or the other , which conducted together in a map. All segments have different ”unity of atmosphere” (McDonough, 2002), which means that each piece of map has its special characteristic. Therefore, travelling from one piece of map to another one seems to jump in between, just in one second. McDonough (2002, p245) claims: “the users could experience the sudden change of the atmosphere in a street, the sharp division of a city into one of distinct psychological climate; the path of least resistance – wholly unrelated to the unevenness of the terrain- to be followed by casual stroller; the character, attractive or repellant, of certain places.” Thus, The Naked City can be seen as an unusual urban travel experience by casual strollers in places, including the space, streets, and event. In fact, the presentation of The Naked City and McDonough’s view reveal how people experience the city. The map will guide them as it describes the urban geometry when people take journeys around the city. Usually, the map is used partly rather than wholly because often people are more interested in exploring a specific part of map which could be the place where they live or where they want to go. They may jump from one place on the map to another, and do the same thing again and again until they finish that specific journey. To be more precise, people experience city as a composition of series fragments which is quite similar to the presentation of The Naked City. Nevertheless, these fragments of spatial experience have limitation to insert the fragments fully. Therefore, people might find it hard to experience the whole city.
Limitations of 2 and 3 Dimensions in
If this is the case, how to be more accurate to portray the process of people in experiencing the spaces as a series of fragments? Although The Naked City has been an example to explain how people travel in the city as a piece of fragment, it is a 2 dimensional geometrical demonstration which may not be able to describe correctly in which the views and the spaces that travellers have experienced in vision. In the definition of three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate 1 2 system, 2 dimensional is an area of plane making by visual lengths and width which may be called X and Y axis. All the things in the 2D have been compressed into a piece of flat plane. Even if 2D series photographs, viewers still need to require some sense of spatial understand and sense of spatial experience to analyse what the real space should look like. Thus, 2 dimensional demonstration only shows the way how people experience the space as a series of fragments but unable to display the real spatial depth. Whereas 3 the 3 dimensional is the extension of 2 dimensional toward height and indicated by the Z axis.
On the other hand, although people experience 3D space in vision during the real travel, the physical distance becomes a limitation of switching from one place to another, which means that people cannot change the place immediately as fast as it appears to be in The Naked City. The physical distance and the time are the limitations that the 3D cannot overcome. Both 2D and 3D feature differently in vision of spatial experience for travels. Thus, visual presentation needs a new way which connects and presents both benefits together. The concepts of cubism and architecture may help the following research to find out the relation between 2D and 3D; as well as the way of presenting travel experience in the city. The Cubism outreaches the way in how people view 2D images or paintings from one perspective; rather, it emphasises the fact that one object can be viewed from its overhead, below, inside and outside in a multiple perspective. The time element combines different point of views in one object and then putting it into 2D painting, in which the image makes the object more clear in vision. It is due to the view changes the following time base, which means a process of how people view the object (Giedion, 1941). In terms of cubism, these fragments of spatial experience in vision can be defined as different points of view in time base when the city is seen as a large and complicated object. Thus, the fragments may not be able to the flat image collage when they are being put together.
Giedion’s Space, Time and Architecture (1941), he used two illustrations to describe some similarities between architecture and painting. One of those is a cubism painting L’Arlésienne by Picasso (1911-1912); another one is workshop wing of Bauhaus, which is designed by Walter Gropius (1926). Both illustrations can also be seen as a comparison between 2D and 3D. There are three features in common between the both. Firstly, the planarity: both are created from plane surface (canvas and floor). Secondly, the transparency, which Evans (1995, p57) claims that “the crystalline constitution of the painted image is comparable to the glazed curtain walls around the building”. Finally, the simultaneity, in which Evans (1995, p57) states that the “simultaneity generally means the presentation of multiple impression of a subject in one image.” Actually, L’Arlésienne was painted as if both profile and full face, while the interior and exterior of the building were presented simultaneously (Giedion, 1941). The three correspondences are pointed out as the characteristics of presentation between 2D and 3D in terms of cubism, which may be called the features of 2.5 dimensions.
