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India and Modern Olympic Games Neeraj Kumar Mehra Department of Physical Education Delhi University, Delhi

Manish Kumar Vats Department of Physical Education Delhi University, Delhi

Abstract The history of India in promotion of Olympic values throughout the country has started long time back when it was the first Asian country to participate in 1900 Olympic Games in Paris. It has participated continuously since 1920 in all Olympic Games. India has successfully hosted various international games like Asian Games, Afro Asian Games, Youth Commonwealth Games, World Military Games, South Asian Games, Commonwealth Games and many more. More than 15 times Olympic solidarity courses has organized in India by Indian Olympic Association in collaboration with International Olympic Committee and some other international organizations. There are various NGOs working in this field for the promotion of Olympic Sports and Olympic values in India. Olympic Runs and Olympic days are organized in different parts of the country from time to time. Key-Words : Physical Culture, Photo-Finish Cameras, OVEP. Sports in Indian History The history of sports in India dates back to the Vedic era. Physical culture in ancient India was fed by a powerful fuel: religious rites. There were some well-defined values like the mantra in the Atharva-Veda, saying,” Duty is in my right hand and the fruits of victory in my left”. In terms of an ideal, these words hold the same sentiments as the traditional Olympic oath: “For the Honour of my Country and the Glory of Sport. Traditional time: Traditionally, Indians have enjoyed various sporting activities and games. Sports history of India dates back to the Vedic era. Traces of the earliest sport activities such as hunting, swimming, boating, archery, horse riding, wrestling, martial arts, fishing and board games like chess, snakes and ladders etc can be seen from ancient bronze ware, paintings etc and finds mention in books such as the two great epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. The origin and development of sports activities are closely related with the work, defense and entertainment of the time. Records says that games like, Chess, Snakes and Ladders, Kabbadi, Kho-Kho, playing cards, martial arts of ‘Kalari Payattu’ etc had originated as a sport in India. Now the most popular sports in India are Cricket and Football. In fact, Cricket has become a way of life with Indians and India has an impressive track record in cricket. Traditionally a number of games were popular - Kho-Kho, Kabbadi, Gulli- Danda, Wrestling, camel race, Vallamkali (boat race), pachisi are a few amongst them. Sports during British period The first recorded game in India took place between Calcutta Club of Civilians’ and The Gentlemen of Barrackpore’ in 1854.

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The Durand Cup is the oldest football competition in India. It was started by Sir Mortimer Durand in Shimla. The Beighton Cup was the first hockey tournament organised in India in Kolkata in the year 1895. Another tournament, the Aga Khan Cup was started in the following year, 1896 and was organised in Bombay1

It was in 1903, nine years after the first Panjab University Sports Tournament was started, that the inter-college hockey competition was introduced. Indian Olympic Association IOA the apex Sports Organization of Olympic Sport in the country is responsible for the Indian contingent’s participation in the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games and South Asian Games. Each Olympic and Non-Olympic Sport has a separate federation at national levels which are affiliated/recognized to/ by IOA.2 Formation of Indian Olympic Association The founder Sh. G.D. Sondhi, the first Secretary of the Punjab Olympic Association. Lt.Col H.L.O. Garrett, vice principal of Government College, Lahore, was the President of the founder body. The Olympic movement in the country started in 1919 at the initiative of Dorabjee Jamshedji Tata, the well-known philanthropist who was the son of the founder of the famous Tata Steel Company. In 1919, Pune’s Deccan Gymkhana invited Sir George Lloyd, the then Governor of Bombay, where Dorabjee Tata made a suggestion for according a separate representation to British India in the 1920 Olympic Games. In 1920, India got direct affiliation to the International Olympic Committee and it sent six sportsmen — P.F. Chugle and A. Dattar (marathon and 10,000 m), K.Kaikadi (cross-country), P.C.Banerjee (440 yards), G. Navale and N. Shinde (wrestling) to the Antwerp Olympic Games. This brought India on the horizon of international sports. In the 1928 Olympics, India won its first-ever Olympic gold in hockey. In the same year, Maharaja of Patiala, Bhupendra Singh, and G.D. Sondhi were elected President and Secretary of the Indian Olympic Association, respectively, after both Dorabjee Tata and A.G. Neohren resigned. In 1932, when Dorabjee Tata died, G.D. Sondhi became a member of the International Olympic Committee in his place. Raja Bhalendra Singh and Ashwini Kumar were the other IOC members. It was again Patiala and G.D. Sondhi that paved the way for the first and the only Western Asiatic Games in New Delhi in 1934. After Maharaja Bhupendra Singh’s death in 1938, his son Yadavindra Singh was elected President.

