Issuu on Google+

2nd National Conference on ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY OF INDIA 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

EBI 2012

ABSTRACT BOOK: VOLUME I (Selected abstracts)

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal Conference website: www.ebiconference.com Any part of the book cannot be produced in any form without prior permission of NECEER, Imphal. Abstracts will be published in the final format only after the authors get registered for the conference. 2nd Volume will be available on 4th November 2012. Last date of submission of abstract is 30th October 2012.

NOTE: Authors of the selected abstracts are requested to get registered before 30th October 2012


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Distribution and conservation of Fungal diversity in India Saba Hasan, Garima Gupta, Harpreet Kaur, Zakariya Tayyab, Durgesh Singh Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Viraj Khand-5, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow (U.P.) – India 226010 Email : saba0786@gmail.com, saba_hasan2001@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Biodiversity is a degree of variation of life forms within a given species, eco system, biome or entire planet, is a measure of the health of eco system. Biodiversity is not evenly distributed; rather it varies greatly across the globe as well as within regions. Fungi were recognized as a Kingdom, distinct from plants and animals only after Whittaker (1969). Presently, the "fungi" as a mega-diverse group span three kingdoms, most belonging to the Fungi (Eumycota), while others are classified in the Protozoa and Chromista (Straminipila). The issue of fungal diversity, it‟s extent and conservation, has attracted more attention in the last 10-15 years than in any period of history. One third of fungal diversity of the globe exists in India. Out of 1.5 million of fungi, only 50% are characterized until now. Unfortunately, only around 5–10% of fungi can be cultured artificially. The number of fungi recorded in India exceeds 27,000 species, the largest biotic community after insects. The true fungi belong to kingdom Eukaryota which has four phyla, 103 orders, 484 families and 4979 genera. Fungi are known to colonize, multiply and survive in diversified habitats, viz. water, soil, air, litter, dung, foam etc. Fungi are ubiquitous and cosmopolitan in distribution covering tropics to poles and mountain tops to the deep oceans. Fungi play a significant role in the daily life of human beings besides their utilization in industry, agriculture, medicine, food industry, textiles, bioremediation, natural cycling, as biofertilizers and many other ways. Three steps were suggested by Moore et al. (2001) for fungal conservation: (1) conservation of habitats; (2) in situ conservation of non-mycological reserves/ecological niches; and (3) ex situ conservation especially for saprobic species growing in culture. To help collections of fungal cultures to maintain appropriate standards, the World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) has formulated guidelines which outline the necessary requirements. There are 573 microbial culture collections in 68 countries registered in the World Directory of Collections of Microorganisms (DCM). Fungal biotechnology has become an integral part of the human welfare. The world of fungi provides a fascinating and almost endless source of biological diversity, which is a rich source for exploitation. Keywords : Eumycota, Ex situ Conservation, In situ Conservation, Biodiversity, mycological

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Role of tribal women in combating climate change by using traditional forest knowledge and fulfilling family care Hemant Prakash Minj Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi-835204 Email: hemant.pm2212@gmail.com ABSTRACT This paper analyzes the role of tribal women of Jharkhand through a case study of village Buchaopa of Ranchi District on the usage of traditional forest knowledge to supplement household needs and taking care of family. Tribal women are particularly the most severely vulnerable to the changes posed by climate as they are the prime water and forest produce collector. In most of the forest ecosystem, all the water sources have gone down. Agricultural production is unable to meet their household needs. Crop loss has increased due to the less rain fall, extreme hot and storm. In this situation, women are virtually loaded with lots of responsibilities to manage and take care of family. Most of the crisis situation arises during the month of March to October. Water shortage, delay in paddy cultivation, crop damage and health problem aggravate their existing problem of financial crisis and food shortage. Tribal women at their own capacity level try to fulfill household needs by collecting and selling NTFPs like, mahuwa flower, mahuwa seed, chaar seed, tamarind, saal leaf, etc from forest and meet household needs like rice, medicine, school fees, etc. It is also seen that extra money is spent of water pumping and labour for paddy field during the drought period. Women try to keep some cash in hand before the cultivation of paddy by selling forest produce. Major NTFPs which are collected and sold by women just before the cultivation of paddy are tamarind and mahuwa flower. During the stress period (March-October), generally male member moves out of the village to find labour job. This movement virtually increases the physical and mental pressure on women. This paper further tries to analyze the despite physical and mental pressure posed by climate change, how tribal women are nurturing and binding family. Keywords: forest, tribal, family, drought, crisis, NTFP

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Molecular Identification of Vibrio sp. from marine water samples using 16S rDNA sequence analysis Sreenath Pillai* and Leena Murlidharan** *Jacob School of Biotechnology & Bio-engineering *Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences (SHIATS), Allahabad, U.P ABSTRACT Today, Marine water is broadly suffering from different types of aquatic bacterial species (Aqua technological organisms). One of the major risks involves the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood that may be naturally contaminated by food borne pathogens present in the marine environment. Such risk is further increased if the food is mishandled during processing where pathogens could multiply exponentially under favourable conditions. In contrast to most other food borne pathogens, Vibrio sp. has the aquatic habitat as their natural niche. As a result, Vibrios are most commonly associated with seafood as natural contaminants. Food borne infections with Vibrio sp. are common in Asia. Vibrio infections usually occur in fish from marine and estuarine environments, and have been reported throughout the world. Occasionally, Vibriosis is reported in freshwater fish. The disease can cause significant mortality in fish culture facilities once an outbreak is in progress. Vibrios are highly abundant in aquatic environments, including estuaries, marine coastal waters and sediments, and aquaculture settings worldwide. This paper discusses that several Vibrio species appear at particularly high densities in marine organisms, e.g., corals, fishes, molluscs, sea-grasses, sponges, shrimps and zooplanktons.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

A study of avifaunal diversity in Rani Ban Forest and its adjacent areas in Kaski District of Nepal Sandeep Shrestha and Nikky Shrestha Department of Environmental science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal Email: sandeep@ku.edu.np ABSTRACT A total of 867 species of birds have been recorded in Nepal, which are about 8% of the total bird species found worldwide. The main objective of the study is to assess the avifaunal diversity in Rani baan and its adjacent areas. The study was conducted using point count method on each vantage point along the transect lines. Three diversity indexes such as Shannon diversity index (H), Sorensonâ€&#x;s Index of Similarity and Simpsonâ€&#x;s Index of Dominance was used to characterize species diversity in a community. A total of 124 species belonging to 13 orders and 37 families were observed from the study area, of which Passeriformes forms the largest order with 23 families. The diversity curve tend to be increasing rapidly and then slowly with 57 species (46%) found to be frequent, 27 species (22%) common and 40 species (32%) abundant, categorized by the abundance scale. Of 124 species 88 species were observed in forest, 67 species in agriculture area near forest and 69 species in wetland area. About 36 species were found in all three habitats. Similarly Sorenson index of similarity was 0.4464 that indicate 44% of similarity and Simpson Index of dominance was 0.03459 representing higher diversity. The study showed that the area supports a fine number of forest birds in all habitats. Higher species diversity was found in all three habitats with more possibility of evenness, with highest species diversity in forest followed by agricultural area near forest and wetland. Based on study findings, it is needed for periodic monitoring of diversity and population status of birds for the assessment of the environmental conservation and management.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Study of nutrients around western offshore area of Arabian Sea - A long term trend analysis report Prashant B Shrirame and G. L. Das ONGC, IPSHEM, Goa Email: prant_2000@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet's water. Coastal and estuarine waters are increasingly subject to anthropogenic input and highquality measurement of nutrients is required to assess the marine ecosystems. The input of the major biologically active nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and silicon) to the ocean plays an important role in regulating global oceanic production. In surface waters of the open ocean, uptake of nutrients by organisms usually results in one or more of those nutrients becoming limiting to their growth. As a commitment to protect environment, ONGC IPSHEM Goa is regularly conducting environment monitoring around ONGC‟s Platforms and Installations in western continental shelf of Arabian Sea. The paper includes the output of monitoring activities of ONGC considering variation of concentrations of nutrients i.e. phosphate-phosphorous, Nitrite-Nitrogen, Nitrate –Nitrogen and silicates for assessing study area to examine long term trend in western offshore area of Arabian Sea from the year 1994 to 2009. It has been observed from the study that values of nutrients are well within range of oceanographic range over the years and no particular trend is observed which indicates primary production is not disturbed by exploration and production activities of ONGC‟s offshore operations. Keywords: Marine ecosystem, nutrient analysis, primary production (PP), trend analysis, environment monitoring, Arabian Sea.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Health risk estimation of pesticides exposure from Ganges Water Sruthi Ravindran, Ranjusha V Pariyarath, Arun Kumar *, and Arvind K. Nema Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 Email: arunku@civil.iitd.ac.in ABSTRACT This study assessed health risks due to pesticides exposure from the Ganges river water in a structured manner to understand risks to population using the river water for drinking purpose without any further treatment. Risk estimation was conducted for exposures of persistent organochlorine compounds - such as aldrin, dieldrin, DDT, DDD, 2, 4-D, endosulfan and endrin- and organophosphorous compounds- such as methyl parathion, dimethioate and malathion from the Ganges water. Concentrations of these pesticides were obtained from literature-reported monitoring data for four locations in Uttar Pradesh along the Ganges river (i.e., Narora, Kachla, Fatehgarh and Kannuaj). Dose-response data (i.e., potency factor and reference dose values) of different pesticides were obtained from the USEPA IRIS database and used to estimate hazard quotient (HQ) for non-cancer causing pesticides. Pesticides with HQ values greater than 1 are identified for future actions. Further, hazard index (HI) (i.e., summation of HQ values of different pesticides) was also estimated for each station, assuming no interaction among pesticides and validity of doseaddition methodology. Analyses of HQ values indicated that aldrin poses health concern (HQ>1). The order of risk of sites based on HI values is as following: Fatehgarh> Kachla>Kannuaj> Narora, indicating difference in risk estimates among location, which could be attributed to the effect of levels of pesticides usage in agricultural activities at different locations. Risk estimation findings indicated the need for monitoring aldrin in river water and proper communication should be made to people using the river water for drinking purposes. Frequent monitoring of pesticides and updating risk assessment estimates are recommended, and measures should be taken to bring the pesticide concentrations in water to a safe level. Keywords: Cancer; Ganges water; Human health risk assessment; Pesticides

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Pesticides are environmental as well genetic pollutants: A genotoxic evaluation on Culex quinquefasciatus by applying dominant lethal test Mamta Bansal, Bhupinder Barna and Asha Chaudhry School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh - 160012. Mosquito Cytogenetics Unit, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India Email: mamta_peehu@yahoo.in ABSTRACT The use of pesticides to control weeds, insects, and other pests has resulted in a range of benefits, including increased food production and reduction of insect-borne disease, but has posed challenge to maintain human health and safe environment. Exposure to the pesticide may cause genotoxic effects on the target as well as nontarget organisms including man. Therefore, the genotoxic evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. In the present investigation, the genotoxic effect of imidacloprid and acetamiprid was studied, which belong to a new class of neonicotenoids pesticides. For this purpose, dominant lethal test (DLT) was adopted to evaluate the genotoxicity of both the insecticides on the reproductive potential of using Culex quinquefasciatus as an ideal test system. Dominant lethal test (DLT) is used to evaluate the mutagenic effect of pesticides on the progenies of treated parents. In this experiment, the males hatched from larvae treated with LD20 were cross mated with normal females and the results were based on the number of hatched and unhatched eggs laid by these females. The statistical analysis of the results for imidacloprid gave the values of 31.56 ± 3.28 and that of acetamiprid gave the value 23.76 ± 1.84. The results obtained from both the insecticides indicated significant dominant lethality of p<0.01. These results indicate the risk of mutation by of imidacloprid and acetamiprid even at lower doses.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Climate change vis-Ă -vis biodiversity Anju Puri1, Gopal Shukla2, C P Suresh3 and Sumit Chakravarty*3 1Barring Union Christian College, Batala, Punjab 2ICAR, Research Complex for Eastern Region, Plandu Ranchi 3Department of Pomology and Post Harvest Technology, 4*Department of Forestry Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari-736165 Cooch Behar, WB Email: c_drsumit@yahoo.com ABSTRACT The World Resource Institute reports that there is a link between biodiversity and climate change. Climate is the major factor controlling the global patterns of vegetation structure, productivity, plant and animal species composition. Climate change is likely to have a number of impacts on biodiversity from species to ecosystem levels and it is already affecting biodiversity as is demonstrated by changes in range of species, ecosystem boundaries, shifts in reproductive cycles, growing season and changes in species interaction. It is also a significant driving force behind the loss of genes, species, and critical ecosystem services. Rapid global warming can affect ecosystems chances to adapt naturally. The paper discusses the cause and the general effect of climate change on ecosystem and thereafter advocates Global Biodiversity Strategyâ&#x20AC;&#x;s view of direct and indirect mechanisms, nearly all of which have significant human components that can affect current level of biodiversity. Thus the human component needs to be incorporated when dealing with the impacts of climate change on biodiversity that is activities aimed at mitigating and adapting to climate change in which biodiversity considerations are essential. Unfortunately, in the international policy arena, biodiversity loss and climate change have often moved in wholly unconnected domains which needs to be addressed urgently. Keywords: Climate change, Biodiversity, Global Biodiversity Strategy

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Use of Agrowaste as substrate for production of fungal pectinase enzyme Sarvesh Raghav and Sunita Singh Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida ABSTRACT Agro waste is an attractive alternative as substrate for the production of microbial enzymes due to its vast availability and low cost. Value addition of such waste can result in extraction of important byproducts such as pectin, pectinases, peel oil and dietary fibers. Pectin and pectinases are of wide importance especially in food industry. Various types of fungal species are used for the production of pectinases. As extracellular pectinases are easier to harvest and thus the scale up is cheaper and simpler, in the present study, combination of orange peel and sweet lime peel waste was used to produce extracellular fungal pectinase. Firstly, potential fungal isolates from various sources were screened on the basis of qualitative estimation of their pectinolytic activity on selective media containing congo red dye (pectin as only carbon source). Further morphological examination of screened isolates revealed that potential Isolate could be of Aspergillus genus. After isolation, effect of different substrates as well as substrate concentration on pectinase enzyme was studied. Total of three substrates viz. orange peel, sweet Lime peel, combination of orange and sweet lime peel were used in the concentration of 1% to 3%. It was found that enzyme activity increased with the increase in substrate concentration i.e. from 1% to 2.5% (p<0.05) after that it decreased. Highest activity was seen in 2.5% of substrate concentration irrespective of the substrate used. Further, Combination of orange and sweet lime peel at 2.5% concentration showed the maximum pectinase enzyme activity. Thus, in conclusion potential pectinolytic strain of Aspergillus niger was isolated on the substrate comprising of combination of sweet lime peel and orange peel waste. Keywords: Pectinase, Agrowaste, A. niger

