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National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th - 31st December 2011, New Delhi www.ebi2011.in

Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur, the world’s only floating national park and overlooking hill ranges

ABSTRACT BOOK Organised by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER)

Imphal, Manipur (India)

Website: www.neceer.org.in


:: Patron :: RK (O) Sanahanbi Devi, NECEER, Imphal :: Advisory Committee :: Shri Th. Ibobi, Loktak Development Authority, Manipur Dr. Vishwas Chavan, GBIF, Denmark Prof. D.K. Sharma, Gauhati University, Guwahati Dr. Sunitibala, IBSD, Imphal Dr. H. Narendra Singh, IITM, Pune Prof. N.P. Todaria, HNB Garhwal University, Uttarakhand :: NECEER Team :: Mehnaz Nasreen, Mohd. Sajid Idrisi, G. Marangmei, Gunadhor Thongam, Bobbymoore Konsam, Marry Thangjam, Kiranjit Yumnam, Gaitri Thangjam, Rajkumari Jashmi, Anurag Maloo, Santosh Kumar, Dilip Swami, Rajkumari Khrideshori, Mayank Bohra, Prasanta Aheibam, Johnny Meitei, Atom Rajiv Singh, Deepak Huidrom, Rajkumari Khedasana and Khuraijam Jibankumar Singh :: EBI Volunteers :: Apoorva Vikram, Stuti Agrawal, Kishore Kumar EBI2011 is the first conference of the EBI series which will be organised every year. It is also part of the North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal's preparation for a triennial International Conference series which will start in 2014. EBI is outcome of the successful NECEER’s Enviro Lecture Series

Edited by Khuraijam Jibankumar Singh and Rajkumari Khedasana Managing Trustees, NECEER, Imphal

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal www.neceer.org.in


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

National Conference on

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011 Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi www.ebi2011.in

Organised by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER) Imphal, Manipur (India) in collaboration with

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

EBI 2011: KNOWLEDGE PARTNERS IUCN CEESP Youth Leadership Team (YLT) Centre for North East Studies, Jamia Millia Isalmia, New Delhi World Institute of Nature (WIN), Pune Department of Botany, Mizoram University ARCH, Dehradun ENVIRON, Guwahati SPONSOR: Web2Source

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal

No reproduction or translation of this book or part thereof in any form, except brief quotations and citing abstract, should be made without the written permission of the publisher.

Citation: Vishwas Chavan (2011). Biodiversity Informatics and Sustainable Development in 21st century, in National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India. 30-31 December 2011, New Delhi, 9. North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

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A-3, M.S. Flats, B.K.S. Marg New Delhi – 110 001 Phone: 011-23711696 ______

DR. THOKCHOM MEINYA M.Sc. LLB. M.Phil, PhD Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) Former Minister (Hr. & Tech. Edn.) Manipur

Joypurkhul, Khumbong Bazar P.O. Langjing, Imphal West Manipur – 795 113 Phones : 0385-2051306/2569205

MESSAGE The 21st December 2011 I am glad to learn that a National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India is being organised by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal. The conference is an important event for sharing of ideas and research results among researchers, academicians and students. Certainly the conference will provide unique opportunity to the distinguished delegates to deliberate upon the vital and key issues pertaining to environment and biodiversity of the country. I wish the conference all the success.

(Dr Thokchom Meinya)

Member, Department related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Petroleum & Natural Gas; Member, Consultative Committee for the Ministry of Home Affairs & Member, NEHU Court; Convener, West Bengal & North Eastern States (except Assam), Congress Parliamentary Party

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

NECEER, Imphal is official partner of United Nations Decade of Biodiversity

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

18 December 2011 MESSAGE Namaste, Greetings, I am very pleased to be able to support the North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER) based in Imphal, India in their organising of the National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India, that is being held on the 30th and 31st December 2011 at New Delhi. India, as one of the world’s biodiversity rich countries is playing an important leadership role in a range of environmental concerns. I hope this conference will provide an excellent platform to interact and exchange knowledge amongst researchers, academicians, students and stakeholders and that it may lead to the formulation of strategies and policies for the sustainable use of natural resources and for a clean environment. I am particularly glad to know that Young Leadership Team of IUCN-CEESP is also one of the knowledge partners of the conference. I wish the organising team and all the participating delegates every success as this conference.

Aroha Te Pareake Mead Chair IUCN Commission on Environmental Economic & Social Policy (CEESP)

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

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Loktak Lake is the largest fresh water lake in Northeast India. It is located in the state of Manipur. Loktak Lake is known as the only floating lake in the world due to the floating phoomdis on it. It has an area of 300sq km and has been recognised as Ramsar site in 1990. The lake is referred to as the “lifeline of Manipur” because the lake is highly productive and many lives depend on the lake for endurance. The lake is also an Important Bird Area as it’s a potential breeding site for waterfowl and is a staging site for migratory birds. There are varied types of habitat supported by lake due to which the lake is blessed with rich diversity flora and fauna. Etymology of Loktak: Lok = "stream" and tak = "the end". The place where streams end. Keibul Lamjao National Park, located at the south western part of Loktak Lake is the world's only floating national park. It is home to the endangered Manipur brow antlered deer ‘Sangai’ – Cervus eldi eldi. ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE The thick band of phoomdis towards north of Loktak Lake maintains the water quality and also acts as sink for important nutrients like N, P, K and for carbon sequestration. The floating wetland is the most productive ecosystems as it provides source of living to people. The lake is also potential breeding site of many birds, fishes, amphibians and Sangai. The phoomdis are vital habitats for Sangai whose hooves are adapted to move over phoomdis. The lake also regulates the local climate of the state, apart from this it recharges ground water, retains storm water, dilutes the pollutants for maintaining the water quality. The Loktak Lake is highly productive aquatic ecosystem known for its biodiversity and habitat diversity. There are varied types of habitat supported by lake as phoomdis which is heterogeneous mass of soil, vegetation and organic matter, rooted floating plants which is today threatened by proliferation of phoomdis, open water habitat which is also threatened by phoomdis, shallow water areas, peripheral dyke fish-farming areas and these varied habitats provide services to local people.

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

Dr. Asad Rahmani Director Bombay Natural History Society

17th December 2011

MESSAGE I am delighted to know that North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal is organizing a National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India at New Delhi. I sincerely hope that the participants of the conference will share their experiences and useful findings for mutual benefits that will paved the path for conservation of rich biodiversity oF the country. I wish organizers and participants for a fruitful conference.

Asad R. Rahmani

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

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National Conference

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Keynote Address

Biodiversity Informatics and Sustainable Development in 21st century Vishwas Chavan Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Copenhagen, Denmark Email: vchavan@gbif.org and chavan.vishwas@gmail.com ABSTRACT Development and conservation are highly dependent on accessibility appropriate, adequate, up-to-date and authentic data and information. However, in majority of the situations such a data, especially that dealing with biotic diversity is not easily accessible. Biodiversity Informatics is a science that deals with collation, management, analysis and interpretation of such data dealing with the sate of the affairs of our natural resources. Biodiversity information infrastructure is essential for nations progress on the principles of sustainability. In my talk I will take an account of the global progress in biodiversity informatics, especially during last 10 years. I will discuss the challenges that currently impedes the homogenous progress in biodiversity informatics. I will also discuss the significance of biodiversity informatics for an emerging world power like India which is regarded as developing nation which is bestowed with vast biotic diversity. I will conclude with putting forth the possible action plan that includes development of 'National Biodiversity Information Outlook (NBIO)'.

www.vishwaschavan.in

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[AB1] Pesticides uses in environment and their impacts: A Review Sachin Kumar and Anil K. Sharma Division of Parasitology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar – 243122, Uttar Pradesh, India ABSTRACT Generally pesticides are used in three sectors viz. agriculture, public health and consumer use. Pests and parasites of agricultural and veterinary importance are chiefly controlled by chemical pesticides. Indiscriminate and repeated application of pesticides leads to loss of biodiversity, pestresistance and other ecological imbalance. Many pesticides are not easily degradable, they persist in soil, leach to groundwater and surface water and contaminate wide environment. Depending on their chemical properties, they can enter the organism, bio-accumulate in food chains and consequently influence human health. The persistence nature of pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and sea foods. Scientific evidence suggests that even low dose and long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact the consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. Thus, the intensive pesticide application results in several adverse effects in the environment and human health that cannot be ignored. [AB2] Decolourization studies on textile wastewater by the help of fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium - an eco saving study Amrendar Kumar and Abhilasha Singh Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Lucknow, India. ABSTRACT In textile production, opportunities exist for the release of potentially hazardous compounds at various stages of the operation into the ecosystem. These pollutants are produced in an effort to improve human standard of living and fashion but ironically, their unplanned intrusion into the environment can reverse the same standard of living by impacting negatively on the environment. Enormous volumes of effluent are generated at different stages of textile manufacturing, as a result of the use of copious amounts of chemicals and dyes. Effluent derived from the textile and dyestuff activities can provoke serious environmental impact in the neighboring receptor water bodies because of the presence of toxic reactive dyes, chlorolignin residues and dark coloration. The discharges of these waste residues into the environment eventually poison or affect bioresources in the environment, with resultant changes in the ecological balance. The biological breakdown of the chlorolignin residues and the chromophoric groups responsible for the dark coloration of the textile effluent can be accomplished by the use of enzymes from the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The siderophores detected from the culture of the organism have been found useful in the decolourization and remediation of the effluent. P. chrysosporium RP78 can efficiently decolorize a wide range of textile azo dyes under optimized conditions; further studies on scaling up and using this fungus for treatment of textile waste water are suggested. This fungus can effectively solve the problem of the pollution of some important rivers in India such as Ganges, Yamuna etc. Nowadays, the textile effluents are dispatched into the rivers directly without treatment. We can change this situation in large scale by treating the waste water with the above mentioned fungus. We can all contribute towards making our country and this world pollution free and make it a better place to live. Keywords: Textile, Environment, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, azo dyes

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[AB3] Does Climate Change have an impact on National Security? A perspective from the Indian Subcontinent Aishwarya Padmanabhan WB National University of Juridical Sciences (WB NUJS), Kolkata ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to discuss in detail the impact of climate change could have on the Indian subcontinent. Apart from the physical change in agriculture, weather and occurrence of natural disasters, it has been studied that there are serious security risks associated with climate change since it would accelerate the incidence of massive influxes of climate refugees and mass migrations. This paper attempts to study these implications for India since it has very porous borders with its neighbouring countries including Bangladesh (which is slated to be most affected by the incidence of climate change and global warming since it is a low-lying deltaic area), Nepal, Pakistan and China. As sea levels rise due to climate change, there is an imminent threat of not only an refugees but also a rise in terrorist activities which could threaten the geo-political stability of the sub-continent. This paper endeavours to understand these serious repercussions on national security interests in the Indian subcontinent caused due to climate change. Keywords: Climate change, security, IPCC, migration, natural disasters [AB4] Study on the impact of textile-industry effluent on the growth and fecundity of earthworm – Eudrilus eugeniae S Senthil Kumar, MS Mohamed Jaabir and S Kannan Department of Biotechnology, National College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli - 620 001 ABSTRACT An experiment was carried out for a period of eight weeks to assess the impact of the textileindustry effluent on the earthworm. For this, the growth and fecundity of Eudrilus eugeniae was studied in the presence of textile effluent following standard growth conditions in a perforated basket classified into four groups such as the Control (Group I) receiving only tap water, Group II: receiving raw effluent, Group III receiving the chemically treated effluent and Group IV receiving the biologically treated effluent for a period of first ten days, followed by the tap water. Viability of the worms, cocoon production, hatchlings and weight of the worms were recorded for every seven days from day 1. Worms in Group II and the Control (Group I) were all viable till the end of the study whereas, Group III and Group IV worms demonstrated mortality to 33% and 100 % respectively at sixth week. Absolute mortality was observed in Group IV. Average of 7 cocoons was seen in the control group compared to 22 in group-II (raw effluent) in the fifth week. Chemically treated and biologically treated-soil groups (III and IV) did not produce hatchlings through cocoons. It can be concluded that textile effluent was found to be non-toxic to the earthworm and amenable to vermicomposting. Further studies, employing different earthworm species and, on the impact of textile effluent/effluent polluted soil, would help to evaluate the process and application for bioremediation of textile-effluent polluted soil. The extent to which effluent pollution will manifest itself at the population level, needs further investigation in order to assess the usefulness of this endpoint in ecotoxicological work. Keywords: Bioremediation, textile-industry effluent, Eudrilus eugeniae, fecundity, earthworm, Ecotoxicity.

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[AB5] Physico - chemical and microbial aspects of municipal solid waste compost during composting process at Jhansi city, Uttar Pradesh, (India) AK Pathak1, MM Singh2 and V Kumar2 Institute of Environment and Development Studies 2 Department of Geology, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (U.P) E-mail: pathakawadhesh@gmail.com 1

ABSTRACT In the present study, we studied the physico-chemical and microbial populations during composting process of Municipal Solid Waste (viz. kitchen waste). The pH ranged between 7.1-8.5, organic matter 48%, moisture content maintained at 42-53% and temperature monitored daily, plant nutrients C - 32%, N - 0.04%, P - 0.002, Na - 4.9%, K - 0.37% ,succession of microbial populations during composting process was colonized in major proportion by bacteria (45.3%), actinomycetes (31.4 %) and in lower number by fungi (24.2%). A detail study was conducted to assess the feasibility of composting of source separated organic matter of municipal solid waste generated in low, middle and high income areas of Jhansi city Uttar Pradesh. Due to the complexity of substrates and intermediate products, physico-chemical properties, microbial diversity and the succession of populations is a prerequisite to ensure complete bio degradation. The Multiple Regression Analysis revealed that the environmental parameter which influence on the mentioned microbial groups was the temperature. Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste, Composting, Microbial Communities [AB6] Eco-fermentor: the new applicable design of eco-enzyme fermentor to optimize the productivity of eco-enzyme at the household level Ahmadun Slamet Sumardi and Yolanda Sylvia Prabekti Undergraduate School of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia Email: is_ahmcutba@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Until now, waste is still being a classic and the most important problems in the environment. Cutting the waste distribution flow into the landfill waste is expected as an effective way in processing waste into a more useful product. Its effectiveness can be realized through the production of eco-enzyme. Eco-enzyme is the liquid produced from fermentation of the remaining vegetables and fruits with brown sugar as substrate and support by lactic acid bacteria. The advantage of eco-enzyme compared to compost is that eco-enzyme does not require extensive land for the fermentation process as in the composting process, even these products do not require a vessel composter with certain specifications. In addition, eco-enzyme has many benefits as can be used as a plant growth factor, a mixture of floor cleaning detergents, for cleaning residual pesticides, and also for cleaning the crust on the pipeline. Considering the advantages of ecoenzyme, it is needed to design a concept of sustainable equipment as fermentation container which also can be used to make the harvesting process easier, called eco-fermentor. This paper has objective to offer an alternative design of eco-fermentor as a fermentation container of ecoenzyme. The container is made from simple material that modified into more compatible form to be used as fermentation container. This container will utilize huge bucket former that is modified by adding vessel to bring the liquid out. After three months, the liquid form of eco-enzyme can be harvested. The solid materials will be remained on the top and the liquid remains under the solid materials. By using this container, the liquid will be easily harvested since we put the additional

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

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vessel at the downside of the bucket. Hopefully, this fermentor can be used for optimizing the productivity of eco-enzyme at household level. Keywords: Eco-fermentor, eco-enzyme, waste, bucket, household [AB7] Urban water-bodies and wetland valuation: An imperative for environmental management in Indian cities Krishna Ghosh1, Suchandra Bardhan2 and Souvanic Roy3 Department of Architecture, Women's Polytechnic, Kolkata. W.B, India 2 Department of Architecture, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, W.B, India 3 School of Ecology, Infrastructure and Human Settlement Management, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah, West Bengal, India 1

ABSTRACT Urban water-bodies and wetlands provide a wide range of goods and services that have an economic value, not only to the local population living in its periphery but also to communities living in distant areas. Lack of clear understanding about economic, ecological and socio-cultural values of water-bodies and wetlands amongst the stakeholders is a significant factor contributing to their degradation. Since they are naturally available assets providing most of the benefits at little or no cost to society, the benefits are realized only after they have been degraded or destroyed by urbanization or various anthropogenic disturbances. The challenge to policy makers today is whether these ecosystems can be sustained against the mounting land conversion pressures in cities along with other environmental issues. The Ramsar Convention Bureau has stressed that wetland goods and services must be given a quantitative value if their conservation is to be ensured over alternative uses of the land or the water which feeds the wetlands. National Environment Policy (NEP), 2006 recognizes the numerous ecological services rendered by wetlands and stated that in many cases, the economic value of the environmental services of wetlands may significantly exceed the value from alternative use. This paper explores the different approaches to economic valuation of the benefits that would be applicable for a particular water body and wetland functions. It also discusses the significance of valuation studies in the decision making process as most of the decisions pertaining to management of urban water bodies and wetlands in our cities so far mostly ignored or failed to quantify in monetary terms both the immediate as well as long term benefits associated with these ecosystems. Keywords: Water-bodies and Wetlands, Economic Valuation, Replacement Cost Techniques, Mitigative or Avertive Expenditure Techniques, Contingent Valuation Method, Market Price Method

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[AB8] Recompenses of a Green city: Integration of natural environment in city planning Avirup Bhattacharya and Nishant Maloo National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh ABSTRACT One of the main goals of nature conservationists is to protect expansive natural environments outside the city. However, as the majority of the world’s population now live in urban areas, it is time to reverse this focus and give some attention to the urban environment and the role of natural environments within the city. Location, site and situation as factors contributing in localising, growth in size and function of a town are important. In order to know the milieu of towns, other aspects which are equally important, rather more, in the development of a town are site, the ground upon which a town stands the area of earth it actually occupies and its situation in relation to the surroundings. The rapid urbanization in the developing economies of our globe has put up an alarming threat of sliding of our cities towards unmanageable, bursting, hell of unliveable atmosphere. All these problems have certainly given birth to a planner, but in shortage of proper planning legislations, strategies and tools, everything gets wasted. Urban planning needs to better integrate natural values and ecological principles. Therefore, in this paper we’ve tried to focus on three objectives: Firstly, to outline the reasons why natural environments are important in the city; secondly, to examine why they have not been provided adequately in the past; and thirdly, to show how this situation can be used to illustrate the principles being discussed, and a model suggesting approach towards green city. Throughout this paper, examples from various cities are given for closer investigation. The paper also discusses the possible ways of city design integrating the aspect of Natural environment into it. Keywords: Sustainable, Urbanization, Green city

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[AB9] Road kill of wild animals by highway traffic in and around Jabalpur Forest Division, Madhya Pradesh, India Sanjay Paunikar T-III/13, Tropical Forest Research Institute, Campus, PO. RFRC, Mandla Road, Jabalpur - 482021 (Madhya Pradesh) Email: sanjaypaunikar@gmail.com ABSTRACT Jabalpur is one of the most important and major city of Madhya Pradesh. The central point of India is located in Jabalpur district and situated in the Mahakaushal region of central India or eastern Madhya Pradesh. It is located at 230 10' N, 790 57 E and 23017’ N, 790 95’E. Jabalpur Forest Division is well recognized due to its rich, dense forest cover and wild life dominated areas. The world famous national parks, Kanha, Bandhavghar and Pench, wildlife sanctuaries Panna and Satpuda and two most important biosphere reserves, Pachmari and Achanakmar-Amarkanatak and several protected and unprotected forest areas are situated just short distance from Jabalpur. It is well connected by road to other important cities like Nagpur, Bhopal, Raipur, Bilaspur Jhansi and Allahabad. Recent times, several development activities of the roads of state and national highways are carrying out by National Highways Authority of India (NHAI, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Govt. of India) and Madhya Pradesh Road Development Corporation (MPRDC, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh) like expanded, conversion, diversion and connected to all over the country for faster movement and transportation. Last 2-3 decades, in India, motorized vehicles have increased and resulted heavy traffic loads on the highways of the country. Several states and national highways are passing through national parks, wild life sanctuaries, biosphere reserves, protected and unprotected forest areas of the country and Jabalpur Forest Division is also no exception to it. The state highways (SH-11, SH-15 and SH-22) and national highways (NH-7 and NH-12A) are passing through in and around Jabalpur Forest Division. Many roads are being converted into four lane highways. While, travelling by road through the Jabalpur Forest Division, it was found that the number of wild animals like Tiger, Leopard, Jungle cat, Jackal, Indian fox, Striped Hyena, Indian pangolin, Indian civet, Indian Hare, Mongoose, Antelope species (Cheetal, Nilgai, Sambhar, Chinkara, Deer etc.), Primate species and number of species of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals dead due to road accidents by uncontrolled vehicular traffic. These highways are the cause of death for number of wild animals and also exert adverse impacts on their population of wild animals of the region due to road accident by heavy traffic movements. (Chhangani, 2004; Baskaran et al., 2010 and Paunikar et al., 2010 and 2011). It is also proving a major threat to our rich and precious faunal biodiversity. The literature showed some other countable studies on the road kill of animals by highways vehicle in and around national parks, wild life sanctuaries, tiger and biosphere reserve, protected and unprotected forest areas of the country. More attention has been given in developed countries like America, Australia, Africa and Europe to assess such impacts but developing Asian country like India has not given the required attention to these aspects. The population of wild life animal is declining due to number of reasons, such as habitat loss, destruction of forest areas, poaching, climate change anthropogenic pressure, pollution and road kill by heavy traffic further adds to this loss. It is needed to save our rich and precious faunal diversity by taking all the possible protection measure. Although, road kill of wild fauna by heavy vehicular traffic needs to be discussed at appropriate forum the possible way out could be by displacing the wild life presence at the places of their abundance in the forest area along with other measures controlled like vehicle speed and limit. The construction of flyover and alternate roads outside the forest area could also be another option. Keywords: Road kill, wild animals, Biodiversity, Jabalpur Forest Division, Highways traffic, Madhya Pradesh, Biodiversity.

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[AB10] .

Diversity of herpetofauna of Tropical Forest Research Institute campus, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India Sanjay Paunikar* and Ashish D. Tiple *Tropical Forest Research Institute, PO. RFRC, Mandla Road, Jabalpur-482021 (M.P.) Department of Zoology, P. S. G. V. P. Mandal’s Arts, Commerce and Science College, Shahada, Nandurbar, (M.S) ABSTRACT

The Tropical Forests Research Institute (TFRI), campus is one of the most important forestry research organisations of central India and nine institutes under the umbrella of Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehra Dun (Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India). It lies at the bank of the Gour River on Mandla Road (79°59’23.50°E and 21°08’54.30°N) about 10 km south east of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. The campus is spread over an area of 109 ha amidst picturesque surroundings and has natural forests, plantations and forest nurseries make them reserve type of forests. The TFRI, campus is surrounded by agricultural field with rural in habitation. The water reservoir and the vegetation planted, around the institute have created a very good habitat and source of attraction for number of faunal species like insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Keeping in the view, the regular surveys were conducted in order to explore herpetofaunal diversity in and around Tropical Forest Research Institute, Campus Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Their habitat, status and distribution were also studied during the extensive field survey. The total 22 species of herpetofauna were recorded from the region, among these 8 species of amphibians and 14 species of reptiles were recorded from TFRI campus, Jabalpur. The amphibians have recorded such as Common Indian toad (Bufo melanosticus), Indian bull frog (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus), Indian tree frog (Polypedates maculates), Indian skipping frog (Euphlytis cyanophlyctus), Painted frog (Kaloula taprobanica), Indian Cricket frog (Fejervarya limnocharis), Indian pond frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus ), Balloon frog (Uperodon globulosus) and 2 species of skinks, Common or Brahniny skink (Mabuya carinata), Striped skink (Mabuya dissimilis), 3 species of lizards, Indian garden lizard (Calotes versicolour), Monitor lizard (Varanus bengalensis), Common house Geco (Hemidactylus frenatus) and 9 species of snakes like Indian rock python (Python molurus), Bomboo pit viper (Trmeresurus gramineus), Indian cobra ( Naja naja), Tree snake (Dendrelaphis tristis), Rat snake (Argyrogena fasciolatus), Wolf snake (Lycodon aulicus), Common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), Russell’s viper (Vipera russellii), Common sand boa (Eryx conicus) have been recorded. The some species of amphibians, skinks, lizards, and snakes were very common and some species rarely found in the campus. Herpetofauna (Amphibians and reptiles) are essential components of the Earth’s biodiversity because they play integral roles in food webs as herbivores, predators, and prey, as well as connecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (Schenider, et al., 2001). The decline in herpetofauna population is a major concern throughout the world. Recent years, it has been observed that the populations of herpetofauna are declining due to number of reasons, such as habitat loss, destruction of forest areas, illegal trades for skins and flesh, anthropogenic activities, poaching, indiscriminate uses of chemical pesticides and fertilizer in agricultural fields, climatic change, uses for import of frog legs and trade and mostly uses in our college and laboratories for research purpose and road kill by heavy traffic further adds to this loss.(Molar et al., 1998, Agoramoorthy et al., 2009 and Paunikar et al., 2010). It is needed to save our rich and precious herpetofaunal diversity by taking all the possible protection measure, ultimately conservation of herpetofaunal biodiversity. Keywords: Diversity, Amphibia, Reptiles, Herpetofauna, TFRI campus, Jabalpur

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB11] Water quality assessment of River Manimala in Kerala during Sabarimala Season Ajesh Cryil, Eileen ET, Jency SK, Jikku J, Linu TJ, Nirmal G, Anna J, Annie MI and Mini M Department of Civil Engineering, Amal Jyothi College of Engineering, Koovappally, Kottayam, Kerala ABSTRACT Manimala River is one of the perennial rivers of Kerala which has 90 km length and 847 km2 catchment area. Sabrimala Sree Ayyappa Temple is one of the most ancient and prominent Sastha temples in the country. One of the primary stations of this pilgrimage is Erumeli Sastha Temples. The pilgrimage begins in November and ends in January. The pilgrimage center, Erumeli, lies on the bank of Manimala River and the pilgrims extensively depends on river water for their daily needs. This river is the main source of drinking water for thousands of people living in and around Erumeli. Around 4 million pilgrims visit Sabarimala in each year during peak seasons. High influx of pilgrimage and their daily chores resulted in the contamination of water. The quality of river water is influenced by the waste water from the pilgrim centre at Erumeli. The residents in and around Erumeli alleges that the use of river water is the causative factor for various health problems especially during pilgrimage season. In order to study the cause of pollution of river water and also to study the effect of pilgrims to the quality of river water, preliminary studies were conducted. Seven sampling points were identified around the Erumeli in Manimala River. The water samples were collected for three stages: first stage is before the sabarimala season, second during the peak time of pilgrimage and the third stage is immediately after the season. The standard water quality parameters such as pH, DO, BOD, COD, Chlorine and TDS were analyzed. The results show that during the peak season the parameters BOD, COD, Chlorides, and TDS showed a high concentration compared to the recommended limits. This indicates that the quality of river water is deteriorating due to the effluent from the center. Keywords: Manimala river, water quality, sampling stations.