Picasso L’Arlésienne 1911-1912
1. Cartesian coordinate system specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances from the point to two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Cartesian_coordinate_system#Cartesian_ space (accessed 28,05,09)
Walter Gropius Bauhaus 1926
The Definition of Dimensions The 2.5 dimensions can be seen as visual phenomena, which is actually a 2D with 3D alike graphics and is usually used in computer graphics, especially in video games in order to present more realistic images. It could also be used in relief as the way of presentation. 4
As 2.5D encompasses both 2D and 3D feature, it is in fact, describes how people experience the city as a composition of series visual fragments. Thus, 2.5D can be seen as a technique to display something simultaneously that 2D and 3D cannot reach. Moreover, three similarities (planarity, transparency, simultaneity) discussed before can be seen as methodologies of generating 2.5D presentation to experiment with what sort of display describes more accurately in the fragment of spatial experience of the city travel. The reason why using them as methodologies is that 2.5D has several definitions and the ways of presentation depend on different purposes. Therefore, in the experimental process, the main aim will be the understanding of what kind of 2.5D presentation is more appropriate for this research. So, the three methodologies will be applied to form the 2.5D presentation.
2. Wikipedia Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Dimension (Accessed 28th, May, 2009) 3. Wikipedia Available at: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimension (Accessed 28th, May, 2009) 4. Wikipedia Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/2.5D (Accessed 28th, May, 2009)
D L GIES
Between The Planarity
THIS SECTION WILL PROVIDE A NEW DEFINITION OF THE THREE METHODOLOGIES, WHICH WILL BE DEPLOYED IN THIS PROJECT. MOREOVER, IN PART B PLANARITY, TRANSPARENCY, AND SIMULTANEITY WILL BE PRESENTED AS STAGES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF 2.5D PRESENTATION.
Between The Planarity
Experiment : How 2.5 Dimensions Are Made Originally, planarity focuses on the similarity of cubism painting and architecture on plane. In this research, however, it focuses on 2.5D, which relates to the gap between flat and uneven surfaces. Hence, the name of the methodology should be changed to “between the planarity”. “Between the planarity” can be seen as a transformation process from 2D to 3D and vice-versa, which may be able to find necessary factors in order to create a 2.5D presentation. In the paragraph below, this process will be explored through the pattern, the model, and the projection.
Basically, 2.5D is a kind of 2D, which includes the characteristics of 3D. The beginning of the experiment will focus on how to make 2.5D from 2D. In this step of the research, the toy Mikro Man-Autogiro is used and featured the fact that it can become a 3D autogiro from a folded piece of 2D metal model. The process from 2D to 3D model is shown below in five stages from a to e step by step. Especially in the stage d of this transformation, the left and right sides seem to complete the 3D models. However, there is nothing behind them. Hence, the stage d can be seen as a 2.5D presentation. One of the significant actions in making 2.5D is to break the plane of 2D with folding or Z axis movement to create different gaps of depth (Z axis) between each piece of pattern and image. Break means to divide the same plane of images into different depths. Therefore, these outlines of patterns and images can be seen as the boundaries to divide themselves and the others, and then transformed into different depths. Consequently, the break, the depths and the outlines could be the significant factors for generating 2.5D presentation.
The second step is to create a way of breaking the rationality of space in vision with outline to impact the original status of space be different. The status could be the surroundings, the shape, or the relation between the space and the object. The outline of the toy needs to be made as illustrated in order to build the 3D Mikro Man-Autogiro and is made for specific reason and purpose. In terms of 2.5D presentation in space, the definition of outline may be different which will be discussed in the following section.
e The Folding Process of Autogiro
Three Experiments of Breaking and Occupation
This part of research starts from breaking the shape of autogiro to create the new forms so that the spaceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s statue will be changed. The autogiro as a 3D object is built by many 2D metals, and each piece has a specific function for construction. Hence, by destroying the original shape in order to reorganise the objects is the way to generate the new extraordinary shape when occupying the space that may be able to change the original spatial status. It could probably also give the opportunity to break the rationality of space. The occupation focuses on the influence of the impact in space. Thus, the method of occupation can be presented in several different ways.
Experiment One -
In this stage is to use some parts of autogiro patterns as the units to organise and extend the depth of the 2D images. The purpose of this experiment is to test the possibility after breaking model with pattern in 2D presentation. As can be seen in a, b, and c, each image is made by many pieces of the same pattern with geometric series creating the depth of perspective. The other three images below (aa, bb, cc) are organised respectively, in which the left-side images mirrors the right-side images. Both side images are put toward the centre to make the depth of perspective. In the 2D presentation, using the geometric series with scales and directions can also generate the 2D spatial depth without 3D presentation.