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Study on relationship of Phytoplaktonic community with ionic regime of water in a pond in the Thar Desert, Rajasthan Shivani Sharma and Leena Sharan Environmental biology Laboratory, P.G.Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner E-mail: shivanisharma749@gmail.com ABSTRACT Phytoplankton, the principal and primary producer of the aquatic environment undergoes continuous change over time with respect to their dominance and diversity, and the alterations solely depend upon prevailed environmental variables. The present study on Kolayat pond, located 55km south-west from Bikaner district of Rajasthan, was undertaken from January, 2009 to March, 2010 to study various limnological parameters including phytoplankton‟s. Desert water are often concentrated to an extent in terms of electrolytes, salinity and ionic composition of water are most striking key factors regulating the plankton‟s community. During present investigation various limnological parameters were studied for temperature, pH, EC, dissolved oxygen, free CO2, hardness and alkalinity. Among cations (Ca 2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+) and anions (CO32- , HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, PO42-, SIO22-, NO32-) were observed. They were within tolerable range. A total of 31 genera of phytoplanktons belonging to Chlorophyceae (23 genera), Cyanophyceae and Bacillariophyceae (4 genera for both) were recorded. Chlorophyceae was found to be the most dominant group both in diversity and density at the selected site.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Generation of electricity from the audible sound Priyanka Sajwan and Sarita Uniyal Department Of Biotechnology,Graphic Era University,Dehradun,Uttarakhand-248002 Email: pretysajwan26@gmail.com, saritauniyal11@yahoo.com ABSTRACT As we know â&#x20AC;&#x17E;Sound energy' is the prime source of energy, as well as, it is present in abundant form, so, using this sound energy to generate electricity by the use of piezoelectric crystals. The electric property of the piezoelectric crystal is the ability to generate electric signals when crystal dis-orient and re-orient. Our process work on the basic principle of conversion of sound energy into electrical energy. When mic receives voice, mic converts the voice into electrical signals, here mic is working as a transducer. The mic is connected to a circuit which contains piezoelectric crystal used to produce signal of a same constant frequency. The circuit is then connected to an assembly of capacitor, which is used to store the electric energy. As this assembly stores less amount of energy so , it is further connected to 555 Timer which amplify the voltage . The whole circuit is then connected to a switch. Further the flywheel is attached with the switch, for providing initial energy. Once the initial energy is provided by the flywheel the whole circuit will work automatically. This device is a prime source of renewable sources. Keywords: Piezoelectric Crystals, Transducer, Sound Energy, Renewable Energy, 555 Timer.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Environmental protection policy of India B.Vinay Kumar and G. Kamalakar Dept of Political Science Osmania University Hyderabad Email: vinayphdou@gmail.com, kamalakarou@gmail.com ABSTRACT Environmental policy in India has longer history most detailed and prescriptive of these are provisions found in Kautilya‟s “ARTHASHSTRA” written between 320 bc and 300 bc It divided into fourteen Books that discusses a wide range of subjects. The king ASHOKA also prohibited cutting the trees and killing wields animals. The year 1972 proved a turning point in the Indian perspective of environmental protection as the UN Conference on Human Environment held at STOCKHOLM drew the attention of the world community towards degradation and despoliation of the environment and its protection 42 nd constitutional amendment Act 1976 incorporated Article 48 (A) and 51 (1) (g) in the body of the constitution. the ministry of environment and forest established in the year 1985 to plan , implement and coordinate the environmental protection measures in the country .water (prevention and control of pollution )Act 1974 .water is life there is no life without water we cannot imagine the life without water . . Most of the environmental problems are not confined to the boundaries. Major sources of water pollution are:  Domestic or commercial waste (water) sewage.  Industrial effluents. Environmental policy has to integrate with other policy sector such as energy, agriculture, industry and transportation. The environmental protection involves a multiplicity of approach to tackle it effectively, like social, political, economic and technological approaches and the legal approach has also its own role to play. Adaptation of the improved policy instruments (environmental impact assessment, environmental auditing) for achieving the environmental policy objectives. Future trends in environmental protection we cannot predict if prudently managed or planned or may further deteriorate if the economic policies committed to expansion, increased use of non-renewable resources and without taking into account of the sustainability and environmental protection. Keywords: India, Environment. Protection, policy, water, degradation.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Effect of environmental factors on chilli fruit rot infection caused by Colletotrichum capsici G Darvin, K V M Krishna Murthy, P Anil Kumar and K L Narasimha Rao Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural College, Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh - 522 101 Email: darvin.agri@gamil.com ABSTRACT Environmental factors like temperature, relative humidity and light must be favourable for the infection to takes place. The optimal requirements of these factors vary with different species of plant pathogens. To find out the effect of environmental factors on chilli fruit rot infection, the surface sterilized, healthy chilli fruits artificially inoculated with conidial suspension (concentration of 10 6 conidia/ml) of Colletotrichum capsici and incubated at different temperatures (includes 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 0C), relative humidity levels (includes 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100%) and light regimes (includes continuous light, continuous darkness, 18 h darkness followed by 6 h light period and18 h light followed by 6 h darkness period), respectively. Ten days after inoculation recorded the data on lesion size and per cent disease index (PDI). The highest lesion size (15.10 mm) and PDI (38.50) were recorded when the inoculated chilli fruits were incubated at temperature of 250C. Temperature beyond and below 250C caused significant reduction in both lesion size and per cent disease index (PDI). Among the four light regimes, 18 h light followed by 6 h dark period was optimum (recorded the highest lesion size (8.96 mm) and PDI (61.05)) for chilli fruit rot development. The inoculated chilli fruits incubated at relative humidity of 95 per cent reported the highest infection (lesion size (21.00 mm) and PDI (59.90)). When the relative humidity was decreased to 75%, the lesion size and per cent disease index showed a sharp decrease.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Conservation of Plant Bio-Diversity by Van Mahotsavs in Gujarat Dhiren Vandra College of Rural Studies, Mangrol, Dist. Junagadh, Gujarat Email: dhirenvandra@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Biodiversity on earth is the result of 3.5 billion years of evolution. Biodiversity supports a number of natural eco system processes and services are air purifier, water purifier, climate maintenance, pollution control and prevention of soil erosion. Biodiversity produces food of about 80% of our food supply comes from just 20 plants. Human uses at least 40000 species of plants and animals a day. Due to economic and environmental changes in world, government of India laid down a new forest policy in 1988 to conserving the natural heritage of Flora & Fauna. Forest Management also emphasized on conservation of biodiversity by network of national parks, sanctuaries, biosphere, reserves and protected areas. Gujarat have more than 19000 Sq. Kms. of forests with rich biodiversity. Based on revised classification 22 forest sub types have been recognized in Gujarat. Objectives of this study are, - To know the influence of van mahotsavs on people of Gujarat - To evaluate the amount of van mahotsavs - To know the conserved plant species through van mahotsavas - To know the role of peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x;s participation in conservation of Bio-diversity. The secondary data collected from annual reports , the posters of different van mahotsavas published by forest department and presented here in original form to draw the results. In Gujarat, Vanmahotsav is organized in State, District and Taluka level with the help of governmental forest department and nongovernmental organizations and people participation in tree plantation. Vanmahotsav have been held at Gandhinagar, Ambaji, Taranga, Somnath , Chotila and Shamalaji, Pavagadh and Palitana. Main objectives of these vanmahotsavs are to create mass awareness about trees, educate people about need of conservation and tree plantation in wide area. Punitvan is prepared in Gandhinagar as per description given in purans each planet, constellation and zodiacs has its own favorite tree, Nakshatravan, Rashivan and Navgrahvatika were prepared with its favourite tree. Panchvati was also prepared with Bili, Vad, Ashok, Amla and pipal. Mangalyavan was prepared at Ambaji where 6000 trees of different pieces were planted in 2005 by department of forest in Gujarat. Shyamalvan located near Shamalaji, Dashavatarvan, Devvan, Smritivan, Modern Nursery, Agroforestry, Demo Area, Interpretation Center, Heritage Corner are prepared with the help of various plant species. Hariharvan situated at somnath, the components are shiv panchayatvan, Shrikrishnagokuldhamvan, Shriharishankarvan, Rudrakshavan, Jyotirlingvan, Saptarshivan, Panchvalkalvan, Panchvati, Nakshatravan, Rashivan, Nav-grahvan, Shriparnivan, and Shritivan with favorite plants of religious value and medicinal value. Bhaktivan was prepared near Chotila with Ayurvedic herbs and trees. Tirthankarvan is situated at Taranga with the help of 24 Jain Tirthankarâ&#x20AC;&#x;s Kevalitrees represents 24 Tirthankars. The Forest Department of Gujarat State and GEER Foundation are trying to conserve the floral biodiversity at various places of Gujarat by Vanmahotsav and Vans. They tried to conserve about 80 plant species. Even though 104 species comes under near threatened, 16 species comes under vulnerable, 10 species comes under endangered and 8 species comes under critically endangered. Thus they worked to conserve biodiversity especially for floras and fauna.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Status of Drinking Water Quality in the vicinity of railway stations from Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus to Panvel; Harbour Line, Maharashtra J.G. Koliyar and N.N. Kothari SIES (Nerul) College of Arts, Science and Commerce, IIEM, P -1C, Sector V, Nerul, NaviMumbai, Maharashtra: 400706 Email: jyoti_koliyar2000@yahoo.com ABSTRACT This paper attempts presents the results of a survey of quality of drinking water samples collected from Mumbai Suburban Railway. The Harbour Line is a division of the Mumbai Suburban Railway. It is operated by Central Railways. It covers most of NaviMumbai and the eastern areas of Mumbai. The Line has 5 routes and 6 termini stations CST, Andheri and Panvel. It also has Thane, Nerul, Vashi and Panvel. The services operated are slow services in harbour line and there are no fast trains as it has double line. In NaviMumbai there are newly designed train stations which are different from the old, congested and overcrowded stations within the Mumbai city limits. The present work is focused on drinking water samples collected for three months and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters like pH, conductivity, turbidity, Total Dissolved Solid, Dissolved Oxygen, Most Probable Number, Alkalinity, Residual Chlorine, Iron, Nitrate, Sulfate, and Phosphate from in total 11 stations named Mumbai CST, Masjid, Wadala, Kurla, Chembur, Govandi, Vashi, Nerul, CBD Belapur, Kharghar, and Panvel. The present paper would describe the results of the study done and the purpose of the study was to collect information concerning use and value of water quality improvements at Harbour line railway stations. In order to make the study more informative statistical tools like averages, tables, graphs and photographs will be applied. Keywords: Harbour Line, Mumbai Suburban Railway, Drinking water quality, physico-chemical parameters,

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Assessment of drinking water quality from Ground Water Source from different villages of Koregaon Tehsil of Satara District, Maharashtra, India A. N. Yadav Department of Chemistry, Yashavantrao Chavan Institute of Science, Satara-415001, Maharashtra, India E-mail: anandrao.yadav@yahoo.com ABSTRACT The quality of drinking water sources from different villages of Koregaon tehsil of Satara District, Maharashtra has been assessed and results are presented in the paper. Total 20 samples of drinking water from dug wells and bore wells were collected. Physicochemical parameters pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, total dissolved solids were assessed. The present study indicates that samples collected found to have values of total hardness ranging from 162 ppm to 518 ppm. Except samples SB 7 ,SD3 had lower values of 298 and162 ppm within desirable limit. All other 18 samples were found to have higher values of total hardness. The samples SB1, SB9, SD2, SD6 and SD7 were found to have higher values of electrical conductivity.pH of collected samples were between range 6.82 to 7.5 within desirable limit. Keywords : Ground water,Physico-chemical parameters, Koregaon Tehsil

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Sewerage system for Port Blair Nitika Gupta WAPCOS Ltd., 76-C, Sector 18, Gurgaon-122015, Haryana, INDIA Email: er_nitikagupta@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT Port Blair is capital of Andaman & Nicobar Island and the only town in these 572 islands. Port Blair is the principal entry & exit point for all visitors. Portblair is renowned tourist place. Area of the municipal council is 1799 ha and is divided into eighteen wards. The terrain of Port Blair is hilly; rising from sea level to almost 120 m, so generally no water table should be encountered except on the circular coastal Road where at places it is up to 1.5 m below ground level. In these islands it rains for almost 6 to 8 months in a year, averaging 3500 mm annually, and the availability of drinking water during the early part of the year say February to May is not satisfactory. Most of the rain water flows into the sea, as run-off owing to terrain, leaving with whatever water is stored in various reservoirs. Presently the main supply is from the sources namely Dhanikhari Dam and Jawhar Sarover. Presently there is no existing sewerage system in the city. Majority of the households are having their own septic tanks and effluent from these is flowing in the open drains creating unhygienic conditions and ruins the aesthetic view. Emphasis was given on to design centralized sewerage system for the city to enhance the lifestyle of the residents. Also recycling or utilization of treated waste water for non-domestic purposes. Considering various constraints and involvement of huge cost, it is recommended to follow integrated water resource management approach for holistic development and management of available water resources. In this context, it is suggested that construction of STP and sewerage network is mandatory. Keywords: Centralized Sewerage, Septic tanks, Sequential Batch Reactor

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Environmental law: the evolution and the need for revolution Shalini Singh Gujarat national law University ABSTRACT With such a varied and intriguing environmental infrastructure, India doesn‟t need introduction. From the times of manusmriti and kautilya, the ecosystem, the environment has been worshipped, appreciated and exploited. In the 21st century where the need of a stable combination of traditional and modern legislation is a must, the Indian government has not yet touched the problem of vanishing trees, hurt biodiversity and extinct greenery. The paper tries to decipher the various problems and policies-their aims, ideals, the real picture and the TODAY of the environmental law with respect to international environmental law and prospective, various Indian acts-their impact and failure, The current corpus of case law studies of various landmark judgements, the sudden awareness amongst people and the parliament, etc. Policy and lawmaking is not always an open and transparent process. Micro-planning, Piece-meal approach to environmental problems, predominate legislative effort, the involvement of NGO‟s, stakeholders, officials, interested groups, coordination amongst various sectors, the delay and coming of bills relating to immediate effective law processing are some of the minor factors which govern environmental law upgrading. The author has discussed the green and brown areas of Indian environmental law through the history and evolution of it and the need to provide a better law body then the existing ministry of Environment and Forests. Criticism and appreciation of environmental law enforcement agencies and the environment cell is not the aim here, the aim is to provide solutions and to make the laymen on street see what more can be/could be/would be done. The paper tries to answer questions and ask for the same. Keywords: policies, environmental law, environmental problems, history, case law studies, Indian acts

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Looking beyond the present - Sustainable Energy, a necessity Priyanka Karnatak, Aayushi Gupta and Vidushi Uniyal College of Technology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar Pantnagar, Uttrakhand, India- 263145 Email: gbpuat.priyanka@gmail.com ABSTRACT Digging oil well after oil well, stealing 80to85 million oil barrels per day, we slowly rowed into the dark usurping devilish tides that slap our environment over and over again and we the crazy statues still continue to scrape away the fossil-fuels as if trying to fossilize all the traces of existence of non-renewable sources on this planet. A stupendous attempt to deprive the coming generation from these oil well diggings, mine scrapings, tree felling, etc. While cycling endlessly in a fuel-less world, like water bottles and Tiffin, kids would carry oxygen masks too and so would the fluttering thirsty birds do... From nuclear power plants, we're adding radium to potable water of rivers maybe to let them glitter like tears on cheeks of loved ones of sick...Wait, lets continue to gorge on these non-renewable sources like opulent gorillas so that even this land refuses to carry our fat bottoms and sinks into dirty seas and poisoned oceans to house the fish left, if any. Strange, we still don't want to weave engineering skills to trap sunlight in solar-cookers, cells and heaters, build hydroelectric power-plants that use polluted waste water to produce electricity. The incipient windmills, shattered and torn are silently mulling, craving for wind farms, big and wide... Begging us to adopt sustainable energy, nature's been shrieking amidst shadows of a dingy future, its echoes clouding suffocated smoggy sky... Slipping out of cloak of indifference, itâ&#x20AC;&#x;s time we hear it. This paper focuses on the burning issues and the possible solutions at the grass root level. Since it is said charity begins at home and so is the fight against the never ending cycle of self-destruction which we ourselves have chosen to ride for our greed. Keywords: renewable sources, sustainable energy resources, wind farms, solar- powered equipments, hydroelectric power plant