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In 1938, G.D. Sondhi quit as secretary of IOA. This position came back to Punjab in 1957 when Ashwini Kumar was elected the secretary. In 1959, Raja Bhalendra Singh, father of Randhir Singh, became President of the IOA, and continued in office till the early ‘80s. Contribution of Indian Olympic Association to Indian Sports The selection of sportsmen is generally carried out on the basis of performance at national level. However, at times, special selection trials are also held to choose the competitors for participation in the Olympic Games and other international events. After initial selection, the competitors are required to attend training camps. The national federations are assisted by the Netaji Subhas National Institute of Sports, Patiala, which provides intensive training for athletes.3 The selected competitors are then recommended by the national federations to the IOA for official sponsorship for participation in the Olympic Games. A special feature of the Indian Olympic Association is that, in addition to the national federation for each sport, there are State Olympic Associations in various States in the country. The State bodies controlling the different sports are affiliated to the national federations and to the State Olympic Associations. The aim of the State Olympic Associations is to ensure the promotion of sports in their respective States, in conjunction with the State bodies for the different games and sports. The overall responsibility for participation in the Olympic Games rests with the Indian Olympic Association. The other responsibilities undertaken by the IOA are as follows: 1. Deciding the organisation of National Games 2. Maintaining liaison between the Government of India and member federations or associations 3. Protecting the amateur status of sportsmen 4. Promoting and developing the Olympic Movement4 The most important task in addition to sponsoring the National teams for Multi Sport Games is the staging the National Games.5 Indian Olympic Games (Early National Games) The Games were held every two years from 1924 as Indian Olympic Games and were renamed as National Games when they were first held in Bombay in 1940. Modern Olympic Games and India (1896-1952) India is an active participant in major world sports tournaments such as the Olympics, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games, SAF Games, Wimbledon and many others. 1896 Athens, Greece The very first modern Olympic Games were held in the first week of April 1896 at Panathenaic Stadium in Athens. The people of Athens greeted the Games with great enthusiasm. 6 Pole vaulting, sprints, shot put, weight lifting, swimming, cycling, target shooting, tennis, marathon and gymnastics were all events at the first Olympics. The swimming events were held in the Bay of Zea in the Aegean Sea. The American James Connolly won the triple jump to become the first Olympic champion in more than 1,500 years. Winners were awarded a silver medal and a crown of olive branches. There was no athlete participated from India. 1900 Paris The Games of 1900 were held in Paris as part of the Exposition Universelle Internationale - the Paris World’s fair. The years Olympics were poorly organized and poorly publicized, because of the fair. It was in this Olympic Games that women first participated as contestants. The first female champion was in tennis, Charlotte Cooper of Great Britain. In athletics, different nations competed on the same team in five categories. India first participated in Olympics in 1900 in Paris. The country was represented by Norman Pritchard, an Anglo

