Masdar Takes a Pulse

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Masdar Takes a Pulse Yasmine Abbas


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The research found that: Europeans and North Americans demonstrate the highest levels of awareness and understanding of environmental issues followed by Asians, while both local and expat Arabs have the lowest levels (see figure 1). Moving to the UAE often leads to a change in social status, coupled with a higher consumption rate. The urban infrastructure of the Emirates does not encourage healthy living. Mobility, seen as an amenity to living in the UAE, takes a toll on the environment. ‘Green’ planting is highly desirable due to its

marketing success, but it is simultaneously confused as being environmentally friendly. (The general population tends to forget that planting increases stress on the water supply.) The study found that respondents do not find their current lifestyles compatible with an environmentally friendly lifestyle. How they perceive environmentally friendly – relaxing, stress-free, healthy environment – had little connection to their current lifestyle – fast-paced, hectic but progressive. Residents in the UAE, however, wish for the best of both worlds and this represents a huge opportunity for Masdar City to deliver an urban development that meets human needs and and current expectations. As the research has highlighted, it is even more important that Masdar City makes its objectives the aspirations of its residents by raising their awareness – particularly that of Arabs and Asians – on environmental issues. Respondents have expressed their need to feel a part of the making of the city. Masdar City will respond to that need by calling UAE residents to invest time and talent into the making of their Masdar City. It is therefore essential to comprehend the barriers people have of new concepts and product. This is where, from a social perspective, Masdar City is leading the way in the UAE: by involving residents of the country in the making of their living environment. This study is an implicit first step.

Al Manakh 2

If the principles that have driven Masdar City are to be embraced, then UAE residents first have to comprehend, and then be willing to pursue, the concept of sustainability. Masdar will only work if its plan is understood as one of many ways to achieve sustainability. Furthermore, with approximately 80% of the UAE’s population coming from abroad, there is greater complication in broadcasting the principles of sustainability; there have to be various methods to communicate with many cultures and nationalities. In order to engage with different communities in the UAE, the sustainability team at Masdar Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company (ADFEC) has looked at the reasons why people are not behaving sustainably. The methodology, a mix of quantitative and qualitative techniques, included: an online survey with 351 respondents, 4 focus groups with 6 to 7 respondents each, 10 home visits, 6 individual interviews (with students, researchers, experts and company managers who are studying, researching, or working in environmental fields), and finally 43 face-to-face surveys with professionals working in environmental fields within the UAE. We fielded opinions on various design aspects of Masdar City; for example, how did people react to the fact that Masdar City is a car-free city?




Conflicts in the Middle East

Education Healthcare


Nuclear Weapons

War on Terrorism

Human Rights Family Values

Global Financial Crisis Natural Disasters

Cultural Heritage / Tradition



Volume 23

Tool used for ADFEC’s fielding of opinions in local surveys.

Cambridge, USA

Amsterdam, Netherlands

Gareth Doherty

Irma Boom

Stephen Ramos

Lilet Breddels Sonja Haller

New Haven, USA

Jonathan Hanahan

Joyce Hsiang

Rory Hyde

Bimal Mendis

Timothy Moore Arjen Oosterman

Vancouver, Canada

Todd Reisz

Larry Beasley Rotterdam, Netherlands Iyad Alsaka New York, USA

Ole Bouman

Negar Azimi

Sandra Bsat

Aleksandr Bierig

Reinier de Graaf

Yukiko Bowman Jeffrey Inaba

Rem Koolhaas

Marisa Mazria Katz

Ronald Wall

Huib van der Werf

Benedict Clouette Julianne Gola

London, UK Lucy Bullivant

San Franscisco, USA

Ahmed Dailami

Jim Heid Berlin, Germany Miami, USA

Vesta Zareh

AndrĂŠs Duany Stuttgart, Germany Bodo Rasch Athens, Greece Yiannis Hadjiaslanis Beirut, Lebanon Mayssa Fattouh Rami Abou-Khalil

Cairo, Egypt Mostafa Hossam Hugh Miles Dammam, Saudi Arabia Mashary al Naim Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Ziad Aazam Mai al Jadawi Reda Sijiny Redwan Zaouk Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Mohamed Abdel Rahman Muna Abu-Sulayman Madeha Al Ajroush AbdulAziz Aldukheil Saleh AlHathloul Ahmed Al-Omran Ali Bahammam Mohammad Balobaid Shady Fanous Carol Fleming Al-Ajroush Laith Sadeldin Mike Scott Philip Thigpen