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Ecofriendly disposal of used Agar Pooja Desai and Aksheta Sampath Department of Environmental Science, SIES (Nerul) College of Arts, Science & Commerce, Nerul, Navi Mumbai Email: poojasachade@gmail.com ABSTRACT Composting, often described as natureâ&#x20AC;&#x;s way of recycling, it is the biological process of breaking up of organic waste such as food waste, manure, leaves, grass trimmings, paper, worms, and coffee grounds, etc., into an extremely useful humus-like substance by various micro-organisms including bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the presence of oxygen. Today, the use of composting to turn organic wastes into a valuable resource is expanding rapidly in many countries, as landfill space becomes scarce and expensive, and as people become more aware of the impact they have on the environment. Agar once used for various experimental purposes is auto-claved to prevent spread of contamination and then sent for incineration as its method of disposal. Incineration leads to generation of fly ash and various flue gases. Fly ash disposal is a major problem and flue gases too need to be cleaned of particulate and gaseous pollutants before they are let in the atmosphere. This paper attempts to check the feasibility of Composting of Used Agar. This approach aims at applying lesser pressure on the environment as it is eco-friendly and establish a method for the production of compost as a preferred technique of disposal for used agar against the traditional approach of incineration / land filling. This suggested use of discarded agar focuses mainly on the agar used for academic purposes (schools & colleges) only, as the type of microorganisms used in the educational institutions can be easily eliminated by simple auto-claving unlike the hospitals and the pathological laboratories which deal with the disease causing microorganisms and their spores. Keywords: feasibility, Agar, incineration, composting, eco- friendly, land filling

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Ecosystem: the missing links Sanjay Dosaj 206, Daru Bhondela, Jhansi, U.P. India. 284002 Email: sanjaydosaj08@gmail.com and sanjay_dosaj@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT The fundamental principle for smooth functioning of an ecosystem is that whatever is extracted from the ecosystem should be returned to be recycled again and again. Animals honestly return to the system whatever they eat but we humans lock the most of it into the sewage systems and underground tanks of flush latrines, this has great implications on the health of the ecosystem. In return to this, probably the ecosystem gives us a gift of new viruses every now and then. We very well know that microorganisms present just below the surface of the soil are very important to the health of the soil. In fact they ensure that everything returned to the soil is converted to such forms so that it can be utilized by the plants for recycling. If these microorganisms are deprived of food it may have serious implications. There is a big controversy on the origin of virus, the three theories currently acceptable are the theory of regressive evolution, theory of cell origin and the theory of independent or parallel evolution. In all the acceptable theories the penultimate step is common and there are more than one ways in which we might be contributing in achieving this penultimate stage of virus formation. This review research is an amalgamation of ecology and biology raising new questions to science and in the lookout for replies to these we may reach to shocking disclosures regarding human behavior in context with the ecosystem, formation of virus and cancers. Keywords: Ecosystem, microorganisms, virus formation, ecology, biology.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Composition and abundance of Tintinnids (Ciliata: Protozoa) of the Ganges River Estuary, West Bengal, India Dibyendu Rakshit1, N.Godhantaraman2, S. K. Sarkar1 and B. Bhattacharya1 1Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta-700019, India 2Centre for Ocean and Coastal Studies (COCS), University of Madras, Chepauk Campus, Chennai-600 005, Tamil Nadu, India E-mail: <rakshit_dibyendu@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT Seasonal variations of the loricate ciliate tintinnid (ciliophora: Tintinnida) were investigated in different stations at Ganges river estuary, Eastern coastal part of India. The variations were analysed in relation to different hydrological parameters such as surface temperature, salinity, pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, Chl-a and inorganic nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, silicate). In addition, a short term study was also carried out during two religious festivals i.e.; Durga idol immersion (September 2011) in several sites of Hooghly river & Gangasagar mela (January 2012) at Sagar island, mouth of the estuary. Total 10 species of tintinnids under 4 genera have been identified during the study period. In general, Tintinnopsis dominates the community comprising of 7 species followed by Tintinnidium (1 sp), Leprotintinnus (1 sp) and Favella (1 sp). Sharp increase of tintinnid abundance was recorded during those religious events in comparison to other months. The total abundance, biomass and production rate of tintinnids ranged from 1537500 ind. m-3 - 10,22,294 ind. m-3 , 0.12 μgcl-1-2.48 μgcl-1 and 0.62 μgcl-1 - 4.52 μgcl-1 respectively. The species diversity indices (H‟) was ranged from 0.2 to 1.64 with the maximum value during Gangasagar mela. Tintinnid diversity appeared to be positively correlated with nitrate concentrations (r = 0.597 ; P<0.05). The dominance indices varied from 0.07 to 2.46 where the community was predominated by Tintinnopsis beroidea. The work is being carried out to get substantial data on tintinnid community structure along with the water quality characteristics which would be helpful for adopting future management strategies of this highly productive wetland ecosystem. Keywords: Planktonic ciliates, Ganges river estuary, Durga idol immersion, Gangasagar mela, religious events, wetland ecosystem

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Antagonistic potential of Trichoderma spp. against plant pathogenic fungi Saba Hasan, Nausheen Khan, Faizuddin Sagar, Saransh Shukla, Rishi Kundan, Abhinav Purwar, Keshav Dwivedi, Payal Jain, Meenakshi Khanna, Swati Prakash Gupta and Saumya Mishra Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Viraj Khand-5, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow (U.P.) – India 226010 Email: saba0786@gmail.com, saba_hasan2001@yahoo.com ABSTRACT The fungal pathogens play a major role in the development of diseases on many important field and horticulture crops; resulting in severe plant yield losses. Intensified use of fungicides has resulted in accumulation of toxic compounds potentially hazardous to humans and environment and also in the buildup of resistance of the pathogens. In order to tackle these national and global problems, effective alternatives to chemical control are being employed. Biological control is a nature friendly approach that uses specific microorganisms, which interfere with plant pathogens and pests to overcome the problems caused by chemical methods of plant protection. Fungi in the genus Trichoderma are among the most frequently isolated soil fungi and promising biocontrol agents against plant pathogenic fungi. It has been known for many years that they produce a wide range of antibiotic substances and that they parasitize other fungi. Among the action mechanisms proposed is mycoparasitism, with concomitant production of enzymes that degrade cell walls. In the present investigation, selected isolate of Trichoderma harzianum was analyzed for it‟s potential against eleven isolates of plant pathogenic fungi (SRA-01 to SRA-11) isolated and purified from infected leaves of Mango, Aloe Vera, Lemon grass, Dahlia, Rose and Marigold. The efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum against soil borne plant pathogens revealed that Trichoderma showed highest percentage inhibition (91.4%) against SRA-01, followed by SRA-05 (86.8%) and SRA-02 (83.6%). Also, good inhibition was seen against SRA-07 (81.4%) and SRA-09 (77.5%) while poor growth inhibition was observed with SRA-06 (58.7%) and SRA-04 (48.1%). The lowest percentage inhibition (30.7%), was shown against SRA- 03. It was concluded that Trichoderma spp. significantly reduced the growth of plant pathogenic fungi. Thus the Trichoderma species offers much scope for its effectiveness against fungal diseases of a number of crop plants. Keywords : Trichoderma, Antagonism, Mycoparasitism, Fungicides, Inhibition

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Climate Change Tanu Sonkar Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, Lucknow. E-mail: tanu04021991@gmail.com ABSTRACT Climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in the mean state of the climate. It may be due to natural internal process or external forcing or persistent anthropogenic activities. Since the beginning of Industrial revolution, there had been increase in the level of Green House Gases (GHG) which resulted in the climatic change. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an International treaty produced at Earth Summit, in Rio-de-janeiro from June 3-14, 1992 to establish National GHG Inventories for GHG level reduction. The treaty itself set no mandatory limits on GHG emission for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanism, thus it is considered as legally non-binding. Thus Kyoto Protocol was formed in 1997 which established binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their GHG emissions. After Kyoto Protocol, some countries have shown the responsibility and have reduced their emission rates. It provides flexible mechanism to achieve reduction in emission level. It includes Emission Trading, Joint Implement program, clean development mechanism, through which member countries may join together to adjust the level of carbon emission, so that it may not extend beyond a certain limit and affect the environment. The adoption of Distributive Justice, so that developed nations could not accumulate wealth at the cost of developing nations. 84% of Scientist believes that humans are responsible for Global Warming. According to the Per-Capita Record, Qatar tops the list, and India comes at 78 th rank for carbon emission. The aim of the paper is to discuss the phenomenon of „Climate Change‟ with the developmental history to limit the emission rate to an extent, not to cause environmental harm, causes of climate change, anthropogenic role and impact of the climate change on the present scenario. Keywords: UNFCCC, Distributive Justice, Kyoto Protocol, Anthropogenic activity, Industrial revolution, Carbon trading.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Environment Sustainability to Social Sustainability: A case for linking Poverty Reduction and Environment Protection under Climate Change Laws and Policies Stellina Jolly South Asian University, New Delhi Email: stellinajolly@sau.ac.in ABSTRACT Climate Change (CC) is the defining problem of the century. Scientific certainty and consensus has now accepted that anthropogenic activities dictated by the pursuit of development have led to the present looming crisis threatening environment sustainability. Sea level rise, coastal erosion, decrease in agricultural production, accessibility to clean water and impact on health, are some of the consequences of CC well documented and accepted. Vulnerability of poor in CC is also gaining attention nationally and internationally. This paper attempts to bring the inextricably intertwined relationship between CC and poverty. The consequence of this linkage is a vicious cycle in which climate change impact the vulnerable poverty ridden people exacerbating their poverty and degradation of the environment, and such degradation in turn perpetuates and prolongs more poverty. This scenario also points to the increasing role ‟Environmental law based on equity‟ should play in the wider agendas for sustainable development and social inclusion. The links between sustainability and environmental equity are becoming clearer and more widely understood to the policy makers and it is the possible co-operation between these two which is the focus of this paper. Paper tries to argue that the concept of equitable sustainability provides a basis for policymakers to converge and integrate the key dimensions of both environmental and social sustainability. Paper particularly looks at whether international and national legal response to climate change has taken in to account the poverty dimension and brought in practice the concept of equity Keywords: Climate Change, Environment Equity, Sustainability, Poverty reduction, Environmental law

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Analysis of polarimetric sar data for landcover discrimination A. Bernito Anna University of Technology Tirunelveli Email: bernitoxavier@gmail.com ABSTRACT Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is widely used for monitoring and imaging the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x;s surface. Recent fully polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) systems provide a more complete description of the backscatter behaviour of the target surface, with the potential to improve the discriminating power for remote sensing purposes. Agricultural targets are very dynamic throughout the growing season, and thus remote sensing is an attractive approach to mapping and monitoring applications. Research has demonstrated that the additional polarizations will increase the information content in a SAR dataset similar to using multispectral approaches in the optical region. The value of the phase information and the polarimetric parameters that can be derived from these data help in understanding the scattering mechanisms and target interactions that are occurring, leading to a better approach to data processing and information extraction. In this research paper i have used fully polarimetric Quad-Pol data obtained fro RADARSAT-2 for the landcover discriination of Mandya district in Karnataka. The polarimetric response of crops is studied and their polarimetric signatures are analysed to determine the various parameters that may affect the radar backscatter using PolSARPro and ENVI Sarscape. The entire study area is classified into 5 classes: Built-up land, Sugarcane, Paddy, Water, Wasteland. The results obtained from SAR data are compared with LISS IV 5.8m resolution data obtained from Resources at -2. Results show that SAR imagery is ore advantageous than optical data. Keywords: SAR, Polarimetry, landcover classification, RADARSAT-2, Radar backscatter

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Water-deficit impact on the seed germination and growth of Lycopersicon esculentum ‘Solan Sindhur’ Arti Jamwal and S. Puri Shoolini University, Department of Botany, Solan, Himachal Pradesh-173229, India Email: artijamwal11@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT Among the environmental stresses, water-deficit stress is one of the most adverse factors to plant growth and development. Drought is worldwide problem, constraining global crop production and quality seriously and recent global climate change has made this situation more serious. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of Lycopersicon esculentum „Solan Sindhur‟ to water-deficit stress under laboratory conditions. Osmotic stress was generated using PEG6000 (Polyethylene glycol 6000) and the seed germination, seedling growth, proline, lipid and chlorophyll (a, b and total) content were evaluated. The increase in osmotic potential showed significant decrease in germination percentage. Seedling growth parameters increased with an increase in PEG concentration, except the root length which decreased at 10% and 15% PEG PEG concentration. The content of proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased according to severity of water-deficit stress in hydroponically grown plants. Proline content in roots was more as compared to leaf proline; whereas leaf MDA content was high to root. Chlorophyll (a, b and total) content decreased as PEG concentration increased except at 1% PEG. Lycopersicon esculentum „Solan Sindhur‟ would be classified as a species susceptible to severe drought conditions but it can tolerate and flourish well at mild drought condition. Keywords: Water-deficit, polyethylene hydroponically grown plants, proline.

glycol

6000,

osmotic

potential,

germination

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com

percentage,


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Sustainable development through knowledge of geography Kalpana Sharma Training And Development department Hindustan college Of Science And Technology Farah Mathura. ABSTRACT "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: he concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs." A major portion of India falls above the age of 25. India has the largest illiterate population in the world. And this illiterate population avails all the natural resources. Therefore a major portion of resources which can be utilized and saved for future concerns is wasted not just in rural but in urban areas too. A house in newly developed colony will plant a pump first than anything else. It is important that steps should be taken where people are educated regarding the upcoming hazards of scarcity in water level. Keywords: essential needs, limitations imposed, illiterate, resources

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Comet assay for the measurement of DNA damage in marine gastropods exposed to genobiotic pollutants Jacky Bhagat, B Ingole, A Sarkar and D P Rao Marine Pollution Assessment & Ecotoxicology Laboratory National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India Email: jbhagat@nio.org ABSTRACT In this study, measurement of DNA damage in Nerita chameleon was used as a biomarker of genotoxicants along the coast of Goa. It is based on the principle that genotoxicants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr etc.) interacts with specific sites present in DNA strands and forms DNA adducts. These DNA adducts eventually causes breaks in DNA strands resulting in loss of DNA integrity. In order to assess the genotoxic effects of contaminants on marine gastropods, Nerita chameleon was collected from different sites (viz. Anjuna, Sinquerim, Dona Paula, Velsao, Betul and Palolem) along the Goa coast. The DNA damage was measured using comet assay (also called single cell gel electrophoresis assay). Three parameters namely tail DNA, olive tail moment (OTM) and tail length (TL) was used. All these three parameters showed a significant variation along these sites with respect to the reference sites (Betul). The highest tail DNA was found in samples from Sinquerim (55.8%). The tail DNA was in the order Palolem (49.6%) > Dona Paula (40.7%) > Velsao (36.5%) > Anjuna (32.2%) compared with reference site, Betul (26.9%). Similar trend was observed with OTM, Sinquerim (10.8) > Palolem (10.5) > Dona Paula (9.5) > Velsao (9.2) > Anjuna (6.6) > Betul (6.2). The highest TL was measured in samples from Velsao (49.1µm), while those from Sinquerim, Palolem, Dona Paula, Anjuna and Betul were in the range of 32.5-36.9 µm. The low DNA integrities in marine gastropods at these sites can be attributed to genotoxic contaminants exposed to Nerita chameleon inhabiting different sites along the Goa coast. The contaminant-induced DNA strand breaks in marine gastropods increased considerably at Palolem, Arambol, Anjuna and clearly indicating the levels of contamination of the site by genotoxic compounds. Keywords: DNA damage, Nerita chameleon, comet assay, gastropods, genotoxicity, Goa coast