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB12] Quantum chemical based screening of ionic liquids for the extraction of endosulfan from aqueous solution Santhi Raju Pilli, Tamal Banerjee and Kaustubha Mohanty Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781039, India Email: kmohanty@iitg.ernet.in ABSTRACT Endosulfan is an endocrine disruptor and highly toxic chemical and is banned in more than fifty countries including India. In this work, we describe the judicious screening of 986 combinations (34 cations × 29 anions) of ionic liquids (ILs) for extraction of endosulfan by using COnductor Like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS). Screening of five groups of cations namely, imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, ammonium and phosphonium have been done and plotted. The selectivity order of these five groups is as follows: Phosphonium > Pyrrolidinium > Imidazolium > Pyridinium > Ammonium. Phosphonium based IL [TBP][TOS] gave highest selectivity (212.5) among all the screened ILs. From the same group, second and third highest selectivity values were obtained by [TBP][MDEGSO4] (209.57) and [TBP][C8H17SO4] (202.57) respectively. Similarly for pyrrolidinium based ILs, [DPPYR][Br] (107), [BEPYR][Br] (106) and [BEPYR][MDEGSO4] resulted in higher selectivity and all other cations gave less selective values (<10) except [DPPYR] and [BEPYR]. In case of imidazolium based ILs which is a having five membered ring structure of higher selective pattern followed the order: [BEPYR][MDEGSO4] (101), [C4DMIM][MDEGSO4] (43.009) and [C4DMIM][DBP] (42.5). In case of imidazolium based ILs, infinite dilution activity coefficients of endosulfan rich phase for anion PF6 were very less for all cation (< 1) except C4DMIM (7.045). For the pyridinium based ILs higher selectivity values obtained for [C8MPY][C8H17SO4] (31.62) and [C8MPY][MDEGSO4] (31.326) were the best among all. Similarly ammonium based ILs gave moderate selectivity of 27.25 for [BTNH][Br] and 23.508 for [BTNH][C8H17SO4]. For this case of ILs, except cations [BTNH] and [BETNH], all cations were unfavorable for extraction of endosulfan from aqueous phase.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB13] Invertebrates and soil pollution Butovsky Ruslan Tula State University, Faculty of Natural Sciences/Fund for Sustainable Development (Moscow, Russia) Email: rbutovsky@fund-sd.ru ABSTRACT The research of soil invertebrate communities was undertaken in 18 stressed terrestrial ecosystems in Central Russia, Belgium and the Netherlands. The ecological parameters of soil invertebrate communities under stress factors changed in a similar way irrespectively to stress type (recreation, motorway or industrial pollution), type of ecosystem (agricultural, forest or ruderal) and size class of organisms (micro- or macro-arthropods). In stressed communities among macro-arthropods we observed the decrease of abundance of non-specialized predators (Carabidae, Aranei), chewing phytophagans (caterpillars etc.), saprophagans (fly larva etc.) and increase of abundance of rhyzophanags (Curculionidae larva etc.), sucking phytophagans (Homoptera, Hemiptera) and specialized predators (Coccinellidae, Syrphidae larva). Among micro-arthropods, we observed the decrease of abundance of oribatid mites and collembolans; and increase of relative abundance of acarid, gamasid, tarsonemid and pygmephorid mites. In both sized communities we observed highly sensitive (carabids, oribatid mites) and highly tolerant (aphids, acarid and gamasid mites) groups. The tolerance of soil invertebrate communities to heavy metals was determined by universal mechanisms active on community (trophic structure, species diversity etc.), populational (abundance, mass and sex structure of populations) and organism levels of organization of communities. Heavy metal contents in soil invertebrates are species- and group- specific. Heavy metals were primarily concentrated in soil invertebrates but not in vertebrates. In terrestrial foodwebs of soil invertebrates heavy metals were concentrated in first-order consumers. In putative invertebrate food-webs non-specialized predators contained less copper and zinc, than specialized predators and parasitoids, what could be connected to different feeding strategies. Keywords: Intervebrates, heavy metals, soil pollution

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

18


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB14] Comparative study of gastro intestinal parasites of Grey Duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) in wild and captivity Adelakun KM, Alaye SA, Adeola AJ and Ijagbemi AB Federal College of Wildlife Management, P.M.B.268, New Bussa Email: adelakunkehinde@gmail.com ABSTRACT Based on the recent intensify movement to domesticate and farm wild small ruminant animals in this environment, a study was carried out to examine endoparasite present in faecal dropping of grey duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) both in the wild and captivity in Kainji Lake National Park and Federal College of Wildlife Management Mini–Zoo, New Bussa, respectively. The result revealed the type of endoparasites found in the sample, as well as number of eggs and larva. Endoparasites identified include: Threadworm (Stronglyloides spp.) had the highest number of eggs per gram 4, 800 (40.34%) for wild duiker, while 3,300 (41.25%) for captive duiker with 20 and 17 larva for wild duiker and captive duiker respectively. The Hookworm (Ancylosstoma duodenale), have 3,200 (26.89%) eggs per gram for wild duiker and 1,600 (20.0%) for captive duiker while 13 and 12 larva were counted for wild and captive. The Whipworm (Trichuris spp.) had the lowest number of eggs per gram 1,500 (12.60%) for wild duiker while 1,200 (15.0%) for captive duiker and the number of species had the wild duiker and 8 for captive duiker. Schistossoma spp. have the lowest number of eggs per gram 2,300 (19.33%) for the wild duiker, 1,900 (23.75%) for captive duiker with 14 larva for wild duiker and 10 for captive duiker while Large intestine round worm (Toxocara vitulorum) present in wild duiker only with 100eggs (0.84%) and 4 larva. Proper managements should be the priority of all and sundry involved in wild animal domestication for the good health and productive indices of both animals especially as they continue to interact more often with other animals over a large area. Keywords: Duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia), endoparasites, domestication, faecal

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB15] Conserving Sacred Groves and mitigating climate change Vibha Arora Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India Email: vibhaaurora@yahoo.com ABSTRACT There is intense global debate on evolving carbon sequestration strategies that will be doable and effectively work in the ongoing heated debates on climate change. There is an explicit recognition in public policy on the important role forests will play in mitigating carbon emissions and actively purifying air and checking our polluted environment. I argue that we don’t need to invent new paradigms of conservation when many socio-cultural contexts have traditions of protecting trees, forests, landscapes, and nature. Religion and ecology have been closely interlinked in oral history, sacred texts, traditions, and prevalent community practices in many parts of the world and especially in India. Restrictions on excessive extraction of natural resources and on human settlement within the defined boundaries of sacred forests have indirectly contributed to conservation of the habitat and protected animals residing therein. Admittedly such socio-practices and institutions are declining due to population pressure, development the dominating perception of forests as an economic resource, the weakening community control over forests with the increasing governmental control, and the decrease in our emotional connectivity with the forest and natural resources. Based on a review of literature on sacred groves in India I argue the need to revitalise the idea of ‘sacred nature’ and sacred groves for countering climate change. [AB16] Lower lake, Bhopal: environmental problems and its impacts Sugandha Deva Department of Architecture and Planning, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India Email: sugandhadeva@gmail.com ABSTRACT The lower lake was constructed in Late 18th Century on the downstream of the dam of Upper Lake by Nawab Chhote Khan to enhance the beauty of the Bhopal city. Since administration of Bhopal City changed and in 1956 it became the capital of the State of Madhya Pradesh, it has witnessed a tremendous influx of people and consequent urban development, around the Lower Lake. The Lower Lake has become the livelihood of 250 washer-men families dumping large Quantity of detergent, chemicals and furnace ashes into the lake daily. 96 tons of solid waste is collected daily by the Municipal Corporation against the 131 tons per day of garbage dumped along the fringes of the Lower Lake. Since, the lake is surrounded by the rows of houses within a hilly terrain the water remains stagnant without any circulation and mixing of the aerated and anaerobic bottom water increases the sinking rate of the silt particles into the bottom. The lake also has a basic defect in its construction of the lower dam wall which is without a sluice gate and only aerated surface water continuously overflows the dam wall. The lake has an inflow of 28 nallahs and drains carrying 50 million litres/day of sewage waste. Environmental problems result in deterioration of their water quality mainly due to inflow of untreated sewage. This Paper studies the increasing environmental degradation of the Lower Lake and its impacts on the development of Bhopal City. It enlists the various activities conducted on the part of different organisations to conserve the Lower Lake. It also highlights the various steps that need to be taken to save the Lower Lake and its heritage. Considering the ecological importance of the Lower Lake the Government of India declared the Lake of National importance, and efforts to improve their environmental status. Keywords: Lower Lake, Bhoj Wetland, environment, lake conservation, eutrofication, urbanisation

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB17] Diversity of underutilized vegetable crops species in North-East with special reference to Manipur: A review Senjam Jinus Singh Department of Vegetable Science, Chandra Shekhar Azad Univ. of Agri. and Tech., Kalyanpur, Kanpur-208 002, Uttar Pradesh ABSTRACT The different agro-ecosystems of entire North East region of India including Manipur possess a rich diversity of vegetable species which has not yet been explored. Apart from the nutritional value, many regional underutilized vegetable crops are used for medicinal purposes, for income generation and poverty alleviation. Wide range of diversity in vegetable species found in the region were viz., Solanum macrocarpon L., S. xanthocarpum, Cyphomandra betacea, Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium., Capsicum frutenscens L., C. chinenense Jacq., Parkia roxburghii, Allium scheonopraum, Vigna umbellate, Canavalia ensiformis, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, Vicia faba L. etc. Among gourds, maximum variability has been recorded for bottle gourd in fruit shape and size and several lesser known cucurbitaceous crops like Cylanthera pedata, Luffa acutangula, L. cylindrical, Cucumis hystrix, Luffa graveolens, Momordica macrophylla, Momordica subangulata, Trichosanthes cucumerina, M. cochinchinesis, M. Dioica, Sechium edule etc. Other indigenous leafy vegetables used occasionally are Chenopodium album, Ipomea reptans, Amaranthus viridis, A. lividus, A. Spinosus, Basella rubra, B. Alba, Rumex rasicarius, Brassica juncea, Malva verticillata etc. A number of dioscorea species viz., alata, bulbifera, brevipetiolata, esculenta, hamiltonii, hispida, kamaonensis, nummularia, pentaphylla, puber and quinata were recorded in the Region. In colocasia also there is a wide variability even within one species such as Colocasia esculenta. Delicious edible bamboo shoots which are under cultivation and grown wild are of Arundinaria callosa, Cephalostacham capitatum, Bambusa balcona, Dendrocalamus giganteus, D. Hamiltonii etc. Problems relating to conservation and enhancement of underutilized crops in north eastern region are land tenure issues, gender and equity issues, interdepartmental coordination, shifting cultivation, inter-state border dispute, insurgency etc. The regional demand for vegetable crops, underutilized species needs to be identified for collection, particularly, for high yield, quality, resistance to diseases and pests, tolerance to frost and acidity. The diversity present in the northeast Manipur will be very useful in screening newer sources of vegetables for present and future needs. Keywords: conservation, diversity, edible bamboo, shifting cultivation, underutilized vegetables, variability.

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

21


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB18] Existing methods for disposal of hazardous waste with special reference to Chemical Industry in Pune city TT Mane and Suparna Mandal Department of Botany, Baburaoji Gholap College, Sangvi, Pune – 411027, Maharashtra 2 SMS Envocare Ltd., Flat No. 07, A-Wing, 1st Floor, Kodhyar Apartment, Shankar Rao Mahajan Path, Off F.C.Road, Shivajinagar, Pune 411005, Maharashtra Email: drttmane@gmail.com and suparna.mepl@gmail.com 1

ABSTRACT Hazardous wastes belong to the category of special wastes that can exhibit hazardous characteristics and damage environment. Waste disposal on land is the most common practice in our country; it is very convenient and economical way of disposing the material. However, it causes environmental degradation and ground water pollution. Chemical industry (Tata Chemicals Ltd, Pirangut) in Pune city is generating hazardous wastes resulting in increased risk of pollution in nearby areas and local environment. Today this industry has started practice of collecting these hazardous waste in secured collecting bins. When these bins get filled up, they are collected and transported to Common Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility (CHWTSDF) plants and disposed off as prescribed in Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) guidelines. The methodology for a Comprehensive HWM (CHWM) is presented in this paper and the current status in Pune city pertaining to each of the elements of CHWM is discussed. Disposal of the hazardous waste necessitate proper management and handling in an environmentally sound manner. Keywords: Hazardous waste, CHWTSDF [AB19] E-waste in India: Challenges and Strategies Dimpal Vij* and Subhashini Sharma** *Department of Economics, MMH College, Ghaziabad (UP) **Department of Chemistry, MMH College, Ghaziabad (UP) Email: dimpal.vij@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT The electronic industry is the world’s largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry. During the last decade, it has assumed the role of providing a forceful leverage to the socio - economic and technological growth of a developing society. The consequence of its consumer oriented growth combined with rapid product obsolescence and technological advances are a new environmental challenge - the growing menace of “Electronics Waste” or “e waste” that consists of obsolete electronic devices. With the changing world and increasing middle class population with the back of rapid economic growth, Indian electronic industry is highly dynamic. The industry has been witnessing significant growth in recent years due to several factors, such as inevitability of these products to our modern life style, retail boom, growing disposable income and availability of easy finance schemes. According to a research Report “Booming Consumer Electronics Market in India” Indian consumer electronics market stood at an estimated US $5 Billion as of the end of 2009, and is further projected to grow at a CAGR of around 15% during the forecast period (2010-2013). Today India is full of electric and electronic product. These electronic items though on one hand have become a necessity, easing the bustling life of today, but on the other hand are creating another problem in the form of e-waste. Solid waste management, which is already a mammoth task in India, is becoming more complicated by the invasion of e-waste. This paper highlights the problems associated with e-waste in India and provides the strategies to solve this problem. Keywords: E-waste, SWM (Solid Waste Management), CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate)

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB20] Forest covers in India and its conservation by Environmental Laws 1

Prem Chandra1and Sonia Saini2 Department of environmental Sciences, Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Lucknow - 226025 2 Department of Botany, ITPG College, Lucknow Email: p.chandrabbau@gmail.com ABSTRACT

The forests are natural renewable resource. They constitute one of the most vital sources of national wealth. Forest covers nearly 40 percent of the world’s land. India state of forest report released in December 2009 by the Ministry of Environment and Forest that India’s green cover during the period 1997-2007 had grown by 3.13 million hectares, a rise of 4.75%. The forest cover of the country as per the percent assessment is 690,899 km2, which is 21.02% of its total geographic area, of this, 83,510 km2 (2.54%) very dense forest, 319,012 km2 (9.71%) moderately dense forest and 288,377 km2 (8.77%) are open forest including 4,639 km2 under mangroves. Sixteen states have lost forest cover between 2005 and 2007, the greatest losses in Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattishgarh and Nagaland. India’s forest cover had shown an average increase of 0.3 million hectares per year in the past one decade. The Indian forests reduce at the rate of about 2.5 million hectares per year in the same periods. The constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976 has introduced a new Directive Principle of State Policy Article 48-A and Fundamental Duty under article 51-A (g). The Indian Forest Act, 1927 was clearly one step to considering the Importance of Ecology and Environmental balance. The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, It simply aims at putting restriction on the dereservation of forests or use of forest land for non forest purposes. This will in turn help to consume the natural forest resources and as well as in reducing the global warming. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation, environmental laws, forests, India. [AB21] Hmar belonging in River Barak and their Opposition to the Tipaimukh Mega Dam Vibha Arora and Ngamjahao Kipgen Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India Email: aurora@hss.iitd.ac.in and nkipgen@gmail.com ABSTRACT The north eastern river of Barak flowing through Manipur is the critical cultural and economic resource for thousands of people residing on its banks and dependent on it for their livelihood. The river is not merely a lifeline but integral to the cultural history and the identity of the Hmar as one among the Kuki-Chin groups. Several sites of religious significance are located along the course of this river and rituals play a vital role in revitalizing the ancestral connections and affirming the collective memory of the Hmar. The proposed Tipaimukh dam will permanently submerge an area of 275.50 sq km in the state of Manipur. Our poster presents the intimacy between the Hmar and River Barak and the principle arguments that are being to implement and oppose the mega dam. The current controversies and protests raging against this dam orbit on its controversial location in a culturally significant and sacred landscape and the adverse impact on the indigenous Hmar and Zeliangrong Naga who will be displaced and dispersed with submergence of their historically significant landscapes and their ancestral roots.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB22] Kuki Cosmology and Relevance of their Indigenous Knowledge Ngamjahao Kipgen and Vibha Arora Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India ABSTRACT In his Elementary Forms of Religious Life, Emile Durkheim argued powerfully that religion and ritual provided both context and medium for the affirmation of a society’s fundamental principles of organization. He viewed society as a system of forces conditioned by the symbolizing process, and symbols are instruments of preserving and expressing social sentiments. In this paper we discuss Kuki cosmology and its strong connection with the environment, and the indoi symbolism that clearly establish the intimate relationship of the Kukis with their environment of their subsistence and their ancestors. Sillitoe (1998: 204) maintains that, local knowledge is conditioned by socio-cultural tradition, being culturally relative understanding inculcated into individuals from birth, structuring how they interface with their environments. Hence Kuki religion can be perceived as a form of indigenous knowledge and way of relating to their land. We discuss how the Kukis express close connection with their landscapes based on their rights in relation to and responsibilities to their land and their spiritual connections with it. Their indigenous knowledge can provide us with a paradigm for sustainable development.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB23] Isolation of bio-insecticide from Lepidopterans: Striped Tiger Butterfly (Danaus genutia) Arunava Das*, **, Chandan Mithra**, R Revanna**, ARV Kumar** and K Chandrasekhara** *Department of Science, Druk School, PO Box: 412, Chang Gedaphug, Thimphu – 11001, Kingdom of Bhutan and Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Laboratory, CMR Institute of Management Studies, Bangalore – 43, India **Department of Entomology, Soil Biology Laboratory and Genetics Laboratory, College of Agriculture (South Block), University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vigyana Kendra, Hebbal, Bangalore – 560068, India Email: arunava@drukschool.com, arunavaempowerresearch@gmail.com ABSTRACT Plants protect themselves from insect attack by secreting a multitude of repellent chemicals including toxic and bitter alkaloids and tannins. Non-specialist insects and other animals that attempt to feed on the plant may be repaved and injured through severe gastro-intestinal malfunction or even killed. Cabbage, Mustard, Spinach are well known for their pungent flavour that deters most animals from consuming it. Even modishly plants like, Cynanchum collialatum (Milk Weed Plant) of the family Asclepedeciae have tannins that repels most insects and animals. All these plants have a basic enzyme called, ‘Myrosinase’, which react with specific tannins and produce the toxic metabolite. This toxic metabolite repels insects and animals. The caterpillar of Striped Tiger Butterfly (Danaus genutia), however, show remarkable resistance to this poisonous alkaloid and genetically it has been proved that these caterpillars sequester these toxic alkaloids in their body as they grow and a fully grown adult Striped Tiger will be a poisonous meal to its predators that attempt to feed on it. This study was conducted for an extensive period of two years from March 2005 to February 2007 under complete laboratory conditions. We tried to utilize this very property of sequestering toxins by the butterflies and were successful in isolating the toxic alkaloids from the dead butterflies in a 100% chilled ethanol – based solution and test them as a potential bio-insecticide against the pest of mustard and spinach, Diamond Black Moth. It worked dramatically well and we plan to proceed with further studies on the composition of the alkaloid by HPLC studies and using it as a possible Bio – insecticide as an alternative to the chemical pesticides, which are known to cause severe health disorders to both animals and humans alike. We are also the first group in India to attempt such a study. Keywords: Toxic, tannins, alkaloids, Myrosinase, Asclepedeciae, Nymphalidae.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB24] Harvesting and its impact on biodiversity: a case of few critically endangered medicinal plants in the natural forests of Madhya Pradesh Manish Mishra Faculty of Forestry, Indian Institute of Forest Management, (MoEF) Post Box: 357, Nehru Nagar, Bhopal - 462 003, Madhya Pradesh, India Email: manishm@iifm.ac.in ABSTRACT Due to over-exploitation of many medicinally important species, few herbaceous species falls under critically endangered or vulnerable category. Currently medicinal plants are collected without paying attention to the stage of maturity. The kali haldi (Curcuma caesia) and Baichandi (Dioscorea spp.) are an indigenous medicinal plant of India. Over-exploitation of these herbaceous species has made them endangered species in the natural forests of central India. Both the species earlier found abundant in the districts of Mandla and Dindori of Madhya Pradesh state. These species is recently adopted as one of the important drugs from natural source for the treatment of respiratory ailments. The study was conducted in the central part of Madhya Pradesh, which is rich in the herbaceous medicinal plants. Few districts of central India have been selected for the present study. The ecological status, plant density, regeneration and current harvesting practices adopted by the primary collectors and its adverse impact on biodiversity were assessed in this paper. The paper also discusses the sustainable management of few selected medicinal plants under wild conditions. Keywords: Endangered, Over-exploitation, Medicinal plant, Harvesting, Herbs. [AB25] Mushrooms diversity and their utilization in J&K Sanjeev Kumar and YP Sharma Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu -180 006, Jammu and Kashmir Email: sanjeevkoul111@rediffmail.com, sanjeevkoul222@gmail.com ABSTRACT The word mushrooms is derived from the Greek word ‘Mykes’ and the ancient Mycenean civilization perhaps has roots in this word. Derived from the same word, Mycology, etymologically is the study of mushrooms. The mushrooms are amongst the largest fungi and attracted attention of naturalists before the microscope was invented and micro fungi discovered. The adaptation of mushrooms to the environment is nutrition based. They live as saprophytes, parasites and symbionts. They are in service of the environment and are served by the environment in return sharing and caring. They adjust to the ecosystem by secreting cellulolytic and lignolytic enzymes, which characteristic is made use of in recycling the waste materials in a profitable and useful manner. People are attracted by mushrooms but the categories vary- some like, some dislike and others are indifferent in attitudes and are called Mycophilic, Mycophobic and Mycoindifferent. Mushrooms have been in service of humanity since times immemorial. More recently mushrooms have come to occupy a prime place as medicinally important food items. They contain low calories, fats and sugars and therefore good for fat people and sugar patients. They are having immense nutraceutical potential and possess antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral and nematicidal properties. The studies on them are also incomplete and extreme from complete. Mushrooms from the wild are collected and consumed in variety of ways. Many traditional recipes and modern recipes available but both intensive and extensive studies are needed on them. Overall analysis of mushroomology presents a very wide field of research and development.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB26] What climate change can do about tort law? Pritish Kishore, Maryada Sharma, Prabhanshu, Prashant Kumar and Himanshu Shukla Chanakya National Law University, Patna ABSTRACT To date, scholars exploring the connection between climate change and tort law have tended to ask what the latter can do about the former. With a few notable exceptions, they have answered, “Not much.” This Article first reviews a series of doctrinal hurdles facing climate change plaintiffs and concludes that the pessimism of legal scholars is justified. The Article then poses an inverse and previously unexplored question: what can climate change do about tort law? As it turns out, the answer is, “Quite a bit.” By forcing courts to confront questions of harm, causation, and responsibility that lie at the frontiers of science and ethics, climate change lawsuits hold potential to move the bar for what counts as exotic in the domain of tort. Radical though it may seem, such a recalibration should be welcomed: just as the administrative state is being forced to adapt to grapple with the global, complex, uncertain, and potentially catastrophic nature of twenty-first century threats to social welfare, the tort system also must shift in order to serve its role as the administrative state’s traditional and necessary backdrop. Not only is the climate changing. [AB27] Links between Language Diversity Preservation and Biodiversity Conservation Pushpa Parekh Spelman College, Atlanta, GA ABSTRACT Language extinction, endangered languages, language loss are topics of concern and investigation by scholars, linguists, activists and communities. Colonial and global transnational movements have resulted in cultural changes, adaptations, and transformations, some of the severest affecting language diversity. Writers, linguists, biologists and environmental scientists, who have often operated in disciplinary divides, need to collaborate to address the connections between their concerns: language loss and species extinction. I will examine these topics through a review of research on the links between language preservation and biodiversity conservation. Contributions by Native American scholars, community activists and writers on this issue are significant for study of Adivasi struggles in India. Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, in “The Importance of Indigenous Peoples to Biodiversity Conservation” connects loss of indigenous knowledge systems to biodiversity erosion. The Adivasi Solidarity Council sums up the Adivasi struggles: “Adivasis in India are facing several issues and problems in their life endlessly. Among them Extreme Poverty, Illiteracy, Human Rights violation, Poor Health Condition, Unemployment issue, Identity crisis are the major problems which are needs to be addressed with united effort through rights-based approach”. My paper will focus on these challenges in the context of India, as examined in works emerging from the interdisciplinary fields of linguistics and environmental studies. Keywords: language extinction, biodiversity, colonial, global, indigenous, Adivasi.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB28] Regenerative Competence of Pseudobulb explants of endangered Orchid genera: a study in vitro Vishal Sharma Government Post Graduate College for Girls-11, Chandigarh Email: vishal_2370@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Tissue culture technique has added new dimensions to commercial exploitation of economically important plants. It is particularly useful in outbreeders like orchids which generate a great deal of heterozygosity in the progenies. Orchids represent a diverse group of geologically young plants, still in evolutionary flux. They have outsmarted their counterparts due to their long lasting flowers of myriad shapes, sizes and colours. Morel (1960) demonstrated the possibilities of using apical meristems for micropropagating a variety of orchids. The technique is, however, detrimental to the growth and development of mother plant, as it requires the sacrifice of the entire new growth or the only growing point. It is, thus desirable to develop an alternate and equally effective multiplication system by activating adventitious meristems in organs, whose excision does not endanger the survival of source plant. In order to meet this objective, regenerative competence of Pseudobulb explants is used for initiating in vitro cultures of endangered species Coelogyne cristata Lindl.(Orchidaceae),an important foliar herb. It grows luxuriantly along Himalayan ranges from Garhwal eastwards to Arunachal Pradesh (1700-2300m). The foliar extract is favourite of the herbalist for its bone healing properties (cf.Lawler, 1984).Besides this, its free fertility with related genera offers exiciting possibilities to progenate floriculturally significant hybrids. The regeneration competence of the pseudobulbs seems to be markedly influenced by physiological age of the mother plant, position of donor and growth stimulus in the nutrient pool. Juvenility of the tissue emerged as the major factor since the response was more pronounced to the proximal segments due to the fact that the younger tissues with less rigid cell walls are physiologically &biochemically more active and shoe better morphogenetic potential in harmony to earlier reports (Vij & Pathak,1989; Basker and Bai, 2006; Sungkumlong and Deb, 2009) The regeneration eluded the explants from well developed 1 yr old peudobulbs (>3cm long), whereas meristematic activity could be selectively initiated in those from the freshly formed daughter pseudobulbs (<3cm long) depending upon their position in the source organ. The explants from central segments (PS2), invariably turned brown and perished soon after inoculation, whereas, those from the proximal (PS3) and distal(PS1) responded to regeneration. The regenerative pathway and differentiation varied with quality and quantity of PGRs. In present studies, a treatment with KN(10 mg/l), promoted direct development of shoot primordial (Basker and Bai,2006;Sungkumlong and Deb,2009). An additional treatment with NAA and AC in KN treated cultures proved in effective but in BAP treated ones it favoured a switch in the regenerative pathway;the pathway was punctuated by Plb phase of development(Vij& Pathak,1989;Basker and Bai,2006).Among the different combinations tried in the present study,BAP(10mg/l) and NAA(5mg/l) were most effective for plantlet development. The synergistic effect of BAP & NAA is in compliance with earlier reports (Sunitibala and Kishor, 2009; Herrera et al.,1990; Basker and Bai,2006). Addition of Activated Charcoal (AC) in the initiation media proved beneficial in maintenance of cultures (Deb and Temjensangba, 2006; Sungkumlong and Deb, 2009).