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Hisham Ziard

Tokyo, Japan Kayoko Ota Beijing, China Jiang Jun Tehran, Iran Azadeh Mushayekhi Kuwait Farah Al-Nakib Shafeeq Ghabra Tim Koehn Yasser Mahgoub Jasmine Melvin-Koushki

Manama, Bahrain Sheyma Buali Jennifer Childs Mohamed Duaij Al Khalifa Rashad Faraj Faisal Fulad Bayan Kanoo Nicholas Kothari Digby Lidstone Doha, Qatar Mohamad Ali Abdullah Noha Aboueldahab Hady Amr Rami el Samahy Kelly Hutzell Roger Mandle Sharjah, UAE Salem F. Al Qassimi Sean S. Anderson Kevin Mitchell Al Ain, UAE Fatima Al Dhahiri Khaled Adham Dubai, UAE

Istanbul, Turkey Emre Alt端rk Abu Dhabi, UAE Yasmine Abbas Falah Al Ahbabi

Anuscha Ahmed Ahmed Al Ali Mishaal Al Gergawi Reem Al Ghaith Joumana al Jabri Sultan Sooud Al Qassemi Alia al Sabi

Hamda al Kindi

Miguel Araujo Faria

Salem K. Al Qassimi

Bushra Badri

Natalie al Shami

Daniel Camara

Jody Andrews

Antonia Carver

Holley Chant

Philip Corfield-Smith Racha Daher

John Gravois Lia Gudaitis Bradley Hope Uwe Nienstedt Alamira Reem Al Ayedrous Volker Soppelsa Neil Mallen Michael White

Tabitha Decker Farid Esmaeil Katrin Greiling Lamees Hamdan Khalid Howladar Sara Kassa Sachin Kerur Faisal Khan Matein Khan

Mumbai, India

Khulood Khoory

Sahil Latheef

Nawal Khoory

Calicut, India

Shajahan Madampat

Challakkara Abdul Latif

Elham Namvar

Hafiz Mohammed

Mathan Ramaiah

Mitra Khoubrou

Brian Salter Trivandrum, India

Maria-Luise Schulze

Venu Vasudevan

Jagmeet Singh Bola Sven Van Loon

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Luca Vigliero

Suetlin Lo

Bernhard Zand

Wonthaggi, Australia


Volume 23

Dr. Fiona Hill

Ziad Aazam holds a Doctorate Degree in Architecture in the field of space and society from Cardiff University in the UK. He practiced architecture in Honolulu and Jeddah, and is currently involved with Jeddah strategic projects while engaged in teaching and writing activities. Yasmine Abbas is a French DPLG architect, holds a Master of Science in Architecture Studies (SMArchS 2001) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Doctor of Design (DDes 2006) from Harvard University Graduate School of Design. Sahil Abdul Latheef is an architect who grew up in Dubai. He is currently a part of the architecture team at Space Matrix Design Consultants, Mumbai, and visiting faculty at the Balwant Sheth School of Architecture, Mumbai. Noha Aboueldahab is the senior research assistant at the Brookings Doha Center. Previously, she was Outreach Liaison for the Middle East, North Africa and Europe at the Coalition for the International Criminal Court in New York. She has also consulted for the United Nations since 2004. Khaled Adham is an assistant professor at UAE University.

Rami el Samahy and Kelly Hutzell are both practitioners and professors of architecture and urban design. Their firm, over,under, has worked on a number of projects in the region, from interior design to architecture to master plans. Carol Fleming Al-Ajroush was an American diplomat for twenty years until she married her Saudi husband. She now specializes in international relations, public diplomacy and public relations. Mishaal Al Gergawi is an Emirati commentator that publishes regularly on regional and various affairs of interest. He is primarily interested in analyzing, and contributing to the improvement of the state of civic development in the Gulf. He has worked in the financial and public service sectors. Shafeeq Ghabra is Professor of Political Science at Kuwait University and Founder and President of Jusoor Arabiya consultancy. Shafeeq Ghabra is now completing his sixth book (a personal narrative) explaining the Arab World of the 1960s and 1970s.