Spatial Depth of 2D Pattern
of the examples is the artist Gabriel Orozco who investigates the phenomenology of structures as the methodology to present his drawing. In the painting, he uses the symbol of circle as the unit to discuss the form between geometry and organic matter. Moreover, the series of circle and semi-circle are constructed with different types of scale making a spatial depth on 2D painting (Orozco, 2006). Obviously, the combination of scale and sequence could be one of the factors to make visual depth. However, it is still difficult to describe how to break the space in this part of research. The reason could be the pattern and the way of 2D presentation, shows strong and clear geographic images, leading to the difficulty of constructing the space development in depth. Thus, the next research focuses on the 3D model. Gabriel Orozco Samurai Tree 2U 2006
Experiment Two -
In the second experiment the first step is also to break the model in pieces and reorganise them. The reason of this reorganization is to create a new extraordinary shape and occupy the place to impact spatial status. The follow models 1, 2, and 3 show the transformation process out of the fragments of autogiro. The aim of the transformation is to make the form so different that the shape of autogiro cannot be recognised anymore. This process aims to challenge the meaning of autogiro as a toy. 5 After that, it can be defined as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;non-utilitarian constructions â&#x20AC;? before given a new meaning. Because the image of autogiro is too strong to be ignored as a toy, the transformation process can be released based on the original meaning. 5. Lodder C., Russian Constructivism, 1984, Yale, London, p1. The first non-utilitarian constructions in Russia were made by Vladimir Evgrafovic Tatlin in 1913, when he stopped creating two-dimensional compositions of painterly elements on the plane of the canvas and began experimenting with the construction of small three-dimensional objects made from materials such as metal, wood and glass.
MODEL 1 KEEP EVERY PIECE OF PATTERN IN THE SAME GROUP AND FOLD IT WITH DIFFERENT DIRECTION
MODEL 2 SEPARATE EVERY PATTERN FROM EVERY GROUP AND RECONSTRUCT THEM FROM INSIDE OF MODEL TO OUTSIDE
MODEL 3 COMBINE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FIRST AND SECOND MODELS TOGETHER AND REBUILD THEM THE FIRST MODEL AS A COVER IS TO SET AROUND THE SECOND MODEL
the occupation of model to impact the space may be able to find the new meaning and the purpose of model itself, and the relation between the model and the space. As can be seen from the figure on the left, Tatlin set up this counter-relief to occupy at the corner. “The whole construction is strung along an axial wire…..Two elegantly curving supports, one of which is made of thick metal with an arrowhead type of decoration, the other wire, from elegantly intersecting line as they suspend the construction between the two walls of the corner” (Lodder, 1983, p16). This part of descripV. Tatlin Corner Counter-Relief 1915 tion and the photo display how the structures of model connect with walls, as well as demonstrate a new relationship in the space between the model and the walls. The model does not just occupy the corner, but also its structure, which is inserted into the wall as a connector between the two walls and the model; and as a divider to split the corner, which impact and change the status of corner completely (Lodder, 1983).
second step is to locate the “non-utilitarian constructions” in somewhere, and try to change the status of the place. The site is located in front of the Anatomy Building, where there are pipeline space between the building and the street. This pipeline space shows a blur yet interesting relation among the ground floor, the basement, and the street. Therefore, the model may be able to make their relation clearer and closer, and also to use the pipeline space more effectively. The pipeline can be seen as an extended structure from the building. It divides and link these three places, and also been the stage of model. Therefore, the two points are chosen, as can be seen in the “site 1 and the site 2”, which are set up the models for occupying and impacting the situation of site. The models and the coordinators develop new alternatives to adjust the original relation between the building and the street with the extended construction. In site 1, the model is set to extend a stair connecting the basement and the street. The extended structure towards the building is a holder to hang the whole model. The model set as in site 2, is a bridge to link the building and the tree by the street with extend construction to impact the status of site.
this experiment and model do not really achieve the aim of making outline and breaking space. One of the problems could be the method of visualization. In terms of the relationships between site and the vision, the models have their weaknesses. In other words, the impact is not enough, which does not really affect the site significantly. The other reason could be the scales between the site and the model. The model could be too small to occupy the site. Thus, the site could not be appropriate for the model. Hence, the following experiment is going to investigate another method in order to solve the problems as discussed above.
Although it is possible to use the occupation of the model to impact the space, the model should be bigger, more complicated, and allowed to be applied in different way in order to occupy space. Therefore, the similar concept of organizing the model fragments is still applied.