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Fungal diversity: an important food source to meet the challenges of nutritional security M. K. Bag, T. V. Prasad, R. Bharadwaj and A. Roy National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India Email: manas.bag@gmail.com ABSTRACT Today, there is wider acceptance to diversify our food basket with new sources of food to attain nutritional security. Thus it is important to explore the wild biota like uncultivated edible mushrooms, tubers, vascular and non-vascular epiphytes to identify future food. Several species of fungi are used as food stuffs by the tribal communities in different parts of the world. They are ideal food, incomparable to any other conventional vegetables because of its richness in protein, minerals, dietary fibre, vitamins and almost free of fatty acid and cholesterol. Out of 1097 species of edible fungi 820 used as pure food. Fungi used as food in our diet are mostly mushrooms, morels and truffels. Popularly known mushrooms are „meadow mushroom‟ (Agaricus bisporus, Calocybe indica), „inky-cap mushroom‟ (Lentinus edodes), „oyster mushroom‟ (Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju), „termite mushroom‟ (Termitomyces sp.), „paddy straw mushroom‟ (Volvariella volvacia), „sponge mushroom‟ (Morchella esculenta, M. rotunda) also known as „morel‟. Besides these ascomycetous fungi ‘Tuber’ commonly known as „truffels‟ (T. melanosporum), „puff-ball fungus‟ (Lycoperdon spp.), „giant puff-ball fungi‟ (Calvatia spp.), „gelly fungus‟ (Auricularia auricular-judae) and Ramaria apiculata grown on conifers are other edible macro fungi. Besides mushroom, fungal mycelium of Fusarium used as meat substitute after processing. „Quorn‟ a commercial product of Fusarium sold as lowfat, low-calorie, cholesterol-free health food to consumers. Being used directly as food, fungi are also used in processing of various food products like soy-sauce using Aspergillus oryzae and A. sojae, Indonesian „temph‟ using Rhizopus oligosporus. In India particularly in north- eastern region fungi are highly coveted food. Study revealed more than 12 ethnic groups of Nagaland use 13 species and ethnic tribes in Assam use at least 7 species of mushroom for their livelihood. Climate of NE region is suitable for diverse group of edible fungi as evidenced by huge diversity available in the region. However, most of the edible fungi are collected from forest. There exist a good sign for commercial cultivation following GAP guidelines for export and domestic consumption. Keywords: Fungal diversity, edible mushroom, tribal communities, NE region, GAP.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Comparative study on adverse effects of PEG induced water and salinity stress on germination and early seedling growth of Capsicum annuum ‘Solan Bharpur’ under laboratory conditions Sikha Sharma and S. Puri Department of Botany, Shoolini University, Bajhol, Solan, H.P. Email: kumarisikha1980@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT In both natural and agricultural conditions plants are frequently exposed to environmental stresses. Abiotic stresses including drought and salinity are currently the major factors which reduce plants distribution and productivity worldwide. Water and salinity stress also affect the quality seriously and recent global climate change has made this situation more serious. The aim of present study is to investigate the morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of Capsicum annuum „Solan Bharpur‟ when exposed to polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) induced water deficit and salinity (NaCl) stress under laboratory conditions. The adverse effects of water and salinity stress on the growth of Capsicum annuum „Solan Bharpur‟ were assessed at the germination and seedling growth stage using solutions of polyethylene glycol (5% PEG and 10% PEG) and NaCl (50 mM NaCl and 100 mM NaCl) respectively. Effects of PEG induced water and salinity stress were also studied on proline content, lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll content. Seed germination decreased with increase in concentration of treatments. Seedling growth measured in terms of root length, shoot length and seedlings fresh weight also reduced with increasing concentrations of treatments either due to PEG or NaCl. However, PEG induced water stress caused more growth inhibition compared to NaCl induced salinity stress. Water and salinity stress caused increase in the level of proline and MDA, an important index of lipid peroxidation of both shoot and roots tissues with increase in concentrations of treatments. However, increase in the level of proline and MDA of leaves was more than the roots. The total chlorophyll content of leaves decreased with increase in concentrations of both PEG and NaCl treatments. However, chlorophyll a content was higher in leaves as compared to chlorophyll b. Keywords: Germination, growth, PEG, NaCl, MDA, proline

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

The effects of vehicular air pollution on the health, economy and the environment of New Delhi, India Inem Chahal University of Toronto, Department of Economics, 6391 Alderwood Trail, Mississauga ON L5N 6W9, Canada Email: ichahal@uoguelph.ca ABSTRACT The growing number of automobiles in the recent decades has resulted in high levels of vehicle emissions. Toxic chemicals released from these motor vehicles become suspended into the atmosphere, affecting the air quality negatively. This can be defined as „vehicular air pollution‟. Many metropolitan cities around the world have begun to face this problem. One such example is New Delhi, the capital city of India. The roads of New Delhi are constructed to hold up to eight- thousand vehicles, however at least twice that amount are on the roads daily. It is home to about twenty percent of the total number of vehicles in the country. This has become a serious issue because the city is only made up of about fifteen hundred square kilometres, leading to the problem of traffic congestion, in addition to soaring pollution levels. This paper will argue that vehicular air pollution has negative effects on the health, economy and the environment of New Delhi. The second section will provide background information and discuss the contributions of various scholars to this study. The third, fourth and fifth sections will examine the effects on the health, economy and the environment, respectively. The sixth section will talk about whether government policies have aided in resolving this problem or not. These policies include the introduction of compressed natural gas, removing old vehicles off the roads and mandatory pollution checks. Finally, the seventh section will discuss possible solutions to vehicular air pollution which the government can adapt in the future, these possibilities include improving the existing infrastructure to make it more efficient and reliable, having a tax system in place which requires drivers of private vehicles to pay a certain amount and finally having a policy in place which limits each household to one vehicle. Keywords: Vehicles, Pollutants, CNG, Emissions, Transport Policy, New Delhi

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Impact of Buildings on Climate Change Pratima Singh Department of Resource Management, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi- 110016 Email: pratima_lic@hotmail.com ABSTRACT It is a widely accepted fact that human activities are contributing to climate change at a very rapid pace. Scientific evidence suggests climate change to be causal factor in rising sea levels, increased occurrence of severe weather events, food shortages, changing patterns of disease, severe water shortages and the loss of tropical forests significantly impacting almost every aspect of our environment, economies and societies. This paper discusses the potential impact of buildings on climate leading to irreversible damage to environment and ecosystem. Solution to the problem in the form of untapped potential of sustainable/green buildings is also discussed to support energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) & non-CO2 GHG emissions reduction. Keywords: climate change, building, green buildings, greenhouse gas

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Profiling of inhabitant bacterial diversity in molasses-mass of sugarcane distillery effluent Anupama Chaudhary1, A.K. Sharma1 and Birbal Singh3 1Department of Biotechnology, M.M. (P.G.) C. Modinagar, UP-201204 2Dept. of Biotechnology, M.M. (P.G.) C. Modinagar, UP-201204 3Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Regional Station, Palampur. HP- 176001 Email: anilmdnr@gmail.com ABSTRACT In the sugarcane producing area of western Uttar-Pradesh, efďŹ&#x201A;uent from molasses based distilleries leads to a high risk of environmental pollution due to discharge of large volume water pollutant. In present report, we intended to analyses inhabitant bacterial diversity, in order to optimize in-situ degradation of pollutant molasses-mass collected from Modi Distillery, Modinagar. At an initial step, morphological identification and evaluation of growth characteristics of different molasses isolates enriched of microbial diversity was carried out. In the process of optimization of growth of isolated microbial agents; we examine effect of different media compositions, time duration, temperature, aeration and pH. Molecular characterization of these bacterial isolates through 16S rDNA sequencing indicated that the agents of bacterial consortium which showed highest decomposing activity under aerobic conditions consisted of Pseudomonas grimontii, Staphylococcus sp. CSA7, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sp. MH-I6. Facilitated inoculation of individual bacterial agent or their consortium to pollutant mollasses-mass led to a significant decrease in the darkcolour of molasses-substrate and its COD levels. Conclusively, identification and characterizaion of the bacterial agents significes advantage of such bacterial consortium and demonstrate their future implication in in-situ degradation of mollasses-mass at large-scale. Keywords: Molasses-mass, Diversity, Modi Distillery, Effluent, Consortium, In-situ degradation.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Spider diversity of IISc., Bangalore, India Nalini Bai G.1 and Ravindranatha B.P.2 1Associate professor, Dept. of zoology, M.E.S. Degree College, Bangalore. 2 Industrial & Production Engineer, Bangalore. Email: 1naliravi_20@yahoo.co.in, 2ravinali_20@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT Spiders are 7th largest group of animals. A survey of the spider fauna of Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, was carried out from August 2009 to December 2010. Spider species were observed on various trees, shrubs, bushes, grasses, leaves, flowers, under stones and logs. A total of 40 species of spiders belonging to 33 genera under 14 families viz. Araneidae, Ctenidae, Dienopidae, Erasidae, Hersilidae, Lycosidae, Nephilidae, Oxyopidae, Pholcidae, Salticidae, Tetragnathidae, Therididae, Thomosidae, Uloboridae were recorded within the premises of IISc. Amongst these families the most dominated family reported was orb weavers, the Araneidae represented by 5 Genera & 10 species. Occurrence of high number of Araneids could be due to thick vegetation, which provides enough space to build webs of different sizes and protection from their predators. The second dominated family was salticidae represented by 9 genera & 9 species. Six families were represented by single species. Out of the recorded spiders Cyclosa spirifera, Zosis geniculatus, Argyrodes flavescens, Amyciaea forticeps, Runcinia acuminta are rare species. Practically no one has tried to explore spider fauna of this region. The survey result shows that, the spider diversity is much higher and further studies may yield more information about the diverse Araneae fauna of this area. One can undertake research work on individual species, because the climatic conditions support the spider fauna to multiply. Keywords: Indian Institute of Science, orb weavers, Araneidae, spider.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Climate change S.P. Tayal M.M.University, Mullana- 133203, Dist. Ambala (Haryana) Email: sptayal@gmail.com ABSTRACT Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions, or in the distribution of weather around the average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change is caused by factors that include oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics and volcanic eruptions, and human-induced alterations of the natural world; these latter effects are currently causing global warming, and "climate change" is often used to describe human-specific impacts. Scientists actively work to understand past and future climate by using observations and theoretical models. Borehole temperature profiles, ice cores, floral and faunal records, glacial and per glacial processes, stable isotope and other sediment analyses, and sea level records serve to provide a climate record that spans the geologic past. More recent data are provided by the instrumental record. Physically-based general circulation models are often used in theoretical approaches to match past climate data, make future projections, and link causes and effects in climate change.The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Nino, do not represent climate change. The term sometimes is used to refer specifically to climate change caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes Keywords: Climate change, global warming, oceanic processes, solar radiation, plate tectonics, volcanic eruptions

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Optimization of different Carbon and Nitrogen source for pectinase production by A. niger fungal strain Sunita Singh and Sarvesh Raghav Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida ABSTRACT Pectinases account for 10% of global industrial enzymes produced and their market is increasing day by day. These are the group of enzymes, which cause degradation of pectin that are chain molecules with a rhamnogalacturonan backbone, associated with other polymers and carbohydrates. Pectinases are widely used in biotechnological applications viz. in food industry , textile ,paper and pulp industries and in wastewater treatment. For the production of pectinases, A. niger strain is commonly used due to their ubiquitous nature. However, there is a dire need of improvement in media formulation and media cost to meet the demand of this enzyme in various industries. Alternative carbon and nitrogen source in media can be used to lower the media cost. In the present study different carbon sources such as Glucose, Starch, Carboxy methyl cellulose, Galactose,and Sucrose in pectinase producing media were used. Among the carbon sources used, sucrose promoted maximum enzyme yield as compare to others. In addition, different nitrogen sources such as urea, yeast extract + ammonium sulpfate, peptone + ammonium sulfate,yeast extract and sodium nitrate,peptone + sodium nitrate ,urea+sodium nitrate were also used to study their effect on enzyme production. Present study showed that addition of combination of yeast extract and ammonium sulphate enhanced pectinase production. Thus, sucrose and combination of yeast extract and ammonium sulphate can be used as alternative carbon and nitrogen source respectively.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Impact of pollution on lake water located in thane city of Maharashtra with special reference to heavy metal content Kalpana Rathod Department of chemistry, Dnyansadhana college, Thane-400606, University of Mumbai Email: kalpanarathod17@gmail.com ABSTRACT Lakes are very important constituents of the urban environment. Thane city is known as “city of lakes”. Most of the lakes located in Thane city of Maharashtra state getting polluted as these water bodies situated right next to the roads. Lakes receives heavy flux of sewage domestic waste , agricultural waste ,industrial waste. The increasing trends in concentration of heavy metals in the environment has created lot of awareness about environmental pollution . hence regular monitoring is crucial therefore systematic study is carried out to estimate the physical –chemical parameters like ph , conductivity , alkalinity, hardness, chemical oxygen demand(COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand and level of toxic heavy metals content like Cu,Zn,Ni, Cd, Hg,As and Fe in the Makhamali ,Upvan,Rewale,Masunda and Kalwa lake of Thane city of Maharashtra state. The toxic heavy metal content were found to very much above the permissible limit .These heavy metals have a marked effect on the aquatic flora and fauna which through bio magnification enter the food chain thereby affecting the human being. Keywords: Lakes, Environmental pollution, Toxic heavy metal content, physico-chemical parameters, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, toxicity, lake water, Thane, Maharashtra.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

An analysis of marine traditional ecological knowledge: The Indo- Fijian perspective of marine resource conservation and management Mohseen Riaz Ud Dean Department of Productivity and Quality, National Training and Productivity Centre, Fiji National University, Fiji Email: mosheen_dean@yahoo.com.au ABSTRACT Contemporary and traditional understanding of the ocean provides the basis for sustainable use of the ocean and its resources, for the reduction of marine pollution and harmful practices and or the prediction of weather, climate and ocean variability. The research focusses on the status of Marine Traditional Ecological Knowledge possessed and utilized by the Indo-Fijian fishermen of the Nausori Town, Fiji for marine resource conservation and management. The analysis exhibited a significant inheritance, borrowing, sharing, blending and use of indigenous marine knowledge from the local Fijians commonly known as I Taukei into the cultures and ethos of the descendants of the displaced populous of the Indentured Labourers brought from India in the late 1800‟s and in early 1900‟s, branded as Kai India in Fiji. The information, which is thus derived, can be very useful in the coastal ecosystem management, which is greatly required for the sustainable use, development, and protection of the coastal and marine areas and resources in a fast developing Island state of Fiji where the two cultures (I Taukei and the Kai India) has been seen living together for generations. Therefore, the research recommends that I Taukei and Kai India Marine Ecological Knowledge be blended together with modern policies and approaches concerning marine ecosystem. This will definitely require active and effective management of the two different communities in order to eliminate the possibilities of compromising the major conservation initiatives underway in the country. Keywords: Contemporary, Marine Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Fiji, Ecosystem, Fishermen, Resource Conservation and Management

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Study of diurnal variation of Total Oxidants at kerb site - Tarnaka, Hyderabad in summer season 2011 Pratyusha Adepu1 and M.K. Reddy2 1Institute of Science &Technology, JNTU, Hyderabad, 2NEERI Zonal Laboratory, Hyderabad. ABSTRACT The main objective of the project was to ascertain air quality with respect to oxidant (O 3) concentration levels. For this study, Neutral Buffered Potassium Iodide (NBKI) method was employed. The principle involved is micro amounts of ozone and other oxidants liberate iodine when absorbed in 1% solution of potassium iodide buffered at pH 6.8±0.2. The iodine is determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorption of triiodide ion at 352nm. Air samples were collected in an absorbing medium using a high volume sampler fixed in IICT campus, Tarnaka from 10am to 5:30pm. A sampling period of half an hour was maintained with a regular interval of 1 ½ hour to collect 5 samples each day. A total of 100 samples were collected during the study period of April-June 2011. These samples were then analyzed in a spectrophotometer for its ozone concentration at a wavelength of 352nm i.e., in the UV region. It was observed that the O3 concentration for 1 hour duration in April varied between minimum value of 28µg/m 3 and maximum value of 119µg/m3 whereas in May, oxidants varied between 41.7µg/m 3 and 103µg/m3.In the case of June, the oxidants varied between 28µg/m3 and 74.7µg/m3. The variation in concentration of oxidants is attributed to variation in intensity of sunlight and NOx. Hence, the highest values were obtained during the peak hours of day and traffic. However, oxidant concentration in the study area during the study period was found to be below the prescribed standards of CPCB for residential area. . Keywords: Oxidants (Ozone), Kerb site – Tarnaka, Sunlight, NBKI method, High Volume Sampler