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB29] Removal of fluoride and iron from drinking water Aparajita Goswami, Chitta Ranjan Medhi and Mihir K Purkait* Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati - 781039, Assam, India. ABSTRACT Presence of various hazardous contaminants including fluoride and iron in underground water has been reported in different north eastern states of India. In many cases, the water sources have been rendered unsafe for human consumption. Hence, there is a need to focus greater attention on the future impact of water resources planning and development taking into consideration all the related issues. The technique which will be adopted for the removal of fluoride and iron from drinking water is both fundamental and significant in application point of view. The developed unit may be use full for villagers or those who lives in remote places in order to get contaminant free drinking water. To minimize its concentration in water, some chemicals are added in the effected water. For this purpose, chemical coagulation – precipitation is considered as the most common and easy technique for removal of iron and fluoride from water. This technique is easy to handle and mostly used in household purposes. The principle of this technique is to precipitate the excess iron and fluoride by adding appropriate quantity of lime. Naturally sodium fluoride and ferrous sulfate are the main sources of fluoride and iron present in water respectively. By adding lime, sodium fluoride is precipitated as calcium fluoride which is insoluble in water and ferrous ions are converted to ferric ions which are also insoluble in water. The important parameter that has to be considered is the pH of the water. In this technique pH is to be maintained within the drinking range. Keywords: Chemical coagulation- precipitation, iron, fluoride, pH. [AB30] Silica mining, impact and its mitigation in Shankargarh area of Allahabad Rajesh Kumar Kushwaha School of Environmental Sciences Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 Email: rajeshalldjnu@gmail.com

ABSTRACT The Shankargarh area, of Allahabad district in U.P., is famous for its silica mines. The sand thus obtained from it is about 99% pure. The Raja of Shankargarh has mining rights in the perpetuity to the 46 villages covering an area of 150 km2 that makes up this area. But other than that, a great number of illegal mining practices are being done there. It in turn has led to the excessive exploitation of the land of Shankargarh and as a result, a number of changes have taken place in this area, which represents the negative impacts of silica mining. These adverse impacts are removal of top soil cover; excessive clearance of forest cover; depletion of water table; scarcity of rainfall and many other factors. The present study focus adverse effect on the Environment and its mitigation due to silica mining sample of sand stone collected from different area of Shankargarh the health status of kol, Gonds and Bheels who are more exposed to the silica sand. The sample are analyzed in the lab of Earth and planetary science as well as department of mineralogy and petrology, university of Allahabad Keywords: Silica, Forest cover in Shankargarh, Management of Biodiversity in Shankargarh

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB31] The national rural employment gurantee scheme and resilience building for sustainable development Sri Trailokya Deka North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India Email: trailokyadeka@ymail.com ABSTRACT Development techniques are being changed. In conformity to the modern thinking on development i.e. promotion of sustainable development through capability enhancement and participation, number of innovative programmes have been introduced by the governments. One such path breaking programme in development resurgent India has been the rural employment creation and it’s guarantee through the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme or Act [NREGS, also NREGA], introduced and implemented by the government of India in 2005. The act introduced in the state of Assam in three phases. It brought entire 27 districts of Assam under it’s purview in 2007-08. The act has been debated among academicians, policy makers and general public especially with regard to it’s wage- employment creation but not in terms of it’s implications on sustainable development. Initial thrust of the scheme on creating durable and productive assets and subsequent convergence of it with programmes of agriculture and allied sectors are leading to enhanced yields & confirming social, economic and environmental sustainability of each individual & community. The convergence of inter-sectoral programmes with MGNREGA brings a synergy between different schemes in terms of their planning and implementation, creates conditions for sustainable development, enhances economic and social opportunities; strengthens democratic processes; and mitigates the effects of climate change. This short research paper has taken the state of Assam (India) and observed the workings for sustainable development (Environmental, Economic & Social) under the scheme MGNREGA. Official records and publications of governments are the back bone of this study. Skill-work suitability, education, awareness about environmental, economic & social sustainability and its different linkage impacts were also tested from the field. Keywords: Climate, Convergence, Poverty, Resilience, Sustainability, Unemployment.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB32] Study on the effects of aquaculture discharges on self-purification of Sabzkooh River Sona Hatami Bah man Beiglou1, Hussein Samadi Boroujeni2, Mohammad Sedighi3, Pooyan Hatami4 and Elnaz Hatami5 1

Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Shahrekord University 2 Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 3 Foroughe Zagroz Engineers co. 4 Civil Engineering, Tehran University 5 Civil Engineering, Sharif University Email: sona_hbb@yahoo.com ABSTRACT

Sabzkooh River 58 km long is one of the Karoon River branches. In the vicinity of this river in addition to agriculture activities, considerable training of aqueous nourishing complexes foundation and now they are busy in operatio.These little pools discharges their waste water directly or indirectly to Sabzkooh River. To study and control the self-purification potential of Sabzkooh River, five stations were selected and parameters such as pH, DO, NO2, NO3, NH4, PO4 and hydraulic parameters in four months were measured. River quality simulation is an effective tool to managers to choose the proper method to control the river water quality. One of the new software in this field is QUAL2Kw which is upgrade of the QUAL2k.The parameters used for calibration and verification. The results show that Sabzkooh River has self purification and the model is able to simulate the river well despite the short available data. Keywords: water quality, QUAL2Kw, Sabzkouh River [AB33] Population composition and habitat utilization of blue sheep in Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal Laxmi Prasad Timilsina Padmakanya Multipal Campus, T.U., Kathmandu, Nepal Email: laxmitm5@yahoo.com ABSTRACT This paper deals with the population composition and habitat utilization of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in the north-eastern part of Kanchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA) that belongs to the Eastern Himalayan region of Nepal. The field study was based on direct observation by searching the slopes of the study area using 8 × 42 binocular and 15-60× spotting scope. Fixed-point count method was applied from appropriate vantage points. The area was visited thrice in the same season of 1999, 2000 and 2010. The mean herd size was found with 12, 19 and 19 individuals per herd in 1999, 2000 and 2010 respectively and most herds were composed of 2 to 10 individuals per herd. The average adult sex ratio was found with 61 males per 100 adult females in 1999, 86 males per 100 females in 2000 and 76 males per 100 females in 2010. Lamb to adult female ratio was found with 88, 56 and 46 lambs per 100 females in 1999, 2000 and 2010 respectively. Blue sheep in KCA showed general preferences for lower and middle position of slopes with south and southeast aspects and altitude ranging from 4040m to 5280m. Moderately broken landform with grassland and barren habitats were extensively utilized by blue sheep. Blue sheep should be protected in order to protect snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Keywords: KCA, Blue sheep, population, habitat

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB34] Understanding of environmental problems: A case of global warming in Thailand Kanchana Chokriesukchai School of Communication Arts, The University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce 126/1 Viphavadee - Rangsit Rd., Bangkok – 10400, Thailand Email: kchokrie@hotmail.com ABSTRACT Public understanding of global warming, also known as global climate change, is treated here as an example of a mass media problem that has yet to be adequately solved. Mass media often make a positive contribution to understanding, as well as to perpetuating some popular misconceptions. This study investigated Thai youths’ exposure to information regarding global warming, awareness of the global warming issue, and adoption of lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. Data was obtained through a large-scale survey of middle school students in Thailand. The questionnaire was designed from the preliminary information collected in a focus group, which included eight randomly selected Thai youths aged between 13 and 15. A focus group of 8 Thai youths provided information that was used to construct a questionnaire, which was administered to 2,500 Thai youths. In-depth interviews with academics and mass communication experts were also conducted. The study took place from early 2009 to mid-2010 in various parts of Thailand. Analysis of the questionnaire responses indicate that most of the Thai youths in the study obtained information about global warming primarily from television; often, however, they do not understand the information. Keywords: Environmental problems, global warming, awareness, information exposure, lifestyle, mass media, youths, Thailand.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB35] Role of green cleaning products in maintaining the sustainability of the environment Subrata Ghosh Department of Business Administration, Siliguri Institute of Technology, Sukna, Darjeeling Email: subrataghosh_slg@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT With globalization, companies are growing bigger with more employees and capitalization, and have a wider influence on the world’s population. More resources are being used to produce goods and services; more waste and by-products are generated and more lands are needed to set up production plants. So, environment sustainability is extremely important to establish a safe environment for the future. Buying environmental products, or products that are designed and made to do minimum possible damage to the surroundings, can go a long way to maintain the sustainability of the earth. Realizing the health and environmental implications more and more people are switching to green cleaning products. Also there is a change in attitude and thinking about environmental products in order to feel secure and positive about this new direction. As Indians are becoming more concerned with their impact on the environment, the green consumer category will continue to grow. It is important for businesses to recognize this trend and capitalize on the emerging market for environmentally friendly or green products and services. To be successful within the market it is important to tie the product’s environmental attributes to the lifestyles of the target consumers .There should be policies in the economy that build up sustainability and Green technology is only the way to go. With the growth of private sector there is a greater need for discipline and regulation of the market. In the introduction section, role of environmental products towards sustainability has been discussed. The second section explores the reasons for switching to green cleaning products and the third section highlights marketing strategies required to reach the target customers. Lastly, the paper describes the role of the state authority, entrepreneurs as well as customers to make sustainable environment. Keywords: Sustainability, green consumer, Green technology, target consumers.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB36] Wetland environment degradation and conservation in the Dimoria Region, Assam Dharma Ram Deka1,Pradip Sharma2 and Doli Thakuria3 Department of Geography, Sonapur College, Sonapur, Assam, India 2 Department of Geography, Cotton College, Guwahati-781001, Assam, India 3 Department of Education, Sonapur College, Sonapur, Assam, India Email: dhrmdeka@gmail.com, sharmapcc@gmail.com 1

ABSTRACT The Brahmaputra and Barak valleys of Assam in the eastern most part of India have a large number of lake like - natural water bodies or swamps. In broad terms these water bodies are known as ‘wetlands’. The number of wetlands in Assam is 3513 which size is more than 2.25 hectares and covering an area of 101,231 hectares of land. In the study area the lower flood plains of Digaru and Kalong rivers basins under Dimoria region have found a large number of lakes like natural water bodies. These water bodies are locally known as ‘beel’. Wetlands have been identified, as one of the most important features, which provide ample natural resources and maintain environmental quality of a region. Besides, the role of such wetlands in socio-economic condition of the people of the region is very significant. People of the surrounding areas are depend fish, animals, waterfowl etc. At the ecosystem level, wetlands moderate the effects of floods, improve water quality and enrich aesthetic and heritage value. In general, the wetlands of the basins provide an ideal habitat for feeding, nesting and breeding of a large variety of fishes, birds and other aquatic animals together with a unique variety of floral species. Unfortunately, the wetlands have been found degrading day by day due to human activities like excessive use of agro-chemicals in adjoining croplands, raising seasonal crops, overgrazing by cattle on the fringe areas, earth cutting, encroachment, hunting, poaching, solid and liquid waste disposal, mushrooming of brick kilns, engineering structures across the wetlands, use of wetland water for various purposes and excessive fishing using unscientific gears and methods.In this study it has been attempted to analyze the above-mentioned issues and a few remedial measures have been suggested for conservation and proper management of the wetlands. Moreover, how the biodiversity of the study area has been affected in recent years also analyzed here from geographical perspective. Key words: Beel, Digaru, Kalong, agro-chemical, waste disposal, overgrazing. [AB37] Genetic Variability of Isozyme loci in lizard Utpala Sharma Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, Uttar Pardesh Email: nehaman@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT The expression pattern of 5 metabolically important enzymatic systems in blood of Indian garden lizard Calotes versicolar was studied from four different regions of Agra. A total of 19 alleles at ten protein coding loci were identified. The degree of heterozygosity of 0.180 with average of 1.59 alleles per locus. The average proportion of polymorphic loci per population was estimated to be 1.70 Keywords: Isozymes, allozymes, genetic divercity, calotes versicolar

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB38] Assessing the impacts of Land Use Land Cover Dynamics on Elephant migratory routes of Garo Hills, Meghalaya Hansraj Gautam TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) University, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi. Email: gautamhansraj@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Anthropogenic disturbances are among the major drivers of ecosystem dynamics today. Garo Hills in India is one such area where forests have been subjected to continuous anthropogenic disturbances in form of the most debated practice of cultivation in the world, the shifting cultivation, locally known as jhumming. Forests of Garo Hills are home to a rich faunal and floral diversity. Because of the pristine nature of the forests in many areas, Garo Hills has harbored one of the densest populations of elephants which had a large ranging area in the past including even parts of Bangladesh. But today, because of the increasing pressure on forests, there has been fragmentation in the landscape which is hampering the elephant movement between core habitats. The present study is an attempt to assess the impacts of the changing land use land cover on the elephant corridors of Garo Hills. For this, multi-temporal satellite images (1991, 2001 and 2010) have been processed to prepare land use land cover (LULC) maps. The results show a sharp decline in the forest cover from 1991 to 2001 but later in 2010, deforestation has stopped and even the jhum cultivation has decreased in the area. However, because of the shortening of jhumming cycle, land under abandoned jhum is increasing. Mapping of potential elephant corridors was done by using the least cost pathway (LCP) algorithm. LULC along with other abiotic and biotic factors and anthropogenic disturbances were used to prepare a cost-distance image to identify LCPs. Ten such corridors were identified in 1991 whereas; two of them disappeared later. Many corridors are threatened because of forest fragmentation arising mainly due to jhum cultivation and urbanization near towns. There is a need to ground-truth elephant movement along these corridors and take suitable conservation measures to maintain the elephant range. Keywords: Garo Hills, jhum cultivation, deforestation, land use land cover change (LULCC), elephant corridors, and least-cost path (LCP) algorithm

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB39] Conservation of Paphiopedilum venustum (Wall.) Pfitz. and stein – a critically endangered species of North-eastern Himalayas through in vitro technique Saranjeet Kaur Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical education and Research, Sector 67, Mohali – 160 062, Punjab Email: sarana_123@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT Presently, studies were conducted to conserve Paphiopedilum venustum (Orchidaceae), a critically endangered species of high floricultural value, through in vitro culture techniques. In vitro asymbiotic seed germination and seedling development was assessed. Four asymbiotic orchid seed germination media [terrestrial orchid medium (BM-1), modified terrestrial orchid medium (BM-2), malmgren modified terrestrial orchid medium, nitsch and nitsch medium] were evaluated for their effectiveness in promoting seed germination, protocorm and seedling development of P. venustum. The effects of photoperiods (0/24h L/D, 12/12h L/D), activated charcoal, growth regulators (6benzyl aminopurine and α-naphthalene acetic acid) and organic growth supplements (coconut water, banana powder, peptone) on seed germination was also checked. The seeds germinated selectively on media formulation. Germination percentage varied with the incubation photoperiod, media, quality and combination of growth adjuncts used. Amongst all the media tested, seed germination was best in modified terrestrial orchid medium in 0/24h L/D incubation period. After germination for 8 weeks in 0/24h L/D photoperiod, at protocorm stage, a shift from dark i.e.0/24h L/D to light conditions i.e. under 12/12h L/D was required for differentiation of protocorm into seedlings. The medium also allowed multiplication of protocorms; these were spherical and creamish-yellow in appearance. Chlorophyll development was a post-protocorm phenomenon in the cultures. Morphogenetic processes leading to seedling development were delayed in the presence of activated charcoal. Best seedling development occurred on modified terrestrial orchid medium supplemented with NAA (1mgL-1) under 12/12h L/D photoperiods. Effect of growth regulators, incubation photoperiods and activated charcoal on growth of seedlings were also examined.In vitro culture techniques provide a viable system for clonal, rapid mass multiplication and germplasm conservation of rare, endangered, medicinally and horticulturally important plants. Keywords: Paphiopedilum spicerianum, endangered, conservation, asymbiotic

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB40] Eco-friendly approach to control plant pathogenic Fungi Fusarium solani Surender Kumar Bhardwaj Botanical Garden/ Herbal Garden, M. D. University, Rohtak-124 001, Haryana, India Email: skbmdu66@gmail.com ABSTRACT There are concerns about the widespread use of chemicals in crop production in developing countries because of their possible adverse effects on human health. According to a World Health Organization survey, more than 50,000 people in developing countries are poisoned annually and 5,000 die as a result of the effects of toxic agrichemicals. In India 35,000 – 40,000 tons of hazardous chemicals are sprayed on crops every year and this is considered to increase the risk of cancer, sterility and death. There is an urgent need, therefore, for the development of safer and more sustainable methods of crop production. Plants are known to possess antimicrobial secondary metabolites that can inhibit the growth of plant pathogens and it is possible that these compounds could be used to combat plant diseases. Aqueous extracts from twenty plants were tested for their antifungal activity against Fusarium solani inciting dry rot disease of potato. Test results showed a differential activity of the plant extracts against the mycelium growth. The maximum inhibitory effect was shown by rhizome extracts of Curcuma domastica against the mycelium growth of test fungi. The seed extracts of Azadirachta indica and seed extracts of Acacia arabicae showed strong inhibitory effect against the test fungi. The root extracts of Acacia catechu, leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, seed extracts of Cassia fistula, leaf extracts of Adhatoda vasica and leaf extracts of Clerodendron inerme showed appreciable good inhibitory effect against the test fungi. In view of the above facts, the present study has elaborated our knowledge by accessing the antifungal properties among the available natural flora which can subsequently be explored for the possibilities towards the identification of the key bioactive agents, through implying modern microbiology and biochemical techniques. Keywords: Fusarium solani, Antifungal, Plant-extracts, Phytochemicals

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB41] DNA barcoding discriminates freshwater fishes from southeastern Nigeria and provides river system-level phylogeographic resolution within some species Nwani Christopher Didigwu Ebonyi State University Pmb 053 Abakaliki, Nigeria Email: didigwunwani@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Fishes are the main animal protein source for human beings and play a vital role in aquatic ecosystems and food webs. Fish identification can be challenging, especially in the tropics (due to high diversity), and this is particularly true for larval forms or fragmentary remains. DNA barcoding, which uses the 5â&#x20AC;˛ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) as a target gene, is an efficient method for standardized species-level identification for biodiversity assessment and conservation, pending the establishment of reference sequence libraries. In this study, fishes were collected from three rivers in southeastern Nigeria, identified morphologically, and imaged digitally. DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified, and the standard barcode region was bidirectionally sequenced for 363 individuals belonging to 70 species in 38 genera. All specimen provenance data and associated sequence information were recorded in the barcode of life data systems (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Analytical tools on BOLD were used to assess the performance of barcoding to identify species. Using neighbor-joining distance comparison, the average genetic distance was 60-fold higher between species than within species, as pairwise genetic distance estimates averaged 10.29% among congeners and only 0.17% among conspecifics. Despite low levels of divergence within species, we observed river system-specific haplotype partitioning within eight species (11.4% of all species). Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that DNA barcoding is very effective for species identification of Nigerian freshwater fishes. Keywords: DNA barcoding, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, mtDNA, freshwater fishes, hylogeographic structure, Nigeria

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB42] Agro-ecotourism and livelihood enhancement in India Ankur Saxena, Mustfa Hussain and RS Jadoun College of Agribusiness Management, GBPUAT Email: s.ankur12@gmail.com ABSTRACT The tourism in India is very substantial and vibrant. It is one of the most crucial sectors of the economy in the nation. Tourism sector constructs the bridge among various allied sectors, like civil aviation, hospitality, and transport. It is not only a significant contributor to GDP and foreign exchange reserve of the country, but also it provides widespread employment. It directly contributes to around 2 percent of the country's GDP and providing 8.78% of the total employment. It is witnessing the annual growth of more than 8% (2011). India is having more than 5 million annual foreign tourist arrivals and 562 million domestic tourism visits. Tourism is very beneficial, especially economically, to the host destination but there are many strings attached viz: an over consumption of resources, air pollution, traffic, spread of disease and infection etc. In this context, “Agro-ecotourism” is latest additions to the tourism industry. Tourists come and stay on eco farms, eat home grown products and learn about the country, visit through eco farmers. Thus agro eco tourism not only protects the environment but also increase source of livelihood for poors and local community. States like Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, and Maharashtra are welcoming the tourists on their farms in very eco friendly manner. But there are huge numbers of issues viz: lack of Govt. Policies framework and schemes for promotion & manipulation, resource management, farmer’s education, language differences, cultural differences etc which are need to be debated. This paper will seek to develop suitable environment and give viable solution for policy makers and entrepreneurs for agro eco tourism so that farmers and tourists both may create tradeoff for each other. Researchers will emphasize to search other states can be good destination for agro eco tourism. Study is based on secondary data taken from reliable sources. Keywords: Agro-ecotourism, Tourism, economy, India

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB43] Sediment pollution in the Anzali Wetland, in Southwest of the Caspian Sea 1

Maryam Zarea Khosheghbal, 2Amir H. Charkhabi, *Mohammad Kohansal and *Rahim Mohammdi 1 Islamic Azad University, Astara Branch, Astara, Iran 2 Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, Tehran, Iran *Sharab Khazar Consultant Company, Rasht, Iran Email: mzare70@ gmail.com ABSTRACT

Anzali Wetland is located in the southwest of the Caspian Sea. This wetland with 20 km2 area is one of the most important protected wetlands in Iran. Unfortunately heavy metal pollution becomes wildlife threat to its ecosystem and biodiversity. Therefore, cores and river sediment were extracted for pollution study and analysis. The concentration of major elements such as Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Mn, P, Ti and concentration of trace elements such as Li, Ba, Sr, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Bi and S were analyzed using ICP-MS. Cluster analysis and principle component were used as basic data to analyze the sediment pollution status. Cluster analysis indicated in Ab-Kenar As, Mo, and Cu, and in Siakishom As, Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Mo and in Hende Khaleh As, V, Pb, Cd, Co Ni, Mo, Bi, Cr and Zn in Shijan As, Cd, Bi, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn have anthropogenic pollution sources but V, Cr, and other selected elements have natural source. In Ab-kenar, Siakishom and Shijan sections of the wetland, agriculture has significant contribution for the pollution. Elemental ratio depends on the sediment size, principal component analysis with and without Al showed elimination of Al from the analysis would normalize analysis. Cupper, Ni, and V concentrated in the fine sediments, as related to rich Al minerals and have natural sources. There are 11 subwatersheds contributing energy and mass flux from the watersheds into the wetland, therefore a more intensive sampling is needed. For the wetland ecosystem health a system monitoring is highly recommended. Keywords: Anzali Wetland, Cluster analysis, Principal component analysis, Heavy metals, Sediment pollution.

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB44] Biodiversity and Climate Change in Russia Milanova Elena Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography/Fund for Sustainable Development (Moscow, Russia), 14 Gubkuna Str., office 75-76, 117312 Moscow, Russia Email: emilanova@fund-sd.ru ABSTRACT Biodiversity conservation and climate change are very vital contemporary issues of global concern. Russia possesses huge biological and landscape diversity. The country has rich traditions in the biodiversity conservation and a system of protected areas functioning for about 100 years. The country is standing on the threshold of radical restructuring of its economy. Agriculture is one of the major drivers of biodiversity change in Russia where 13 % of the territory, especially in steppe zone, are designated for agricultural use. Agriculture intensification and restructuring during the last twenty years creates the severe threats to the biodiversity: plowing much of tillable lands, resulted in accelerating soil erosion; overgrazing and pasture degradation; landscape fragmentation by the fields and reduced biodiversity. About 70% of the arable lands were abandoned or put into grazing due to land degradation. On the other hand, the role of agricultural lands in preserving biodiversity is of particular importance and about of ¼ of the entire agricultural lands has been converted into the semi-natural landscapes (meadows, pastures, hay fields, and fallows). Many species living on these lands become endangered under changed practice of agricultural management (for example, different eagle species, included in the IUCN Red List). A present-day landscapes methodology is used to study landscape biodiversity changes in Russia under agricultural impact. The agro-landscapes’ applications were done at macroregional, regional and local scales on the base of cartographic, remote and in-field data. Climate change is also very important factor that would shape the biodiversity and agriculture. The five different Global Circulation Models were used for three pre-set time periods: 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. All climate change scenarios for Russia show significant increase of temperature and moderate increase of precipitation. The biodiversity conservation and ecologically sound agriculture development should help to reconcile the requirements of the environment with social needs. Keywords: Biodiversity, agriculture, climate change scenarios, Russia

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB45] Affect of drought on river pollution with artificial neural network AR Farahmand, F Golkar and AR Mirzaee Department of Civil, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran Email: alirezamirzaie_1@yahoo.com ABSTRACT In this research drought effect on river pollution as well as predicting it with artificial neural network is studied. Pollution parameters such as Total Soil Solids, Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, CO3 and HCO3-, Cl-, SO4, Ca, Mg, Na, K, SAR and precipitation and runoff data in monthly step in year 1386 and 1387 were collected. The appropriate selected ANN model is precpetron with one hidden layer and back propagation algorithm which was written in MATLAB software. Rainfall data of 24 months were presented as input data and pollution parameters and runoff as output data. Due to error indexes a model with 4 neurons in hidden layer was selected as the best structure. The observed pollution parameters were compared with estimated parameters. The results showed an appropriate correlation. In order to predict the drought effect on pollution parameters the selected ANN model was run for some amount of rainfall as input data and then the pollution parameters were predicted. The results showed that some pollution parameters were directly affected by rainfall. Rainfall increase cause runoff increasing and total soil solids, EC and Na decreasing. Other parameters such as CO3, HCO3-, Cl, SO4, Ca, Mg, Na, K, SAR were not affected by rainfall directly. Keywords: Artificial neural network, drought, pollution, pollution parameters, river

[AB46] Biometrical studies on the Scapula of Indian spotted deer (Axis axis) Om Prakash Choudhary, Rakesh Mathur and Sanjeev Joshi Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner Email: dr.om.choudhary@gmail.com ABSTRACT In the present study, the bones of Scapula of six adult Chital were used. The scapula was a flat triangular bone. The lateral surface was divided by the scapular spine into a small and elongated supra-spinous fossa and a much larger and triangular, infra-spinous fossa. The spine was sharp and wavy in outline extended up to the neck of the bone. The acromian was pointed and tuber spine was in-distinguishable. Sub-scapular fossa was markedly deep. The tuber-scapulae or supra-glenoid tubercle was small and the coracoid process was ill developed. The glenoid cavity was shallow and rounded. A small glenoid notch was present over glenoid cavity. The scapular index was 58.35.