Experiment Three -
The following two images will show how the perception of everyday object changes, together with the methods of construction and different scales in order to occupy the space, and the impact of spaceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s status. The model a and b named micro city are composed with everyday objects, which directly occupy the installation room (model a) and the gap under the table (model b) respectively with the extension of objects and constructions. The two models are developed as well as an imagining micro city, which has very huge objects and structures to organise the whole model as ground, including medium and tiny different type of objects of buildings or transports. The two models have completely impacted and changed the original status of space.
Every small fragmented object composes a one huge object based on the characteristics of city. The meanings of these tiny objects have been changed. The city occupies and continues to extend in the installation room where it has become a part of the city base.
Because of these objects occupy the space where people tend to ignore, the objects change and redefine the characteristic of the space. They also create the new relation the between objects and the place in which they have extended.
to the concept of imagining micro city is under the development, the model should not be seen as one big object. The way how the model should be seen is the same way of how people view the city as a series of fragments. This is why the micro camera is used instead of peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eyes when recording the visual fragments in this micro city. Through the same micro camera, the images will be projected on the wall in the studio. Nevertheless, there are two things would change due to the projection: one is the scale of the model in vision and another one is the image of the objects which is being projected on the wall in the studio. It is important to notice that the model is enlarged for matching the similar scale of the real environment that people are familiar with.
The Projection of Micro City with Four Different Perspectives of View
following two images display how the real space and the images from the projector can be blended together. As shown in figure on the left page, the new images are projected to cover the object on the wall with a powerful perspective, which seems to break the wall out of extend the depth of the studio. Some objects become difficult to be recognized while they also divide the images from the projector into several parts. Both images of projection and a part of studio are getting blurry and are difficult to be distinguished. For the figure on the right page, using the white line to redraw both outlines can make their shapes much clearer but much difficult to distinguish them between image and studio in vision. The projection seems to be a potential method to generate the outline when dividing and breaking the rationality of the space. The overlapped image could break the original status of the space in vision. Finally, from this experiment, the process of generating 2.5D produces an overlapped image, drawing the outlines, breaking the plane, and making the depth.
The Division of Actual Space and Projection with Stressing Outline
Experiment : Large Depth, Inserting Image The transparency as a methodology can be divided into two actions. The first one is to create a big gap in depths between the images in the model. The second one is to insert the image between these gaps from the right-hand side or left-hand side. The definition of transparency in this experiment is that two or more layered images can be seen in one perspective.
the final part of making the outline with the overlapping images, the following images will show a process of dividing studio image through above methods. There are nine fragments of image portrayed as overlapping the whole studio image. As can be seen from image a, the images are part of a small space near the studio which may be ignored by students who do not used it very often. The concept of relationship between the whole studio image and nine pieces of image is similar to the understanding of the known and unknown places in city. The perception of the studio image perceived by the students can be in the same perception of the city seen by people. The nine omitted images can be compared to the unknown places in the city where people have not yet seen. Therefore, these nine images are overlapped with the same points instead of a part of original studio images to break the spatial rationality of studio in vision. In image b, both parts of the outline are drawn to divide the plane. The orange lines divide the image into nine different parts and depths which are base on the distances between the nine images and the photographer. The image c is the final flattened studio image before it is transformed into a 2.5D model.
The Process of Outlining Studio
the nine images seem to be quite different from the original studio images, all of them matched together to make the model. Indeed, they need to be adjusted in depth in appropriate and perspective in order to display a more dynamic presentation. These four images show that the depth of gap between each piece of image is quite large, and it makes the 2.5D model more vivid whilst it offers more space to insert other images from other directions.
The New Depth and Construct Between Each Piece of Image
following sequence of images shows how the transparency is made by two layers of image. The three images, a, b, and c are inserted from the left-hand side into the back of studio image. The photographs were taken from outside of the studio. From one point of view, the model seems to give a partial inside and outside view of the studio simultaneously, which also breaks the limitation of 2D, planarity, and 3D; switching between different places. The â&#x20AC;&#x153;insertâ&#x20AC;? action could be one of the most significant influences and changes in the presentation of transparency.