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Heavy metals analysis and Assessment of Genotoxicity of Industrial Effluents by Allium cepa test Sunil Bhavsa and M.N. Reddy Department of Bioscience, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat, Gujarat ABSTRACT Surat is a major textile industry hub situated on the golden corridor of industry from Mumbai to Ahmedabad. Textile dying and printing industry in Surat is a well-developed small and medium industry and most of them do not have effluent treatment plants of their own. However there are few common effluent treatment plants in the industrial region but their proper functioning is questionable. This present study is focused on the assessing the genotoxicity of textile effluents of two different sites using Allium cepa assay method. Chromosomal abnormalities and mitotic index was studied with different dilutions of the effluent. Chromosomal abnormality was noticed even at 40% diluted samples. Since dying industry uses several heavy metals, these were analysed in the effluent. The result indicates that all effluent samples were highly mutagenic. Concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ar, Pb, Ni, Mn, and Zn) was also determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arsenic which is a toxic element is also detected both in the sediments and effluents. Keywords: Genotoxicity, Chromosomal abnormalities, Mitotic index, AAS

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Nanoparticles in Indian water: An emerging contaminant needing regulatory considerations Baranidharan S and Arun Kumar Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 Email: arunku@civil.iitd.ac.in ABSTRACT The prime objective of this study was to know the occurrence of Nanoparticles in Indian waters which is of significant interest to both health and regulatory authorities. Because of its increased presence in commercial products, a growing public debate is emerging on whether the environmental costs of nanotechnology outweigh its benefits. Commercial nanoparticles may find their way into aqueous environments from point sources such as production facilities, landfills or wastewater treatment plants or from nonpoint sources such as wear from materials containing NPs and it had been reported that nanoparticles will remain in natural streams because they escape from the treatment plants. A detailed literature review on nanoparticle pathways, their concentration in water, and their effect will be dealt in order to frame a policy. A recent study had reported that the modeled surface water concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles varying from 0.012 - 0.057 μg/L in Europe, 0.002 - 0.010 μg/L in the U.S., and 0.016 - 0.085 μg/L in Switzerland, but there are still no such data available for Indian scenario. Further, there are no regulatory agencies present in India as compared to other countries which focus its efforts on nanoparticles presence in environment. The knowledge on occurrence of nanoparticles in Indian waters and the associated risk management lags far behind when compared to the developed countries. In conclusion, it has become imperative for Indian regulatory bodies to initiate a comprehensive research programme to focus on nanoparticles occurrence in Indian water sources and efforts to estimate risks associated with nanoparticles, important for Indian population. Keywords: Nanoparticle; Regulatory Policy; Health risk.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Assessment of floral biodiversity in rehabilitated limestone mined area of Sahastradhara Dhupper. R Amity Institute of Environmental Science, Amity University (Noida) Email: renu.dhupper@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT Mining is the process of extraction of minerals from the earth‟s crust. Doon – Mussoorie region which comes in Western Himalayas is no exception to the problem of environmental degradation of mining activities in different parts. The Dun‟s is a characteristic geomorphologic entity of Himalayas which is know for its natural resources like minerals, soil , forest and water. Unscientific extraction of these minerals had threatened the healthy climate and scenic beauty of this region. The limestone mining, in areas of Mussoorie and Sahastradhara near Dehradun is done totally by surface mining process. In the past mining in this region was being carried out without taking into considerations the environmental impacts to ecology and environment. The situation required land rehabilitation with utmost priority and concern. The species of plants which can grow in such harsh environments (arisen due to mining) provide a basis for ecological restoration have to be selected only after thoroughly investigating the ecology, growth behaviors and socio-economic values of the various plants. Three sizes of quadrats 1x1m, 5x5m and 10x10m were laid randomly for recording herbs and grasses, shrubs and tree vegetation. Results showed that after 12 year of rehabilitation efforts starting from zero level there was high species richness (no. of species) in case of shrubs, herbs and grasses as compared to tree species in rehabilitated site. Assessing overall dominance of planted species Acacia catechu was found to be most dominant (I.V.I 47.78) among trees, Eriophorum comosum (I.V.I 66.90) and Dodonea viscose (I.V.I 17.25) among grasses and shrubs. Comparing the overall diversity index among the trees, shrubs and herbs and grasses, the highest diversity index (2.32) was recorded in case of herbs and grasses and minimum in case of trees (1.93). Vegetation analysis of rehabilitated mined sites indicated that rehabilitation efforts have greatly helped in increasing the species diversity of shrubs, herbs and grasses and trees and site condition has improved through their rooting and incorporation of organic matter. Keywords: Mining, Impact, Harsh, Rehabilitation,, Diversity and Organic matter.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

The Role of WRF Land Surface Schemes on Weather Simulations in Delhi Region Sarika Jain1, Rupender Singh2 and Ramesh Raghava3 1, 3 Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, Delhi 2Netaji Subash Institute of Technology, Dwarka, Delhi Email: sarika33jain@gmail.com ABSTRACT In this paper we are analysing the effect of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) land surface schemes (LSMs) on weather simulation in Delhi region. The widely used WRF model provides a few land surface schemes (LSMs) to compute heat and moisture fluxes over land surface. The LSMs differ in complexity and approaches used. In order to assess their role on weather simulations in the Delhi region, we performed WRF simulations for 30 km resolution domains over the Delhi region. We used the four LSMs provided with WRF: 6layer Rapid Update Cycle (RUC), 5-layer thermal diffusion, 2-layer Pleim-Xiu scheme (together with the Pleim-Xiu surface layer and the ACM boundary layer models), and 4-layer Noah scheme. We focused on summers of 2009. The RUC scheme showed stronger-wind, warmer, and drier biases. The Pleim-Xiu scheme is giving best result for the temperature and Wind Speed. Thermal Scheme is giving best results for Relative humidity. So we can say that if we compare only LSPâ&#x20AC;&#x;s by keeping other schemes same then Pleim is the scheme which is giving best results for Temperature (Cumulative PDF - Pleim Xiu Scheme error < 3 degree is approx. 60%) and Wind Speed. Thermal Scheme is giving good results for Relative Humidity. Weather Underground provides local & long range Weather Forecast, weather reports, maps & tropical weather conditions for locations worldwide. The simulation results are compared to the Weather Underground measurement data. Keywords: LSMs, NOAH, PX, RUC, Thermal, WRF

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Reduction of bod level of distillery effluent using Artemia S.Sujatha devi1, V.Sugumar2, S.Santhoshi3, N.Munuswamy4 1Anna University, Chennai 2Alagappa University, Karaikudi. 4University of Madras, Chennai ABSTRACT Environmental pollution is one of the most important problems in this century and itâ&#x20AC;&#x;s mainly due to the increased industrialization. Industrial wastewater contains heavy pollutant and it should be treated before it is discharge into the environment. However, nowadays industries were not carrying out the treatment process properly due to the heavy cost of the treatment process. Improperly treated effluent contains the pollutant, which is higher than the permissible limit, and creates an environmental pollution. Nowadays, improperly treated effluent are rich in high BOD level and it causes the aquatic pollution and it is also responsible for the eutrophication problem. The present study evaluates the feasibility of using Artemia as a bio accumulator in reducing the BOD level of the distillery effluent collected from industrial area, near Chennai. Generally, the distillery effluent contains very high BOD, causes depletion of dissolved oxygen and proves very harmful to aquatic life. Biological organisms such as nauplii as well as adult Artemia have been used as bio accumulators to reduce the BOD of the effluent. BOD was reduced from 6054.32 mg/l to 10074.08 mg/l using Artemia nauplii. In the present study, Artemia nauplii were very effective in reducing the BOD level of the distillery effluent. Artemia nauplii (72 hrs) was capable of reducing the BOD in the distillery effluent to 75.5% and the adult was found to reduce the BOD to 18.11%.Easy culturing of Artemia and the significant reduction of BOD levels proves this biological treatment to be an alternative for the various microbial treatments. Keywords: Artemia, Bioaccumulation, BOD removal, Distillery treatment, Biological treatment

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Effect of dust exposure on pulmonary function of construction workers Samipa Banerjee (Dutta) and Prasun Banerjee George College of Management & Science, Budge Budge Trunk Road, Chakmir, Maheshtala, Kolkata 700 141, West Bengal ABSTRACT Exposure to dust for prolonged time is associated with accelerated loss of lung function and is a major public threat to the construction workers. The present study is planned to assess the pulmonary functions of the construction workers. These workers were constantly exposed to dusts of concrete and other rock materials throughout the day. Lung function was measured on 76 exposed and 58 “unexposed” constructional workers. Respirable dust concentrations were measured individually on all the exposed and the unexposed workers. Information on respiratory signs and symptoms was also collected in form of questionnaire from the subjects. The smokers were excluded from this study. The pulmonary function tests were done by using computerized JAGER flow screen pro spirometer. Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), Forced expiratory ratio (FEV1%), Peak expiratory flow (PEF) and Mid expiratory flow (MEF50) were measured. The study revealed that exposed group (construction workers) has a significantly negative correlation (P<0.001) between years of exposure and FVC, FEV1%, PEF than that of the "unexposed" workers. But it is surprising that whenever FEV1 correlates with the years of exposure (working experiences), both workers and "unexposed" workers show a significant correlation (P<0.05). The mean exposure to respirable dust and α-quartz in construction workers varied from 0.86-11.8 mg/m3 (respirable dust), with a mean SD of 5.3 ± 1.14 mg/m 3 and 0.037-3.48 mg/m3 (α-quartz), with a mean SD of 1.37 ± 1.06 mg/m3 respectively, depending on job task performed. Decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was associated with cumulative exposure to respirable dust (p<0.05) and α-quartz (p<0.02). The present study indicates that exposure to the organic dust in the work environment of constructional workers accelerated decline in lung function. Dust exposure should be controlled by adequate engineering measures, complemented by effective personal respiratory protection. Keywords: Dust, Construction workers, lung function, FEV1.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Persistent Organic Pollutants in environment and their impacts: A Review Shivani P Banerjee Chemistry Department, Dnyanasadhana College, University of Mumbai Email: shivanipbanerjee@gmail.com ABSTRACT Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are toxic chemicals that adversely affect human health and the environment around the world. As chemical compounds, POPs are very stable and consequently can last in the environment for years or decades. POPs fall into three broad categories: Pesticides like dichloro diphenyl tricholoroethane (DDT), hexachorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, etc.Industrial chemical products like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexa bromo biphenyl. Combustion by-products like dioxins and furans. Tracing the movement of most POPs in the environment is complex because these compounds can exist in different phases (e.g., as a gas or attached to airborne particles) and can be exchanged among environmental media. Studies have linked POPs exposures to declines, diseases, or abnormalities in a number of wildlife species, including certain kinds of fish, birds, and mammals. In people, reproductive, developmental, behavioural, neurologic, endocrine, and immunologic adverse health effects have been linked to POPs. Less common exposure routes include drinking contaminated water and direct contact with the chemicals. A number of populations are at particular risk of POPs exposure, including people whose diets include large amounts of fish, shellfish, or wild foods that are high in fat and locally obtained. In addition, sensitive populations, such as children, the elderly, and those with suppressed immune systems, are typically more susceptible to many kinds of pollutants. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is a major achievement. It started by immediately targeting 12 particularly toxic POPs for reduction and eventual elimination. More importantly, it has set up a system for tackling additional chemicals identified as unacceptably hazardous. The paper finally envisages that, to deal with POPs, the nations of the world really will have to work together as a team for eliminating the use of these dangerous chemicals and if such cooperation becomes a habit, it could be good for facing up to many other global problems as well. Keywords: Pesticides, Industrial Chemical products ,Combustion by products, The Stockholm Convention, reduction and elimination

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Sauvalle, a potential invasive species in Kaziranga National Park landscapes, a UNESCO World heritage site Praveen Kumar Verma, Dhruba Jyoti Das, Papori Gogoi and P. K. Kaushik Rain Forest Research Institute, Deovan, Sotai Ali, Post Box # 136 Jorhat (Assam) - 785 001 Email: pkverma_bryo@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT Kaziranga National Park (KNP) of Assam is a one of 126 Natural World Heritage site under UNESCO. KNP is famous for its complex diverse unique ecosystems. This park is the residence of about 60% of the world population of the one horned Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). This natural world heritage site is parallel facing with three major types of problems, viz. Human Interferences, Human-animal conflict and lastly but most serious threat ‘Invasive species‟ like Mimosa diplotricha, Chromolaena odorata and Mikania micrantha. In which Mimosa diplotricha, a potent Nitrogen Fixation plant which establish in almost unique Savanna Grassland ecosystem, by threatening the native biodiversity as well for toxin content „Mimosin‟. Genus Mimosa is represented by more than 400 herbaceous and perennial species around the world. Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Sauvalle is tropical in origin (Latin America) and invades in India as guest of Tea Gardens in upper Assam and then running through flow of mighty Brahmaputra and other small rivers it enters in protected areas like Kaziranga National park, as silent straggler. In series of experiments are done on seed ecology, dormancy as well as the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of species in nursery conditions. The results have been shown more than 90% seed viability which make it‟s serious noxious weed. It also enters in Agriculture field through same manner in Brahmaputra. The question of concern is that why this potential Nitrogen Fixation plant most serious threat of KNP? The answer hidden in the plant itself which contains Mimosin, a non-water soluble amino acid which is toxic in nature and when consumed by herbivores it causes endothelial damages and heart problems. In park area two biotype is presented with thornless form, Mimosa diplotricha var. inermis and most dangerous one is Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha. The species can germinate round the year if the soil is moist and conditions are open (but not flooded). However, most germination takes place at the start of the March to end of the wet season. Growth of seedlings is very fast and covers native vegetation, while flowering occurs between Septembers to January as peak and after sporadically up to end of March or 1st week of April. Some reports stated due to impermeable coating of fat on seed especially in inner wall allow seeds remain viable in soil (especially in sandy soil) for over 50 years. The paper also discussed about their reproductive behavior in new home which almost naturalize, and control majors to prevent unique KNP ecosystem. Keywords: Kaziranga National Park, UNESCO, World Heritage Site, Invasive Species

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Composition and abundance of Tintinnids (Ciliata: Protozoa) of the Ganges River Estuary, West Bengal, India Dibyendu Rakshit 1 ,N.Godhantaraman 2,S. K. Sarkar 1 and B. Bhattacharya1 aDepartment of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta-700019, India bCentre for Ocean and Coastal Studies (COCS), University of Madras, Chepauk Campus, Chennai-600 005, Tamil Nadu, India Email: rakshit_dibyendu@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT Seasonal variations of the loricate ciliate tintinnid (ciliophora: Tintinnida) were investigated in different stations at Ganges river estuary, Eastern coastal part of India. The variations were analysed in relation to different hydrological parameters such as surface temperature, salinity, pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, Chl-a and inorganic nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, silicate). In addition, a short term study was also carried out during two religious festivals i.e.; Durga idol immersion (September 2011) in several sites of Hooghly river & Gangasagar mela (January 2012) at Sagar island, mouth of the estuary. Total 10 species of tintinnids under 4 genera have been identified during the study period. In general, Tintinnopsis dominates the community comprising of 7 species followed by Tintinnidium (1 sp), Leprotintinnus (1 sp) and Favella (1 sp). Sharp increase of tintinnid abundance was recorded during those religious events in comparison to other months. The total abundance, biomass and production rate of tintinnids ranged from 1537500 ind. m-3 - 10,22,294 ind. m-3 , 0.12 μgcl-1-2.48 μgcl-1 and 0.62 μgcl-1 - 4.52 μgcl-1 respectively. The species diversity indices (H‟) was ranged from 0.2 to 1.64 with the maximum value during Gangasagar mela. Tintinnid diversity appeared to be positively correlated with nitrate concentrations (r = 0.597 ; P<0.05). The dominance indices varied from 0.07 to 2.46 where the community was predominated by Tintinnopsis beroidea. The work is being carried out to get substantial data on tintinnid community structure along with the water quality characteristics which would be helpful for adopting future management strategies of this highly productive wetland ecosystem. Keywords: Planktonic ciliates, Durga idol immersion, Gangasagar mela, Coastal