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[AB47] Toad (Salientia: Amphibia) diversity in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India Debojyoti Dutta* and Sanjib K. Das# * Post Graduate Department of Zoology, A.B.N. Seal College, Cooch Behar - 736101 # Post Graduate Deptartment of Zoology, Moulana Azad College, 8, Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Road, Kolkata - 700013, West Bengal Email: debojyotidutta2001@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Amphibians are the classic example of adjuster vertebrates due to their dual mode of habitat. So, global climate changes scenario logically affect least to this living creatures. But unfortunately over the millennia many of these become extinct and only three orders out of the eleven are known to have existed. Although much survey work on Toad has been done in Western Ghats in our country but no significant survey work still not initiated in Dooars region of West Bengal, which is a part of foothill of Eastern Himalayas. This paper deals with survey work at Buxa Tiger Reserve (East division) West Bengal with the help of GPS (Gramin-72, USA) and do morpho taxonomic identification based on morphometric index as par guideline of Zoological Survey of India. The survey work reported altogether 6 different species belonging to families Bufonidae (3 species), Megophyridae (2 species) and Microhylidae (1 species). Monsoon seems to be most favored period of collection. Maximum species diversity (Hmax) and variety Index (d) is calculated as par Krebs (1985) and result reveal the fact that both species diversity and variety index is highest in the family Bufonidae followed by Megaphyridae. Keywords: Toad, Biodiversity, Dooars, Buxa Tiger Reserve. [AB48] Invertebrate communities under soil pollution Ruslan Butovsky Fund for Sustainable Development, 117312 Gubkina Street, 14, office 75-76, Moscow, Russia Email: rbutovsky@fund-sd.ru ABSTRACT The research of soil invertebrate communities was undertaken in 18 stressed terrestrial ecosystems in Central Russia, Belgium and the Netherlands. The ecological parameters of soil invertebrate communities under stress factors changed in a similar way irrespectively to stress type (recreation, motorway or industrial pollution), type of ecosystem (agricultural, forest or ruderal) and size class of organisms (micro- or macro-arthropods). In stressed communities among macro-arthropods we observed the decrease of abundance of non-specialized predators (Carabidae, Aranei), chewing phytophagans (caterpillars etc.), saprophagans (fly larva etc.) and increase of abundance of rhyzophanags (Curculionidae larva etc.), sucking phytophagans (Homoptera, Hemiptera) and specialized predators (Coccinellidae, Syrphidae larva). Among micro-arthropods, we observed the decrease of abundance of oribatid mites and collembolans; and increase of relative abundance of acarid, gamasid, tarsonemid and pygmephorid mites. In both sized communities we observed highly sensitive (carabids, oribatid mites) and highly tolerant (aphids, acarid and gamasid mites) groups. The tolerance of soil invertebrate communities to heavy metals was determined by universal mechanisms active on community (trophic structure, species diversity etc.), populational (abundance, mass and sex structure of populations) and organism levels of organization of communities. Heavy metal contents in soil invertebrates are species - and group-specific. Heavy metals were primarily concentrated in soil invertebrates but not in vertebrates. In terrestrial foodwebs of soil invertebrates heavy metals were concentrated in first-order consumers. In putative

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invertebrate food-webs non-specialized predators contained less copper and zinc, than specialized predators and parasitoids, what could be connected to different feeding strategies? Keywords: Soil Pollution, Invertebrates, Trophic Chains, Heavy Metals [AB49] Influence of surrounding environment on the biodiversity of water fungi Telibandha Talab ponds Deo Sajal and KL Tiwari Department of Biotechnology, K.D. Rungta College of Science & Technology, Atari, Raipur – 492099 Email: sajalsaju@gmail.com ABSTRACT Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms (all species of plants, animals and microorganisms existing and interacting) within an ecosystem. In any ecosystem biotic components (Fungi) always lives in the perfect balance with their abiotic component that is external environment (atmospheric change) and internal environment (physical and chemical characteristic of water). The environments refer to the things and condition around the organisms which directly or indirectly influence the life and development of the organisms and their population. In an ecosystem, if one factor is altered, it can influence the whole system. Water fungi are vital links in food webs and interlinked food chain, primarily as decomposers and pathogens of plants, animals and other organic matter and act as scavengers breaking down dead plant and animal tissues and recycling elements back into food webs. During present investigation total 69 fungal species (280 fungal colonies) belonging to 33 fungal genera were found. Maximum numbers of fungal species (45) was found in winter season and lower (31) in summer season.The value of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water were also high in summer season. Whereas concentration Dissolve oxygen was higher in winter season. Heavy metals like Manganese (Mn), Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) were also present in water. The concentration of Mn and Cr in water sample in much more higher than permitted range. Maximum number of fungal species (21) was found in December month and minimum (08) in the January. Result revealed that, yearly maximum parentage contribution (88.93%) was encountered for Anamorphic group of fungi, which were followed by group Zygomycotina (8.57%), Ascomycotina (1.07%) and Mycelia sterilia with 1.43% contribution. Individually maximum percentage contribution was contributed by Aspergillus niger (13.57%), which was followed by A. flavus (8.93%), Mucor racemosus (5.36%) etc. Maximum frequency (83.33%) was also shown by Aspergillus niger. Keywords: Biodiversity, Ecosystem, Abiotic component, Anamorphic, Ascomycotina

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[AB50] A new paradigm on ONGC's (India) initiatives for sustainable biodiversity & community development - A societal license to operate in diverse geography and biodiversity Jagdish P. N. Giri ONGC (Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. India, 8th Floor, Sectoral HSE, CMDA Tower - II, No. - 8, Gandhi - Irwin Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600008, Tamil Nadu, India Email: girijpn@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT Debate on Sustainable Environmental Performances and economic Issues derives emergence of Corporate Social Responsibility and Bio-diversity Initiatives involving stakeholders to sustain community development, preserves ecosystems, tribal cultures and biodiversity. Issues involved in extraction of hydrocarbons are many; however paper aggressively focuses to environmental performances in terms of recycling and waste management; capacity building reducing GHG emissions, CDM diversifying energy portfolios, demographic spectra empowering targeted communities, resulting in project sustainability in associative partnership with industries’ stakeholders. In emerging New World Energy Order, Indian Petroleum Industry aligns on environmental cooperation by creating ownership structures & establishing environment community enterprises at large in its project management indices. Identifying critical ecological, environmental and climatic issues at Carbon Energy Business, paper emphatically explores ONGCs achievements over a decade on reductions in GHG emissions and bio-diversity imitative to preserve tribal cultures in Assam - Arrakan Basin and ecosystems’ along Cauvery Basin and Gulf of Mannar. ONGC has evolved a New Paradigm of Corporate Governance on disclosures to its stakeholders, investment community and public on major aspects of financial policy, practices, environmental performances, risk management and capacity building. Unifying theme of new paradigm is to predict future sustainable carbon energy production peak on economic, social and environmental dimensions during Carbon Energy Lead Time in mid century term. The paper concludes in deriving socio economic model, building long term relationships on stakeholders concerns in environmental framework for industries operations and community development for sustainable energy production, preserved ecosystems and economic growth. It further evolves Roadmaps, on today’s environmental and community partnerships for preventing pollution, conserving resources, measuring progress, promoting product-stewardship, maintaining crisis-readiness, addressing community-concerns, working with governmental/nongovernmental agencies, and reporting results to develop responsible rules and standards to protect society and ecosystems, resulting in improving compatibility and operability of industry and its services at large. Keywords: Environmental Performances, Biodiversity Initiatives, Capacity Building, New World Energy Order, Community Enterprises

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB51] Treatment of arsenic contaminated drinking water using copper (II) oxide nanoparticles A Goswami1, PK Raul2 and MK Purkait1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati - 781039, Assam, India 2 Defence Research Laboratory, Tezpur, Assam, India

1

ABSTRACT Arsenic is considered as the major contaminant present in water. Its presence in water affects the human health severely. To reduce its concentration in drinking water, different metal based compounds had been explored as arsenic adsorbents. In the present study, copper (II) oxide nanoparticles had been synthesized by thermal refluxing technique and used as an adsorbent for arsenic removal from water. Characterization of the adsorbent by TEM and XRD implied that the prepared adsorbent was in nano size and had excellent adsorption behavior with surface area of 52.11 m2/g. Details adsorption studies was conducted using synthesize nanoparticle. The studies showed that the adsorption process followed pseudo second order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated which dictated that the process was endothermic in nature. Adsorption equilibrium was studied with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption process followed Langmuir isotherm with an adsorption capacity of1086.2 g/g. This study will be of helpful to design an absorber to remove arsenic from drinking water. Keywords: Arsenic, copper (II) oxide, adsorption, kinetics, isotherm. [AB52] A study on air emission in industrial area of Pithumpur and Sanwer road Indore (M.P) Kapil Joshi, Tushar Bhoyar, Jyotsna Sharma, Akash Jain, Suchata Rawat and Tushar Purohit IIHMR Sector 18A, Phase-II, New Delhi Email: drtusharbhoyar@gmail.com and drkapilmmtjoshi@gmail.com ABSTRACT As a result of industrial revaluation the numbers of industries are rising in India, resulting in production increase but the waste emission too. Three type of major industrial waste are, harmful air gases emission, water and solid industrial waste. To reduce industrial air pollution Central board or of pollution control of India have made regulations to obtain permits and renew for continuation from Member State authorities. The rules complement climate change legislation: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust are included in their scope, but not carbon dioxide. Study is conducted in Pithumpur and Sanwer road industrial area of Indore to major the amount of industrial air emission mainly SO2,NOX,SPM,RSPM, Out of 210 industries the 63 factories were selected randomly and the questionnaire was filled by supervisor authority of concern with reference of inspection reports. The result shows that out of 63 factories 57 are lacking in any one of the norms and causes air pollutions and getting red category, major cause in these factories emissions are consumption of Coal as a energy source, Industry using coal less than 5 tons/day are having only stack as air pollution control, conventional type lead processing units based on Mandir Bhatti emits lot of fugitive emissions. Suggestions are giving for lead processing based on CNG/ LPG and rolling mill based on CNG, and all boilers based on CNG instead of coal based. Keywords: Industrial emission, Climate change

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[AB53] Urban development and environment, effective cross sectoral approach for green cities: case example of Bhopal city A Bhaskar Rao, Kanishka Raj Rathore and Devansh Jain MANIT, Bhopal ABSTRACT With the increase in urbanization in Indian scenario, policy making, as a process has evolved and grown as an effective tool for formulation of programs and schemes at every planning level. With growing urbanization, environmental concerns have also paved their way through. Cross sectoral approach, which involves inclusive management of infrastructure development, transportation management and economic development along with environmental conservation can be implied at most basic levels of implementation to prioritize environmental conservation along with the other issues of development to induce sustainable development. The paper analyses a case example of Bhopal city which is an upcoming ground for increasing economic development growth being the capital city of central state of India. Recent researches being done for Bhoj wetland project indicate the concerns for increasing environmental degradation in the city as well as spotting of tigers and other wild animals species in the residential suburbs reflects the interference of human activities into adjoining forest areas. Scope of involvement of local governing bodies and agencies for environmental concerns shall be the focus area of study. Through with the analysis, the paper shall in detail augment a proposal for a dedicated zone for conservation of flora and fauna in the eco sensitive areas including the Bhoj wetland, Kerwa and Kaliasot water reservoirs. Keywords: Bhoj wetland, sustainable development, cross sectoral approach, urbanisation, infrastructure development, environmental degradation [AB54] Effect of fireworks air pollution on microbial population during Diwali Festival at Delhi B Kumar, Sudha Singh, Gyan Prakash Gupta and U C Kulshrestha* School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 INDIA Email: *umeshkulshrestha@yahoo.in ABSTRACT Fireworks during Diwali pollute the air by enhancing the concentration of gaseous pollutants. But our understanding about bactericidal effect of these gases is very poor. This study reports the possible bactericidal role of gaseous emissions of chlorine, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen in controlling airborne bacteria during Diwali. During this study, gaseous as well as bacterial aerosol samples were collected at JNU, Delhi during Diwali, 2010. On the night of Diwali, concentrations of all the gaseous species were recorded extremely high. The increase in concentration of these species on this occasion can be attributed to the burning of raw material of fireworks such as charcoal, sulphur, potassium chlorate, potassium nitrate etc. These observations showed that the high levels of gaseous pollutants significantly reduced airborne bacterial population. Sample collected on Diwali night showed the least concentrations of bacteria. Bactericidal effect was noticed significantly high for gaseous chlorine and oxides of sulphur. Gram staining results revealed that very high ratios of rod to cocci shaped bacteria on Diwali night in comparison to preDiwali and post-Diwali suggesting that cocci shaped bacteria were effectively killed by bactericidal gaseous pollutants. Keywords: Diwali, bactericide, oxides of Sulphur and nitrogen, fireworks.

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[AB55] Analysis of genetic diversity and molecular characterization of Centella asiatica accessions: A traditional medicinal plant of India Priyanka Gupta*1and R.N.Gupta Institute of Allied Sciences & Computer Application, ITM University, Gwalior * E-mail: vidhiguptaniwari@gmail.com ABSTRACT Centella asiatica is a traditional Indian medicinal plant known for its principle active constituents, saponins. The most important saponin is asiaticoside used in treatment of leprosy, lupus, asthma, bronchitis, certain eczemas, anxiety, mental disorders and urethritis. Little information is available on the molecular diversity of this plant although biochemical properties have been extensively reviewed. Therefore, ten accessions of Centella asiatica collected from different geographical regions of the country were analyzed for their molecular divergence and characterization. RAPD marker analysis was conducted on DNA extracted from each of the accession using 10 oligonucleotide primers. All the selected primers amplified a total of 24 polymorphic RAPD loci (average of 2.4 bands per marker) across the 10 accessions studied. Two markers namely OPJ 18 and OPJ 12 amplified unique loci among the accessions collected from Sitapur, Pantnagar and North east respectively. These unique molecular fingerprints generated among the different accessions could be used as complementary descriptors for identification and could be converted into STS markers of great value to detect any mix up among the accessions. Cluster analysis based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficient using UPGMA grouped all the 10 accessions into two major clusters. The pair wise genetic similarity among the accessions ranged from 0.10 to 0.89, suggesting that the current germplasm collection preserved the vast majority of the natural variation in Centella asiatica. Grouping of accessions using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) were similar and no discrepancy was observed. The observations demonstrate the usefulness and resolution power of molecular marker in analyzing the Centella asiatica genome for which no prior genome sequence information is available. Key words- Centella asiatica, Genetic diversity, Polymorphism, RAPD. 1

Present address: Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi

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[AB56] Invasion of the biodiversity by the Alien species Kumar Abhijeet National Law School of India University, Nagarbhavi, Bangalore - 560072 Email: chatkumarabhijeet@gmail.com ABSTRACT The second most threat to our Biodiversity is the Invasive Alien Species (IAS). The IAS being foreign to the natural habitat slowly acquire the aboriginal biodiversity making the indigenous species vulnerable and in many cases resulting in displacement and even extinction. The threat posed by the IAS was identified as early as in 1992 wherein the International Convention on Biodiversity recognized that each contracting party shall prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species. India being a party to this international convention has not shown much significant development in this field however the 2008 National Biodiversity Action Plan does recognize that the IAS is a threat to environment, human development and ecology. Studies have revealed that IAS have altered the forest structure and diversity in north east and many other parts of the Country rich in biodiversity. Trade and tourism has been considered as a prominent contributing factor for the rapid growth of IAS in India. Under the International Plant Protection Convention special measures have been incorporated for the importation and release of alien biological control agents but the journey remains still uncovered. The paper intends to explore the threat posed by the IAS, the International Legal development in the field of IAS and the follow on measures adapted by the India. How are the trade related aspects to be balanced with issues of Biodiversity? Keywords: Invasive Alien Species; Indigenous Species; Biodiversity; Trade; Plant Protection; NBD Action Plan. [AB57] Production of Bio-diesel from micro-algae as a renewable source of energy Rupali Sharma*, Subhasha Nigam and Monika Prakash Rai Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Sector-125, Noida-201303 Email: rgupta@amity.edu

ABSTRACT In today’s scenario, Micro-algae seem to be the only and a very promising source for production of bio-diesel as a renewable source of energy. The existing petroleum based fuels are non-renewable and causing atmospheric pollution owing to carbon-dioxide emission. Other potential sources such as waste cooking oil and vegetable oil from oil-plants like soybean, sunflower, jatropha and palm oil are neither efficient in comparison to micro-algae, nor they can meet realistic demand for biofuel across the globe. Certain strains of micro-algae have high lipid content which can be chemically converted to bio-diesel. Oil content in microalgae can exceed 80% by dry weight of dry biomass but oil levels of 20-50% are quite common. Algae have an advantage of growing on unused land and saline water areas that are unsuitable for agricultural practices. Moreover, it is photosynthetic and fixes carbon-dioxide such that its combustion has no impact on carbon-dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Raceway open ponds and tubular photobioreactors are the practicable methods to culture algae on large-scale. Nitrogen starvation has been shown to trigger lipid accumulation, especially triacylglycerols suitable for bio-diesel production. Further research in selecting the strains, manipulating the algae for higher lipid content, better harvesting and massculturing techniques, will open the doors for commercial preparation and use of bio-diesel as an alternate to automobile fuel.

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[AB58] Green tax shift Archana Lakhani NALSAR, University of Law ABSTRACT Taxation not only raises money to fund government services, it also reflects the overall value system of a society. Ecotax refers to taxes intended to promote ecologically sustainable activities via economic incentives. Such a policy can complement or avert the need for regulatory (command and control) approaches. Often, an ecotax policy proposal may attempt to maintain overall tax revenue by proportionately reducing other taxes (e.g. taxes on human labour and renewable resources); such proposals are known as a green tax shift towards ecological taxation. The goal of green tax policy is to create a system of public finance which strengthens and maximize incentives. Green tax policy removes taxes from wages and other private property and increases taxes and user fees on common property. The main purpose of green taxes is to reduce pollution or conserve natural resources. The researcher in this paper will focus on: How effective are Green taxes? How far implementation of green tax will help in fighting against the climate change crisis, and at the same time make our economy more competitive? And is viable to implement in India? Keywords: Ecological Taxation, effectiveness, implementation, conservation, climate change, economy [AB59] Evaluation of indicator bacteria in Umiam Lake, Meghalaya Ibandarisuk Lyngdoh and Highland Kayang Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Department of Botany, NEHU, Shillong, India. ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in Umiam Lake which apart from storing water for electricity generation, also provides downstream irrigation, fisheries and drinking water to the local people. Thirty-six water samples from three different locations were collected from October 2010-May 2011. The most probable number method was used to detect and count the total coliform, faecal coliform and faecal enterococci. Results revealed that the three indicator bacteria were abundant in all water samples. Percentages of the three indicator bacteria count were above the permissible limits for drinking water in all samples. They were 72.20% total coliform, 91.60% faecal coliform and 32.40% faecal Enterococci. Enteric bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (35.85%), Enterococcus faecalis (27.72%), Klebsiella (15.78%), Staphylococcus (4.55%) and Pseudomonas (3.60%). All these bacteria were isolated throughout the study period. Data suggested the importance of greater attention for household contamination, environmental sanitation control and the raise of awareness about water contamination. Keywords: bacteria, contamination, coliform bacteria, drinking water, Umiam Lake, water microbiology

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[AB60] Leopard-human conflict (LHC): Perspectives on conflict mitigation in and around Gir PA, Western India Nazneen Zehra1*, Jamal A. Khan1 and Sandeep Kumar2 Department of Wildlife Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, India 2 Deputy Conservator of forest, Wildlife Division Sasan, Junagarh, Gujarat, India Email: catwildlifer80@gmail.com 1

ABSTRACT The escalating encounters of leopards and humans augment concern about the mitigation of leopard–human conflict. A large population of leopards exists in & around Gir PA, which frequently comes in conflict with villagers. In present study, long term cases of LHC have been investigated through survey of problem areas, villager’s interviews and available records of forest department. On stress calls, park management quickly organizes capture and removal of problem leopards which are later released inside the Gir PA after fitting with electronic identification chip. Over 757 cases occurred from 2000-2010 revealed conflict pattern viz. annually, seasonally, and in relation to sex & age of problem leopard along with driving forces of conflict. In 2000-01, only four cases were recorded which yet have reached to 195 (2009-10). The conflict resulted severe on southern boundary of Gir PA with highest number of L-H encounters. The number of leopards captured from agro-farm, irrigation wells, and houses were 624, 86, 45 and 2 for unknown force respectively. A total of 200 leopards were captured repeatedly through capture-mark-recapture data where II, III, 1V, V, and VI time having 50, 110, 32, 7 and 1 individual respectively. Significant changes in cropping pattern can be directly linked to escalating conflict status. Good and easy access of food at boundary makes leopard population survive and breed successfully in agro ecosystems. Mitigation measures comprise construction of parapet walls around irrigation wells, awareness programs among villagers, livestock guarding strategies and removal of problem leopards in pairs. On magnitude of severity, forest department fixed the compensation schemes based on economic loss and human fatalities. Thus, on sensation of schemes villagers have attitudinal tolerance for leopards however it has placed a heavy burden on the resources of park management. Keywords: LHC, Gir PA, driving forces, mitigation, perspectives, Capture -mark recapture. [AB61] Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Solanum species growing under natural condition Songachan L. S and Kayang H Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Department of Botany, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793 022, India. ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species associated with three Solanum species (Solanum khasianum, Solanum sisymbriifolium and Solanum torvum) were investigated. Root samples were evaluated for AMF colonization in the form of arbuscules, vesicles and hyphae. AMF colonization was highest in S. sisymbriifolium and lowest in S. torvum, whereas, AMF spore density was lowest in S. sisymbriifolium and highest in S. torvum. 24 AMF species within four genera (Acaulospora, Glomus, Gigaspora and Scutellospora) were isolated and identified from the rhizosphere soils. S. khasianum harbours 12 AMF species, while S. sisymbriifolium and S. torvum have 11 AMF species each. Glomus and Acaulospora were the most frequently encountered AMF species. Solanum species are rich in AM fungal diversity, therefore, selection and inoculation of appropriate microbial strains could be of great value in improving the quality and quantity of plant material. Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; colonization; diversity; Solanum; spore; species

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[AB62] Do urban forests supports native birds? An ecological examination in Kolkata Miranda pal* and C. K. Manna Zoology Department, Kalyani University Email: miranda.pal@gmail.com ABSTRACT Urbanization is predicted to be the single most important driver of extinction this century & can provoke disappearance of a high number of species in the future; however, many bird species have been able to adapt to the cities' environmental conditions. Yet, urban landscapes have received relatively little attention by ecologists compared to more natural systems. The purpose of this study is to investigate, the effect of avian response to urbanization of Kolkata. Kolkata is a highly urbanised city & the rate of urban development continues to increase. As the city expands, natural vegetation is cleared & replaced with roads, buildings & related infrastructure, leaving much of our native birds unable to adjust to this new habitat. This loss of biodiversity as a consequence of urbanisation is of great concern. We stratified entire urban landscape of Kolkata into four land use types, in a gradient from the inner city to the periphery, namely high density residential areas, urban parks, marginal areas (between rural & urbanized areas) & semi-natural vegetations. Birds were surveyed using fixed radius point counts within each stratified zone. Birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s habitat assessment was conducted at each sampling sites. The number of individual trees was recorded for native & exotic trees. Percentage canopy cover, shrub cover, leaf litter, ground cover, & paved surfaces were also estimated. Our preliminary findings suggest that bird assemblages differed along the urban-suburban gradient in Kolkata: some species were relatively unaffected by urbanization, while several increased in abundance with increased urbanization & some were sensitive to even minor disturbances by urban development. In addition, we are identified those species that are particularly sensitive to habitat condition, so that these can be used as bio-indicators of environmental health. [AB63] Isolation and identification of diesel degrading indigenous microorganisms from Upper lake, Bhopal Bhupendra Prasad, Anima Bidua and Kiran Singh* Department of Bioinformatics, MANIT, Bhopal, M.P, India Email: bhupendraprasad1@rediff.com ABSTRACT Uncontrolled releases of petroleum compounds that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and are potent immunotoxicants into soil and water poses a serious threat to human and animal health. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and water has been established as an efficient, economic, versatile and environmentally sound treatment. Sedimented samples were taken from upper lake, Bhopal in the month of May from two zones. One is the shallow water boat club zone and other is the deep water zone where boat cannot be reached. From the sample of shallow water boat club zone, two indigenous bacteria (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Bacillus pumilus) were isolated. These bacteria were biochemically identified and also when tested on Bushnell-Haas (BH) medium, which was used as the enrichment medium with 10% diesel as sole carbon source, they showed growth and found to be diesel degrading. It signify that diesel contamination found in shallow water boat club zone of upper lake, Bhopal is being degraded and reduced by these bacteria thus helping in biodegradation of hydrocarbon, thus controlling the water pollution.

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Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB64] Herbicidal activity of Artemisinin: deciphering its mode of action Adyasha Bharati and S. C. Sabata Gene Function and Regulation Group, Stress Biology Laboratory, Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco square, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar-751023, Odisha Email: surendrachandra@gmail.com ABSTRACT Crop allelopathy can be useful to minimize serious problems in the present agricultural production such as environmental pollution, unsafe products, and human health concerns, depletion of crop diversity, soil sickness and reduction of crop productivity. Allelochemicals, thus may aid in the development of biological herbicides and pesticides. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpenoid lactone obtained from Artemisia annua. Besides being highly active against malaria parasite, the compound is strongly phytotoxic. Of the few terpenoids that have been screened for phytotoxicity, artemisinin has been found to be a potent toxin. In this study we have investigated the inhibitory effect(s) of artemisinin on the photoelectron transport activity of chloroplasts both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In the in vitro system artemisinin inhibited the electron flow in thylakoid. The inhibition in in vitro condition requires a very high concentration of artemisinin, whereas; the efficacy under in vivo condition is much higher even with exceedingly low concentration of the compound. In the in vivo experiments, we found an early leaf senescence in case of artemisinin treated plants. The overall growth of the plant is reduced including a decline in the operational quantum yield of photosynthesis. Experimental results from slow and fast chlorophyll a transient measurements and polarographic assays show that the compound interacts with the electron transport component and interrupts the thylakoid electron flow. The major inhibition site as identified lies around the quinone pool (QA - QB - PQ), resulting in restriction of downstream electron flow to cytochrome b6/f complex. Presence of an undefined moiety (?) capable of blocking electron flow in normal thylakoids is evident from experimental results. The moiety is symptomatic of being particulate in nature. In addition experimental evidences, also suggest the presence of higher amount of ROS in the treated plants. Keywords: Allelochemicals, Artemisinin, Phytotoxicity, Mechanism of action, Quinone pool, Reactive oxygen species

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB65] Human - jackal (Canis aureus) conflict, mitigation and conservation processes in and around Assam University campus, Silchar, Assam Dipankar Debnath, Hilloljyoti Singha and Biman Kr Dutta Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar, Assam ABSTRACT Golden jackal Canis aurius is a top carnivore in and around the Assam university campus. In the villages, Dorgakona and Irrongmara around the Assam university campus, jackals kill livestock and are themselves killed by local people. For conflict data collection, 50 randomly selected household were interviewed with prepared questionnaire from each villages from 2000-2010. Direct observation method was done for minimum population estimation and nocturnal activity pattern of jackal. Awareness and opinion survey of jackal conservation was done among the students of Assam university (n = 100). At least 12 jackals were found to be lived in study area. Four species of livestock’s/pet animal, viz. goat (51.65%), hen (28.23%), duck (3.6%) and dog (16.52%) have been recorded to attacked by jackal, where attacked on goat was found significantly more. All animals significantly attacked by jackal at night (61.86%), while in comparison to night more goats were significantly attacked in day (73.84%). Except goat, all livestock’s were attacked more in winter season; however more goats were significantly attacked in monsoon season (50.58%). Goat attacked by jackal in jungle places was significantly more (43.60%), where other livestock’s were exclusively attacked by jackal in and associated around home area. From 2000-2010, there was 70 jackals were killed by people. Among the capture/killing methods for jackal, trapping is used more significantly. Among the causes jackals were killed significantly more for retaliation. There is a statistically highly significant association found between the respondents, the student and household in view of jackal conservation. Among students 32% support that the awareness among local community can influence the jackal conservation.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB66] Landuse/landcover change analysis using Geographical Information System: A case study in Chhaygaon Revenue Circle, Kamrup District, Assam Indira Das Gauhati University, Assam Email: das.indira@yahoo.com, Indira.sngh@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT Landuse/landcover change (LULC) plays a pivotal role in regional socio-economic development and global environment changes. In environment where fragile ecosystems are dominant, the land cover change often reflects the most significant impact on the environment. So, LULC change analysis is essential to know the natural characteristics, extent and location, its quality, productivity, suitability and limitations of various land uses/covers. The present study was conducted to access the LULC changes in the Chhaygaon Revenue Circle. The advanced spatial technologies like Remote Sensing(RS) and Geographical Information System(GIS) have paramount role in understanding of our environment and management of our resources. Therefore RS and GIS have been widely applied to identify and analyze LULC changes over the years. In this study, focus was mainly given on the LULC dynamics, trajectories/transformations of LULC and their relations to the physical environmental variables such as soil, slopes and altitude. The analysis revealed that the LULC of the study area were changed dramatically over the years, and considering the LULC dynamics, the result showed that the LULC changes were related particularly to the pattern of the physical attributes; soil, slope and elevation. The relation between LULC change and physical properties of the environment, and the trajectories of the LULC depicted that the changes that took place during the study periods were mainly human induced, which might be the cause of soil and environmental degradation in the area. Thus more attention must be paid in the area to protect environmental degradation, particularly for eco-environmental sustainability. Keywords: Landuse/landcover change, Remote Sensing, Geographical Information System, environment, environmental degradation, environmental sustainability.

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB67] Removal of Heavy Metal (Pb and Cr) from Synthetic Solution by Spirogyra sp. Nidhi Rawat and J.P.N. Rai Ecotechnology laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,Pantnagar, India ABSTRACT The quality of life on Earth is linked inextricably to the overall quality of the environment. Land and water are precious natural resources on which rely the sustainability of agriculture and the civilization of mankind. Water is one of the most important constituents of the human environment. The preservation of fresh water resources has become one of the top environmental priorities in the world. The increase in industrial activity during recent years is greatly contributing to the increase of heavy metals in the environment, mainly in the aquatic systems. Water pollution due to heavy metals is an issue of great environmental concern. Among the inorganic contaminants of the river water, heavy metals are getting importance for their non-degradable nature and often accumulate through trophic level causing a deleterious biological effect. Phytoremediation uses plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Phytoremediation is emerging as a novel strategy to remove, degrade and contain pollutants from water, air and soil using plants and their processes, thus prevent toxic impacts in environment. Spirogyra is a algae. Algae comprises of most diverse plant groups. Algae are one of the earth's most important natural resources. Although little research has been conducted in the area, some algal species may be able to serve as phytoremediators. Due to their close evolutionary relationship with plants, it is reasonable to hypothesize that algae may use many of the same mechanisms of metal hyperaccumulation. The experimental result showed that the removal capacity was increased with decrease in heavy metal (Pb and Cr) concentration. The studies revealed that, higher Pb removal than Cr at lower metal concentration by Spirogyra sp. Metal removal was higher at lower pH for Pb and Cr, and increased pH decreased the percentage of metal removal. It is concluded that phytoremediation by Spirogyra sp. can be employed for the abatement of pollution of Pb and Cr from industrial polluted water. [AB68] Serotyping of E. coli from different sources of water supply in Srinagar, Kashmir Tanveer Ahmad Rather*, Syed Akram Hussain and Shakoor Ahmad Bhat Division of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology, Kashmir. Email: bhatshakoor@gmail.com ABSTRACT Bacteriological examination of hundred water samples twenty five each from streams, Dal lake, tube wells and community supply water (CSW) in Srinagar was conducted during year 2009. The positivity percentage of samples obtained from streams, Dal lake, tube wells and CWS for coliforms was 100, 100, 92 and 56 respectively. The 60 isolates of E. coli were serotyped at NSECRI, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. The results indicated that 56 (93.33%) of the isolates were grouped into 22 different (O)-groups and other four strains were rough type. The most predominant serogroups were O152, O84, O86, O2, O78, O157, O141, O59, O63, O109, O09, O13, O91, O164, O45, O120, O88, O25, O3, O24 and O56. A considerable variation in the occurrence of different serogroups in different sources was observed. Serogroups O152, O84 and O86 were recovered from all the sources under study. One strain of O157 which causes hemolytic uremic syndrome was recovered from samples from stream water, while two other strains were recovered from Dal Lake. None of the samples from tube wells or/and supply water showed the presence of O157. The recovery of different pathogenic strains of E. coli from water sources presents a great threat to human health as these causes a number of diseases ranging from diarrhea to extra-intestinal infection such as septicemia and urinary tract infection. Keywords: coliforms, E. coli, serotype.