H.E. Falah Al Ahbabi is General Manager of the Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC). In this role, he oversees the management and implementation of the Plan Capital 2030 Urban Structure Framework Plan, Al Ain City Urban Structure Framework Plan, the soon to be launched Plan Al Gharbia 2030 Regional Structure Framework Plan and Plan Al Ain Regional Structure Framework Plan. Prior to the UPC, Al Ahbabi worked with the Mubadala Development Company to establish the first helicopter academy in the Middle East, as well as launching a satellite to serve the region. Al Ahbabi holds a degree in Management from the California State University.

Reem Al Ghaith is an artist and poet working from Dubai.

Madeha Al Ajroush is a professional psychotherapist with her own private practice in Riyadh. She is a graduate of Columbia University. She has done extensive training in the field of psychotherapy for adults and play-therapy for children. Madeha’s passion and second profession is photography.

Lia Gudaitis is a master planner and project manager with several years of experience in Canada, Ghana and Abu Dhabi.

Mohamad Ali Abdullah is an artist, a preservationist and a writer of children’s books. He has published his research on ornament in the Gulf and has been the designer and project manager for several comprehensive preservation projects in Qatar. Farah Al-Nakib is a Ph.D. candidate and teaching fellow in the Department of History at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, undertaking research on the modern urban history of Kuwait City (1896-1990). Emre Altürk is an architect and an assistant professor at TU Delft. Hady Amr is the founding director of the Brookings Doha Center and a fellow at the Saban Center for Middle East Policy at Brookings. He is the author of the recent Brookings report, ‘The Opportunity of the Obama Era: Can Civil Society Help Bridge Divides between the United States and a Diverse Muslim World?’ Sean S. Anderson is a practicing architect and historian of art and architecture. Widely published in international journals, Sean’s first book, Flames of Devotion, was published by the University of Washington Press in 2006.

John Gravois is a senior editor at The Review. Katrin Greiling is a German-born contemporary furniture designer and interior architect. She has lived and worked in the UAE for the past two years, exploring the region and learning from its culture – with the camera as her most important tool.

Jim Heid is Founder of UrbanGreen, a strategic consulting practice serving international land developers, governments and legacy NGO’s seeking advice for more sustainable land development. He has worked actively in Abu Dhabi as a participant in the Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 Workshops; Estidama advisor to the team drafting the Abu Dhabi Development Code; and as the principal author of the pilot version of the Pearls Design System for New Communities. Fiona Hill transitioned from archaeologist to anthropologist (in Syria), and went on to create her own business, Almanar Consultancy, devoted to better relations with and within the Arab region. Bradley Hope is a business reporter at The National newspaper and lead writer for the property blog Crane Country. He was formerly the police bureau chief and a feature writer at the New York Sun. He is the co-founder and an editor of the New York Moon, an experimental arts and journalism publication. Mostafa Hossam, a practicing Egyptian Architect, has worked in design firms in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, while publishing some books on the philosophy of architecture.

Negar Azimi is the senior editor at Bidoun, an arts and culture magazine based in New York.

Joyce Hsiang is a partner at Plan B Architecture and Urbanism and on the faculty at the Yale School of Architecture. She has led urban planning and design projects in Riyadh, Ras-al-Khaimah, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, London, Riga and St. Petersburg.

Bushra Badri, Elham Namvar, Khulood Khoory and Nawal Khoory, four members of a graphic design collective from Dubai, graduated from the American University of Sharjah in Visual Communications in 2008.

Joumana al Jabri is a knowledge and development architect practicing in the Gulf region. She is a co-founder of not-for-profit art and design organization, Febrik, collaborating in the Middle East and the UK.

Aleksandr Bierig is a writer based in New York City. His work has appeared in Architectural Record, Hunch and Log.

Jiang Jun is a designer, photographer and critic based in Guangzhou. He is the editor-in-chief of Urban China and Founder of Underline Office.

Sheyma Buali is a freelance writer and independent researcher from Bahrain. Her focus on the Gulf looks at spaces as social documentation.

Sachin Kerur is Head of Pinsent Masons’ offices in the UAE. He advises the government and private sectors upon privatized and publicly procured developments and infrastructure, particularly in emerging markets.

Lucy Bullivant is an architectural curator, critic and author located in London. Antonia Carver is the editor-at-large at Bidoun based in Dubai. Holley Chant is Corporate Sustainability Director at KEO International Consultants. Previously, she consulted on sustainability strategy and green business development with Tawreed in the Emirates.


Gareth Doherty is a Ph.D. candidate at Harvard University Graduate School of Design. He is a co–editor of Ecological Urbanism, published by Lars Müller Publishers in 2010. He is a founding editor of New Geographies journal.