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Recycling of medical waste: A new challenge to environment Jyotsna Shekhawat* and Fateh Singh** *Department of Zoology & Environmental Science Lachoo Memorial College of Science & Technology, Jodhpur **Manidhari Hospital and Moloo Neuro Centre, Jodhpur Email: jyotsna_shekhawat@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Human health and environment are two sides of coin. Due to increase in population and degradation of environment normal person needs medical facility for surviving in ecosystem. Along with its positive impact, in the form of medical waste it plays a negative role for environment. Some wastes associated with biological materials must be disposed of in special way because they may have been contaminated with infectious organisms or agents. These potentially infectious or biohazardous materials are defined by NJ regulations as Regulated Medical Waste. All sharps, e.g. glass implements, needles, syringes, blades, etc. coming from facilities using infectious materials. Patient care waste generated at other sites on campus by medical response personnel (i.e. Public Safety) are placed in biohazard bags polluted the environment. Developing countries, whose supplies are limited, are dealing with challenges of sorting and disposing of all types of medical waste, in a sanitary manner Scientists are now starting to look at another form of medical waste, inhaled anesthetics, whose presence in the atmosphere might be linked to global warming the worldwide rise in temperatures that has been blamed for severe weather in many parts of the world.. The three major inhaled anesthetics (sevoflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane) undergo very little change once exhaled by patients. These three gases are considered greenhouse gases that help trap heat in the atmosphere and contribute to global warming and most hospitals vent them out of the building as waste gases. According to a study published in Anesthesia & Analgesia, a busy hospital could emit annually as much gas as 100 -1,200 cars (depending on the type of anesthetic used). Reducing the use nitrous oxide, decreasing the anesthetic flow rate, and recapturing the anesthetic gases for reuse would reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. Human-induced climate changes may lead to irreversible impacts on physical, biological, and social systems of environment. Keywords: environment, ecosystem, biohazardous, NJ regulations, global warming, greenhouse gases

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Distribution and possible source of trace elements in the sediment cores of a tropical macrotidal estuary Santosh Kumar Sarkar, M. Chatterjee and B.D. Bhattacharya Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta-700019, India Email: sarkar.santosh@gmail.com ABSTRACT The paper presents the first document regarding concentration, distribution and possible sources of selected trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb, Al, B and Ba) in core sediments (<63 μ particle size) from the lower stretch of Hugli (Ganges) estuary, northeast coast of Bay of Bengal to evaluate geochemical processes influencing their distribution and possible environmental consequences. The levels of elements showed a wide range of variations in different core depths, in upper and lower intertidal zones as well as among three sampling stations. The most interesting feature of the study is the downward increase of concentrations of majority of the elements reaching overall maximum values at a depth of 20–28 cm in upper littoral zone of the site located in the extreme downstream stretch of the estuary. Values of organic carbon showed very strong positive correlations with most of the elements as revealed by correlation matrix (r) values. The interelemental relationship revealed the identical behavior of element during its transport in the estuarine environment. The overall variation in concentration can be attributed to differential discharge of untreated effluents originating from industrial, agricultural, and aquacultural sources as well as from domestic sewage along with the fishing and boating activities. The resulting compositional dataset was tested by principal component analyses and cluster analyses. Pollution load index (PLI) and index of Geoaccumulation (I geo) revealed overall low values but the enrichment factors (EFs) for Pb were typically high for all the stations. The mean concentrations of Zn and to some extent Cu exceeded the Effects Range-Low (ER-L) values in the majority of the cases indicating that there may be some ecotoxicological risk to organisms living in sediments. Keywords: Sediment; Heavy metals; Ecotoxicology; Hugli estuary; Sundarban

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Microbial Diversity of Cave Ecosystems: A study of the iron mats of the Borra Caves, Andhra Pradesh, India Sushmitha Baskar1 and Ramanathan Baskar2 1 School of Agriculture, Chair for Sustainable Development Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), New Delhi - 110068 2 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar - 125001, Haryana Email: sushmithab@ignou.ac.in ABSTRACT DNA sequencing analyses and electron microscopy of an Fe-rich organic mat associated with a neutrophilic spring at the Borra caves ecosystem, Vishakapatanam, Andhra Pradesh, India were studied with an aim to understand the cave microbial diversity, as these ecosystems are relatively less studied compared to many other ecosystems. SEM imaging of the organic mat confirmed a high abundance of Leptothrix-like bacterial sheaths (1Âľm diameter), poorly crystalline Fe-precipitates, a large number of hollow tubes and broken dissociated sheaths embedded in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). TEM/EDS indicate that the bacterial sheaths and EPS sequestered some Si and P together with the large amounts of iron. The DNA sequencing analyses of the 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed microorganisms assigned to eight different phyla. They include Proteobacteria (62%), Chloroflexi (8%), Bacteroidetes (7%), Planctomycetes (1%), Actinobacteria (5%), Acidobacteria (6%), Nitrospira (1%) and Firmicutes (5%). The dominant class was the Betaproteobacteria that accounted for 28% of the sequences. Further, sequences affiliated with Leptothrix, Siderooxidans, Crenothrix, Comamonadaceae, Dechloromonas were also present. The results also allow us to infer a possible relationship of the microbial community diversity in the Borra cave springs to the microbial sheaths, EPS, and the iron precipitates. Understanding these microbial associations with biogenic iron oxides in cave ecosystem has important applications in the discovery of novel microbes, as it could provide a potential tool for the many bioremedial, medicinal and biotechnological applications. Keywords: Microbial diversity, Geomicrobiology, Caves, Biogeochemistry.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Gross and biometrical studies on Sesamoid bones of Chital (Axis axis) Choudhary, O.P., Mathur, R., Joshi, S., Beniwal, G. and Dangi, A. Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner (Rajasthan), India 334001 Email: dr.om.choudhary@gmail.com ABSTRACT India has been blessed by wide range of biodiversity. There are several wild animals including lion, tiger, elephant, deer, rhinoceros, bear and black panther etc. constitute a huge area of anatomical teaching and research. Chital (Axis axis), also known as Spotted Deer or Axis Deer, is an antelope which is an endemic species of south Asia, occurring in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bangladesh. The present study has been done on the sesamoids bones of chital. Four proximal sesamoid bones (ossa sesamoidea proximalia), two for each digit were present. These bones were placed palmar to the metacarpo-phalangeal joint (fetlock joint). Two distal sesamoid bones were present one for each digit, placed palmarly in between the second and third phalanx (Coffin joint). Proximal sesamoid bones (ossa sesamoidea proximalia) were small, crescent shaped, short bones arranged in pairs as medial and lateral. The average Greatest Length and Maximum breadth of abaxial proximal sesamoids were 1.23±0.00 cm and 0.73±0.00 cm, respectively. The average Greatest Length and Maximum breadth of axial proximal sesamoids were 1.58±0.07 cm and 0.75±0.00 cm, respectively. The distal sesamoids bones (ossa sesamoidea distalia) were short bones rounded in outline and offered two surfaces and two borders for description. The average Greatest Length and Maximum breadth of distal sesamoids were 0.56±0.00 cm and 0.87±0.00 cm, respectively. Keywords: Chital, Proximal sesamoid, distal sesamoid, crescent shaped.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

The sources of pollution of hydroecosystems with nutrients and the load of pastures in the catchment areas of the Voghchi and Meghriget rivers, Armenia Karen Grigoryan1 and Gor Gevorgyan2 1Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogyan St., 0025 Yerevan, Armenia 2Institute of Hydroecology and Ichthiology of NAS RA, 7 Parujr Sevak, 0014 Yerevan, Armenia, Email: gev_gor@mail.ru ABSTRACT The catchment basins of the Voghchi and Meghriget rivers are located in the south of the Republic of Armenia. The catchment basins of the Voghchi and Meghriget rivers cover the areas of 933 square km (in the borders of Armenia) and 340 square km respectively, and the population is 62300 and 12200 respectively. In the catchment areas of the Voghchi and Meghriget rivers, the main occupation of population was cattle breeding, and now it is one of the dominating sphere of economy. Agriculture and other spheres of human activity including human domestic activity have its impact on the environment. Canalization and sewerage systems are in very bad condition, biological water cleaning stations donâ&#x20AC;&#x;t work in these areas by which wastewaters without sufficient cleaning flow directly to wetlands of abovementioned catchment areas polluting them. The objective of study was to explore the content of nitrogen and phosphorus penetrating into the environment due to human domestic and agricultural (cattle breeding) activity as well as to determine the load of pastures in the catchment areas of the Voghchi and Meghriget rivers. The study was performed in 2006-2010 using the methodology of Vollenweider. The study shown that about 1462 (2006), 1507 (2007), 1526 (2008), 1558 (2009), 1506 (2010) tons of nitrogen and 156, 161, 164, 167, 161 tons of phosphorus penetrated into the environment in the catchment areas of the Voghchi and Meghriget rivers as a result of human domestic and agricultural activity. It was also revealed that the load of pastures was very low, and there was the high potential for cattle breeding development in this territory. Keywords: Catchment area, domestic and agricultural activity, cattle breeding, nutrients, pastures

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Underutilized crops potential to combat food security in India Monika Thakur and S. C. Jain Amity Institute of Food Technology, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Sector – 125, Noida, U.P. (India) ABSTRACT Agriculture in today‟s context is one of the important sources of renewable wealth in the world. But still there are many plant species still lying unexplored and underexploited in India. With the increasing human population and fast depletion of natural resources, it became necessary to explore the possibilities of using newer indigenous plant resources. Therefore, there has been focused attention by the researchers on exploiting these neglected or underutilized indigenous plant species for multifarious use. Underutilized crops (UUC‟s) are plant species that are used traditionally for their food, fibre, fodder, oil or medicinal properties, but have yet to be adopted on large-scale. Staple food crops face major challenges in the near future and over-dependency on these will be important as part of the progress towards the goal of achieving food security. From past, UUCs continue to play a persistent role in the subsistence and economy of poor people throughout the developing countries. Despite their potential for dietary diversification and valuable source of micro-nutrients, they continue to attract little research and development attention. There should be research, potential strategies and action plans which we hope would be helpful in strategic development of underutilized crops for sustainable food security and poverty alleviation. By corroborating the ethnobotanical data on UUC‟s, they shall provide indispensable for food and nutrition security, provide greater potential for income generation and environmental services in India. Keywords: Underutilized crops, under-exploited, ethnobotanical data, food security

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Promoting Environmentally Benign Coal Mining Amarjeet Singh Central Mine planning and Design Institute Limited, RI-II, Dhanbad, Jharkhand-826005 Email: amarcae@gmail.com ABSTRACT India is among the top three fastest growing economies of the world. India's energy needs are also fast expanding due to population growth and increased industrialization for improved quality of life. In India, coal is the critical input for major infrastructure industries like Power, Steel and Cement. Coal meets around 52% of primary commercial energy needs in India. Around 66% of India's power generation is coal based. Due to limitation on other sources of energy e.g. hydel, nuclear etc. there is greater thrust on coal mining. The coal mining and coal fired power plants are considered to be polluting industry. There are two types of mining methods namely opencast and underground mining. However, with adequate pollution control and eco-restoration measures, sustainable coal mining is possible. Air pollution in coal mines is mainly due to the fugitive emission of particulate matter and gases including methane (CH4), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Different mining operations are the major sources of such emissions. For reducing air pollution, some of the measures employed are water spraying and sprinkling on the haul/transport roads to suppress the dust generation and plantation. Water pollution due to coal mining can be minimised by use of effluent treatment / sewage treatment plants. Wastewater from coal preparation plant or coal washeries can be reused by adopting zero discharge technique after effluent treatment. In case of opencast mining overburden, i.e. the rock or soil overlaid the coal seam, are removed before extraction of coal. This can be taken care of by technical and biological reclamation. Internal backfilling is carried out to reclaim the mine voids created. In case of underground coal mining, subsidence management of land is required. Social aspects are being taken care of by adequate rehabilitation and resettlement measures. Thrust is now on to promote inclusive growth of mining areas by adequate CSR activities. The land use form is rendered into productive land usage for sustenance of local community by implementation of mine closure guidelines of Government of India. Keywords: Coal Mining, Opencast & Underground Mining, Environmental Pollution, reclamation.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Water-deficit impact on the seed germination and growth of Lycopersicon esculentum ‘Solan Sindhur’ Arti Jamwal and S. Puri Shoolini University, Department of Botany, Solan, Himachal Pradesh-173229, India Email: artijamwal11@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT Among the environmental stresses, water-deficit stress is one of the most adverse factors to plant growth and development. Drought is worldwide problem, constraining global crop production and quality seriously and recent global climate change has made this situation more serious. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of Lycopersicon esculentum „Solan Sindhur‟ to water-deficit stress under laboratory conditions. Osmotic stress was generated using PEG6000 (Polyethylene glycol 6000) and the seed germination, seedling growth, proline, lipid and chlorophyll (a, b and total) content were evaluated. The increase in osmotic potential showed significant decrease in germination percentage. Seedling growth parameters increased with an increase in PEG concentration, except the root length which decreased at 10% and 15% PEG PEG concentration. The content of proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased according to severity of water-deficit stress in hydroponically grown plants. Proline content in roots was more as compared to leaf proline; whereas leaf MDA content was high to root. Chlorophyll (a, b and total) content decreased as PEG concentration increased except at 1% PEG. Lycopersicon esculentum „Solan Sindhur‟ would be classified as a species susceptible to severe drought conditions but it can tolerate and flourish well at mild drought condition. Keywords: Water-deficit, polyethylene hydroponically grown plants,

glycol

6000,

osmotic

potential,

germination

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com

percentage,


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Waste Water Treatment: A step towards Pollution Control Mohini Gupta Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab (141004) Email: gupta.mohini60@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Water is a base of life. It is not only needful for human beings; needful for plants and animal as well. The textile industry is considered as the most ecologically harmful industry in the world. The eco problems in textile industry occur during some production processes and are carried forward and cause pollution. Pollution is the discharge of unwanted material, residue and energy into environment. The textile industry is one of the major contributors to water pollution in India because it involves wide range of effluents. The main cause of generation of this effluent is the huge volume of water either in the actual chemical processing or during re-processing in sizing, desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerization, dyeing, printing and finishing. Each process uses various chemical that are getting out into the effluents. Thus, by dumping chemical effluents the Eco balance of nature has been gradually disturbed.In the recent year there has been a growing need for controlling pollution through industrial effluents. The present article to examine the effect of coagulation on industrial waste water; the coagulation process for treatment of effluent of textile waste water is effective. Keywords: Coagulants, Industrial waste water, Treatment process, Textile processing, Pollution control, effluents

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Biodegradation of textile waste by bacterial strains Garima Awasthi, Jyoti Prakash, Aseem Kulshreshtha Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Lucknow- 226010 ABSTRACT Now a dayâ&#x20AC;&#x;s environmental pollution has been recognized as one of the burning problem. The textile industry is one of the industries that generate a high volume of waste. COD, BOD, sulphate and strong colour of the textile wastewater is the most serious problem. The removal of waste from the textile effluent has been carried out by physical, chemical and biological methods such as flocculation, membrane filtration, electrochemical techniques, ozonation, coagulation, adsorption and fungal discolouration. The increasing demand for water and decrease in supply has made the treatment and reuse of industrial waste as an attractive option. Textile wastes are of concern because they contaminate the water bodies and this way they affect the water quality. The ability of microorganisms to degrade and metabolize a wide variety of compounds has been recognized and exploited in various biotreatment processes. This study investigated the potential of bacterial strains for biodegradation of textile industries waste and drains. Present study on biodegradation of textile waste uses species of Acinetobacter, Bacillus for colour removal, Bacillus and Pseudomonas with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal activities. Keywords: Biodegradation, textile waste, bacteria