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB69] Assessment of microbiological quality of Dal Lake and Streams/canals in Srinagar, Kashmir Tanveer Ahmad Rather*, Syed Akram Hussain and Shakoor Ahmad Bhat Division of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology-Kashmir bhatshakoor@gmail.com ABSTRACT A total of 50 random samples, 25 each from Dal Lake and streams/canals were collected following the standard procedure .The samples were processed for estimation of most probable number of index bacteria and SPC. The positive percentage of samples obtained from Dal lake for Coliform, faecal Streptococcus, Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Klebseilla, Proteus and Pseudomonas spp. were 25, 11, 14, 12, 7, 6, 7 and 6, respectively. While as for different streams/canals it was found to be 64% for Coliforms, 12% for faecal Streptococci, 12% for Clostridium perfringens, 14% for Enterobacter, 4% for Salmonella, 11% for Klebseilla, 10% for Proteus and 4% for Pseudomonas spp.. The Standard Plate Count/100ml for Dal Lake was 4.90×1041.14×106, while as for streams it was 1.66×104 -3.58×105. As judged by the WHO, BIS and/or ICMR standards for coliform count, 100% samples from both streams and Dal lake were unsatisfactory for drinking. Keywords: MPN, SPC, Index bacteria. [AB70] Antibiotic sensitivity of E. coli and Salmonella isolated from different water sources Tanveer Ahmad Rather*, Syed Akram Hussain and Shakoor Ahmad Bhat Division of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology-Kashmir Email: bhatshakoor@gmail.com ABSTRACT The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 60 isolates of E. coli and 12 isolates of Salmonella from different water sources were examined by disc diffusion method. The isolates of E. coli were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, cephotaxim, amikacin, lavofloxacin, gentamicin and resistant to erythromycin, nalidixic acid and cefixime. However, the Salmonella isolates recovered were sensitive to gentamicin, cefixime, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, lavofloxacin, cephotaxime, amoxycillin/Clavulanic acid, amikacin and resistant to erythromycin, nalidixic acid and rifampicin. The high incidence of multi-drug-resistant strains (MDR) of E. coli and Salmonella is due to injudicious use of antibiotics and exchange of antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations. The release of these E. coli in faeces eventually leads to build up of MDR strains in environment, thus posing a serious threat to human health. Keywords: Antibiotic sensitivity, E. coli, Salmonella, MDR.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB71] Some blue butterfly diversity rich spots in the Himalaya Charn Kumar Department of Zoology, A.S. College, Khanna - 141 402, Punjab Email: charnkumar@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Under an ICAR, New Delhi sponsored research project, in order to examine maximum diversity of ‘blue butterflies’ belonging to family Lycaenidae, a series of intensive and extensive survey cum collection tours (1995-2000) were planned and successfully undertaken in various localities, falling between an altitude range of 180 m ASL to 4551 m ASL in different subdivisions viz., East or Assam Himalaya, West or Kumaon-Garhwal Himalaya and North-West or Punjab-Kashmir Himalaya, of the Himalaya in India. All sorts of varied habitats such as grasslands, cultivated fields, thick forests, barren lands with scanty vegetation, environs of rivers and lakes etc. were exlpored to document the dominant blue butterflies in the Himalaya. As many as, one hundred and eighty five collection sites including some remote localities such as Kibber (4551 m ASL), Kunzam La (4500 m ASL), Sangla Valley (2680 m ASL), Pin Valley (3500 m ASL) and Kaza (3600 m ASL) in Himachal Pradesh; Dhakuri (2680 m ASL), Gopeshwar (1214 m ASL) and Purola (1524 m ASL) in Uttar Pradesh; Mangan (1200 m ASL) in Sikkim ; Bomdila (2700 m ASL) and Ziro Valley (1572 m ASL) in Arunachal Pradesh were visited for random sampling of various Lycaenid taxa. On basis of these survey cum sampling tours butterfly habitats at Bashistha (Assam), Sivoke (West Bengal), Rangpo (Sikkim) and Mussoorie (Uttarakhand) have been observed to be rich in Lycaenid butterfly diversity. As such, the documented sample from these localities has been found to include the representatives of 65 species referable to the subfamilies Riodininae Grote (four species), Miletinae Corbet (one species), Curetinae Distant (two species), Theclinae Swainson (twenty three species), Lycaenine Leach (six species) and Polyommatinae Swainson (twenty nine species). This includes 28 species referable to 21 genera from Bashistha, 18 species referable to 18 genera from Rangpo, 24 species referable to 18 genera from Sivoke and 31 species referable to 21 genera from Mussoorie. The presentation will highlight the Lycaenid diversity of from these habitats in the Himalaya. Keywords: Himalaya, Lycaenidae, Diversity, Species, Survey, Habitat

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB72] Excessive Use of Agro-chemicals & its correlation with Increasing health problems in Bathinda District of Punjab Upma Vaid and Nandini Gautam Centre for Environmental Science & Technology, School of Environment & Earth Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda-151001 ABSTRACT Bathinda district is well known for production of cash crops like cotton, rice and wheat etc. The region is one of the largest producers of cotton and is known as “cotton belt” of Punjab. The two main crops of Bathinda i.e. cotton and rice is known for intensive irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide requirement. Excessive use of these agro-chemicals over the years is now showing their effects which are indeed gruesome. The ground water resources of this region are now highly contaminated and unfit for drinking. Major pollutants present in high concentration due to excessive use of agrochemicals are nitrates, fluoride, heavy metals and pesticides. The continuous exposure to these chemicals through food and drinking of contaminated water is leading to several health problems like high incidence of fluorosis, abnormally high cases of kidney failure, premature greying and ageing, adverse reproductive and child health outcomes and cancer. Due to increasing cases of cancer in this region, it has turned to “cancer belt” of the state. The present study is the review of various studies carried out on excessive use of agro-chemicals in Bathinda district and its impact on groundwater quality and human health. Keywords: Agro-chemicals, Ground water, Cancer, Bathinda, Fluoride, Nitrate [AB73] Biodiversity richness in Visakhapatnam Urban agglomeration and human support in different ways for its conservation G. Ramalingam and S.R. Sumant Indira Gandhi Zoological Park, Visakhapatnam A.P Email: igzpvizag@gmail.com and srsumanth009@gmail.com ABSTRACT Visakhapatnam is one of the major cities of Andhra Pradesh, it falls under Eastern Ghats. It is situated exactly at the centre of Chennai – Kolkata National Highway No. 5 (850 kms North and 850 kms South to Kolkata and Chennai respectively). It is famous for its beautiful ambience, hills and beach resorts on the coast of Bay of Bengal. It is one of the major tourist destinations comprising of Kailash giri, Simhachalam, Thotlakonda, Bavikonda, Rushikonda etc. All these harbour several birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians etc which make them rich in biodiversity. Kambalakonda Ecotourism Park and Indira Gandhi Zoological Park are very rich in biodiversity. Kambalakonda has a lake which serves as a wetland inhabiting several resident and migratory birds. Indira Sarovar inside the Zoological Park inhabits the wetland birds. It is like a heaven for bird watchers. Visakhapatnam is a vast city with major industries and the population is more than 2 millions. Despite that there are several species of birds and animals living freely. The city is surrounded by hillocks and sea, which maintains lot of greenery consisting several species of plants. Native people are very much concerned about the conservation of wildlife. There are many cases of entry of panther in to the human habitations of the city as no locality is distant from hill. People without harming the animal take the help of rescue team from Zoo in rescuing it. This paper discusses the biodiversity abundance, human support, role of Zoo in promoting the awareness; probable future problems may be faced along with the most possible solutions to overcome the problem before their onset. Keywords: Biodiversity, Human support, Role of Zoo, Animal rescue, Bird Watch

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB74] The effects of protection in Food-chain system in nature A. Priyadarshi, S. Gakkhar and Sandip Banerjee Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, India Email: anupam240@gmail.com, sandofma@iitr.ernet.in ABSTRACT Natural or man-made hazards caused the extinction of biological species. The survival of species in the nature depends on many factors such as availability of food and shelter, competitive strength and adaptability. Generally, species protect themselves by using their inherited traits to take refuge from predation. Recent human activities such as deforestation, harvesting and industrialization have adversely affected the ecological balance in nature. Implicitly, they help to increase the risk of extinction of many biological species. To prevent the extinction, protection should be provided to some of the species. Several attempts are being made to counter the possibilities of extinction such as creating natural resources, imposing restriction on species harvesting, establishing protected areas, stocking etc. In this paper, two different types of protections have been provided to prey in a tri-trophic food chain model. The effects of protection on the dynamics of the model have been investigated in each case. The results are compared and some conclusion has been drawn. The extinction criteria, lower predation risk, coexistence in form of stability are some of the basis for the comparison of two results. It has been observed that protection can be used for controlling chaos and for preventing the extinction in tri-trophic food chain model. Moreover, it has been concluded that providing protection needs some care to prevent extinction of species in the nature. Keywords: Protection, Reserved Area, Stability, Chaos control. [AB75] Effect of domestication for the conservation of Artemisia myriantha var. pleiocephala, a rare temperate plant, at sub-tropical conditions. Priyanka Mishra, N. Manika, Flora Haider and G. D. Bagchi Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P.O. CIMAP, Lucknow–226015, India Email: priyankamishra62@gmail.com ABSTRACT Artemisia myriantha var. pleiocephala is a rare aromatic and medicinal plant. In India, it was reported from Western Himalaya between 1500-2000 m and Deccan peninsula. This plant is reported to possess anthelmintic, expectorant, antiseptic and insect repellent properties. Since, this is a rare plant, an attempt has been made to conserve, acclimatize, domesticate and evaluate the plant at the subtropical conditions of North India for future utilization. The plant exhibited enormous rapid growth and change in flowering period at sub-tropical conditions as compared to the natural temperate plants. At this condition, the plant also exhibited perennial and shrubby habit while the natural temperate plants were annual herbs. Essential oils of both natural and domesticated sub-tropical plants were analyzed and studied for the first time. Considerable changes were observed in the oil constituents after domestication. Oil of plants, found in natural habitat mainly contained chrysanthenone (7.3%) followed by δ-cadinene (5.7%) and 1, 8, cineole

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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(5.3%) during flowering. After domestication at sub-tropical conditions, although the major oil constituent remained chrysanthenone but its quantity increased considerably during flowering (1529%) along with an important constituent limonene (6-15%). However, during vegetative stage, commercially important camphor (74.9%) was its major constituent. Keywords: Artemisia myriantha var. pleiocephala, Domestication, Sub-tropical, Acclimatization, Conservation, Chrysanthenone. [AB76] Human exposure to particulate matter in different size fraction and associated metals over Delhi, India Rajesh Kumar Kushwaha and Arun Srivastava School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India Email: rajeshalldjnu@gmail.com ABSTRACT Human exposure to particulate matter was access in Urban Environment of Delhi. Who were monitored for 8 hours integrated exposure in Delhi, India. Aerosol exposures were collected using 8 stages impactor (Marple Cascade Impactor) at five sites in winter 2011. The impactor segregated the RPM in to nine different size ranges (viz. 20.3-14.8, 14.8-9.8, 9.8-6.0, 6.0-3.5, 3.5-1.55, 1.550.98, 0.98-0.52, 0.52-0.25, <0.25µm). Ten samples were collected from five different sites, every 8 hours; samples were analyzed in nine size ranges gravimetrically and chemically for metals. Maximum exposure to PM was 985.15µg/m3 okhala phase-I (N=9 Std. div=53.27) and minimum PM 404.39µg/m3 in JNU (N=8 std. Devi=28.53). The human exposure of metals viz. Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Cr, Ni) at five location, Okhal Phase-I, JNU, Dhaula Kaun, Hauz Khas and Kausambi in Delhi. The human exposure was mostly dominated by Zn and Fe and least dominated by Cd and Cr. Among the metals analysis, Okhala Phase-I a industrial area is founded to be the most polluted area, and JNU (forest area, out of industrial and commercial)the least, aerosol of Okhala Phase-I is rich in Fe, Ni, Cu and Cr, Kausambi is fully residential area near dumping site and national highway is rich Zn, Fe . Pb and Nickle concentration is fund to be alarming high in the all sites except JNU in Delhi, when compare (EU), Zn, Pb, Ni and Fe having a significance correlation with PM 10, indicate the source contribution is same and their metals RPM, the present study has focused on the estimation of aerosol exposure and their different metals which is extremely harmful due to their toxic and carcinogenic nature. Keywords: Delhi City, PM2.5, PM10, PM21.3, personal exposure.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB78] Determination of methods of sustainable harvesting for Terminalia arjuna N. Manika, Priyanka Mishra, R. K. Verma, G. D. Bagchi Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P.O. CIMAP, Lucknow–226015, India Email: 2nmanika@gmail.com ABSTRACT The natural population of several of our important medicinal tree species are depleting due to destructive collection of their drug parts like bark, root and wood. In constructing the sustainable world that we want in future, the intelligent use of biological diversity is of central importance. Therefore, these tree species require special attention for their conservation, and development of some sustainable harvesting methods to meet their ever increasing demand in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries. Terminalia arjuna is one of such tree species which is commonly used as cardio-tonic and hyperlipidemia. The bark of the tree is destructively harvested to meet the demand of the industry, causing depletion in their natural population. In the present study method for sustainable harvesting for the same has been developed. Chemical and pharmacological evaluation of different plant parts has been undertaken to identify an alternative, for similar activities. The study shows that other parts in higher doses can also be used in place of bark for similar effects. This pioneer study successfully opened a new way for sustainable use and harvest of this species. Keywords: Bark, Sustainable harvesting, biological diversity, Medicinal trees, Terminalia arjuna, evaluation. [AB79] Biotechnological potential of microorganisms isolated from North-East regions of India. B.M. Nabar Post graduate Department of Microbiology, Smt. C.H.M. College, Thane ABSTRACT Extremophiles could serve as potential biotechnological resource for bioactive molecules, biopharmaceuticals, and extremozymes.Soil and water are rich source of microorganisms. Soil samples from regions of Sikkim & Arunachal Pradesh in the Eastern Himalaya is among the 200 globally important ecoregions & considered as hotspots of Biodiversity were tapped for its microorganisms with biotechnological potential .The culture dependant approach used in the present study contributes to our understanding of a wealth of diverse group of microorganisms with useful commercial properties and provides information on many fascinating cultures in this diverse environment. The present study deals with study of diverse group of microorganisms and isolation of potential microorganisms from soil samples for its wide applications. 450 samples were collected from all the 4 districts Sikkim and 360 samples were collected from regions of Arunachal Pradesh & its point source was documented by global positioning system. Different types of microorganisms like psychrophiles, thermophiles, mesophiles, sulfate reducers, γ irradiation tolerant microorganisms, and variety of aerobic and anaerobic types of bacteria were isolated from soil samples. Isolated microorganisms were identified by using Biochemical methods as well as 16S rRNA methods. After

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isolation and identification, microorganisms were checked for production of biopesticide, biopolymer such as PHB, and production of nanoparticles. Various groups of microorganisms like Thermophiles, Psychrotolerent, Radiotolerent, Mesophilic crystal forming organisms, Anaerobic Sulfate reducers were obtained. These organisms were further identified by the standard methods. Bacillus showing mosquito-larvicidal activity was characterized up to the molecular level. Thermophiles, Psychrotolerent organisms and radiotolerent organisms were isolated and screened for production of biopolymers. Thus several organisms with biotechnological potential were obtained.

[AB80] Sikkim soils are a rich source of potential microorganisms with mosquito-larvicidal activity H. M. Lele and B.M. Nabar Post graduate Department of Microbiology, Smt. C.H.M.College, Thane ABSTRACT The microbial world is the largest unexplored reservoir of biodiversity on the Earth; Soil is rich source of microorganisms, only one third of soil flora is tapped for its potential microorganisms; while many species of bacteria are yet to be discovered from hot spot of biodiversity from regions such as Sikkim. Sikkim is small mountainous state in the eastern Himalayas it has tropical, temperate and alpine regions. The heavy rainfall, hot sulfur springs and variety of forests like Sal, oak, mixed forests and rhododendron forests makes it a hot spot of biodiversity. The present study involves soil sample collection from different districts of Sikkim and screening the presence of B. thuringiensis which serves as an important reservoir of Cry toxins and cry genes for production of biological insecticides and insect-resistant genetically modified crops. Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biopesticide.It forms crystals of proteinaceous insecticidal δ-endotoxins (Cry toxins) which are encoded by cry genes. B. thuringiensis Cry toxins have specific activities against species of the orders Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), Diptera (flies and mosquitoes), Coleoptera (beetles), Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants and sawflies) and Nematodes. Eighty two temperature resistant spore forming Bacilli were obtained after initial enrichment. Organisms were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis by biochemical reactions and staining. Isolated DNA samples of Bacillus thuringiensis were amplified by PCR and its cry profile using specific primers was carried out. Cry genes selected showed specific Dipteran cidal activity. The crystal protein was isolated and studied for its activity against mosquito larvae of Culex spp. The isolates showed high yield of activity in control of mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB81] Prevalence of fluoride in drinking water and associated health problems in context of Northern India Nandini Gautam and Upma Vaid Centre for Environmental Science & Technology, School of Environment & Earth Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda -151001. ABSTRACT Millions of people are exposed to excessive amounts of fluoride through drinking contaminated water due to geological or anthropogenic sources. Fluoride is found in all natural waters at some concentration. Low concentrations are good for teeth, but excessive concentrations can lead to debilitating disease, such as skeletal fluorosis, which has devastated some communities. According to latest estimates around 200 million people, from 25 nations of the world are suffering from fluorosis. In India alone, more than 66 million people including 6 million children below 14 years from 19 states are estimated to suffer from fluorosis which. These states having fluoride in ground water beyond the permissible limit of 1mg/l are Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chattisgarh, Haryana, Orissa, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh West Bengal, Bihar, Delhi, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Assam. Exposure to higher concentrations of fluoride is also resulting in osteosclerosis, ligamentous and tendinous calcification and extreme skeletal deformity. Present paper is the review of various studies related to the rising levels of fluoride due to various factors and the associated health problem prevalent in Northren India. Keywords: Fluoride, Dental Fluorosis, Skeletal fluorosis, Cancer, Osteosclerosis, Genotoxicity

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB82] Genetic Pollution: A threat to biodiversity Rangoli Aeran and Shreyansh Tatiya Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Sector-125, Noida, U.P Email: r_aeran@hotmail.com, shreyansh007@gmail.com ABSTRACT Genetic Pollution, one of the predominant topic of concern now-a-days, is the undesirable flow of genes from a genetically engineered (GE) organism to a non- GE organism. Though genetic manipulation is an important research tool to develop a better future for mankind, it has led to a disruption in the existing biodiversity. The negative consequences involve edging out of local species, species extinction, formation of superweeds and superviruses. Monsanto’s RoundUp Ready soybeans have been made resistant to herbicide and thus resulted in reduction of costs and labour. The negative consequence leads to weed adaptation swiftly, which ultimately resulted in the growth of various diverse species of weeds resistant to herbicide. The same scenario has been marked in case of GE maize, cotton wheat and Bt brinjal. Furthermore, the use of antibiotic marker genes (kanamycin, ampicillin, streptomycin) has been demonstrated to weaken or nullify the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. Streptomycin is an important drug in the control of TB in India and thus a cause of great concern. Highlighting the drawbacks and environmental concerns, it is important that the interests of the biotechnology and agrochemical corporations be kept on the back burner and necessary precautions be taken before introduction of genetically engineered organism into environment, as once released into the global ecosystem, this pollution cannot be cleaned up like an oil spill. Keywords: Genetic Pollution, biodiversity, genetically engineered, Roundup Ready, consequences, ecosystem, manipulation

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB83] Bt cotton - conflict between the Wild vs Transgenic. Shilpa Nag, Gurpreet Kaur and Anamika Das School of Environment and Earth Sciences, Centre for Environmental Sciences and Technology. Central University of Punjab, Bathinda - 151001, Punjab ABSTRACT Cotton the king of fibre is one of the major cash crops of India. Cotton cultivation can be traced back in Mohanjodaro in the Indus valley. In 1904-05 American cotton G.hirsutum was introduced, it proved very promising under irrigated conditions. With the onset of seventies cotton hybrids were developed and released.Thus India emerged as the only country in the world which grows all the four species of cultivated cotton i.e. Gossypium arboretum and G.herbaceum (Asiatic cotton) which are A-genome diploid species , G. barbadense (Egyptian cotton) and G. hirsutum (American upland cotton) are allotetraploid AD-genome species.In 2000 Out of the total area under cotton Gossypium hirsutum represented -69% , G.arboreum -17%, G.herbaceum -11% and G.barbadence -3%. In Punjab, about 80 to 85% of the area was under American cotton (hirsutum) and the remaining area was under Bengal Deshi (arboreum). But the scenario changed after the commercial release of Bt cotton in 2002 in India and 2005 in Punjab. In 2007-08 more than 86% of the area was under Bt cotton washing away the desi cotton completely. Initially the productivity of cotton was quite low Upto 2006-07 China and USA were securing the top 2 positions in the list by producing 20% and 21.76% of world cotton production, while India occupied the third place (13%) as per DES estimates. But according to recent estimates of CAB India has attained second largest position as Cotton producer in 2007-08 after competing USA. It has also emerged as the largest exporter in recent years. Transgenic crops no doubt are providing good yields and in the country like India Cotton covers about 7% of the total Kharif Crop and is second to rice in India. Cotton textile is one of the largest industries in India, and it provides employment to nearly 15 million people who are mostly poor and illiterate people. But it is also true that the Bt cotton has wiped away the other varieties of cotton many with wild genes thus the biodiversity has been lost with introduction of transgenic crops. Keywords: Cotton, Btcotton, Transgenic crops, productivity, Biodiversity,Varieties.

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB84] Searching for truce between wildlife plight and human greed Shalki Tiwari and Sharad Mishra Hidayatullah National Law University, Uparwara Raipur, Chhattisgarh Email: shalkitiwari.hnlu@gmail.com ABSTRACT Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is an increasing problem for conservation as areas of true wilderness decline and the interface between wildlife areas and human modified habitats increases. Outcome of the enhanced competition between man and the animal species, for diminishing resource pool, wildlife is being robbed of its habitat by the greed of consumerism and commercialization of forest products, resulting in numerous incidents of HWC causing loss of Human life and Property. Thus, HWC is now seen as a major challenge for wildlife conservation as it reduces local support for conservation and engenders resentment and opposition to it. In India, spirit of the Constitution deriving from Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles of State Policy, of conserving the rich wildlife and the forests of our country has been solely replicated in the Wildlife Act, 1972 and also in the recent, Scheduled Tribe and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Reorganization of Forest Rights) Act, 2006. These acts are step towards mitigating the HWC by encouraging co-existence between wildlife and human living and partnering the cause of wildlife conservation and sustainability of the forest ecosystems as a whole. This paper analyses how HWCs are impeding the efforts in the conservation of the endangering species in spite of the various schemes and initiatives by the government to safeguard them. Another dimension will relate the subject with prevailing laws and how does it upshot the problem. The paper will further discuss some case studies dealing with the subject and suggest measures for management of these conflicts, finding new ways of coping with and reducing the impact of HWC. Wild animals which intrude into domesticated spaces become subjects ‘out of space’ and challenge the total control of humans over natural elements in these spaces. Greater in depth analysis of the conflict is needed in order to avoid overlooking the problem and undermining the conservation of threatened and potentially endangered species. Keywords: Conservation, Wilderness Decline, Intrusion, Consumerism Sustainability, HWC. [AB85] The ant fauna of Sasihitlu spit, Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka- A Preliminary Report Pradeep D’Cunha and Vijay Mala Nair Department of Applied Zoology, Mangalore University, Mangalore. Email: pradeep.cunha@gmail.com, vijaymalanair@yahoo.com ABSTRACT The Ants (Order: Hymenoptera, Family: Formicidae) are considered as the ecological engineers and indicators because of its diverse distribution and can be used as the priority group for the assessment of coastal health. The present study is an attempt to record the ant faunal diversity in the Sasihitlu spit area of Dakshina Kannada district, along the west coast of Karnataka. The Sasihitlu spit, lies between 13o 03’57” to 13o 04’44” North and 74o 46’35” to 74o 46’ 42” East. The spit area consisting of different habitats like 1) Sand bar area, 2) Coastal sand dune area, 3) area with predominant Casuarina equisitifolia plants and 4) with Mangrove vegetation The ant samples were collected using pitfall trap, all search out and bait methods within 10x10m transacts laid down randomly in each habitat. It provides a baseline data indicating the presence of a rich and diverse ant fauna in Sasihitlu spit. The data is also analyzed using biodiversity indices. Keywords: Ant fauna, Sasihitlu spit, Dakshina Kannada

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB86] Diversity and community structure of tropical forests along with a disturbance gradient in Barak Valley of Assam, India

1

Nepolion Borah1, A. Florida Devi1 and S.C. Garkoti2 Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University Silchar-788011 2 School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University-110067 ABSTRACT

One of the major causes of global biodiversity loss is the degradation and destruction of tropical forests due to anthropogenic activities. It is important to know how natural forest communities are changing due to anthropogenic disturbances. Present study focused on the effect of disturbances on tree diversity and community attributes in the tropical forests of Barak valley of Assam, India. Four forests were selected based on disturbance index: (i) undisturbed forest (0% disturbance index), (ii) mildly disturbed forest (0-10% disturbance index), (iii) moderately disturbed forest (2040% disturbance index) and (iv) highly disturb forest (above 40% disturbance index). A total of 140 species from 115 genera and 64 families were recorded across the sites. Highest species recorded in mildly disturbed forest (101 species) while lowest number of species were recorded in highly disturbed forest. In undisturbed forest, tree density (1110 tree ha-1) and basal area (42.12 m2ha-1) were recorded highest. The Shannon diversity index in the present study ranged from 1.18 to 1.83. The highest diversity was recorded in mildly disturbed forest. Simpson index of concentration of dominance ranged from 0.019 to 0.084. All the forest sites showed contagious distribution of species which is a natural characteristic of a forest. The population structure of tree species showed pyramidal shaped in all sites. Dominance-distribution curve showed that highly disturbed and moderately disturbed forests were relatively less stable than that of undisturbed forests. The diversity and density of tree species were affected by anthropogenic disturbances which affect the stability of the forest communities. These forests need proper conservation measure and management strategies. Keywords: tropical forest, diversity, density, basal area, disturbance index, population structure

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB87] Impending threat of climate change and the potential role of rural communities in environment and biodiversity conservation Kirtika Rana The Institute of Rural Management, Anand Email: kirtika279.rana@gmail.com ABSTRACT According to the National Academy of Science, “Climate change is occurring and is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for—and in many cases is already affecting—a broad range of human and natural systems.” Its adverse impact on the biodiversity, though not extensively probed in India, is evident enough from the melting glaciers in the north, loss of mangroves in the east and, degrading coral reefs in the south, and calls for immediate attention. A good starting point can be the local rural communities which have had a long standing relationship with their immediate environment. While they are the repository of traditional knowledge of their micro-environment they are often ignored or, are not given their due space in assessing the vulnerability of local environment, biodiversity conservation and, formulating area specific adaptation and mitigation strategies. Thus, there is a need to integrate local knowledge in designing strategies for conservation of environment and biodiversity in the wake of climate change. The present paper suggests that though mainstreaming the communities may be an arduous task, but if successful, it will lead to formulation of efficient, cost-effective adaptation strategies which will be in line with the local conditions. The paper concludes that such adopting a bottom-up approach and strategies that combine the best of scientific and traditional world can be the road map to sustainable development. Keywords: traditional knowledge, micro-environment, local knowledge, area specific adaptation strategies, bottom-up approach.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB88] Symbiotic effectiveness of Tn5- generated Auxotrophic mutants of Mesorhizobium ciceri Anupama Priyadarshini, Tripti Dogra, Kanika and N.K. Singh NRC on Plant Biotechnology, New Delhi ABSTRACT Nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are of great agronomic benefit, allowing many leguminous crops to be grown without nitrogen fertilizer by forming endosymbiotic relationships with the plant. A chickpea (Cicer arietinum) rhizobium, Mesorhizobium ciceri Ca181 is one such diazotroph which forms symbiotic nodules on the roots and constitutes an important component of crop system as it is supplying between 80 and 120 N2/ha to the soil. M. ciceri Ca181 genome is being sequenced and functional characterization of its gene is in progress. One of the most utilized genetic approach to reveal gene function is the disruption of particular gene and subsequent phenotypic characterization of the mutants. To investigate the possible paths of N2 flow and to understand the establishment of an effective symbiosis, we generated mutant library of M. ciceri Ca181 by transposon Tn5 insertion mutagenesis and nine auxotrophic mutants were screened out. The special interest in this category of mutants is due to the fact that there is a correlation between the metabolic defects and the ineffectiveness (Nod- and/or Fix-) of the rhizobial strains. The auxotrophs were checked for nodulation efficiency and N2-fixation activity on Cicer arietinum. M. ciceri Ca181(Wild Type) and all the mutants formed nodules, however few mutants were less efficient N2-fixer as compared to Wild Type. The insertion-site flanking sequences of disrupted genes are being amplified by inverse PCR. The present study can enable us to dissect N2-fixation process at the molecular level and discovery of essential genes so as to manipulate genes involved for increasing crop productivity and to enhance effectiveness of N2-fixation of indigenous rhizobial strain.