The Inserted Images
Hoogstraten, Samuel van Peepshow 1655-1660 6. Peepshow, Available at: http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/cgi-bin/WebObjects.dll/CollectionPublisher.woa/wa/work?workNumber=NG3832 (Accessed 9th, June, 2009)
Simultaneity Experiment : Multiple Perspectives and Events
In general, simultaneity means two or more incidents happen at the same time. In this experiment, nevertheless, it can be defined as a presentation of multiple perspectives and events in one 3D model, so all views and events exist and present in one object at the same time. One of examples is the Peepshow box made by the Dutch painter Samuel van Hoogstraten between year 1655 and year 1660. In this rectangular box, the six sides of an interior are portrayed in a 2D house image. On the two short sides, there are peep-holes and through them people can see the illusion of 3 dimensional views of the interior. At least three different perspectives in the peepshow box present the vivid illusion of 3 D view simultaneously. Thus, multiple perspectives can be seen as a technique to present the model itself and reveal the method; through that, people can observe the model from different points of view. The event is a construction of programme describing what images are about, 6
and the relationship between each piece of image.
Tate Modern is chosen to carry out the experiment of the simultaneous presentation. As it is a contemporary museum and exhibition space, which is flexible, changeable and playful. It has much potential to hold a variety of exhibitions. The showrooms provide the spaces for multiple presentations of artists pointsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of view. These rooms can be seen as the units to present the multiple perspectives and a variety of events composing different aspects of Tate Modern. The following images show how a multiple perspective in one model is displayed. As can be seen from the image sequence a to image sequence c, three different perspectives are shown in different points of view. The black square frames point out the visual focus in different perspectives. The perspective of image a displays the first layer of interior, which also corresponds to one of the perspectives used by people to identify the Tate Modern. The image b is adjusted in front of the model, focused on the right-hand side box as it is set to display only in this particular angel perspective. There is a series of narrative events as a second layer of model set behind the first layer, which can only be seen specific angle in image c. In the process of observing models, all the perspectives and events are displayed at the same time, regardless the fact that whether the image is layered at the front or behind.
c Three Perspectives
process of visiting exhibitions can be seen as a process of series events. Therefore, the programme is going to be composed by different exhibitions. The motion of the programme in the Tate Modern is how the museum could be viewed differently in terms of exhibition aspects. Three quite different events are going to be shown in the following images to challenge the definition of the modern museum. The first event is a shepherd, shown in image a and b, which questions why most of exhibitions are often immovable and passive. In contrast to stable paintings and sculptures, the sheep moves around the museum creating an element of a dynamic exhibition. The image c represents the relationship between the needs and the art. The market and the food represent daily needs, which are displayed in the museum for comparisons. The last image d focuses on the value of museum in different circumstances. The vagrant, one of the lowest social classes, is taken as an example putting into the museum to question the existence value of the museum space and the sense of homelessness. All events also have their own perspectives to compose the images, which can be seen as the second layer of multiple perspectives. The, perspectives and the events are mixed together to present the simultaneity.
THROUGH THE THREE METHODOLOGIES, THE PROCESS OF GENERATING 2.5D PRESENTATION HAS BE FORMED IN A VERY SPECIFIC WAY. THE TATE MODERN MODEL IS A PROTOTYPE OF 2.5D PRESENTATION, WHICH DISPLAYS THE COMPOSITION OF THE THREE METHODOLOGIES. 59
24 Fragments of Journey The Experiment of Visual C nnecti n
6 Pieces of Model
Event City Image Experience Memory Imagination Narrative
Re-Representati n Ne -London Map
CONTINUING THE PREVIOUS RESULT FROM SECTION B, THE CONCEPT OF COMPOSITION WITH THREE METHODOLIGIES IS GOING TO BE APPLIED INTO LONDON, THE CITY OF MULTICULTURES AND ETHNICIYIES. THE CITY THAT PEOPLE RECOGNISE FROM THE CITY IMAGES INCLUDING ICONIC BUILDINGS, SEQUARES, STREETS, LANDSCAPES AND SO ON. ALL OF THEM ARE ORGANISED IN FRAGMENTS OF JOURNEY IN WHICH PEOPLE TRAVEL AROUND DAILY EITHER IN NORMAL OR VERY SPECIFIC WAYS. THESE FRAGMENTS COMPOSE THE CITY IMAGE IN PEOPLE’S MIND, WHICH GRADUALLY BECOMES THEIR EXPERIENCES AND MEMORIES. THEREFORE, THE JOURNEY WILL BE SET UP TO COLLECT AND 63
24 Fragments of Journey
There are 24 photographs representing 24 places respectively, which are chosen as the fragments of the spatial experience in London. The reason to choose 24 image is because the number 24 can be seen as a time unit such as 24 hours per day. For instance, someone can spend 24 hours in London moving between 24 different places and recording 24 different events or experience. In this context number 24 is the time base which record the duration of travel step by step. To be more specific, these 24 fragments of journey represent images of London.