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Biogeography and its Importance in Population Ecology Jyotsna Shekhawat, Ranjeeta Mathur, Abhishek Rajpurohit Department of Zoology & Environmental Science Lachoo Memorial College of Science & Technology, Jodhpur Email: jyotsna_shekhawat@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Biogeography is a subtopic in both biology and geography. Chiefly, it is concerned with the distribution of species based on geography and history. Biogeography has strong ties to biology, ecology, evolution studies, climatology, and soil science. It is usually considered to be a part of physical geography as it often relates to the examination of the physical environment and how it affects species and shaped their distribution. Biogeography is important as a branch of geography that sheds light on the natural habitats around the world. Today, biogeography is broken into three main fields of study. The three fields are historical biogeography, ecological biogeography, and conservation biogeography. It is also essential in understanding why species are in their present locations and in developing protecting the world's natural habitats. A Population is a group of organisms (i.e. bacteria, plants, animals, etc.) capable of holding constant physical interaction. Since one of the main characteristics of a population is its ability to reproduce, a population can only be defined within a single species. All living organisms, including us, have to deal with environmental factors whether it is to find our source of food, coexist with other species, or adapt to natural elements such as weather or landscape. Population ecology exists to provide us with information on how a particular species reacts to an environmental event. Keywords: Biogeography, Ecology, Environment, species, population.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Blood Physiology Studies in Cyprinus carpio Induced by chronic Exposure to ‘Fenthion’ Leena Muralidharan1, Sreenath Pillai2 1Department of Zoology, V. K. Krishna Menon College, Bhandup (E), Mumbai 2Department of Microbiology & Fermentation Technology, Jacob School of Biotechnology & Bioengineering, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh Email: 1leena.doctor@gmail.com, 2 sreenathpillai1@gmail.com ABSTRACT The present work has been conducted to find out if there are any alterations in glucose, lactic acid, protein, haemoglobin and clotting time in the blood of fish Cyprinus carpio exposed to the three different sub- lethal doses (0.38 mg/l, 0.193 mg/l & 0.096 mg/l) of fenthion for 60 days. Whole blood of exposed and unexposed C. carpio was analysed to determine glucose (Folin- wu method), lactic acid (Berker & Summerson method), protein (Lowry method) and haemoglobin contents (Acid haematin method) as well as coagulation time (Lee & White method) after 60 days test period. Significant increase in glucose and lactic acid levels and reduced protein contents, haemoglobin content and clotting time were observed in the exposed fish. In the present investigation, it was observed that stressed C. carpio exhibited gill damage that led to tissue hypoxia and stimulated the increase in blood glucose and lactic acid levels providing anaerobic energy source during fenthion stress. Decrease in protein level was due to degradation and the product fed to TCA cycle through amino- transferase system to cope with the fenthion- related high energy demand as well as due to histo- pathological damage to kidney due to its impaired functioning. Decrease in haemoglobin content and clotting time is due to histo- pathological damages caused to liver. Reduction in protein, haemoglobin content and clotting time with elevation of glucose and lactic acid levels in blood of fenthion- induced fish „C. carpio’ relate the changes in metabolism to compensate the toxicity stress. Keywords: Cyprinus carpio, Glucose, Protein, Lactic acid, Haemoglobin, Fenthion, Clotting time, Hypoxia.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

The Doctrine of Public Trust in India: Tracing the Development and Marking out Future Requirements Ivan and Vivek Mathur National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata Email: ivand2m@gmail.com, vivekmathur90@gmail.com ABSTRACT This paper traces the development of the Public Trust Doctrine, from its humble origins in ancient Rome to the „force‟ it has come to be reckoned with in present-day legal systems, with special emphasis on the Indian legal regime. It further extends to the manner in which the Indian judiciary, of its own accord, adopted this principle in the Indian legal system and used it for environmental protection; and how with the expansion of judicial activism, this doctrine assumed Constitutional significance and a mandate backed by Part III of the Indian Constitution that contains the Fundamental Rights. An attempt has also been made to throw some light on the paradoxical rulings by the apex court of India that have dealt a severe blow to proenvironmental activism in India. The paper ends with a call to the legislature to ensure the legislative recognition of „tools‟ such as the Public Trust Doctrine for ensuring sustainable development. Keywords: Public Trust Doctrine, Environmental law, Constitution of India, Fundamental rights, Constitutional mandate

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Changing Cropping Pattern and Decline in Ground Water Table Level in Panipat District of Haryana Seema Rani Department of Education, Central Institute of Education, University of Delhi, New Delhi-110007, India Email: seemarani.dse@gmail.com ABSTRACT Since the advent of green revolution in India, traditional agriculture system in the green belts regions have been replaced by modern agriculture system with the introduction of high yielding variety of seeds (HYVs), increase in irrigational facilities, increase in use of fertilizers and pesticides and use of modern agricultural implements. It eventually results in environmental problems. Panipat district of Haryana that forms the part of this region has been also facing such critical situation. Thus the aims of the paper are to examine the changing cropping pattern, its effect on the ground water table and the farmers‟ perceptions towards these changes in the district. Important government documents and research papers have studied to collect preliminary data. Field survey has been done in the study area. Semi structured interviews and informal discussions have been done in the area. Both small and large farmers are randomly selected from the five villages of the district in order to understand their perceptions towards these changes. The collected data has been analyzed using simple statistical techniques and various graphical methods. Maps had prepared to represent the data. The findings showed that cropping pattern has changed from multiple cropping systems to monoculture cropping system. Area under cereal crops (rice and wheat) has increased and other crops (fodder crops, cash crops, pulses and vegetables) are no longer farmers‟ attraction due to several reasons. Thus, Rice Wheat Cropping system has emerged and as a result ground water table depth has also increased from 3.18 meters to 21.2 meters since 1970. On the bases of farmers‟ perception, it is find out that this cropping pattern leads to ground water table depletion in the district. This is now become a concern for planners. There is need of appropriate actions for sustainability in the district before the emergence of any crisis in the agricultural system. Keywords: Cropping Pattern, Green Revolution, Rice Wheat Cropping system, Ground Water Table Level, Sustainability.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Climate Change: The Need for Reflexive Legal Framework V. J. Jithin Centre for Environmental Law, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda-151001 Email: vjjithin@gmail.com ABSTRACT The anthropogenic approach towards the utilisation of natural resources causing severe damage to the environment. The change in the global climate is one of the major outcomes of this. Various studies were held regarding the causes and effects of climate change, and now the entire concerns of environment is focused on climate change. There are legal instruments and obligations at the international level. These international instruments especially the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) explicitly points out the relevancy of policy and regulations at domestic level as well as the cooperation at international level. The diplomatic relations in the regime of globalization and the lack of proper implementation of the policies are threat to the environmental governance. Inter alia the steps taken by the judiciary is alsos significant for enhancing the effective environmental governance. Since the commitment period under Kyoto Protocol expires this year the international community is focusing on the upcoming COP18/MOP8 of UNFCCC, at Doha (Dec-2012) for the restrictions upon the violators as well as the countries which are causing more threat to climate change. In this context this research paper intends to analyse the legal framework, its implications and the future of climate change governance. Keywords: Climate Change, UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol, Obligations, Environmental Governance, Legal Framework

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Assessing Climate Variability in Ganga Basin, India Uzma Parveen Centre for the Study of Regional Development, J.N.U., New Delhi ABSTRACT Climate Change has become a burning issue at present. However, the phenomena of Climate Change is not new to the world as the geological evidences reveal that the global climate has undergone several changes from time to time. It is because of the fact that Climate is a dynamic phenomenon rather than static. There is also an ongoing debate regarding the major cause of Climate Change, whether it is naturally induced or anthropogenic causes are responsible for it. However, the main objective of this paper is to assess the trends in temperature and precipitation variability in order to analyze the impact of climate change in Ganga Basin. Temperature and precipitation being the essential components of climate are likely to get more affected due to changes in Climatic pattern and in turn they influence the biodiversity as well as the socio- economic set up of the region. Another intensively argued fact in various literatures is that the higher altitude areas i.e. Himalayas, are more sensitive to climatic changes and the findings of present study also correspond to this fact. Thus the variation in the pattern of temperature and precipitation is more in high elevated areas as compared to the low lying regions of the Ganga Basin. Along with this, several micro- climatic regions can also be identified, for example- Delhi, Kanpur and Varanasi etc. have emerged as major urban heat islands in the study area. Therefore, in this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the Spatio- Temporal variation in temperature and Precipitation in order to assess the impact of climate change in Ganga basin. Keywords: Climate Variability, heat island, micro- climate, Ganga basin, anthropogenic, spatio-temporal.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Degradation of Polycarbonates by Halobacterium sp. DL1 T.Revathe and Shree Chaitanjali Yadla Department of biotechnology,Rajalakshmi engineering college,Chennai 602 105 Email: atcg@gmail.com ABSTRACT Polycarbonates are a group of thermoplastic polymers that are formed from bisphenol A and phosgene. The monomers are linked together by ester bonds. Polycarbonate is a non-bio degradable thermoplastic. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical that mimics the action of the human hormone estrogen, which alters our bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x;s natural pattern. Because of its estrogenic activity its poses threat not only to humans but also to the aquatic life and environment. Polycarbonates could effectively be degraded by a bacterium called Halobacterium sp. DL1 (halophilic archaeon) containing two important enzymes carboxyl esterase and laccase (E.C 1.10.3.2 p-diphenol oxidase). It is the only known archaebacteria to contain these two broad specificity enzymes. Esterase can cleave the ester bond between the monomers and the subsequent release of the toxic bisphenolic component can be degraded by laccase. Hence this organism can greatly help in the removal of the polycarbonates from the environment. Keywords: Polycarbonates, ester bond, Bisphenol A, Halobacterium DL1, Carboxyl esterase, Laccase

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

New Records of Hemiptera (Insecta) from Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh India Kailash Chandra1 and Sandeep Kushwaha2 1Zoological Survey of India, „M‟ Block New Alipore Kolkata, West Bengal 2Zoological Survey of India, Central Zone Regional Centre, Scheme No. 5, Plot No. 168-169, Vijay Nagar, Jabalpur-482 002 Madhya Pradesh Email: kailash611@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT Tawang district is located in western part of Arunachal Pradesh, bordering Bhutan and China covering approximately 2085 sq. km. area, having the forest covers of 1230 sq. km. The district is divided into 3 subdivisions viz. Tawang, Lumla and Jang. While working on faunal diversity of the district by the first author, the specimens of true bugs were also collected. The identification yielded the record of 10 species of order Hemiptera belonging to 9 genera representing 5 families. All these species are new addition to the fauna of Tawang district, Arunachal Pradesh. Keywords: True bugs, Hemiptera, Tawang and Arunachal Pradesh.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Diversity of Orchids from Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh. Ravi Upadhyay Department of Botany, Government P.G. College, Pipariya, Madhya Pradesh , India. Email: drru12000@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT Hoshangabad is situated in the central region of India in Madhya Pradesh. It lies between the parallels of 22º 15‟ and 22º 44‟ N and 77°15 and 77°55‟.The district Hoshangabad is divided into two natural regions, the hills and the valley. The southern part has Satpura range, rising upto 1200 m in the continuous chain of forest clad hills of sandstone. The valley region has rich black soil. There are four rivers namely Narmada, Tawa., Dudhi and the Denwa flowing in this district. The climate of the district is moderate with an average rainfall of 134 cm and maximum and minimum temperatures are 32º C and 19ºC respectively.Orchids comprise a unique group of plants with beautiful flowers. Taxonomically they belong to the monocot family, Orchidaceae. The family Orchidaceae includes 600-800 genera and 25,000-35,000 species. It is estimated that orchids in India are represented by about 1,300 species belonging to140 genera. About 41 genera are known to occur in Central India. (Singh et al, 2001). Hoshangabad district has a rich orchid diversity. The moist tropical climate in the forest supports several orchid species. The present paper reports twenty two species of orchids viz. Aerides sps., Dendrobium sps.,Epipactis sps.,Eulophia sps., Geodorum sps., Goodyera sps., Habenaria sps., Malaxis sps., Nervilia sps.,Peristylus sps., Rhyncostylis sps.,Vanda sps., and Zeuxine found in Hoshangabad, with their distribution, ecology, and ethno-botanical uses. Keywords: Diversity, Orchids, Hoshangabad.

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Allelopathic impact of Cassia occidentalis on chlorophyll content of wheat Komal Arora Department of Botany, DAV College, Jalandhar, Punjab 144008 Email: komal.swami@yahoo.com ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to determine allelopathic effects of leaf extracts of Cassia occidentalis, a major wasteland weed. Emergence and growth experiments were conducted using wheat as a model plant. Leaf extracts reduced wheat emergence percentage insignificantly but radicle and plumule lengths reduced by 53 and 60%, respectively. An appreciable increase in chlorophyll content was observed at low concentrations of treatment whereas the reduction was only 8.5%, at highest concentration of extracts i.e. 5% (w/v). Our results clearly showed the allelopathic stress imposed by Cassia on wheat depicted in terms of altered growth and chlorophyll content of treated wheat seedlings. Keywords: Cassia occidentalis, allelopathy, chlorophyll, growth, wheat.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Mushrooms diversity and their consumption in J&K, India Sanjeev Kumar and Yash Pal Sharma Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir, 180006 India Email: sanjeevkoul222@gmail.com ABSTRACT Mushrooms are among the most popular members of non-conventional food accepted world over. They are good source of delicious food with high nutritional and medicinal attributes and are referred to as low calorie nutraceuticals. The protein content of fresh mushrooms is about 3.7% as stated by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). It is twice as high as in most vegetables and is much lower than meat, egg, fish and cheese. Being low in calories, these constitute an ideal food for diabetics. Due to their high nutritive potential, even FAO has recommended their use as food supplement for protein deficient populations of developing and under-developed countries. Explorations were undertaken over a period of six years (20062011) to collect and document the wild edible mushroom diversity occurring in the north-west Himalayan forests of Jammu and Kashmir State. Resulting upon these forays, Fifty five species of wild mushrooms belonging to Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Gasteromycetes are described and illustrated in the present communication. Our observations indicate that the region represents a mycophilic society and gathering of wild mushrooms is a traditional activity among the inhabitants of the area. The paper examines the macro and microscopic details, habitat description, edibility status and consumption modes of the commonly collected mushroom species.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Population Structure and Regeneration Status of Elaeocapus venustus Bedd. In Agasthiyamalai Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India S. Saravanan and K. Muthuchelian Centre for Biodiversity and forest Studies, School of Energy Environment and Natural Resources, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 625 021. Tamilnadu, India. Email: sarvanmku@gmail.com ABSTRACT Elaeocarpus, the largest genus of the family Elaeocarpaceae has about 360 species distributed in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical zones throughout Southeast Asia. E. venustus is an endemic, vulnerable tree species of the Southern Western Ghats in peninsular India. An analysis of population structure is prerequisite and influential role for conservation of endangered species. The population structure, regeneration potential and reintroduction of E. venustus, were studied at three sampling sites viz., namely Upper Kodayar (Site I), Muthukuzhivoyal (Site II) and Kakkachi (Site III) of Agasthiyarmalai Biosphere Reserve (ABR). The population of E. venustus was higher in Upper Kodayar (83 individuals) followed by Muthukuzhivoyal (45 individuals) and least was recorded in Kakachi (27 individuals). Among the four patches studied viz., first, second, third and fourth recorded in Muthukuzhivoyal, the individuals of E. venustus were distributed as 3, 1, 24 and 17 respectively. The seedling survival of E. venustus was 38%, 22% and 14% in Upper Kodayar (Site I), Muthukuzhivoyal (Site II) and Kakkachi (Site III) respectively during the study period. The percentage of mortality per month was gradually increased. In addition, the established seedlings recorded in all the three sites were showed retard growth. The seedlings of E. venustus did not grow further to attain sapling stage. Based on our observations, the highest seedling mortality was noticed in Kakkachi (72%) followed by Upper Kodayar (62%) and Muthukuzhivoyal (56 %). Only a few sustainable populations of the species have been reported so far from very narrow tract of distribution in ABR. Also discontinuous population structure has been reported from our study. Hence, reintroduction of this species to the original habitats was imperative for the conservation. Keywords: Population dynamics, Regeneration, Seedling survival, Endangered, Elaeocarpus venustus.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Intensifying the desulfurization of liquid Fuels using ionic liquids S.A. Dharaskar, K.L. Wasewar, M.N.Varma, D.Z.Shende Department of Chemical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur (M.S) 440012.INDIA Email: swapnildharaskar11@gmail.com ABSTRACT Sulfur present in transportation fuels leads to sulfur oxides (SO x) emissions into the air and inhibits the performance of pollution control equipment on vehicles. Therefore to minimize the negative health and environmental effects from automobile exhaust many countries recently have mandated a reduction in the sulfur content in motor fuel. For example in 2012, the maximum sulfur content will be limited to 10-50 ppm, compared to todayâ&#x20AC;&#x;s permitted value of 500 ppm in most western countries 1. The European Union has stringent fuel quality rules that require maximum diesel sulfur content of 50 ppm in 2005 (350 ppm in 2000), and maximum petrol (gasoline) sulfur content of 50 ppm in 2005 (150 ppm in 2000) 2. In India as per the MPCB norms the current value of total sulfur content in liquid fuels is upto 350 ppm which has to be lower down into it possible extent. Consequently, the deep desulfurization of liquid fuels has attracted increased attention in the research community worldwide. Use of green technology is the demand of time in view of environmental concerns. The potential of ionic liquids have been recognized worldwide. Scientists and engineers have been working in the advancement of preparation and applications of ionic liquid so that it can provide a range of options to industrialists looking to minimize the environmental impact of their chemical processes and processing cost. In petroleum and hydrocarbon industries, various solvents have been used such as ethers, amines, alcohols and other volatile organic compounds for the processes like extraction, absorption, azeotropic distillation etc. These solvents have their own limitations as environmental issue, recycle ability etc. These limitations can be overcome by the use of ionic liquids. In view of this present work on deep desulfurization process the synthesis of ionic liquids and its application in the desulfurization process is going on under CSIR project. Few ionic liquids which are best suited for the use as an extractant for the sulfur removal have been synthesis and its characterization has been done at our laboratory. The effect of ionic liquid loading, extraction temperature and extraction time in the removal of sulfur from liquid fuels were investigated. This work is very useful in view of the environmental concerns. So in the present paper possibility of various ionic liquids was explored for sulfur removal from liquid fuel. Their characteristics along with effect of various parameters on desulfurization were also presented. Keywords: Desulfurization, Ionic liquid, Extraction, Green technology, Industrial application