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Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB89] Genetic and molecular characterization of gene(s) associated with salt tolerance in Mesorhizobium ciceri Tripti Dogra1,2, Anupama1, Kanika1, Ashok Kumar2and N.K. Singh1 1 NRC on Plant Biotechnology, New Delhi 2 School of Biotechnology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi ABSTRACT Mesorhizobium ciceri is an alphaproteobacteria that establishes a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Cicer arietinum. However, many environmental factors including high osmotic stress often limit the potential of this symbiotic system which can have a negative effect on both growth and nitrogen fixation. Soil salinity adversely affects the nodulation and nitrogen fixation capacities of rhizobia, resulting in lower productivity of legumes. Moreover, salinity of soil in cultivated area is expected to rise as a result of local salt accumulation by irrigations and applications of chemical fertilizers. Our aim was to identify the mechanism (s) of adaptation of Mesorhizobium ciceri to salinity and to study their possible impact on the establishment of effective symbiosis. Disruption of gene and phenotypic characterization of the mutant are one of the most utilized genetic approaches for identifying a gene function. To isolate salt-sensitive mutants of this bacterium, random Tn5 insertional mutagenesis was used and fourteen mutants were isolated and characterized. We identified four different gene loci involved in tolerance of M. ciceri Ca181 to NaCl stress. More interestingly, all the genes appeared to be very important for the establishment of efficient symbiosis with a legume host and nitrogen fixation. Findings of this study suggest that the molecular mechanisms of osmoadaptation of rhizobia would help to rationally design and engineer better strains for field application.

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB90] Protection of environment & conservation of biodiversity: The practical legal approach in India. Biswajit Roy1 and Sanjeev Kumar Tiwari2 Kolkata Advocacy Center for Health, Ideal Environment, Education, Research & Social Justice, Hooghly - 712105, West Bengal 2 Department of Law, University of Burdwan, West Bengal

1

ABSTRACT Environmental Law and Policy bears integral relationship with developmental studies. The significance of environment protection in general and the conservation of biodiversity in particular needs no over emphasis as it is well perceived now that ‘Biodiversity is Life, Biodiversity is Our Life’. This paper tries to reflect the practical legal approach of various concepts, viz., Environmental Protection, Conservation, Biodiversity, Sustainable Development etc., their jurisprudential significance in respect of Indian legal system and its implementation. Deeper insights of some intricate issues like socio-economic and ecological dimensions of legal developments in India is also considered. In India there are wide gap between the policy statements and the legislative framework which still suffers from lack of clear vision and perspective, excessive governmental control and absence of strong enforcement mechanism. Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) movement and judicial activism have received special and incisive treatment. Movements sponsored by NGOs have helped in generating public awareness and restricting actions that could have led to undesirable results. ‘Environment Protection’ and ‘Biodiversity Conservation’ have been dealt with as symbolic manifestations of people’s empowerment. Thus, the growth of Public Interest Litigation (PIL), Right To Information (RTI) Legislation and Institutional Control have been analyzed as liberal and expanding tools to environmental jurisprudence. The jurisprudential dimensions and principles have undergone significant changes following PIL which have contributed substantially to environmental protection measures. Keywords: Environmental Law, Legal Approach, NGO Movement, Biodiversity Conservation, Public Interest Litigation, Environmental Jurisprudence.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB91] Indian Biodiversity and Climate Change G.L. Shendge and V.G. Shendge SPH College, Malegaon Camp, Dst. Nashik (M.S.) Email: gl_shendge@rediffmail.com, gl_shendge@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT A climatic change has serious implications for agriculture, but the resulting problems can be solved much easier than can serious problems with biodiversity. Biodiversity is depending on an intricate web of factors that can be upset by rapid climatic change. Climatic change is in fact, nothing new in the history of life on Earth. Indians should be concerned about climate change since this phenomenon might have substantial adverse impacts on them. Not all possible consequences of climate change are yet fully understood, but the three main ‘categories’ of impacts are those on agriculture, sea level rise leading to submergence of coastal areas, as well as increased frequency of extreme events. Each of these pose serious threats to India. Today, however, most biodiversity, or at least an increasing proportion of it, is locked up in isolated patches. In the face of climatic change, even natural climatic change, human activity has created an obstacle course for the dispersal of biodiversity. This could establish one of the greatest biotic crises of all time. The present paper focus on situation and various aspects of climate change. This paper is purely based on secondary data. Data collected from referred journal, Govt. of India’s Report of Climate change, related websites. Keywords: Climate Change, Biodiversity, Agriculture, Food security. [AB92] Studies on the impact of Abacavir on viral load of HIV patient through real time PCR techniques Vaibhav K. Pancholi Dept. of Biotechnology, Kadi Sarva Vishwavidyalaya, Gandhinagar. ABSTRACT HIV type-1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity poses a challenge for the development of diagnostic test based on nucleic acid amplification, which can be overcome, at least in part, by targeting multiple genomic regions. The new Roche Diagnostics COBAS TaqMan (CTM) HIV-1 v2.0 assay uses multiplex real-time PCR detection of sequences in the long terminal repeat and gag regions within the HIV-1 genome. We therefore determined HIV-1 RNA levels with the novel COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 v2.0 realtime PCR assay, based on the multiplex amplification and detection of fragments in the long terminal repeat and gag regions. Proper utilization of antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires ongoing patient monitoring to assess therapeutic response and to identify adverse events related to chronic administration of potentially toxic medication and requires laboratory monitoring in the HIVinfected patient during ART. Keywords: COBAS, TaqMan, HIV-1, v2.0 real-time, PCR assay.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB93] Eco-fragile Hilly region: Context for sustainable development Meenakshi Dept of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar Email: meenakshi_gndu@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Hills and mountains constitute a significant proportion of the global landscape. Mountains form unique ecosystems rich in biodiversity and visual resources. These have large natural endowments such as water, minerals, forest produce and agricultural products along with high economic potential. The natural biosphere reserves are also the treasure houses of cultural diversities and a home to many of our planet's ethnic minorities. The hills to a large extent, determine climate, physiography and development in the plains. However the rich environmental heritage is threatened because of natural perturbations and anthropogenic pressures that result in the depletion of natural resources, increase the recurrence of natural hazards and adversely affect the livelihoods of the local people with far reaching implications at local, regional and global level. Of late, the increasing population growth, tourism and economic development, and the consequent indiscriminate building and construction activities have led to excessive exploitation of natural resources. The impact of these pressures is illustrated by declining forest, the loss of wildlife habitat and the loss of life and property caused due to natural disasters. This is against the spirit of sustainable development that advocates a sensitive and scientific approach towards environment to avoid its negative implications over space and time. The paper, in this context, attempts to sensitize, bring forth the issues and recommend strategies for development of these eco-fragile bioregions in a sustainable perspective. An analysis of the prevalent development patterns & construction practices, relevant government policies and legislative initiatives is being made; the potential of remote sensing along with GIS is being explored and need for interdisciplinary approach is being stressed for bringing about development in these ecologically rich but economically underdeveloped regions. Keywords: Ecosystem, Physiography, Anthropogenic Pressure, Sustainability, Remote Sensing, Infrastructure

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB94] Leaf growth pattern in evergreen and deciduous species of the tropical forest of Southern Assam, India Athokpam Florida Devi1, Nepolion Borah1, and S. C. Garkoti2 Department of Ecology & Environmental Science, Assam University Silchar-788011 2 School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 Email: flori.assam@gmail.com 1

ABSTRACT Different tree species growing in same climatic condition may differ in various aspects like leaf initiation, expansion period, leaf area, leaf longevity, leaf dry mass, relative growth rate, specific leaf mass etc. These parameters were studied during a leaf life-span of 14 evergreen and 7 deciduous tree species of the tropical forest of Southern Assam. All the studied deciduous species and most of the evergreen species attained full leaf expansion well before the heavy rainfall and some of the evergreen continued during heavy rainfall also. Evergreen species had a longer leaf dry mass steady period than deciduous species. Average leaf dry mass during the leaf initiation period was significantly (P < 0.01) greater for evergreen species than deciduous species. The leaf dry mass accumulated at leaf full expansion period was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05) greater in evergreen species (6.3 mg/cm2) than the deciduous species (4.0 mg/cm2). Evergreen species of this region showed leaf dry mass loss in limited quantities declining through a longer period of 4 to 6 months while deciduous species showed a sharp declined in leaf dry mass through a period of 2 to 3 months. The average loss in leaf dry mass was significantly (P < 0.01) greater for deciduous species (30.29%) than the evergreen species (18. 31%). The average SLM for evergreen species was significantly greater than that of deciduous species. The average leaf longevity of the evergreen species (319.93 days) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that of the deciduous species (203.95 days). The leaf growth and leaf dry mass changes patterns of evergreen and deciduous tree species in same climatic condition were different in present study. Keywords: evergreen, deciduous, leaf initiation, expansion, longevity, dry mass

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB95] Alleviation of salinity stress in peanut plant by application of PGPR Sucheta Ghorai Microbiology Lab, Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagadh, Gujarat

ABSTRACT To investigate the physiological changes under different salinity levels, a salinity-imposed trial was conducted. The peanut seedlings were cultured in the pot for 90 days under different salinity (i.e. 2Ece, 4Ece and 6Ece) and PGPR (i.e. AMAAS 57 and BM6) loaded condition. 15 days after germination leaf sample were collected and extractions were done for different parameters. Result showed that in control pot carbohydrate level gradually decrease with increasing salinity level but in other two treatments which were inoculated with AMAAS 57 and BM6 PGPR culture, carbohydrate level increase in 2Ece then gradually decrease with increasing salinity level. In control treatment the phenol and free amino acid level decrease in 2 ECe then increase in 4 ECe and suddenly drop in 6 ECe but in case of the other two treatments phenol and free amino acid level increase in 2ECe then gradually decrease with increasing salinity level. RWC% gradually increases with increasing salinity level, but the two other treatments the level goes zigzag manner with increasing salinity level. In case of average leaf area, all the three treatments the average leaf area gradually decreases with increasing salinity level but in control and AMAAS57 treatment it suddenly increase in 6 ECe. Electrolytic leakage decreases in 2 ECe then gradually increase with salinity in control, in AMAAS 57 treatment it goes zigzag manner and in case of BM6 treatment it gradually increase and suddenly decrease in 6 ECe. So we can see that there is some physiological changes occur in higher salinity level, that changes vary from culture inoculated to uninoculated condition. Keywords: RWC%, ECe, average leaf area, electrolytic leakage, phenol and free amino acid.

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB96] Importance of impact assessment of biodiversity impact in Madhya Pradesh Shailendra Singh Dabi Scientist, M.P.Council of Science & Technology, Bhopal (M.P.), India Email: shail.mpcst@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT Biodiversity is the biggest threat to human survival at present and developing countries are more susceptible to the Biodiversity impact. Madhya Pradesh, the second largest state of the county, is a home of rich floral and faunal diversity, demography, cultures. Forest flora of the state is diverse, dominated by terrestrial and some aquatic types and includes epiphytic, parasitic and insectivorous plants. There are nearly 500 species of medicinal plants. The state also harbors some rare and endemic flora Satpura- Pachmarhi areas are known for such endemism. Madhya Pradesh forest biodiversity are Pachmarhi Plateau, Chandan Bang, Garhakota- Ramna Reserve, Supkhar Chirpine, Plant fossils of Mandla, Basalt trap of Pipri, Bori Forests, Bamboo forest of Lanji and Mixed forest of Lougur- Khara. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Ramsar Convention and the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) recognize impact assessment as an important decisionsupport tool to help plan and implement development with biodiversity “in mind”. Impotency of IA of Biodiversity are Support endemic, rare, declining habitats/species/genotypes, Support genotypes and species whose presence is a prerequisite for the persistence of other species, Act as a buffer, linking habitat or ecological corridor, or play an important part in maintaining environmental quality etc. Biodiversity matters to everyone. Its loss impoverishes the environment and reduces its capacity to support people now and in the future. Impact Assessment can help to ensure development is compatible with the conservation and sustainable use of Madhya Pradesh Biodiversity. Keywords: Species, Genotypes, Natural Resources, Biodiversity Conservation.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB97] Biodiversity Conservation and Crisis: A pragmatic approach Vakil Ahamad Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 Email: vakilahamad.12@gmail.com and ahamad.vahamad.vakil@gmail.com

ABSTRACT Intimate familiarity and relationship with bioresources of the neighbourhood has been an integral part of Vedic tradition. Early man considered plants and animals as his partners in collective management of the biota; he respected, even worshipped them. A modern biologist looks at plants and animals as sources of genes and chemicals for his benefit. The objective of this paper is to highlight the significance of the biodiversity as described in Vedic Samhitas, critically analyze the key conservation and crisis issues and provide a set of broad suggestions for biodiversity conservation. Most people are aware by now that many animal species are close to becoming extinct, but few seems to realize how severe the biodiversity crisis has become. The Vedic Samhitas indicate that the biodiversity has been influencing thoughts and activities of human societies since ages. At the same time, the social customs, rituals, and practices have been contributing, directly and indirectly, towards the conservation of biodiversity. Hence, analytical studies of Vedic Samhitas become important in comprehending the evolution of thoughts and measures on the conservation of biodiversity. The broad categories of the biodiversity Crisis are as follows: Deforestation and degradation, (ii) agriculture, (iii) encroachment, (iv) grazing, (v) human wild life conflict, (vi) forest fire, (vii) illegal extraction of forest products, (viii) commercial plantation, (ix) replacement of indigenous species with exotics, (x) un-coordinated infrastructure development, (xi) in-migration. The biodiversity is usually studied now by taxonomists, who take great pains in collecting, identifying, documenting and describing the elements of diversity. But, the approach/methodology usually is very materialistic, which is based on Cartesian dualism. A plant or animal is just one unit in their inventory. Plants and animals are taken to possess genes and chemicals and not spirits. I shall apply pragmatic approach to studying the biodiversity and crisis. An understanding of the parallelism, corollaries, deficiencies, advances and the difference in approach and methodologies in the old as compared to the new. Keywords: Cartesian dualism, Conservation and crisis.

Biodiversity,

Vedic

Samhitas,

pragmatic

approach,

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB98] Biological diversity and its significance of Northeast India need conservation Ramachandra Laha Department of Botany, Mizoram University, Tanhril, Aizawl – 796004, Mizoram Email: rc_laha@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Northeast India a biological diversity centre comprising the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim lies at the confluence between India, Indo Burman-Malaysia and Indochinese region. The region occupies 7.7% of India total geographical area, support 50% of the flora (ca.8000 species) of which 31.58% (ca.2526 species) is endemic, unique in providing a fusion of habitat with diverse biota from tropical rainforests to alpine scrubs and a high degree of endemism. The region is abode of about 225 ethnic groups out of 450 in the country. The rich biodiversity has important role in the maintenance of the ecosystem and used ethnobiologically by the different ethnic groups of the region for various socioeconomic and developmental purposes. The major threat to the rich biodiversity decline of the region due to different factors natural (landslides, flood, fire),expansion of agriculture, deforestation, encroachment of forest land, grazing, shifting cultivation, timbering, urbanization, illegal extraction of forest products, commercial plantation, introduction of exotic species, mining which lead to habitat loss and fragmentation. India and Northeast has strengthened its hold on biodiversity conservation by implementing different acts, laws, signatory of the Convention on Biological diversity since 1992 and establishment of different protected areas-biosphere reserves, sanctuaries, national parks botanical gardens and many have been established in different parts of northeastern states. However the biodiversity conservation programme can be strengthened with awareness at the grassroot level by seminar, workshop, public display, pamphlet, traditional laws for natural resource management, media about the importance of biodiversity and its conservation need.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB99] Why management policy in case of Protected Areas are not sustainable: An exploratory study from Odisha Brajaraja Mishra Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Nizamiah Observatory Campus, Begumpet, Hyderabad-16 Email: mishrabrajaraja@gmail.com ABSTRACT The main aim of this study is to explore management effectiveness of protected area network in Odisha. It evaluates effectiveness of PAMP by using Protected Area Management Effectiveness (PAME) technique as developed under IUCN-WCPA Framework, and various empirical case studies and information provided by Kalpavriksh about various PAs of Odisha. This study shows that Odisha is very poor in development of proper institutional framework and dissemination of knowledge. Resultant of which, most of the PAs are failed to achieve twin objectives of ecosystem conservation and enhancement of wellbeing. Poverty and vulnerability due to a sudden prohibition over the resource use are the main reasons for the creation of conflicts and resource loss. It is thus necessary to reduce conflicts by creating alternative livelihood opportunities in the buffer zones and strictly prohibiting human interventions in the core areas. Central government should force the state government for completion of final notification of remaining sanctuaries and upgradation of management plan of all the PAs. Economic development activities inside the PAs should not further encouraged and creates awareness building programmes about conservation of PAs to wellbeing among the tribals to make the management policy effective.

Keywords: Management Effectiveness, Protected Areas, Sustainability, livelihoods, Co-existence, Tribals

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

80


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB100] Capacity building and Sustainable development: Panacea to heal the Indian biodiversity crisis Kanika Srivastava1 Mugdha Singh1 SR Sumant Y2 and Shweta Sharma3 1 Dayalbagh Educational Institute, AGRA) 2 Indira Gandhi Zoological Park, Visakhapatnam 3 www.justeat.in, Delhi Email: belle.scott7@gmail.com ABSTRACT Environment should be considered in totality. It includes biotic and abiotic resources, which are getting depleted rapidly. Over population and over exploitation of the abiotic and biotic resources by the human beings cause the hasty deterioration of resources which is taking place by the way of wood cutting, over grazing, chemicalized agricultural practices, mining and construction of buildings and hotels to develop the tourism lead to the environmental anomalies like the global climate change, habitat shrinkage, biodiversity loss and extinction of the species. Our developmental processes are acting as a catalyst towards the destruction of life from the planet. Since River banks are much productive and most vulnerable landmass, it is very important to save them from destroying hands of humans. The resources are getting depleted and degraded mainly due to human interference under the disguise of development, these legal or illegal practices has placed several species like Sarus Crane, Vultures, Common quail, Black francolin, Striped Hyena, wolf, Ghariyal ,Cobra, Monitor lizard, desert lizard, etc. are under threat due to habitat loss. To repair this damage and save already stressed biodiversity, the primary need is capacity building (human capacity, infrastructure capacity, institutional capacity and funding capacity (by UNEP) in to strengthen and restore already precarious environmental conditions prevailing all over and spread the knowledge and awareness among people by educating them in both formal and informal ways, about the importance of environment and biodiversity, that will not only help in conservation of our resources, but also helps in sustainable development. This paper focuses on stressed biodiversity at river banks and the way ‘The system of Dayalbagh’ serves as a model in the conservation by Capacity building and human support leading to the sustainable development.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

81


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB101] Community based disaster risk analysis: a case study of MCT Uttarakhand, India. Vedika Pant and Vivekananda Biswas Department of Geography, Kumaun University, Almora Email: vedika.p2009@gmail.com

ABSTRACT Disasters, when anyone heard that utterance, the first trounce consideration is damage, pain, fatality and other negative reflections on the mind thought process. When disaster occurs in veracity the first element that triggered in exertion is ’Community’. Uttarakhand’s MCT (Main Central Thrust) zone is that region where Greater and Lesser Himalayas separated from each other and almost every year this region faces the Landslides, Earthquakes, Avalanches, Forest Fires, Flash Flood and other natural and manmade disasters. For this research paper author mainly uses the PRA, RS, GIS tools as well as the secondary data to make it more justifiable. This paper argues that in any disaster risk analysis community plays a vital role, so how can we involve the community in disaster risk analysis process. This paper also endeavors to add some unmarked strategies and coping plans. Keywords: CBDM, Disaster Risk Analysis, MCT Himalayas, PRA tools, Remote Sensing & Geographic Information System. [AB102] Remote Sensing and GIS in the Management of Coastal Ecosystem Geetika Sharma Department of Energy & Environmental Sciences Choudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa - 125055, Haryana Email: sharma.geetika@hotmail.com ABSTRACT Coastal ecosystems are of great importance and of immense value to mankind in the present and in the future. They are being degraded at an alarming rate by various preventable activities including that of human interference. The coastal ecosystems are to be monitored periodically for better management plans. The satellite based sensors provide valuable information useful in assessment, monitoring and management of coastal ecosystems. Optical remote sensing data is very useful for mapping the coral reef and mangrove ecosystems. The information, which is thus derived, can be very useful in the coastal ecosystem management, which is greatly required for the sustainable use, development, and protection of the coastal and marine areas and resources. Thus remote sensing and GIS technologies are widely used today in coastal ecosystem management. Keywords: Coastal Ecosystems, Sensors — Coral Reef —Mangrove, Remote sensing — GIS

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

82


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB103] Mitigating the effect of climate change on plant growth and productivity using cold tolerant microbes Sonia Rani, Dushyant Pratap Singh, Tripti Dogra, Kanika and J.C Padaria NRC of Plant Biotechnology, IARI, New Delhi ABSTRACT Climatic changes are likely to impact on agriculture and food security across the globe through their direct or indirect effects on crops. Crops yields are influenced by many environmental factors such as temperature, moisture drought, salinity. Transgenic crops are being developed worldwide that are tolerant to abiotic stresses which will enable crops to adapt to different environments. Cold shock proteins have been used to provide tolerance against different abiotic stresses. A number of cold shock proteins have been reported in microbes especially in Escherichia.coli, among which cspA is the major cold shock protein that is induced during the cold shock responses. We have collected soil samples from Indo-gangetic regions and screened microbes for tolerance toward cold temperature by incubating them at different temperature 28°C, 16°C, 4°C. Isolates that were growing on 16°C and 4°C were screened for csp gene. Amplicons of 190bp and 175bp were observed for cspA and cspB genes respectively. These isolates were further identified by 16SrDNA sequencing. 16SrDNA sequence analysis showed homology with Bacillus selenitireducens, Shigella flexneri, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, and Enterobacter clocae. [AB104] Role of Indigenous Culture in Biodiversity Conservation - a study in Chhotanagpur Plateau Arun Kumar Roy Mahato and Sudha Mahato Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology, Bhuj, Kachchh-370001, Gujarat Email: akroymahato@gmail.com ABSTRACT Indigenous people living in a place from long periods have developed close relationship and interaction with their surrounding environment. The diverse human culture linked with the different species of plants and animals, and habitats by their cultural practices. These cultural and spiritual practices of the Indigenous communities have played an important role in the conservation and management of biodiversity. Chhotanagpur plateau is a distinct biotic province, and a land of diverse kind of indigenous communities. Thus, a study was conducted to document the various cultural and sacred practices of the indigenous communities of this region linked with the biodiversity. Data were collected by visiting sacred places and attended various cultural festival and ceremonies of this region. Chhotanagpur plateau is a land of different indigenous communities, having rich cultural heritage expressed through the ceremonies, dance, festival, music and rituals. Their cultural and sacred practices are closely linked with the natural environment, forests, animals and croplands. The five festival culture like Karam (seedling), Pata (leaf emerging), Baha (flowering), Falhar (Fruit eating) and Sarhul (Crop harvesting) are celebrated in a cyclic way in every year and are inherently connected with the nature. These close association and link to the nature play important role in the conservation of biodiversity in Chhotanagpur plateau from the long periods. In present time, various flora and fauna of this region are in the verge of extinction due to habitat destruction by mining, industrialization and urbanization. In conclusion, the cultural practices of communities played important role in the protection and conservation of biodiversity, and need to conserve the local culture, sacred and spiritual practices for successful conservation of threatened flora and fauna of this region. Keywords: Indigenous, Biodiversity, Sacred, Culture, Conservation, Chhotanagpur

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

83


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB105] Studies on Aquatic insects as Bioindicators of Secret Lake, Hyderabad Deepa J. Zoological Survey of India, Freshwater Biology Regional Centre, Plot 366/1, Attapur, Hyderguda Ring Road, Hyderabad- 500 048 Email: deepajzsi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT The present study is based on Insect collections made from various surveys to the water bodies of the Secret lake, Durgan Cheruvu , Hyderabad, during April, 2007-March, 2009 as a part of the project entitled “Taxonomic and ecological studies of Aquatic insects of lakes in and around Hyderabad” (FBRC/ZSI/Hyderabad). Durgamma Cheruvu, popularly known as "Secret lake", is situated close to Shilparamam craft Village, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad. The Durgam Cheruvu lake is spread over an area of 63 acre and is surrounded by hills of the Deccan Plateau. The Lake has been developed as a major tourist attraction in the Hyderabad city by the AP Tourism Department. During the course of local surveys, three seasonal surveys in a year were made to secret lake, and aquatic insects were collected from water bodies of the park. Collections were made with the help of hand operated nets of varying sizes by randomly netting different areas of wetland. Insects collected for study were preserved in 70% alcohol. The collections were identified with the aid of standard literature on the group Vazirani (1973), Biswas & Mukhopadhyay (1995). This study is significant due to its maiden effort to study the entomofauna of lakes of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh and their role in biomonitoring of lakes. This paper is dealt with a study on the 25 species of Aquatic insects belonging to, 6 families and 18 genera which forms the first report from the lake. Aquatic entomofauna play a vital role in assessing the health of a lake and are efficient biodiversity indicators. Few species belonging to family Ephemeroptera (nymphs) beetles of Family Elmidae (adults), Trichoptera (larvae), Plecoptera (nymphs), Psephenidae (water pennies) are highly sensitive to pollution and serve as bioindicators of good water quality. These organisms require high dissolved oxygen levels. When present in large numbers, these insects suggest the lake is in good condition.Some insects of order Megaloptera (larvae), Odonates viz. dragonflies and damselflies (nymphs), family Gyrinidae( whirligig beetles larvae) tends to tolerate some degradation of water quality. Their abundance and diversity indicates a water body is in fair to good condition. The EPT Index is calculated as the sum of the number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera divided by the total number of midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).The abundance of insects belonging to these three were noted which constitute the EPT Index of a lake. Since these orders of insects are highly sensitive to pollution, they are used as water quality indicators. Their presence and relatively average number suggests the water body to be a mesotrophic lake. Further studies aiming to improve our knowledge on water insects and their biomonitoring role should focus on diversity of aquatic insects and its approach in assessing water quality in specific habitats, collecting in little known areas, and revision of the still unstudied material from additional families. Keywords: Surveys, Durgam Cheruvu, Entomofauna, Bioindicators, EPT index, Mesotrophic