Matein Khalid is Head of Capital Markets and Advisor to the Chairman, Bin Zayed Group. He is also the Chief Investment Officer of Salama, the world’s largest listed (takaful) Islamic insurance company. He manages the Group’s global equities portfolios in the US, Russia, Latin America, Europe and the Far East.

Philip Cornfield-Smith works for the Property Group of law firm Pinsent Masons in Dubai.

Hamda Al Kindi works as an assistant information specialist at the Abu Dhabi Council for Economic Development (ADCED), which is a government advisory council.

Tabitha Decker is a graduate student in the Department of Sociology at Yale University and a visiting scholar at the Dubai School of Government. Tabitha’s interest in Dubai’s urban life began in 2001 when she visited the emirate as a Thomas J. Watson Fellow to conduct a comparative study of women taxi drivers around the world.

Tim Koehn is a freelance writer and teacher of English Literature at the American International School of Kuwait. He is invigorated by living in a culture not his own. So far, his wanderlust has not been exhausted and it takes him throughout the Middle East and as many other regions as possible.

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Nicholas Kothari is an architect and writer currently based in Bahrain and working on civic projects in Saudi Arabia. He is a co-founder of the New York based design company VERSA. As an educator, he has taught at Columbia University GSAPP.

Mike Scott is Chief Operating Officer at Saudi Home Loans. He resides in Riyadh.

Digby Lidstone is a freelance journalist and Bahrain correspondent for the Financial Times. He has covered the Middle East for over a decade, specializing in business and regional politics.

Reda Sijiny is a partner at urbanphenomena in Jeddah, and Advisor for Al Manakh 2.

Suetlin Lo is Co-Founder and Vice-President of GQ1 Group of Companies, a value-added management solutions developer for sustainable development and CSR programs in six main industries: agriculture, education, healthcare, housing, tourism and energy. Shajahan Madampat is a writer from Kerala presently working in Dubai. His email address is Yasser Mahgoub is an assistant professor of Architecture at Kuwait University. He has taught at Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt from 1978 to 1993; United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE from 1993 to 1999; and Kuwait University from 1999 to the present. Neil Mallen presently serves as Planning Manager – Environment, for the Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC). Prior to taking his position with the UPC, Neil was Vice President of Project Development for the Vancouver-based Resource Group. Roger Mandle is Executive Director of the Qatar Museums Authority. Marisa Mazria Katz is a freelance writer and a contributing editor for Art Asia Pacific.

Natalie al Shami is an architect based in Abu Dhabi.

Volker Soppelsa manages environmental sustainability policy and strategy development at the Environment Agency in Abu Dhabi. Volker spent a large part of his career with PricewaterhouseCoopers. Prior to joining the Environment Agency, Volker was Managing Director of Align Consulting, advising clients in the UAE Oil & Gas sector and CFO for a number of organizations. Philip Thigpen is Treasurer and Head of Capital Markets at Saudi Home Loans. He resides in Riyadh. X-Architects, founded in 2003 in Dubai by Ahmed Al-Ali and Farid Esmaeil, operates a critical design approach that recognizes the inherent complexity in building and construction; they harnesses this complexity to produce projects that are robust and adaptable. Ronald Wall is an urban planner, and holds a doctorate in economic geography. He has worked for Erasmus University, OMA, West 8, MVRDV and the Rijksplanbureau. Between 2001 and 2009, he has been professor in urban planning at the Berlage Institute and the Rotterdam and Amsterdam Academies of Architecture and Urban Planning. Bernhard Zand is the Gulf and Middle East correspondent for Der Spiegel.