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

National Green Tribunal: Need, Feature and Viability Swaraangi Shukla Gujarat National Law University (2011- 2016) Email: swaraangi23@gmail.com ABSTRACT Environmental issues and grievances are assuming great importance in the present scenario. Consequently, a balance is sought to be struck between environment and development which promotes sustainability. National Green Tribunal or NGT has emerged as a model concept in India for the purpose of exclusively dealing with cases pertaining to environment. After Australia and New Zealand, India has become 3 rd country in the world to have an exclusive environment court. It has been a year since the formation of this Green Tribunal and it has been in limelight perpetually for numerous reasons. This paper looks into the concept of NGT and presents an in-depth outlook on the said subject. The loopholes and anomalies present in the existing environmental legislation which called for the provisions of a separate environmental court, the need and demand of NGT due to impending circumstances and the provisions of the NGT Act and its discrepancies are some of the issues dealt with in this paper. Certain landmark judgments given by the NGT have also been discussed so as to highlight its role and functionality. The revolution ushered by NGT in the field of Green Adjudication forms the crux and backbone of this paper. In the end, the author has tried to put all the views together after analyzing the pros and cons of this Act and has tried to portray a clear picture of the role of NGT and its viability in the Indian society. The amendments which should be included in the Act have also been encorporated so as to enhance its effectiveness in addressing the sorrows of the common people and resolving their pitiable condition. Keywords: Environment laws, National Green Tribunal, Acts, India, sustainability, redressal.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Biodiversity of natural enemies of aphid pests (Insecta: Homoptera) in vegetable ecosystems of Kashmir with some new records Deen Mohd. Bhat1 and R. C. Bhagat2 1Department of Zoology, Govt. College for Women, M. A. Road Srinagar, J&K-190006 2P. G. Deptt. of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal Srinagar, J&K – 190006 Email: din_ento@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT The aphids or „plant lice‟ are found to damage different types of vegetation, including important species by sucking host plant sap. In the recent years, biological control of aphids by utilizing natural enemiesparasitoids and predatory insects, has shown promising results in different parts of the world. An extensive field survey was conducted to determine the natural enemies-parasitoids and predators of major aphid pests infesting vegetable crops in the prevailing agro-climatic conditions in 10 districts of Kashmir Valley during 2004-2007. About 20 wild and cultivated varieties of vegetables, distributed over 8 plant families, were found to be infested by a number of aphid pests, of which 8 most injurious species were Aphis gossypii, A. fabae, A. craccivora, Acyrthosiphon pisum, Brevicoryne brassicae, Lipaphis erysimi, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae. A total of 32 species of natural enemies-parasitoids and predators, including 25 predators and 7 parasitoids, belonging to 5 insect orders, viz. Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Neuroptera, and distributed over 6 insect families were recorded on these aphid pests. The insect predators recorded comprised of 2 Anthocorids, 1 cecidomyid, 2 Chrysopids, 11 coccinellids and 9 syrphids. Apart from this, more than 25 new host prey/aphid-predator couples are being recorded for the first time from Kashmir and 6 species of predators were observed feeding on some unidentified aphid species. Observations have also been made on the distribution, host range and seasonal occurrence of the afore-mentioned natural enemies. A note on the effectiveness of these natural enemies in suppressing the aphid populations in the field has been added. Keywords: aphids, Kashmir, Natural enemies, pest, predator, vegetable

© North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Environmental impact assessment and its current scenario in India Achal Garg University of Petroleum and Energy Studies Email: achalgarg_1992@yahoo.com ABSTRACT The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been prepared to address the potential environmental impacts that could arise from the construction and operation of a project. The main sections of the EIA include definition of the legal and institutional frameworks, description of the project and the environment, impacts assessment, identification of mitigation measures, and presentation of an environmental management plan (EMP). Additionally, the EIA evaluates various alternative treatment technologies and presents technical criteria on which to base the selection of most suitable site and technology. It is desirable to have an idea of possible impact of any development plan on our environment. In order to have sustainable development it is necessary that before we embark on a project, we have to assess the effects of its development on the environment. It presents a clear & concise picture of all benefits & cost associated with alternative courses of action and provides a mechanism for merging the concerns for environment & economics in the process of decision-making. This paper discusses the accountability of responsible institutions in enforcing environmental assessments & procedures and challenges in enforcing laws for EIA. Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment, Environmental Management Plan, Sustainable Development, Institutional Framework.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Environmental pollution and impacts on public health Savitha H.S.Kiran T,Choodamani V SJBIT, Bangalore Email: savi_987@yahoo.com.,mrtkiran@gmail.com ABSTRACT This study has linked environmental pollution to public health. Soil samples analyzed from locations adjacent and within the dumpsite show high levels of heavy metals emanating from the site in particular lead, mercury, cadmium, copper and chromium. At the same time, a medical evaluation of the children and adolescents living and schooling near the dumpsite indicates a high incidence of diseases that are associated with high exposure levels to these metal pollutants. For example, about 50% of children examined who live and school near the dumpsite had respiratory ailments and blood lead levels equal to or exceeding internationally accepted toxic levels (10 Âľg/dl of blood), while 30% had size and staining abnormalities of their red blood cells, confirming high exposure to heavy metal poisoning. Over the last three decades there has been increasing global concern over the public health impacts attributed to environmental pollution, in particular, the global burden of disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about a quarter of the diseases facing mankind today occur due to prolonged exposure to environmental pollution. Most of these environment-related diseases are however not easily detected and may be acquired during childhood and manifested later in madulthood. Improper management of solid waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution and degradation in many cities, especially in developing countries. Many of these cities lack solid waste regulations and proper disposal facilities, including for harmful waste. Such waste may be infectious, toxic or radioactive. Municipal waste dumping sites are designated places set aside for waste disposal. Depending on a cityâ&#x20AC;&#x;s level of waste management, such waste may be dumped in an uncontrolled manner, segregated for recycling purposes, or simply burnt. Poor waste management poses a great challenge to the well-being of city residents, particularly those living adjacent the dumpsites due to the potential of the waste to pollute water, food sources, land, air and vegetation. The poor disposal and handling of waste thus leads to environmental degradation, destruction of the ecosystem and poses great risks to public health.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) of Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh, India Kailash Chandra* and Devanshu Gupta** *Zoological Survey of India, New Alipore, Kolkata-700053, West Bengal, India **Zoological Survey of India, Jabalpur-482002, Madhya Pradesh, India Email: kailash611@rediffmail.com, devanshuguptagb4102@gmail.com ABSTRACT Tawang district is situated in Arunachal Pradesh state (India) which is also a part of Eastern Himalayan global biodiversity hotspot. A faunistic survey was conducted by the scientific team of Zoological Survey of India, under the leadership of senior author of the paper in two different locations (Lumla and Zemmethang) in Tawang during 27th September-2009 to 15th October-2009 for the assessment of insect diversity. During the survey, 54 specimens of dung beetles were collected which resulted in the identification of 11 species belonging to 4 genera of subfamily Scarabaeinae. Previous study on dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) by Sewak (2006) recorded 73 species under 14 genera from the state, of which, 10 species were included from Tawang. Currently, twenty dung beetle species belonging to five genera under three major tribes viz. Coprini, Onthophagini, and Oniticellini, are recorded from Tawang namely; Catharsius (Catharsius) molossus (Linnaeus), C. (C.) pithecius (Fabricius), Copris (Copris) indicus Gillet, C. (C.) sacontala Redtenbacher, C. (C.) magicus Harold, C. (C.) numa Lansberge, C. (C.) punctulatus Wiedemann, Onthophagus (Colobonthophagus) bison Boucomont, O. (Digitonthophagus) kuluensis Bates, O. (Onthophagus) laevis Harold, O. (O.) tibetanus Arrow, O. (O.) vaulogeri Boucomont, O. (Strandius) gagates Hope, O. (S.) hingstoni Arrow, Liatongus (Liatongus) gagatinus (Hope), L. (L.) phanaeoides (Westwood) and L. (L.) vertagus (Fabricius), L. (L.) mergacerus (Hope) and Drepanocerus falsus (Sharp). Out of these twenty species, C. (C.) sacontala Redtenbacher, O. (S.) gagates Hope and O. (S.) hingstoni Arrow, are additions to the fauna of Arunachal Pradesh. Keywords: Dung beetles, Scarabaeinae, New Record, Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Fly ash utilization: A sustainable and environmental-friendlys substitute to its dumping issues Manish Kumar Sharma1 and Ashish kumar kediya2 1Department of Environmental Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad-826004 2 Department of Mining Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad-826004 Email: ashishkediya1992@gmail.com ABSTRACT The gargantuan population of India creates an increasing demand for power supply, the majority being derived from coal-based power plants. The combustion of coal releases a large amount of fly ash (FA). FA mainly contains SiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3 and minimal quantities of other oxides including CaO, MgO, MnO, Na 2O, K2O, SO3 as a chief constituents of minerals like Quartz, Haematite, Magnetite and unburnt carbon. According to an estimate by World Bank, India would require 1000 square kilometers of land for FA disposal by the year 2015. FA generated at power plants are made into slurry or paste by mixing with water and dumped into ponds or swamps. The poisonous metal along with water on seepage contaminates the water table. The dry material of FA adulterates the atmospheric air which on exposure causes respiratory and skin diseases. However, FA also contains significant metals rendering it sufficiency for its utilization. FA can be utilized for filling mines, building embankments and also for constructing roads. FA also finds its utility in cement manufacturing where it is used as a pozzolan in Portland pozzolana cement (PPC) production. FA utilization is most effective in agricultural operations where it can be used to modify the moisture retaining capacity and fertility of soil. FA can also be used to protect the plants from phyto-ailments and improve the yields of crops when mixed in optimum proportions. It is used for biomass productions through phytomanagement and phytoremediation strategies. FA utilization also helps in conservation of top soil, limestone, chemical fertilizers and water. In India, the department of science & technology has taken initiatives for development of FA utilization through R&D by various research institutes. Keywords: disposal, phytomanagement, phytoremediation, agricultural, cement

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Risk factors of pesticides and their contamination in human food stuff Sachin Kumar1 and Devendra Kumar Jain2 1Entomology Laboratory, Division of Parasitology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (UP) 2Department of Environment Science, Mewar University, Chittorgarh-312901 (Raj.) Email: sachin.amroha@gmail.com ABSTRACT Pesticides have been widely used throughout the world since the middle of the last century. The worldwide consumption of pesticides is about two million tones per year. India having agriculture based economy is one of largest insecticide consumer in the world. India is presently the second largest manufacturer of basic pesticides in Asia while it ranks 12th position in the world. Pesticide contamination in agriculture results due to their indiscriminate use / misuse and is manifested as adverse effects on human health and the environment. Organochlorines, pyrethroids and organophosphate compounds are mostly persistent in the environment and cause major health hazards. The problem becomes more serious due to bioaccumulation of these lipophilic compounds. The advancement of technological intervention regarding livestock disease control and intensive crop production system, the chances of residues in food of animal origin increased tremendously. Pesticides have unique status in all food residues because these compounds are regularly used in agriculture field to meet worldwide food demand. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and 20% have pesticide residues above the maximum residue levels on a worldwide basis. The necessity for continuous monitoring and surveillance of these substances in natural surroundings has been recognized. The residual risk of individual chemical in food is essential to estimate the type and magnitude of the public health problems posed by that particular chemical including the frequency and dose at which the chemical is used. The World Health Organization estimates that 200,000 people are killed worldwide every year as a direct result of pesticide poisoning. The aim of this paper was to focus on food safety in relation to pesticides residues in food stuff. Keywords: Organochlorine, pyrethroid, organophosphate, bioaccumulation.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Hair as a Diagnostic Tool to Detect Heavy Metal Pollutants in Human Leena Muraleedharan 2V K Krishna Menon College of Commerce & Science (Affiliated to University of Mumbai) Bhandup (E), Mumbai-42, Maharashtra ABSTRACT With increasing population we modern society demands improvement of health and living condition .In order to fulfill these growing demands large quantities of chemicals must be manufactured and used. By one way or other these chemical compounds come in contact with various segments of population. It is therefore essential to detect the toxicity of a vast number of chemicals to make them more manageable. In the present investigation, human head hair is used as a diagnostic tool to detect the toxic metal accumulated in it. Hair is the second most metabolically active tissue in the body and it represents what is occurring inside the cells and sub molecular tissues of the body. During growth phase metals are incorporated in the composition of hair. Hair samples are collected from nape of neck of adult females of 20-30 years age group. Present study showed high level of Fe, Pb, Cd and Cu. This clearly indicates the presence of high concentration of heavy metals in the environment and their toxic nature. Keywords: Hair, metal, toxicity.

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 29-30 December 2012, New Delhi

Last Year EBI Conference at Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 30-31 December 2011

Š North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

Conference website: www.ebiconference.com


Selected Abstracts National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India