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Indian who was holidaying in Paris during that time. He bagged two silver medals in 200m. dash and 200m hurdles. 1904 St. Louis, USA The venue fixed at Chicago was later changed to St. Louis, to coincide with the city’s International Trade Fair. They were the first at which gold, silver and bronze medals were awarded for first, second and third place. Events like Boxing and freestyle wrestling were introduced for the first time. As the venue of the games was far away from Europe, international participants were comparatively less because of the huge distance and the expenses for the journey by ship. One of the most remarkable athletes was the American gymnast George Eyser, who won six medals even though his left leg was made of wood. There was no participant from India. 1908 London, Great Britain The 1908 Olympics originally awarded to Rome, were reassigned to London. At the Opening Ceremony, the athletes marched into the stadium by nation, as most countries sent selected national teams. It was in the 1908 Olympic Games that the exact distance of a marathon was established as 26 miles and 365 yards. Diving and field hockey was added to the events that year. No one from India has participated in these games 1912 Stockholm, Sweden The 1912 Olympics at Stockholm was very well organized. The Swedish hosts introduced the use of unofficial electronic timing devices for the track events, as well as the first use of a public address system. Boxing contests were banned in this Olympics. Women’s events in swimming and diving were introduced. The most popular hero of the 1912 Games was Jim Thorpe of the United States.7 Thorpe won the five-event pentathlon and shattered the world record in the ten-event decathlon. After the games, the International Olympic Committee decided to limit the power of host nations deciding the Olympic program. India did not participate in these games.8 1916 Berlin, Russia Though the 1916 Olympic Games were scheduled to be held in Berlin, World War I caused the Olympic Games to be cancelled. 1920 Antwerp, Belgium The 1920 Olympic Games followed soon after the ending of World War I. Since the war had ravaged throughout Europe, funding and materials for the Games was difficult to acquire. The numbers of spectators were very low, mainly because people could not afford tickets after the war. The Opening Ceremony was notable for the introduction of the Olympic flag and the presentation of the Athletes’ Oath. The United States turned in the best overall team performance, winning 41 gold medals. A 23-year-old distance runner Paavo Nurmi of Finland became the star of the games by winning 3 gold medals in the 10km and 8km cross country and cross-country team event. He also won silver in the 5km event. After a gap of 20 years India again participated with two athletes in 1920 Antwerp Olympics 1924 Paris, France At the 1924 Paris Games the number of participating nations jumped from 29 to 44, signaling widespread acceptance of the Olympics as a major event. Finnish runner Paavo Nurmi, won five gold medals to add to the three he had won in 1920. Women’s fencing made its debut as Ellen Osiier of Denmark earned the gold medal without losing a single bout. After much debate, winter sports were added to the Olympic Games this year. The winter events were held in January and February, creating a tradition that the winter events would be held a

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few months before the summer events. India participated with eight members in 1924 Paris Olympics. 1928 Amsterdam, Netherlands The Olympic flame was introduced at this Olympic Games. The track and field events and gymnastics for women were also introduced even though there was too much resistance to these additions. At the Opening Ceremony, the team from Greece led the Parade of Nations and the host Dutch team marched in last. Greece first, hosts last would become a permanent part of the Olympic protocol. For the first time, Asian athletes won gold medals. Mikio Oda of Japan won the triple jump, while his teammate, Yoshiyuki Tsuruta, won the 200m breaststroke. Official representation by India, was made in 1928 Amsterdam, with the formation of Indian Olympic Association in 1927.That year, Indian Hockey team participated in their first Olympic hockey event and won the gold medal under the captaincy of Jaipal Singh. 1932 Los Angeles, USA For a time being it seemed like that no one was going to attend the 1932 Olympic games as it was held in the middle of the ‘Great Depression’ and in the comparatively remote city of Los Angeles. Then a few Hollywood stars offered to entertain the crowd and ticket sales picked up. But the level of competition was extremely high and 18 world records were either broken or equaled. Los Angeles had constructed the very first Olympic Village for the Games which consists bungalows, hospital, post office, library and a large number of eating establishments. 1932 Olympic Games introduced the first photo-finish cameras as well as the victory platform. Finnish runner Paavo Nurmi, who had been one of the Olympic heroes in the past several Olympic Games, was considered to have turned professional and was not allowed to compete. Indian Hockey team participated in their second Olympic hockey event and won the gold medal . 1936 Berlin, Germany The 1936 Olympics, held in Berlin, are best remembered for Adolf Hitler’s failed attempt to use them to prove his theories of Aryan racial superiority. The Nazis saw the event as a way to promote their ideology. They built four grandiose stadiums, swimming pools, an outdoor theater, a polo field, and an Olympic Village that had 150 cottages for the male athletes. Throughout the Games, the Olympic complex was covered in Nazi banners. 1936 saw the introduction of the torch relay, in which a lighted torch is carried from Olympia to the site of the current Games. These Games were the first ones televised and were the first to use telex transmissions of the results. The most popular hero of the Games was the African-American sprinter and long jumper Jesse Owens, who won four gold medals.9 Indian Hockey team participated in their third Olympic hockey event and won the gold medal.