Bimal Mendis is a partner at Plan B Architecture and Urbanism and the Assistant Dean at the Yale School of Architecture. As a project manager at OMA, he led the design for the Central Library at Education City in Qatar. Hugh Miles is a contributing editor of Arab Media and Society and the author of Al Jazeera: How Arab TV News Challenged the World. Kevin Mitchell is an associate professor of Architecture in the School of Architecture and Design and currently serves as Director of the Office of Graduate and Undergraduate Programs at the American University of Sharjah in the UAE. Mashary al Naim is a full professor at Dammam University, Saudi Arabia and a former chair of the Architecture Department. He is also serves as a senior editor of Albenaa magazine, and writes a weekly column in Al-Riyadh. Ahmed al Omran is a student at King Saud University in Riyadh, and grew up in Hassa in Saudi Arabia’s Eastern Province. He publishes two blogs, Saudi Jeans and Yawmyat. Kayoko Ota is an architecture curator and editor based in Tokyo and Rotterdam. She was a curator of the 2009 Shenzhen Hong Kong Biennale of Urbanism and Architecture. Kayoko Ota is currently working on a major retrospective book on Metabolism and the Japanese modernizing process since the 1950s with Rem Koolhaas and Hans Ulrich Obrist. Sultan Sooud Al Qassemi is a UAE based columnist whose articles have appeared in The National in Abu Dhabi, and the UK’s Financial Times, The Independent and The Guardian. Salem K. Al Qassimi is Associate Planner at the Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) within the Estidama initiative. Stephen Ramos is a post-doctoral fellow at Harvard’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. He is a founding editor of the journal New Geographies. His book, Dubai Amplified: Infrastructure and Territorial Development, is forthcoming on Ashgate Press. Alamira Reem Al Ayedrous is a Ph.D. student in City and Regional Planning at the University of California, Berkeley. Her work mainly focuses on urban form and development in the Arabian Gulf, and she is currently examining the evolution of Abu Dhabi (UAE) as a ‘contemporary expression of an Arab city’ for her proposed dissertation. Alia al Sabi graduated from the American University of Sharjah with a degree in Architecture and a minor in Philosophy. She is currently Projects Coordinator for Bidoun magazine’s curatorial wing, Bidoun Projects. Laith Sadeldin is Syrian, but was born and raised in Saudi Arabia. He is a sophomore majoring in City and Regional Planning at King Fahad University for Petroleum and Minerals. He has been skateboarding for four years and will continue to skate until he has no more knees to do it anymore.


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Brian Salter is a freelance journalist, currently based in the UAE, having lived in Saudi Arabia for nearly a decade. He has written a guide book to Riyadh and at one point his web site about the Saudi capital was one of the most visited internet sites in the Kingdom.

Credits Al Manakh is produced as a special issue of Volume VOLUME 23 Al Manakh 2 is a project by ARCHIS + AMO + C-Lab + NAi + Pink Tank Editorial team AMO Rem Koolhaas, Reinier de Graaf, Iyad Alsaka Archis Arjen Oosterman, Lilet Breddels NAi Ole Bouman Pink Tank Mitra Khoubrou, Daniel Camara

ARCHIS with Lilet Breddels, Christian Ernsten, Edwin Gardner, Bart Goldhoorn, Jonathan Hanahan, Rory Hyde, Timothy Moore, Arjen Oosterman AMO with Rem Koolhaas, Reinier de Graaf, Iyad Alsaka, Sandra Bsat NAi with Ole Bouman, Jorn Konijn, Huib van der Werf Pink Tank with Mitra Khoubrou, Daniel Camara C-Lab with Jeffrey Inaba, Yukiko Bowman, Benedict Clouette, Julianne Gola ARCHIS is the editorial engine behind Volume. As experimental think tank devoted to the process of real-time spatial and cultural reflexivity, Archis has three departments: Archis Interventions, Archis Publishers and Archis Tools.