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

84


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB106] Conservation and Sustainable use of biodiversity in pastoral social Institutions and sustainability issues in Indian Himalayas. Rubina Nusrat Research and Teaching Assistant, School of Extension and Development Studies, IGNOU, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi Email: nusratrubina@gmail.com

ABSTRACT The present paper studies the ecological mode of adaptations of the most spectacular seminomadic tribes of Himalaya. Surviving on Transhumance herding, they represent the initial mode of human adjustment with nature. Himalayan Pastoralists have expressed growing concern in international forums that most development planning aims at maximizing economic development and rarely takes into account the reciprocal culture-land/resource relationships that are fundamental to pastoral social institutions and sustainability. Inclusive policies force all Himalayan pastoralists to get acculturated into uniculturism shedding their unique culture inherent to each pastoral community of Himalaya. The Pastoralists are resorting to using their social and cultural institutions (such as migration, women, Indigenous traditional knowledge, Livestock, religion etc) as a shield to protect them against this uniculturism, henceforth, retaining their multiculturism. Traditional knowledge is taken as an institution as ITKs are intermixed into the basic unit of survival i.e. family. Another institution, migration is taken up collectively by the clans adding to cultural cohesiveness and developing a symbiotic relationship with high pasturelands, which provides for them a perennial source of livelihood and sustenance. Their occupational patterns like buffalo herding and sellers of milk products, their social magnitude and their persistence as unique distinct entity in the Himalaya is immensely significant as Livestock is used as a mode of currency, as marriage dowry, as an asset of property division and eventually as source of subsistence economy. Van Panchayats are another local governance institution for social conflict resolution. Women are considered an institution due to the centrality of their placement in the social decision making setting along with their dissemination of negotiation skills apart from being considered as repository of traditional knowledge. The ecology driven micro-economic activities are designed by the women folk and are executed by the male. Sustainability is another institution owing to local cultural influences on resource use patterns and management for sustainable living. Eventually, the cultural identity and pastoral institutions are being maintained due to the resilience that the pastoralists portray in the Himalayas. Keywords: Himalayan Tribes, Pastoralists, Biodiversity, Social Institutions, Conservation, Traditional knowledge

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

85


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB107] Isolation, cloning and characterization for salt responsive gene(s) from a halophyte – Salicornia brachiata Etika Goyal and Kanika NRC of Plant Biotechnology, IARI, New Delhi ABSTRACT Plant growth and development are adversely affected by salinity – a major environmental stress that limits agricultural production. Understanding the molecular basis of salt responsive mechanism will be useful in engineering more salt tolerance in crop plants. The isolation of salt responsive gene as well as novel promoter from salt tolerant plant will be very beneficial for crop improvement. Salicornia brachiata – an extreme salt tolerant plant which grows lushly in coastal areas (Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu etc.) with high salinity (100 – 200mM) which can be used to bioprospect genes related to salt tolerance. In this study we attempted to clone novel gene(s) from Salicornia brachiata in which the NCBI database was used as a search engine for nucleotide (ESTs) and mRNA sequences available for S.brachiata, out of which 6 genes with high mascot scores were selected for PCR amplification for identifying salt responsive gene. These 200bp – 500bp ESTs were amplified and sequenced. Large insert Fosmid library (30 – 40 kb) was prepared in pCC2FOS for isolating the complete gene. ESTs were labeled with DIG labeling kit and used as probe to screen the Fosmid library. The positive clones obtained are being analyzed by sequencing. This gene can further be used for crop improvement at places where soil is saline in nature and not suitable for growth. [AB108] Phytoplanktonic diversity in Beechwal reservoir at Bikaner (NW Rajasthan desert) Harbhajan Kaur PG Department of Zoology, Dungar College, Bikaner (Raj.) ABSTRACT Phytoplanktons are the chief primary producers and are of prime importance in aquatic ecosystem as the productivity of aquatic ecosystem is totally dependent on these. They form the basic link of food chain for all aquatic organisms. The diversity of phytoplankton components in the aquatic ecosystems serves as a reliable index for monitoring of a water body. The present study deals with phytoplankton diversity in Beechwal reservoir located at Bikaner (Rajasthan). A total of 38 phytoplanktonic genera belonging to 3 algal groups viz. Chlorophyceae (greens), Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) and Cyanophyceae (blue greens) were recorded indicating a fairly good number of genera and species diversity. Out of these greens and diatoms were dominant where as the blue greens were the least.The dominance of greens and diatoms is indicative of lower trophy in the reservoir, which is particularly reflected in terms of lowest count of blue greens. The nutritionally rich waters are especially dominated by Cyanobacteria (blue greens) as major phytoplankton element and therefore, these are often referred to as indicators of organic richment. Greens were represented by 18 genera out of which Aphanocapsa, Coelastrum, Chara, Selenastrum, Tetraspora were the dominant forms. Diatoms were represented by 12 genera among them Coscinodiscus, Diatoma, Fragilaria, Navicula, Nitzschia and Synedra were the dominant forms. Blue greens were represented by 8 genera of which only Anabaena and Spirulina were the dominant forms. The study may be useful in further investigation and in improvement of quality and quantity of the phytoplankton of Beechwal reservoir. Biodiversity is rightly considered as an index of sound health of habitat and strong base for better evolution. Keywords: Phytoplankton, diversity, reservoir, genera, aquatic ecosystem

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

86


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB109] The effects of NaCl on growth, protein content, proline accumulation and isozyme activity in germinated seedlings of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth R. Mathur and S.K Chaudhuri* Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur, Rajasthan- 342011, India E-mail address: sadhankumar_c@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Responses to salt stress were studied during the germinative phase of the life cycle of Albizia lebbeck. Effect of salt on seed germination, growth, protein synthesis, proline accumulation, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities at six levels of salinity (0, 25, 50, and 100, 200 & 300 mM) was examined. The seedlings were grown in petriplates for twelve days under salt treatment. Results showed pronounced decrease in germination percentage at 200mM and seedlings at 300 mM although emerged but failed to survive. It was found that seedlings grew best under 50 mM salt concentration, fresh weight and dry weight reached the maximum, whereas at 200 mM set seedlings showed reduced and delayed growth. Seedlings showed increased protein synthesis, proline accumulation and peroxidase activity with increasing level of salinity whereas a decrease in acid phosphatase activity was observed under NaCl treatments. Protein and proline accumulation was found maximum in cotyledons of 200 mM treated set, while peroxidase activity was more pronounced in roots and shoots. These biochemical markers can be used to select salt tolerant varieties for reclamation of salt affected areas and also in forest management. Keywords: Salt treatment, Albizia lebbeck, Biomass, Protein content, Proline accumulation, Isozyme activity. [AB110] Economic aspects of Biodiversity conservation: A review Anshu Gupta1 and Nijara Deka2 School of Environmental Sciences (SES), Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 2 Centre for the Studies of Regional Development, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 1

ABSTRACT The Earth’s biodiversity and other natural resources provide many economic and social benefits to mankind. An effective programme for sustainable development must therefore incorporate conservation objectives.The main concept of sustainable development is Economic, Ecological and Sociological. Improving the incomes and welfare of local communities especially poor ones in procuring physical and biological systems offers opportunities for developing countries to pursue all their goals of sustainable development in a complementary manner. With the developmental processes, the deterioration of ecosystems is high. However, sustainable development and consumption would help avert the ecological problems. As a part of expanding response to declining global biodiversity, interdisciplinary research terms of economists and ecological have conducted costs and benefits of biodiversity conservation. Economic research on Biodiversity conservation has focused on the costs of conservation reserves and the benefits of intact ecosystem. The perceived conflict between the environment and current patterns of development requires new initiatives of sustainable development. A critical review of key concepts essential for a proper understanding of such evaluation issues is very essential. Particular attention is given here to various approaches and methods from the prospective of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. From the discussion of past researches it is very essential to identify the most important variables responsible for changes in economic estimates of biodiversity. Keywords: Sustainable development, Biodiversity, Deterioration, Conservation, interdisciplinary research

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

87


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB111] GIS Tool for Disaster management - A rural perspective Damisetty Bala Suresh Babu 1, Phanindra Kumar Tummalapalli 2, A. Ram Gopal Raju 3, Dr V.Madhava Rao 4, I.V.Muralikrishna 5 1 M/S.Suchan Infotech Ltd, Hyderabad –500033 2 Centre on Geoinformatics Application in Rural Development(CGARD), NIRD, Hyderabad 3 Manager-GIS, Sarsoftech, Newdelhi 4 C-GARD, National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD), Hyderabad.-500030 5 IST JNTU, Hyderabad.-500030 Email: dbsureshbabu@gmail.com ABSTRACT The earth where we are living is the most mysterious substance. Man is trying to understand and reveal them and succeeded to little extent, but still left with few of the mysteries as it is. On the other hand the human activities like deforestation, rapid urbanisation etc. increasing the imbalances in the eco-system. The result is the frequent occurrence of natural calamities in other words “Disasters”. The huge damage to the life and property caused by disasters is increasing the instability in the human life. Disaster can be defined as an unpredictable extreme event in the natural or man-made environment that adversely affects or severely cause the damage to the human life and property. Of course the disasters might not be foreseen but can be dealt with in such a way that, the impact of the disaster can be reduced to great extents by implementing the strategic planning with aid of the data sources and analysis tools created by the latest development in the technological sector. Any successful disaster management model requires enormous data inputs from different sources within short time. In other words the disaster managers would requires different kinds of geographic data like resource locations, transportation network i.e. connectivity information, and terrain information within minimum time to plan the strategies. Definitely Geographical Information System (GIS) with its inherent capabilities of handling spatial and non-spatial datasets, topographic neighborhood searching and analysis tools and generation of real time models will play crucial role in almost all phases of disaster management activities right from the preventive measures to disaster recovery processes. The disaster might not have the discrimination between urban and rural community, it will cause destruction in both the communities. But the managing disasters in the rural area are much more complex than the urban areas. The reasons include unpreparedness, non-availability of required data sets, connectivity issues, unawareness and low intellectual response for the emergency etc. With consideration of these drawbacks in the rural community the disaster management activities will be dealt with more cautiousness to minimize the effects of such unfateful incidents. This paper focuses on how the disaster can be managed through the understanding of the disaster phenomenon, using of GIS as tool in different phases of the disaster management and building up the awareness and required source data with specific reference to the rural context. Keywords: Customized GIS, disaster management, disaster prediction, prevention, preparedness, disaster mitigation.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

88


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB112] Investigations on antimicrobial property of medicinal plants of Western Ghats Ekta Manglani Garden City College, Old Madras Road, T.C. Palya, Bangalore 560049 ABSTRACT The Western Ghats also known as Sahyadri Hills is one of the world’s top ten biodiversity hot spots and notable for rich phyto-diversity. The forests and hills of Western Ghats area treasure house of about 700 medicinal plants, and on a conservative estimate 50 of these species hold a very high value in the folk and herbal health traditions for the treatment of different forms of ailments. Four species of such plants belonging to four different families were studied for their pharmacological properties. Aegle marmelos, Vitex negundo, Rauwolfia serpentina and Ricinus communis were screened for antimicrobial activity on the basis of their use against skin diseases, wound healing property, treatment of diarrhea, swelling reduction etc. Solvent extracts (Ethanol, Acetone and Aqueous) of all plants were tested against five human pathogenic bacterial strains Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus in different concentration by Standard cup diffusion method (Agar well method). Extracts from all the four plants exhibited varying degrees of growth inhibition for microorganisms tested. The results of these investigations are discussed in the paper. Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Western Ghats, Agar well method, Solvent extracts, antimicrobial property. [AB113] Electro biochemical cure to our fresh water woes Garima Capoor, Neh Satsangi and Anamika Banerjee Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra ABSTRACT The constant apathy shown towards our rivers has slowly turned them into a dumping ground for garbage, agricultural run-offs, sewages wastes etc. Their water is however still a primary sustenance source for the rural and urban set-ups in our country, and so it becomes important that the supply of water is fit for consumption. A relatively new but very popular way of doing this task is the Sewage Treatment Process (STP) using microbes [Effective Microbes] which digest the contaminants and reduce it to simpler components like methane or simply store it away in their biological systems. But over time , this technology has become cost inefficient in terms of the expensive nutrients that are required for the initiation of electron transfer which regulates this process because, in conventional wastewater treatment, microbes or chemicals alter or remove contaminants by adding or removing electrons. The electrons come from large excesses of nutrients and chemicals added to the systems to adjust the reactor chemistry for microbial growth and contaminant removal. Those large excesses must be added to compensate for changes in water chemistry and other factors that limit the availability of electrons to remove pollutants. This makes the system expensive. The idea that we wish to propose is by using a very small amount of electric charge (1 volt) which will compensate the electron requirement of the microbes which in turn will finally lead to the biochemical or rather electro biochemical remediation of the sewages pollutants of the river water and a supply of clean usable water we can make this technology more economically viable. Not only this, but it will also reduce the treatment time. Keywords: Sewage Treatment Process (STP), microbes, contaminants, cost inefficient, electron transfer, electro biochemical remediation.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB114] Integrated sustainable development planning and biodiversity conservation for malwa region using geospatial technology Shailendra Singh Dabi M.P.Council of Science & Technology, Bhopal (M.P.), India Email: shail.mpcst@yahoo.com ABSTRACT The Geospatial Techniques and its scope of applications have undergone an order of magnitude change since its advent and now it has been universally accepted as a most important and modern tool for mapping and monitoring of various natural resources as well as amenities and infrastructure. The huge and voluminous spatial database generated from various Remote Sensing platforms needs proper management like storage, retrieval, manipulation and analysis to extract desired information, which is beyond the capability of human brain. This is where the Computer aided GIS Technology came into existence. Malwa Region had attracted the attention of the planners from the beginning of the Five-Year Plan Strategy for Sustainable Industrial development. However, a number of projects were carried out in the individual Districts (Indore, Ujjain, Ratlam, Khargone, Khandwa, Neemuch, Jhabua, Dhar and ect.) which also gave fruitful results, but no serious efforts have been made to involve the entire region. No use of latest Geospatial Technique (Remote Sensing, GPS and GIS) to prepare a well structured computerized data base without which it is very different to retrieve, analyze and compare the data for monitoring as well as for Sustainable Planning the Developmental activities and Biodiversity Conservation in future. Keywords: Geospatial Technique, Natural Resources, Sustainability, Remote Sensing, Biodiversity Conservation. [AB115] Ethnomedicinal plants and biodiversity conservation in the sacred groves of north Gujarat, Gujarat, India. P.K.Patel and M.K.Patel* Dept. of Biology, SPT Arts and Science College, Godhra, Gujarat. *Dept. of Biology, R.R.Mehta Science College, Palanpur, Gujarat. ABSTRACT Nature conservation practices are very ancient tradition in India. Useful Biodiversity species have much reverence in culture of our country. The paper deals with use of certain indigenous medicinal plants among the local people of North Gujarat, Gujarat, India. The study highlighted the use of 31 plant species as herbal medicine in the treatment of various ailments. The plants are used for a wide range of common ailments like skin disorders, ulcer, rheumatism, bronchitis etc. Majority of the preparations are taken orally in the form of Juice extracted from the freshly collected plant parts. The people of North Gujarat believed that the Sacred groves (Forest) are the abode of deities. Religious belief is one of the major factors for conservation of plant resources in such groves. Keywords: Ethnomedicinal, Sacred, Biodiversity, North Gujarat, Gujarat.

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

90


National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB116] Development of environment policy in India: Contribution of Indian judicial system Arpit Kalra Institute of Law, Nirma University, Ahmedabad Email: kalraarpit90@gmail.com ABSTRACT Environmental policy is any course of action deliberately taken or not taken to manage human activities with a view to prevent, reduce, or mitigate harmful effects on nature and natural resources, and ensuring that man-made changes to the environment do not have harmful effects on humans. It focuses on problems arising from human impact on the environment, which retroacts onto human society by having a (negative) impact on human values such as good health or the 'clean and green' environment. India is way ahead in terms of formulation of policies. Even strong constitutional and legislative frameworks exist. Like National Council for Environmental Policy and Planning was set up in 1972 which was later evolved into Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) in 1985. Despite having this strong framework, a number of social, economic and institutional factors have made the realisation of existing policies difficult. The National Environment Policy is the first initiative in strategy formulation for environmental protection in a comprehensive manner builds on the existing policies. It is intended to be a guide to action in regulatory reform; programmes and projects for environmental conservation; review and enactment of legislations by Central, State and Local Government. The Indian Judiciary has come up with the “judge-driven implementation” of environmental administration in India. Public Interest Litigations (PILs) which is the result of the relaxation of the locus standi rules by the judiciary, is the characteristic feature of the environmental litigation in India. Doctrines Evolved by Indian Courts is Polluter Pays “It is to make the polluter liable for the compensation to the victims as also for the cost of restoring of environmental degradation”. Keywords: National Environment Policy 2006, Judiciary, Environment Protection, Environmental Degradation, Environment, Natural Resources. [AB117] Ethnobotanical uses of some selected wild plants from Amirgadh Taluka, Banaskantha District, Gujarat J.N.Patel Dept. of Biology, R.R.Mehta Science College, Palanpur, Gujarart ABSTRACT An Ethnobotanical study has been carried out by the tribal, who live in dense forest far away from the hospitals. The local inhabitants have developed and preserved a very old and strong tradition for folk medicine. The present paper deals with 26 species used for the treatment in various diseases. Keywords: Ethnobotany, Amirgadh, Banaskantha, Gujarat.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB118] Climate change and human settlements Neeraj Kumar, Sunil Kumar and Pravesh Kumar Department of Zoology, Meerut College, Meerut E-mail: pksainiamr@gmail.com, sunilmann22@yahoo.in ABSTRACT Climate is usually described in terms of the mean and variability of temperature, precipitation and wind over a period of time, ranging from months to millions of years. The climate system evolves in time under the influence of its own internal dynamics and due to changes in external factors that affect climate. The vast majority of the energy which affects Earth's weather comes from the sun. The planet and its atmosphere absorb and reflect some of the energy, while long-wave energy is radiated back in to space. The balance between absorbed and radiated energy determines the average temperature. The planet is warmer than it would be in the absence of the atmosphere. The radiation balance can be altered by factors such as intensity of solar energy, reflection by clouds or gases, absorption by various gases or surfaces, and emission of heat by various materials. Any such alternation is a radiative forcing, and causes a new balance to be reached. In the real world this happens continuously as sunlight hits the surface, clouds and aerosols form, the concentrations of atmospheric gases vary, and seasons alter the ground cover. The climate system is a complex, interactive system consisting of the atmosphere, land surface, snow and ice, oceans and other bodies of water, and living things. The atmospheric component of the climate system most obviously characterizes climate; climate is often defined as 'average weather'. Human activities intensity the blanking affect through the release of greenhouse gases. For instance, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by about 35% in the industrial era, and increase is known to be due to human activities, primarily the combustion of fossil fuels and removal of forests. Human live in a wide variety of settlements, ranging from hunter gatherer camps and villages of a handful of families to modern megacities and metropolitan region of tens of millions of inhabitants. Settlement economic and social structure and the components of infrastructure that support settlements; energy, water supply transportation, drains, waste disposal, and so forth-have varying degrees of vulnerability to climate change and generally are evolving for more quickly than the natural environment. Settlements can be affected directly through changes in human health and infrastructure and indirectly through impacts on the environment, natural resources and local industries, such as tourism or agriculture. Furthermore, these effects on human settlements theoretically could lead to tertiary impacts such as altered land use, redistribution of population and activities to other regions, and altered trade patterns among regions, resulting in still further changes in natural resources and other activities. The most vulnerable communities are not only poorer coastal and agrarian communities in arid areas identified; they also include a great variety of settlements, most of them informal or illegal and with a predominance of low-income residents built on hazardous sites such as wetlands or sleep hillsides in or around many urban areas in the developing world. Human settlements integrate many climate impacts initially felt in other sector and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances and technical, political institutional, and social capacities.

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[AB119] Instrumental period rainfall variations over different physiographic divisions / subdivisions and provinces of North–East India H. Narendra Singh* and Nityanand Singh Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune -8 * Email: narendra@tropmet.res.in ABSTRACT Due to enormous spatial variation in rainfall amount and heterogeneous characteristics of pointrainfall temporal fluctuation the representation of the averaged rainfall series of the country is limited. Long period area-average rainfall series of physiographic regions (units) provides vital input to the study on influence of rainfall variability on land formation, flora and fauna, as well as environmental consequences of dynamics of wetland, dryland, desert, forest, grassland, drainage etc. Keeping in view land formation, climate, flora and fauna the country can be divided into 15 physiographic divisions/subdivisions and 48 provinces as per the National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organization of India (NATMO). The physical features and longest monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall sequence of different physiographic divisions/subdivisions (or provinces) have been constructed using the well spread network of 316 raingauge station across India. Using the GeoMedia Professional 5.1 GIS software, sequential rainfall maps of the country have been prepared showing the spatio-temporal variation (expansion/contraction) of annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall for the period 1871-2006. This present study emphasizes mainly over the north eastern range and its provinces (Assam Valley, Meghalaya and Purvanchal) consisting of all the north eastern states excluding the Arunachal Pradesh state. The geographical area of this physiographic region is 1,94,803 km2 with its annual mean rainfall of 2287.0 mm of which 2.1% occurs during winter, 24.3% during summer, 65.1% during monsoon and 8.5% during post-monsoon. Rainfall data of 14 raingauge stations have been used for this study. The mean rainy season starts from the 22nd March, and ceases by the 21st October. The mean duration of rainy season over the region is about 214 days with about 115 annual rainy days. The annual mean potential evapotranspiration (PE) is 1093.0 mm. which is about only 48% of the mean annual rainfall. The reliable rainfall sequence for this region could be developed for the period 1848-2006. Dominant epochs of the annual rainfall fluctuation are: 1857-1883 wet, 1884-1909 dry, 1910-1956 wet and 1957-2006 dry. The physical features of the minor physiographic provinces are as – Assam Valley province which is the Indian part of the Bramhaputra Valley spreads over 56,756 km2 with its annual mean rainfall of 2196.1 mm (winter 2.3%, summer 25.0%, monsoon 65.8% and postmonsoon 6.9%) and annual PE of 1,143.4 mm. The mean rainy season starts from the 23rd March and ceases by the 18th October. The mean duration of rainy season over the region is about 210 days with about 110 annual rainy days. The epochs of the annual rainfall fluctuations are: 1848-1881 wet, 1882-1909 dry, 1910-1932 wet, 1932-1945 dry, 1946-1961 wet and 1962-2006 dry Meghalaya province (area: 37,344 km2) is essentially the Meghalaya state. The mean annual rainfall is 2720.2 mm (winter 1.2%, summer 21.2%, monsoon 68.3% and post-monsoon 9.3%) with annual PE of 1023.8 mm. The mean rainy season starts from the 30th March and ceases by the 24th October. The mean duration of rainy season over the region is about 209 days with about 123 annual rainy days. Significant epochs in the annual rainfall fluctuations are: 1866-1873 dry, 1874-1906 wet, 1907-1925 dry, 1926-1956 wet and 1957-2006 dry. Purvanchal province (area: 100,709 km2) is the combined area of the Nagaland, the Manipur, the Mizoram and the Tripura states and eastern part of the Arunachal Pradesh. The mean annual rainfall is 2233.5 mm (winter 2.1%, summer 24.9%, monsoon 63.3% and post-monsoon 9.7%) with annual PE of 1078.2mm. The mean rainy season starts from the 19th March and ceases by the 21st October. The mean duration of rainy season over the region is about 217 days with about 117

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annual rainy days. The important epochs of the annual rainfall fluctuation are: 1849-1873 dry, 1874-1895 wet, 1896-1922 dry, 1923-196 wet and 1967-2006 dry. Over the north eastern range and its provinces, the respective annual mean potential evapotranspiration (PE) is significantly smaller than that of the annual rainfall received. This is an indicative of the annual excess water availability in this region but, being mostly hilly terrain with orographic barrier, requires a proper water resource management for its proper use. [AB120] Indigenous people, social taboos and biodiversity conservation. Gunjana Chaudhury and Prasanna K. Samal. G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, North East Unit. Vivek Vihar, Itanagar 791 113, Arunachal Pradesh ABSTRACT Biological diversity is an asset of vital significance to human beings with an immense potential for ensuing many unknown benefits to future generations. Owing to the important role played by biodiversity in the survival of mankind, this has called for the adoption of biodiversity conservation practices. The areas rich in biodiversity are abodes of diverse ethnic groups possessing a valuable reservoir of indigenous knowledge system (IKS) acquired and developed during a long period of time. Totems and social taboos of the indigenous people, as constituents of the IKS, play a major role in biodiversity conservation. But increased appreciation and adaptation of certain unsustainable components of modernization has enforced the indigenous people to follow lifestyles that are distinctly different from their livelihoods. This is eroding traditional values and beliefs, which were instrumental in conserving and/or protecting habitats or ecosystems. Hence there is a necessity for deeper understanding of social engineering of the indigenous communities for better conservation of biodiversity. Creating a sustainable mechanism by integrating traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) with modern policies and approaches for biodiversity conservation will critically require active and effective engagement of the indigenous people. Without their full engagement, major conservation initiatives under way today, both public and private, will be compromised. Keywords: Biodiversity, Conservation, Indigenous Societies, Social Taboos, Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Natural Resource Management.

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[AB121] Trophic interactions in an endemic ant-plant system Joyshree Chanam, Srinivasan Kasinathan, Amaraja Jagdish, Kanchan Anil Jogdev and Renee M. Borges Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore – 560012, Karnataka, India ABSTRACT Humboldtia brunonis (Fabaceae) is an ant-plant (myrmecophyte) endemic to the low elevation, tropical wet evergreen forests of the Western Ghats of India, and grows as an understorey tree in clumps. All individuals produce active extrafloral nectaries on the young leaves and sepals of young floral buds. Some individuals of the population have special modified swollen hollow internodes called ‘domatia’ which have a self-opening slit at one end. This system is unusual because the domatia house not only ants but various other invertebrates, the most unique being an arboreal earthworm. The host plant, thus, provides food (extrafloral nectar) and shelter (domatia) to the resident invertebrates. Because of its high abundance across its distribution, and association with myriad invertebrate species, this myrmecophytic system forms an important biodiversity link in the ecosystem of the Western Ghats. In most myrmecophytic systems, mutualistic interactions have been observed, where the host plant provides food and shelter while the resident ants, in return, protect the host plant from herbivores. However, significant protection mutualism has not been observed in the Humboldtia brunonis system except in the case of one resident ant species. Therefore the role of the non-protective inhabitants in this system calls for enquiry. The present study probes the possibility of trophic interactions between the host plant and its invertebrate inhabitants. We test the ability of the host plant to absorb nitrogen-rich nutrients of invertebrate origin from the domatia, and investigate whether added nitrogen-rich nutrients derived from invertebrates lead to greater fitness in terms of fruit-set. We also determine the dependence of the resident ants on extrafloral nectar as against other sugars sources such as honeydew which is also available in the same habitat. This will add to understanding the evolution and maintenance of myrmecophytism by trophic mutualism in the absence of protective ant species. Keywords: Humboldtia brunonis, myrmecophyte, domatia, extrafloral nectar, trophic interaction, mutualism

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[AB122] Knowing the importance of soil seed bank in vegetation analysis and species restoration Bobbymoore Konsam1, 2* and Shyam S. Phartyal1,2 Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, HNB Garhwal (Central) University Srinagar – 246174, Uttarakhand 2 North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Imphal – 795001, Manipur 1

ABSTRACT Seed is an important means of plants regeneration. Seed dispersal, germination and seedling establishment are key processes influencing the abundance and distribution of plants. Buried soil seed banks are present in nearly all ecosystems, and can be defined as an aggregation of viable ungerminated seeds potentially capable of replacing other existing plants in the course of natural regeneration. Characterization of the soil seed bank is one of the most important demographic assessments that can be undertaken for a plant community. The standing vegetation in many ecosystems may reflect only a part of existing plant diversity, which can further be augmented by knowing the diversity present in soil seed bank. The soil seed bank is the biodiversity reservoir which reflects the past ecological conditions and act as a potential seed source that can interplay between the seed bank and standing vegetation for a reliable prediction of the future composition and the successional pathway of plant communities. This is particularly true for the restoration of plant communities on degraded sites/land. Vegetation restoration on degraded land is often hindered by a lack of available propagules. Sometimes, natural seed dispersal is slow and unreliable and adding plants for restoration purpose become very expensive and difficult. Here, the soil seed bank plays an important role in the early stages of secondary succession and vegetation restoration. However, the contribution of the soil seed bank to restoration depends on the size of the soil seed bank, its species composition and the presence of suitable environmental cues for seedling emergence in that particular landscape or ecosystem. Thus, knowing about the potential of buried soil seed bank in any particular landscape is very important in order to analyze vegetation diversity and restore/conserve the native species whether it is in the degraded land or in the areas where species invasion took place. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation, regeneration, seed dispersal, soil seed bank ecology, vegetation restoration, etc.