COMPOSE THE CITY IMAGE OF LONDON. THE FOLLOWING RESEARCH FOCUSES ON HOW CAN THE MODEL OF 2.5D PRESENTATION BE MORE ACCURATE IN PRESENTING TRAVELERâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S EXPERIENCES IN THE CITY VIA THE SERIES OF FRAGMENT IMAGES.
The following diagram reveals the travel duration of original and new relationships between the 24 places and events. For the start, every place has its event happening and all of them have no relation with each other; however, the event can be recognised as a element or a bridge that connects and links different places together depend on the features of place in images. The purpose is to create a new relation between each place and also break the order of the original links throughout the journey. Therefore, there is more than one order and directions to follow this journey. All the photos are put in the same location in the presentation of the map while the connection of lines and arrows indicate a new option of traveling order from the indication of these photos. These lines and arrows compose a new relationship between places, which is going to be shown in a 2.5D model.
The Relative Diagram of 24 Places
The Experiment of
According to the diagrams above, some of images are chosen to be putted together for constructing a 2.5D visual connection. In order to create visual connection, all images and angles of the viewpoint need to be designed. In other words, the constructed images will affect the way how people experience the 2.5D model.
From the images a to the image f, each image demonstrate various spaces can be connected through the mediums of gap of windows, doors, and walls; the images also reflect the methods of breaking plane and contributing transparency. The reason why they connect is related to the concept of spatial experience travelling in the city. These images, as a place and event in the city, represent the fragments of peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s memory. Memories are recalled partly as each piece is similar to these images, which are constructed from the broken doors, windows, and walls in vision. These architectural elements are divided between the inside and outside space, which can also be seen as interface that connect both. The image a is constructed by five different places to present a new relationship of urban landscape among them in vision.
The Visual Connecton Among Images
Images b to the image f present a visual switch and connection from one image shifting to another through the gaps. Visually, this way of presentation reflects the reality of spatial depth and perspective, as well as breaks the limitation of 2 dimensions and 3 dimensions. Moreover, it gives opportunities for people to re-observing the city. All new constructed images are put in purpose with different perspectives and scales, which build a new dynamic urban geography in vision.
The Visual Connecton Among Images
6 Pieces of Model Event City Image Experience Memory Imagination Narrative
Continuing the previous part of the building model technique, there are five places being focused, including SOHO, COVENT GARDEN, BOROUGH FOOD MARKET, SHOREDICH, and CAMDEN TOWN. Each place contains strong features for people to recognise them immediately. They are chosen from the 24 places, which are mentioned above for displaying the 2.5D model research. The images are recorded from the five places, revealing each specific event and styles to make the places to be viewed uniquely and differently from other places in London. These images can be seen as a part of process and memory throughout the journey. When people recall their memories, it is difficult to describe exactly what experiences they have in their moment of journey. The imagination, the city image, and the experience of journey could probably support people to share their travel memory in descriptions, and that could also be a series of adventurous narrative. In other words, based on travelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s memories, these images should be shown in different ways to re-represent what these places may look like from their memory.
The following 6 pieces of model demonstrate a viewpoint of what events could happen instead of original memories, experiences, imaginations, and city images occurred during the journeys. All models are produced in the same situation in terms of spatial status and the original image while people including in the events are changed. This difference is the gap of memory and reality. All new events are produced and decided depending on the original environment features of place. To be more specific, new events use the same condition of place to re-display how people would review the places where are used to be and familiar to them. Therefore, in terms of narrative and photography, the theatre technique such as spot light, colourful light, and smoky effects to create partially real atmosphere in order to transform the paper models into semi-real site views rather than the original site views.
Soho is one of the most popular areas in London. There are many shops selling sexual products around this place. Actually, sex is one of the human desires and instinct in nature, as well as peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s need in food and water every day. Therefore, food and other related elements such as animal, market, farm, and restaurant are applied as the necessity of rebuilding the part of Soho rather than the original shops. The commercial behavior of selling food for people can be seen as selling flesh for hunger in Soho. As can be seen from below, two models show one of the most famous streets in Soho with left-side and right-side street surface. Instead of original events occur around the surroundings, all shops are rebuilt in the same positions while other elements related to food are constructed to fill other space.