The Indian Hockey team at the 1936 Berlin Olympics, later going on to defeat Germany 8-1 in the final

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1940 Tokyo, Japan The 1940 Olympic Games were originally scheduled to be held in Tokyo, Japan. But the start of World War II in 1939 caused the Games to be cancelled.10 1944 The 1944 Olympic Games were also not held because of World War II. 1948 London, Great Britain The 1948 London Games were the first to be shown on home television. Though World War II was over, Europe was still ravaged from the war. To limit England’s responsibility to feed all the athletes, it was agreed that the participants would bring their own food. Surplus food was donated to British hospitals. Germany and Japan, the aggressors of World War II, were not invited to participate. Though there had been much debate as to whether or not to hold the 1948 Olympic Games, the Games turned out to be very popular and a great success. There were 69 nations participated with 4965 athletes in 149 events. Indian Hockey team participated in their fourth Olympic hockey event and won the gold medal. 1952 Helsinki The 1952 Olympic Games held at Helsinki were largely a reflection of the Cold War. The games began as Finnish runner Paavo Nurmi, carried the torch into the stadium and handed it to Hannes Kolehmainen, who lit the cauldron. The Soviet Union entered the Olympics for the first time. Although their athletes were housed in a separate ‘village’, warnings that Cold War rivalries would lead to clashes proved unfounded. The competition of East versus West dominated the atmosphere. Particularly impressive were the Soviet women gymnasts who won the team competition easily, beginning a streak that would continue for forty years until the Soviet Union broke up into separate republics. Indian Hockey won the fifth Olympic hockey gold medal.11 Modern Olympic Games and India (1956-2008) Year Place Indian’s Performance 1956 Melbourne (Australia) 1 Gold medal (in Hockey) 1960 Rome (Italy) 1 Silver medal (in Hockey) 1964 Tokyo (Japan) 1 Gold medal (in Hockey) 1968 Mexico City (Mexico) 1 Bronze medal (in Hockey) 1972 Munich (Germany) 1 Bronze medal (in Hockey) 1976 Montreal (Canada) Did not win any medal 1980 Moscow (Soviet Union) 1 Gold medal (in Hockey) 1984 Los Angeles (USA) Did not win any medal (At 5th position in Hockey) 1988 Seoul (Korea) Did not win any medal (At 6th position in Hockey) 1992 Barcelona(Spain) Did not win any medal 1996 Atlanta (USA) Leander Paes won ,a Bronze medal (Lawn Tennis) 2000 Sydney (Australia) Karnam Malleshwari won a Bronze medal in the weightlifting (69 kg category) 2004 Athens Major Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore won a Silver medal (in Shooting) 2008 Beijing (China) Abhinav Bindra won gold medal in rifle shooting. Other milestones of Indian Athletes in Olympic Games In athletics, six Indians and the 4x400 women’s relay team have reached the finals of their events in Olympics. Henry Rebello in 1948 London (Triple Jump), Milkha Singh 1960 Rome ( fourth place in 400 metres), Gurbachan Singh Randhawa 1964 Tokyo (fifth place in 100 m hurdles), Sriram Singh 1976 Montreal ( seventh in 800m), P.T Usha in 1984 Los Angeles ( fourth in 400m hurdles) who unfortunately lost her bronze by 1/100th of a second and the 4