Editor Todd Reisz

The editorial team would like to especially thank Ibrahim Abaalkhail, Hosam Al-Abdulkarim, Gregory Acker, Daniel Aitkenhead, Munira Ajlani, Ibrahim Aleid, Fahad Alsaid, Iyad Alsaka, Mina Anejar, Sami Angawi, Arab Urban Development Institute, Ali Bahammam, Nadia Bakhurji, Shatha Banihashim, Utpal Bhattacharya, Nora Bouzo, Jorge Camara, Claudia Cellini, Jean Philippe Coulaud, Phil Dalglish, Catherine David, Dan Dowding, Sami Eid, Mo Fadlallah, Rami Farook, Abdullah Al Fayez, Mayssa Fattouh, Bregtje van der Haak, Blair Hagkull, Marieke Hillen, Richard Hollington, Khalid Howladar, Mohammed Ibrahim, Eliza Ilyas, Hasan Al Jabri, Hassan Al Jabri, Fawz Kabra, Salwa Al Kawas Al Jabri, Ibrahim Mohamed Jaidah, Naser Al Junaibi, Bayan Kanoo, Fouad Kassem, Bashar Al Kawas, Usama Kurdi, Kathryn Lewis, Ghadeer Al Mansoori, Pamela Mar, Manjunath Masgodu, Sami El Masri, Mohamad Al Mazroa, Vudda Meach, Mariam Al-Muhairy, Shamma Al Nuaimi, Siham Nuseibeh, Zaki Nusseibeh, Kristina Nyzell, Alison Oliver, Charles Ooms, Hend Al Othaiba, Stephan Petermann, Point Supreme Architects, Shaikha Al Qubaisi, Roland Rahme, Budour Al Rashedi, Elizabeth Reisz, Sylvie Picard Renaut, Zakaria Rouzi, Abdallah Saleh, Francisco Sali, Brian Salter, Jassem al Sane, Aaditya Sarna, Tareq Sejini, Mohammed Sergie, Frederic Sicre, Rashid Shabib, Ahmed Shabib, Aysha Abu Shahab, Abdulaziz Al Shaikh, Jonathan Shainin, Anas Shawaf, Ibrahim Al Shaye, Anna Shefelbine, Basem Shihabi, Tom Speechely, Ibrahim Al Sultan Zahed Sultan, Amro Taibah, Nidhal Taibah, Abdallah Telmesani, Korinna von Trotha, P. Abdullah b Faisal b Turki, Janna Wagner, Faisal Al Warraq, James Westcott, Nancy Zabaneh, Ziad Zaydan Materialized by Irma Boom and Sonja Haller With contributions by Bushra Badri, Elham Namvar, Khulood Khoory, Nawal Khoory (City Reports, pp. 16–37) and Salem K. Al Qassimi (Arabic logo) Website Edwin Gardner, Rory Hyde, Golfstromen ( Administrative coordination Valérie Blom, Jessica Braun Marketing Al Manakh 2 Annemiek Bergmans Editorial office Volume/Archis Publishers PO Box 14702, 1001 LE Amsterdam, The Netherlands, T +31 (0)20 320 3926, F +31 (0)20 320 3927,, / Subscriptions Volume Bruil & Van de Staaij, PO Box 75, 7940 AB Meppel, The Netherlands, T +31 (0)522 261 303, F +31 (0)522 257 827,, Subscription rates 4 issues, € 75 Netherlands, € 91 Europe, $ 121 World, Students, € 60 Netherlands, € 73 World, Prices excl. VAT Cancellations policy Cancellation of subscription to be confirmed in writing one month before the end of the subscription period. Back-issues Back-issues of Volume and forerunner Archis are available through Bruil & van de Staaij, Advertising Valérie Blom,, For rates and details see:, click ‘info’ General distribution Idea Books, Nieuwe Herengracht 11, 1011 HR Amsterdam, The Netherlands, T +31 (0)20 622 6154, F +31 (0)20 620 9299, IPS Pressevertrieb GmbH, PO Box 1211, 53334 Meckenheim, Germany, T +49 2225 8801 0, F +49 2225 8801 199,

AMO is a research and design studio that applies architectural thinking to disciplines beyond the borders of architecture and urbanism. AMO operates in tandem with its companion company, the Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. NAi The Netherlands Architecture institute is archive, museum and platform for architecture. By way of its many events, it strives to engage people to cherish architectural creativity for its power to address the major issues of our time. The NAi positions architecture as the key to social, economical and cultural innovation and as an unmistaken force of optimism and the pursuit of the common good. Pink Tank is a specialized consultancy based in the UAE. It builds on its work over the past 5 years in the fields of business, knowledge and culture. Combining management and research experiences at the World Economic Forum, Dubai Holding and the cultural scene in Dubai, Pink Tank manages research and cultural projects of relevance to the Gulf.

Disclaimer The editors of Volume have been careful to contact all copyright holders of the images used. If you claim ownership of any of the images presented here, and have not been properly identified, please contact Volume and we will be happy to make a formal acknowledgement in a future issue. VOLUME / Al Manakh is published by Stichting Archis, The Netherlands and printed by Die Keure, Belgium VOLUME is supported by the Mondrian Foundation, Amsterdam ISSN 1574-9401, ISBN 978-90-77966-23-5 Copyright 2010 Stichting Archis and the authors

Al Manakh 2 was produced under the exclusive sponsorship of the Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council, Abu Dhabi

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Text editor Timothy Moore Editorial researchers Sandra Bsat (AMO), Jonathan Hanahan, Rory Hyde (Archis) Regional advisor Joumana al Jabri (KSA) English copy editing David Lee, Timothy Moore Transcription and translation Anna Shefelbine