BOROUGH FOOD MARKET
The huge-scaled green roof and long paths are always the features of Borough food market. People follow the crowd and walk slowly along the direction of these paths. It is similar to carnival, and the products in market seem to be the performers. Thus, the elements of carnival and parade such as big balloons, dancers, bands, and the variety of performances are put into the model rather than the crowds and products.
Covent Garden can be seen as a large shopping centre focuses on consuming products such as clothes, shoes, and body care products. These goods represent parts of human bodies; in other word, they display what a beautiful woman and a handsome man should look like, which can be defined as human body performance and show. Therefore, all things about the concept of body show are added into the model.
Camden Town market is one of a very special and hippy area, where it reveals its unique style element and how it differs from other markets in London. There are over-exaggerated statues hanging on the walls to shock people and inspire their imagination. As can be seen from the following model, huge scale of the half-body, the scorpion, and the dragon seem to attack passersby. The idea of war is used for putting into the model including soldiers and army. Moreover, all of these soldiers are statues for matching the same situation of statues on the walls. Hence, it can be seen as the war of statues between human and monster.
Shoredich is an area where it has a lot of daubs in central London. For some people, daub can be seen as a sort of pollution especially showing in their communities and private places. For these painters, however, they call daub art or the communication of emotion from mind. The arguments in both side opinions are the conflict of environment and the occupation in use between public and private space and property. Therefore, the model is used to match this idea of conflict between public and private property as the main point to rebuild. From the beginning of painting, occupying and removing the wall, and finally selling the paints on the wall, are the elements of fight like police and public, which are inserted into the model to reproduce the different viewpoint in this place and the value of daub.
These 6 pieces of 2.5D model above are made from travelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s imagination, experience, and memory, in which the photographs were taken as if the real events happening in the site; in other words, the events in the models did not really happen. The images of travel were taken by traveler as the memory or souvenir and then are made into visual models, which can be seen as a process that taking away from reality and actual places, as can be seen and reproduced in illusion. Therefore, these visual models need to be related back to the reality in order to realise their visualisation of the travel description, which means they are supportive to be inserted back to the real sites.
As can be seen from the following six images, the six models were collaged back to the real places, and set up the heights and perspectives in the position as if what people would see in the real sites. Moreover, some real objects were also collaged into or being positioned to the models nearby, which are as a part of real imagination of the situation. The objects are inserted between the camera and the model as foregrounds whereas the models will be the middle ground, and the view from the real sites will be the background. One of the reasons for inserting the objects is to make the models look more real when people see them. Another reason is to stress the delusion of models from weird events, which would make themselves playful, more dynamic, and unrecognisable between real sites and added models. Lastly, reframed all the things together with six images respectively. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Reframingâ&#x20AC;? transferred the models into situation models because these models represent the real situation that happening in the actual sites, which also displaced the original streets and events. The photographs capture and record everything including real site, model, and object into a 2D flat image throughout the journey accordingly. After reframing, these six new images are the re-representation in fragments, which embedded travelerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s memories of London.
Site : Soho Date : 7th August 2009 Time : 10:25 Object : Roast Duck
Site : Soho Date : 7th August 2009 Time : 10:33 Object : Dish, Chopsticks, Smoked Bacon
Site : Borough Food Market Date : 7th August 2009 Time : 17:10 Object : Carnival Mask
Site : Covent Garden Date : 7th August 2009 Time : 12:08 Object : Frame, Barbie Dollâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Lags
Site : Camden Town Date : 8th August 2009 Time : 15:20 Object : Fly
Site : Shoredich Date : 8th August 2009 Time : 13:48 Object : Window
After reframing the images, for traveler, London has been different from what they see originally. New London exists in travelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s memory just like above six images. Thus, it needs to be reproduced in vision. The following five images demonstrate a neo-London map with 2.5D presentation representing a description of journey, which is an interface connecting travelerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s memory throughout his or her journey and which also involved audience. It represents some parts of place where people are familiar with and some parts of personal observations from London.
map is chosen as the way of presentation in vision because it is one of the simplest tools and languages to represent urban geometry.
the one hand, the map can be seen as a recorder to trace process of journey and reveals each place simultaneously, which could be an appropriate way for travelers to describe the journey in vivid vision.
the other hand, the concept of map reflects the initial issue of Naked City and the argument of how people can more accurate in visuailsing their travel experience when they are describing the city, the space, and the event.
six images including five places are reproduced with 2.5D presentation and put together as a huge map. As a new London map, the visual connection between each place and model need to be taken into consideration.
this reason, some models are divided into several parts composing with other models while some of them are pulled out or enlarged in scale, as well as some of them are mixed together with images, materials, and objects. The whole map is constructed by fragments of events, spaces, and multiple perspectives with travelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s imagination of London image.