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member squad of the 400m.women’s relay P.T.Usha, M.D.Valsamma, Vandana Rao, Shiny Abraham reached seventh place, the same year. 12 Recent developments in Olympic movement in India Olympic Value Education Programme in India The OVEP Programme had been officially launched in India by the IOC President, Dr. Jacques Rogge during the Commonwealth Youth Games held at Pune in October, 2008 and first ever national workshop on the IOC’s Olympic Values Education Programme (OVEP) from 22-26 March 2010 in the capital city of Delhi Under the aegis of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) 13

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This programme would be embedded as part of the activities of the Indian National Club Games which will be targeting 800’000 clubs in the country. It is estimated that 20% of the population would be touched and exposed to OVEP during its roll-out.15

Mini Olympics in India Kila Raipur Games The village kila Raipur is famous for Mini Olympus of Punjab in India. Every year in this village, people come here to enjoy the popular village sports of Kila Raipur which often calls Mini Olympics of Punjab. Every year in the month of February; kila Raipur becomes the destination for hundreds and thousands sports enthusiasts, including foreigners. The sports

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person comes from all five continents (countries like USA, Canada, Australia, England, many European countries etc.) and participates in different events

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In month of February all the surrounding areas of Kila Raipur fill with tourists. They come to Kila Raipur to see the special breed of bullocks, camels, dogs, mules and other animals competing in highly professional events. Many of them have never seen bullock carts or camels running for coveted cash prizes in speed races. These games have unique importance. At the end day, there is arrangement for cultural programs for entertainment.

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This is famous village of Ludhiana district in Punjab state of India which attract thousands of tourist from the different-2 parts of the world to Kila Raipur, who want to see Punjabi folklore, real cultural values of Punjabi and village sports with full of fun

Raj Rani, 80 fires a pistol during the rural games at Kila Raipur, in the Indian state of Punjab. (AP Photo/ Aman Sharma)

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On your tail

A man bites the tail of a bull to urge it to run faster during a cart race on the second day of the rural games called the Mini Olympics in Kila Raipur, India. (AP Photo/Aman Sharma)

Conclusion The history of India in promotion of Olympic values throughout the country has started long time back when it was the first Asian country to participate in 1900 Olympic Games in Paris. It has participated continuously since 1920 in all Olympic Games. India has successfully hosted various international games like Asian Games, Afro Asian Games, Youth Commonwealth Games, World Military Games, South Asian Games, Commonwealth Games and many more. More than 15 times Olympic solidarity courses has organized in India by Indian Olympic Association in collaboration with International Olympic Committee and some other international organizations. There are various NGOs working in this field for the promotion of Olympic Sports and Olympic values in India. Olympic Runs and Olympic days are organized in different parts of the country from time to time. Recently concluded Commonwealth Games in India has given hope for Olympics in India and in forthcoming 5-7 years there are good chances that India can officially bid for Olympic Games and bring the Olympic culture among the Indian citizens. Annexure

Map of Summer Olympics locations. Countries that have hosted one Summer Olympics are shaded green, while countries that have hosted two or more are shaded blue.

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&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&References&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

http://indianolympic.com/ http://www.olympic.ind.in/ioa_history.html http://www.olympic.ind.in/ioa_history.html http://www.olympic.ind.in/ioa_history.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Games_of_India http://www.webindia123.com/sports/olymp/olymp.htm http://www.webindia123.com/sports/olymp/olymp.htm http://www.webindia123.com/sports/olymp/olymp.htm http://www.webindia123.com/sports/olymp/olymp.htm http://www.webindia123.com/sports/olymp/olymp.htm http://www.webindia123.com/sports/olymp/indiaolympics.htm http://www.webindia123.com/sports/olymp/indiaolympics.htm http://www.olympic.ind.in/ovpe.html http://www.olympic.ind.in/ovpe.html http://www.olympic.ind.in/ovpe.html http://connectbillions.in/pn/ludhiana/ludhiana-east/kila-raipur/files/2010/11/kila.jpg http://connectbillions.in/pn/ludhiana/ludhiana-east/kila-raipur/files/2010/11/bike.jpg

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