THE CITY CAN BE A DYNAMIC AND INTERESTING PLAYGROUND DEPENDS ON HOW PEOPLE ENGAGE AND EXPERIENCE IT. AS THE PREVIOUS PRESENTATION IN THIS EXPERIMENT, THE MAP IS JUST A CURRENT STEP, AND IT COULD BE EXPLORED AND EXTENDED FURTHER. ALSO, AS THE WAY OF PRESENTING 2.5 DIMENSIONS, IT IS A SUGGESTION OF WHAT PEOPLE MAY USE DIFFERENT WAY OR VIEWPOINT TO OBSERVE THE CITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT. NEO-LONDON MAP CAN BE SEEN AS A PROTOTYPE AND EXAMPLE IN THIS RESEARCH. DIFFERENT FRAGMENTS, PERSPECTIVES, 94
IMAGES, AND OBJECTS COULD LEAD TO DIFFERENT RESULTS COMPLETELY, WHICH CAN ALSO BE APPLIED IN DIFFERENT CITIES AND PLACES. THE SIGNIFICANT POINT IS TO GO THROUGH ALL THESE METHODOLOGIES OF OBSERVATION; THERE MAY BE OPPORTUNITIES TO FIND POSSIBILITIES IN ORDER TO CREATE AN ARCHITECTURAL WAY THAT THE NORMAL WAY CANNOT SEE. THIS IS TO ESTABLISH THE PERSONAL VIEWPOINTS IN ARCHITECTURAL LANGUAGE AS A FOUNDATION TO GENERATE THE FUTURE OF ARCHITECTURES. 95
Bibliography Book Ades,D. Cox, N. & Hopkins, D. 1999. Marcel Duchamp, Thames and Hudson Ltd, London Arendt, H. 1958. The Human Codition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press Boym, S. 2008. Architecture of the Off-Modern, Princeton Architectural Press, New York Elderfield, J. 1985. Kurt Schwitters, Thames and Hudson Ltd, London Evans R. 1995, The Projective Cast, MIT, Cambridge Ford, S. 2005. The Situationist International- A User’s Guide, Black Dog Publishing, London Giedion S. 1941, Space, Time and Architecture, Harvard, London Grant, K. 2005. Surrealism and the visiual art- Theory and Reception , Cambridge Lodder C., 1983, Russian Constructivism, Yale, London McDonough T. 2002, Guy Debord and the Situationist International, , October, London Mical, T. 2005. Surrealism and Architecture, Routledge Pile, S. n.d. The Unknown City. In: I. Borden, eds. 2001. The Unknown City, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Schimmel, P. 2003. Gregor Schneider, Edizioni Charta, Milano
Exhibition Subversive space – Surrealism + Contemporary Art, 7 February 2009 – 4 May 2009, Manchester, UK Supertoys, November 2008 – January 2009, Bristol, UK
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Available at: www.whitecube.com/img/artworks/1524/t2/st-2u.jpg
Picasso, 1911-1912 Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ArlĂŠsienne, don
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Acknowledgement I would like to say thanks to my MArch tutor Stuart Munro especially for his passion and patience. As a tutor, he did things more than I expected. Most importantly, he enlightened and inspired me to reconsider what is the architecture to me and even more than just the architecture itself. From his teaching, I learned how to do observation and research with variety of methods and references; not only in architecture but also in art and technology. After the training throughout this year, my visions are totally opened and flexibly broaden. I also would like to thank my language course tutor Hayley Gewer, who supported and encouraged me both in languages and as a friend. Last but not the least, to my dear family and the church, who always pray for me and take care of my life in London. Also thanks to Bartlett tutors Shaun Murray, Phil Watson, Nic Clear, Andrew Porter, course director Neil Spiller, and my dear friends Eva, Sara, Darell, Jim, Jeff, Patti, Linzi, Mei, Yorgos, Stephenson, Hyun Jun, Camila, Jack and Shin. Without your support and help, I would never accomplish the goals. Thanks to God, you brought me here and poured your grace and strength to cover me going through the whole year.
a suggestible method of re-observing city