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[AB123] Removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution and tannery effluent by heat treated biomass of Termitomyces clypeatus Lata Ramrakhiani and Suman Khowala Drug Development and Biotechnology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, (CSIR, Govt. of India), 4, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India E-mail: lata_ram@hotmail.com ABSTRACT Hexavalent chromium is contained in wastewaters produced by industrial processes, such as leather tanning, electroplating, metal finishing, metallurgical, dye, wood preservation and battery manufacturing. It is strong oxidizing agent capable of being absorbed through the skin and has carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogeic potential. Traditionally, heavy metals are removed by chemical precipitation, membrane process, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, liquid extraction and electro-dialysis. However these methods are non-economical and not very efficient to reduce the metal concentration to the level as required by environmental legislation. Recently, biosorption has gained momentum for employing low-cost biological materials (biosorbents) with effective binding capacities towards different heavy metal ions. The fungus Termitomyces clypeatus, is edible mushroom, commonly found in near-surface system can be exploited as ecofriendly and low cost materials for their biosorption properties. The heat treated fungus biomass has ability to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution and tannery effluent. The influences of different environmental parameters (pH, biomass dose, initial Cr concentration, contact time, shake condition) on biosorption were investigated. Adsorption characteristics fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and kinetics parameters are evaluated. Changes in surface properties of the biomass (before and after each metal adsorbed) were studied using potentiometric titration, functional group modification, FTIR, SEM-EDX analysis. Tannery effluents collected from a CETP of leather industry complex at Kolkata, India were characterized for physicochemical parameters and metal concentrations. The heat treated biomass was able to remove Cr up to 80.4% as well as Fe up to 45.21% from effluent without adjustment of pH. Thus the study offered an ecofriendly, easy to handle and efficient biosorbent for substantial decrease or complete removal of hexavalent chromium under weak acidic and neutral conditions that can solve one of challenges in industrial application of known biosorbents removing Cr (VI) only under strong acidic condition. Keywords: Termitomyces clypeatus, Biosorption, Cr(VI), Potentiometric titration, chemical modification, heat treated biomass.

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[AB124] Leguminous food and forage Diversity in Bundelkhand region of Central India Archana Singh Grassland & Silvipasture Division, Indian Grassland & Fodder Research Institute Jhansi-284 003 (U.P.) India Email: archanasingh69@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT An ethno-botanical survey was conducted to assess the diversity of leguminous species utilized by tribals of Bundelkhand region of Central India. An inventory of 42 under-utilized leguminous species belonging to 30 genera under 3 sub-families was made through survey and continuous visits to the area. Out of these 42 legumes, only 20 species were edible and used for vegetables and pulses. However, tribals and indigenous people of Bundelkhand were using all 42 legumes for forage purposes and as medicines for treatment of human and livestock diseases. Collected legumes showed different growth habit viz., herb (18 Spp.), tree (14 species), climber (6 Spp.), and shrub (4 Spp.). The life-saving qualities of the species were documented through interviews and discussions with tribal and indigenous people of that region. It was also recorded that among these species, 2 species are endangered, 4 species are vulnerable, 1 is at risk and 3 are at lower risk according to the threat status of the Madhya Pradesh state of India (IUCN guidelines). Keywords: Ethanobotany, Endangered, Medicine, Life saving, Quality, Livestock. [AB125] Decline in water quality of River Ganga in Haridwar city during summer (May-July). Mahavir Singh*, Monika Tyagi and Vandana Sati Beehive College of Engineering and Technology, Central Hope town, Beehive city, Selaqui, Dehradun.

ABSTRACT In this manuscript Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Ammonical Nitrogen are calculated by taking Ganga river water. Dissolved Oxygen levels as per the study at three sites namely Har ki pauri, Prem Nagar Ashram and Jatwara Pul were 2.4mg/L, 2.0mg/L and 1.6mg/L during May respectively. While, Dissolved Oxygen recorded during July were in the order of 6.8mg/L, 6.0mg/L and 5.2mg/L at the three sites respectively. The levels of Ca+2 and Mg+2are also show gradual increase as we proceed from Har ki pauri to Jatwara Pul. Similarly Hardness and Chloride ion shows similar pattern increase. Methods prescribed by APHA were used throughout the work. As per the study, the Ganga river water is not suitable for drinking purposes and it must be emphasized that water is used after remedial measures. Ganga water at Har ki Pauri is suitable for bathing purpose during both the months but at Prem Nagar Ashram and Jatwara Pul it cannot be recommended without treatment. The comparison of results of three sites indicate that water becomes more and more polluted as we move form Har ki Pauri to Prem Nagar Ashram and then to Jatwara Pul. Thus, the sample of Har ki Pauri cannot safely used for domestic purpose but Prem Nagar Ashram and Jatwara Pul water can be used after conventional treatment. If we compare this general study data with the time of Mahakumbh- 2010, then we can say that over a period of years pollution load over the river has increased manifold. The festivities are always accompanied by myriad of pollutants which remain in the system itself and disrupt the entire ecosystem.

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[AB126] Molecular farming Nilesh Patel Department of Biotechnology, Kadi Sarva Vishwavidyalaya, Gandhinagar. Email: patelnilesh744@gmail.com ABSTRACT Molecular farming is the production of pharmaceutically important and commercially valuable proteins in plants. Its purpose is to provide a safe and low-cost means for the mass production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins. Complex mammalian proteins can be produced in transformed plants or transformed plant suspension cells. Plants are suitable for the production of pharmaceutical proteins. The therapeutic proteins produced by plants range from interleukins to recombinant antibodies. Molecular farming in plants has the potential to provide limitless quantities of recombinant proteins for use as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in health care. Plants produce a large amount of biomass and protein production can be increased using plant suspension cell culture in fermenters, or by the propagation of stably transformed plant lines in the field. Transgenic plants can also produce organs rich in a recombinant protein for its long-term storage. This demonstrates the promise of using transgenic plants as bioreactors for the molecular farming of recombinant therapeutics, including vaccines, diagnostics, such as recombinant antibodies, plasma proteins, cytokines and growth factors. Keywords: Molecular, Pharmaceutical, Proteins. [AB127] Arsenic removal from ground water by Low Cost Method â&#x20AC;&#x201C; waste rust filter media Shailesh Kumar Jha and Yashvi Agrawal Environment Engineering Department, UPTU Email: jha.shailesh456@gmail.com, yashvi.agrawal12@gmail.com ABSTRACT Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a naturally occurring high concentration of arsenic in deeper levels of ground water, which became a high-profile problem in recent years due to the use of deep tube-well for water supply, causing serious arsenic poisoning to large numbers of people. A 2007 study found that over 137 million people in more than 70 countries are probably affected by arsenic poisoning of drinking water. Arsenic is a carcinogenic which causes many kinds of cancers including Skin, Lung, and bladder cancer as well as cardiovascular disease. Like many places of India, Arsenic in ground water is a serious problem at Bharatpur region of Rajasthan; the sample which was tested for arsenic was collected from ground water source from hand pump which was being used for so many daily needs like agricultural use, for animals and for drinking also. There the ground water was being processed by R.O but still the Arsenic removal was unsatisfactory. In this research work we did lots of experiments upon Bharatpur groundwater sample as well as on an artificial standard arsenic sample also and we found drastic results from it. This study was done to check potential of removing Arsenic from ground water by available waste of common Iron rust, which is chemically Fe2O3. It was found that the arsenic removal capacity of this rust is more than 90 % and which is superior than using hydrous ferric oxide (FeOOH) gel, for removing Arsenic, TDS and color too. In this work various experiments were done to prove the better Arsenic removal capacity of rust, which were compared with the results of FeOOH for various water parameters. Lastly it was found that using Iron rust is more efficient in removing arsenic from ground water.

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[AB128] Ecological corridors in urban areas: a case study for integrating ecological engineering in Mumbai region 1

Sagarika Damle, 2Shruti Barve, 3Pallavi Latkar and 4Nishith Dharaiya 1 K.C. College, Mumbai 2 N.M University Mumbai 3 Rachana Sansad Institute for Urban and Regional Planning Mumbai 4 HNG University Gujarat ABSTRACT

Biodiversity conservation is becoming a large concern with the rapid pace of urbanization in developing countries. Currently biodiversity conservation is limited to conservation of existing natural green areas, like National Park, and Sanctuaries. This research undertaken by the authors and funded by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Environment Improvement Trust, proposes to map association within and amongst communities to study, evaluate and make maximum use of such floral-floral and floral – faunal associations to develop and sustain the ecological balance of urban areas through natural processes. The research proposes ways of integrating this with urban landscaping to make the urban areas richer in biodiversity. Biodiversity in a forest ecosystem has been studied in many different aspects since long. There are number of checklists of species, stray notes and inventories available for almost all the Sanctuaries and National Parks of India. However, very little study has been carried out in Indian ecosystems that how different species in a community and different communities in an ecosystem are integrated and associated. It is also very essential and interesting to know that how these different floral-floral and floral –faunal associations are playing a role in sustaining the ecological balance. The growth trend towards rapid urbanization has been extremely detrimental to the biodiversity in and around the urban centres. Mumbai region boasts of varied biodiversity owing to its unique geographical location .The entire Mumbai metropolitan region spanning over 4,300sqkilometres is bestowed with large areas of land under reserved forests and marsh lands. These areas rich in biodiversity are fast depleting due to the growth of dense urban centres along the infrastructure routes leading to fragmentation of the rich bioreserves. Today it is extremely essential to have an acceptable qualitative idea of nature of relationships between components of the communities. The information pertaining to individual sites and soil fauna groups, their direct / indirect catalytic role or contribution to ecosystem metabolism is significant Keywords: Ecology, biodiversity, urban green corridors, landscape design, integrated urban planning, cluster plantations,

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[AB129] Competence of microsatellites in estimating the genetic diversity of Ricebean (Vigna umbellata) landraces 1

Pavithravani BV1, Rame Gowda1, Gireesh C2, Pramila CK1, Prakit Somta3 and Chikkadevaiah2 Department of Seed Science and Technology, 2 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding UAS, GKVK, Bangalore 3 Department of Agronomy, Kasetsart University, Thailand. Email: pavisst@gmail.com

Ricebean is a potential underutilized legume which is highly proteinacious and in future, with advancement in crop improvement programme for ricebean, it can become a boon legume crop for predominantly vegetarian country like India. As an initiation to the above, genetic diversity of crop landraces is essential in order to furnish new genes for crop improvement. With this rationale, an investigation was carried out to study the variation existing in the Indian landrace ricebean and to establish the genetic relationship among the accessions. As SSR markers are not available in Ricebean, considering that, SSRâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s are cross transferable between closely related species, a set of 28 legume specific primers (Azuki bean and cowpea) distributed in different chromosomes were used to estimate genetic diversity among 64 ricebean genotypes. A total of 99 alleles were detected at 28 loci using the above microsatellite primer pairs. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (CEDG116, CEDG139 etc) to 7 (CEDC12), with an average of 3.53 alleles per locus. The highest polymorphic information content (PIC) and gene diversity was generated by CEDC12 (0.75 and 0.77, respectively) followed by CEDG259 (0.70 and 0.74, respectively) with an average of 0.44 and 0.50, respectively. Heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.31 and the genetic similarity (GS) coefficient for all possible pairs of genotypes ranged from 0.15 to 0.83. The dendrogram, prepared on the basis of similarity matrix using the UPGMA algorithm, delineated the above genotypes into two major clusters (I and II), major cluster II consisted of 10 subclusters while major cluster II consisted of only one solitary accession from Japan (JP100304) which was unique and diverse with respect to all other genotypes. The results demonstrate the utility of microsatellite markers for estimating genetic diversity and selection of diverse genotypes in breeding programme for crop improvement. Keywords: Ricebean, microsatellites (SSR primers), genetic diversity and crop improvement

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[AB130] Baseline inventory of aquatic biodiversity of Rajmao phukuri (tank) at Jorhat, Assam Pramila Majumdar and Puja Khare CSIR- North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785 006, Assam ABSTRACT The present investigation aims to create an inventory of aquatic biodiversity of Rajmao phukuri (tank) at Jorhat, Assam. Extensive survey and sampling were carried out during the monsoon season. Surface water phytoplankton species were also studied. For this the water samples were collected from depth of 0 to 30 cms. Inventory of the aquatic macrophytes and phytoplanktons present was made. An attempt was also made to assess the water quality, the algal diversity data was used for calculating Palmers Pollution Index (PPI). Species richness was also examined. Physicochemical parameters like pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, nitrates etc were also investigated in surface water. For physicochemical analysis samples were collected from four different sites. Fishy odour was observed. A thin layer of green algae was observed in parts of the water tank. Low values of conductivity and TDS were observed at all the four sampling sites. To the best of the author's knowledge no studies have been made till date to investigate the water quality or biodiversity of many small water tanks scattered in and around Jorhat town of Assam. Small water bodies play a significant role in urban areas as not only do they increase the aesthetic value and are used for recreational purpose but they also play an important role in groundwater recharging. Built in 1816, Rajmao pukhuri under present study is one such tank located at a distance of about 1.79 kms away from the town centre. The tank is mainly used for recreational purpose. Fishing is being done and the water is also used for domestic purposes. Replenishment of water is done mainly by precipitation in this closed water tank. Keywords: Aquatic biodiversity, Macrophytes, Phytoplanktons, Physicochemical analysis, small water tank, urban [AB131] Role of Ecotourism in biodiversity conservation Anamika Agarwal and H.P. Singh Department of Environmental Science and Vocational Studies, Punjab University, Chandigarh ABSTRACT Considering the immense values of biodiversity and subsequent loss of the same, during past couples of decades, enormous conservation efforts were made for restoring the biodiversity of various habitats. Protected areas are the biodiversity rich areas they may consist of one or a combination of rare & endemic species of flora & fauna, abundant wild life and high indices of species diversity. Conservation has been challenged to design effective biodiversity conservation strategies in economically impoverished but biologically rich areas of the developing world. Ecotourism is often viewed as effective for promoting the conservation for endangered species and habitats in developing countries. By creating economic incentives for impoverished villages or their communities, ecotourism is thought to encourage local guardianship of biological resources. Ecotourism provides opportunities for visitors to experience powerful manifestations of nature and culture and to learn about the importance of biodiversity conservation and local cultures. At the same time ecotourism generates income for conservation & economic benefits for communities living in rural and remote areas. There is a need for long term research on issues, as well as the investigation of other sites experiencing tourist pressures. Research is also needed to determine what levels and rates of tourist traffic trigger negative impacts on wild life. This will enable park managers to set levels that will minimize the impacts on the biodiversity, the parks are established

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to protect. In effect science –based management of ecotourism and biodiversity conservation would make sound decision making. Keywords: Ecotourism, biodiversity, conservation, Protected Areas. [AB132] Bioprospecting of Thermophilic bacteria to mitigate the effect of climate change on crop plants Dushyant Pratap Singh, Sonia, Tripti Dogra, Kanika and J.C.Padaria NRC on Plant Biotechnolgy, New Delhi ABSTRACT Changes in long term environmental conditions that can be collectively coined climate change are known to have had enormous impacts on plant diversity patterns in the past and are seen as having significant current impacts. Abiotic stress that is already a major limiting factor in plant growth and will soon become even more severe. Abiotic stresses cause depreciation in crop yield upto 70%. Thus there is a need of crops which are tolerant to abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, temperature etc. In this respect, microbes which are well adapted to such harsh environment can be a source of useful genes for producing, thermotolerant crops. Thermophiles possess genes which help them to survive in extreme environmental conditions. Prospecting of genes for temperature tolerance from these microbes will help in producing thermotolerant crop varieties. Trehalose is the major compatible solute which is able to protect the integrity of the cell against a variety of environmental injuries (heat shock and osmotic stress) and nutritional limitations. In the present study, thermophilic bacteria were isolated from hot water springs (Temperature ranging 60-80) of India. The isolated bacteria were identified on the basis of biochemical and molecular characterization. 1.5 kb fragment of 16rDNA was amplified and sequenced. These isolates were screened for the presence of genes (otsA, otsB) which synthesis trehalose. These isolates were screened for presence of otsA and otsB gene using PCR amplification. Partial fragment of otsA, otsB gene of 700 bp was amplified and sequenced. Genome walking technique is being employed fir isolation of full length gene and these genes can be used for crop improvement by producing thermotolerant transgenic crops.

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[AB133] Pre-monsoon aerosol loading along the Indo-Gangetic Plain, India and its association with total ozone content S. D. Patil*, Devendraa Siingh, H. N. Singh and A. S. Gautam Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India. E-mail: patilsd@tropmet.res.in ABSTRACT Using the satellite measured total ozone content (TOC) and aerosol index (AI) dataset from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments for pre-monsoon season (March, April and May; MAM) during the period 1979–2005, the association between them has been brought out for three stations viz., New Delhi (28.65°N, 77.22°E), Banaras (25.32°N, 83.03°E) and Dumdum (22.65°N, 88.45°E) lying along the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and two hill stations viz., Mount Abu (24.36°N, 72.43°E) and Srinagar (34.08°N, 74.83°E). It has been observed that increase/decrease in AI is found to be associated with decrease/increase in TOC along the IGP region whereas the hill stations viz., Mount Abu and Srinagar have found to be decreased in both AI and TOC. The high latitude station (Srinagar) show lowering of AI compared to that of the low latitude stations viz. New Delhi, Banaras, Dumdum and Mount Abu suggesting the latitudinal variation of the aerosol concentration. TOC and AI show opposite tendency for all the stations along the IGP region. Increasing tendency in AI along the IGP region is similar with the observed trends in coal and petroleum consumption in India. Decrease in the TOC during the pre-monsoon season links with the long-range transport of aerosol over north India as well as the industrial growth and increasing anthropogenic activities in this region. Keywords: Total ozone content, Indo-Gangetic Plain, Aerosol index, Industrial growth, Premonsoon season [AB134] Role of engineers in climate change risk reduction Er. D.K. Khanda Basundhara-Garjanbahal Area, MCL, Sundargarh, Odisha, India Email: dkkhanda@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Climate change is the consequence of development especially the infrastructure. Climate change due to Green House Gas (GHS) emissions from anthropogenic as well as natural activities has become a major concern of the mankind in the earth planet. A number of studies shows that nations can reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 40-60 percent by 2050 through combining advanced energy efficiency approaches with low carbon technologies especially in the five fields: Decarbonising electricity generation, Energy efficiency in the use of electricity, More efficient vehicles, New fuels and demand containment in transport sector, Energy efficiency and new energy sources for heating & cooling and Technologies to drive emissions reduction. Substantial amount of GHG emission can be controlled giving due respect to the natural resource, indigenous technology and also by adopting advanced technology. Both mitigation and adaptation measures to be taken for effective and meaningful tackling strategy. Recent scientific evidence reaffirms that action to stop climate change must begin immediately to avoid irreversible damage. Increasing awareness of the dimensions and threat of climate change has elevated this issue to the top of the political agenda and brought about a political swell of public opinion demanding action. Cancun conference on climate change held in November-December-2010 was virtually not successful. An analysis of Cancun outcome reflects emission reduction burden shifted from developed to developing countries. India has to shift to inclusive growth on a sustainable trajectory that will require costlier clean technologies. It would take actions to reduce its future emissions but that could only be done

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at a space of which it could bear the costs. Engineers have bear at work to find out if there is a possibility of a third approach beyond mitigation and adaptation. A less explored avenue is geoengineering. This is where technology is used to remove CO2 from the atmosphere or where reflecting solar radiation back into space cools the planet. Role of engineers and scientists in mitigation and adaptation measures for climate change management is of paramount importance. But the lead role has gone to the engineers. However, this paper has made an attempt to highlight the role of engineers in climate change risk reduction. Keywords: Climate Change, GHG, Emission, Mitigation, Geo-engineering, Risk Reduction

[AB135] Biochemical Changes taking place under the influence of industrial effluents in human body with special reference to the status of essential metals Deepa Sethi Singh, Rahber Ul Islam and Yogesh Kumar1 Department of Zoology, Hindu College, Moradabad (U.P.) 1 M.J.P. Rohilkhand Univeristy, Bareilly Email: deepasethisingh@gmail.com ABSTRACT Industrial effluents exercise biochemical effects on human through change in normal level of body fluid pH and influence specific types of cell systems during onset of a health problem by depleting particular metal/metals and render the cell nutritionally deficient which attracts the environmental infection. The nature of depleted metal depends upon the chemical nature of effluents that also decide the nature of infection and cell systems to be involved in disease process. For identifying the nature of depleted metal /metals , biopsy material(scalp hair) are collected on random basis from workers engaged in different sections of the industry and subjected to elemental analysis using atomic absorption spectro photometer technique. Analytical data so obtained on comparison with standard values reveal the change in status of essential metals under the influence of industrial pollution. Keywords: Industrial effluents, essential metals [AB136] Studies on Ferromanganese nodule for NOx abatement Prasun Banerjee and S. N. Chaudhuri Dept. of Environmental Science, NIMS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan ABSTRACT In the fast moving world, the ongoing emission of NO is a serious persistent environmental x

problem, because these gases play an important role in the atmospheric ozone destruction and global warming. It is also known that NOx is one of the most important precursors to photochemical smog. Smog products irritate eyes and throat, evoke asthmatic attacks, reduce visibility and damages plants and materials as well. NO dissolve in cloud and precipitation water to form the x

strong acids HNO and HNO and thus form acid rain. For the past thirty years great effort were 2

3

made in research directed to find solutions for the NOx problem and it was observed that Selective catalytic reduction process is the most efficient process in NOx abatement. The aim of this study is to develop suitable cost effective catalysts for NOx abatement by using natural earth clay, marine

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Ferromanganese Nodule which is rich with base metals and exhibit equivalent or better working potential as compared to commercial SCR catalyst. A ferromanganese nodule based catalyst (PBSC-1) has been synthesized and assess for its efficiency on the selective catalytic reduction of NOx in flue gases using ammonia (NH3) as a reductant in the temperature range of 150-450°C. The BET method, XRD analysis and mercury pressure porosimeter have been used to characterize the catalysts developed. Effects of reaction parameters including temperature, space velocity, O2 concentration, and the ratio of NH3 to NO on the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 on the synthesized catalyst, as well as the chemical mechanisms and the side reactions involved have been examined. The catalyst shows high activity for NOx conversion (96%) with a NH3/NO ratio of about 0.900 in the presence of oxygen ( O 2 ) (2.5% v/v) at a temperature of 300°C. At a temperature of 300°C or below, only selective (desirable) catalytic reactions occur. NH3 was gradually oxidized to NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at temperatures above 300°C, and thus led to a low NOx removal efficiency. NOx conversion also with decreased with increasing space velocity between 20,000 and 60,000h-1. Results indicate that the PBSC-1 is a very promising and green catalyst for the elation of NOx using NH3 as a reductant in flue gases at low temperatures, and could be further developed as an efficient selective catalytic reduction (SCR)catalytic converter for removing NOx from diesel vehicle exhausts. Keywords: selective catalytic reduction; Ferromanganese nodule based catalyst; Nitrogen oxide gases; ammonia; Flue gas. [AB137] Removal of Pesticides from drinking water by sugarcane bagasse Samipa Dutta and S.N. Chaudhuri Department of Environmental Science, NIMS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan ABSTRACT Ground water pollution by pesticides from routine agricultural practices is a common and growing problem in the major agricultural sectors of the world. Drinking of pesticide contaminated water causes serious health hazards such as hormonal disruptions, reproductive failure, immune suppression, neurological disorders and cancer. Several efforts have been made to remove the pesticides from drinking water to limit human health risk and environmental pollution. Among the various processes commercially available activated carbon is widely used method but rather expensive. Bearing this in mind the possibility of using alternative adsorbent materials such as agricultural wastes which are easily available at a low cost has been studied. In the present study the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse – a agricultural waste was analysed for removal of Lindane (Hexachlorocyclohexane) and Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6isopropylamino-1, 3, 5-triazine), maximally used pesticides in Indian agricultural field, from drinking water. Activated carbon was fast and effective for the removal of Lindane and Atrazine because of its high surface area. The selected agricultural waste was prepared in the form of granular activated carbon by pyrolysis process. Experiments were carried out with the known concentration of each pesticide solution and specific amount of adsorbent at a different temperature (20°C to 50°C) and pH (2 to 10) at 60 minutes contact time. Spectrophotometric analyses were performed to evaluate pesticides concentration. The results indicated that pesticide adsorption depends on temperature and pH. Sugarcane bagasse showed maximal removal efficiency 97.57% and 98.35% for Lindane and Atrazine respectively at 30°C temperature and pH 6. This study demonstrates that sugarcane bagasse can be very effective in the adsorption of Lindane and Atrazine from drinking water. Keywords: Pesticides, Sugarcane Bagasse, Drinking water, Activated carbon.

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[AB138] Feeding ecology of sloth bear in Jassore wildlife sanctuary with special reference to seasonal variation in diet composition Darshan Sukhadiya, Joshi J.V*; Patel Darshana and Nishith Dharaiya Department of Life Sciences, Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University, Patan (384265) Gujarat *Deputy Conservator of Forest, Nadiyad Division (Kheda) Email: sukhadiya.darshan@gmail.com, nadharaiya@gmail.com ABSTRACT North-east Gujarat is known for one of the highly dense population of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus). The forests are mostly patchy, fragmented, degraded, and interspersed with crop fields and villages with high human and cattle population. Local community around the forest are mainly depending upon the local forest produces and sharing many resources with the wildlife lives therein, which seldom results in the human-wildlife confrontation and conflicts. The present study has been carried out to know the food composition of sloth bear in the area and the seasonal variation in their food. Scat analysis technique was employed to know the food of bear in different season. The scat analysis revealed that bears in the area are mainly feed on fruits of mainly 5 plant species, following to termites, ants, and bees. Significant variations has observed in food composition of sloth bear was observed as animal matters found high n bear diet during monsoon and winter, while during summer the bears are mainly depends on the plant matters for food. Frequency of occurrence of insects was high during monsoon (60.21%) and winter (36.65%), where as Zyzypus fruits were more common (65.95%) during summer. Zyzypus species appear to be important food resources for bear, especially when fields lack crops, few other species are fruiting, and soil is hard, making it difficult to dig for ants and termites. Keywords: Feeding ecology; food; sloth bear; scat; plant; season; plat metter. [AB139] Faunal diversity in High Himalayas of Nepal and conservation issues Tej Kumar Shrestha G.P.O Box 6133, Tribhuvan University Road, Kathmandu, Nepal ABSTRACT Nepal presents highest environmental gradient on earth contributing high faunal and floral diversity. The paper describes fauna diversify of High Himalayas and conservation issues. It describes factors contributing diversity and examines closely social and anthropomorphic issues related to habitat and climatic change. Various attempt made in habitat conservation and restoration are highlighted. Faunal hotspots are identified in different habitats and altitudes. For rare and endangered species as Mahseer Tor tor, Tor putitora Spiny babbler Turdoides nipalensis, Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus, Lynx Felis lynx, Apodemus flavicollis gurkha and Ganges river dolphin Platanista gangetica etc .The conservation needs of many diverse resident and migratory wetland species are stressed. Establishment of more biospheric reserves, sanctuaries river parks, observatories and beauty spots in different faunal hot spots are suggested to heighten public awareness about rarified animals. The paper concludes by giving new expanded approach biodiversity conservation and research policy formulation.

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[AB140] Survey and identification of plant diversity in Andhra Loyola College of Krishna District B. Siva Kumari Center for research and U.G. and P.G Department of Botany, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh ABSTRACT In recent years, interest in medicinal plants has increased considerably. The variety and shared number of plants with therapeutic properties is quite astonishing. World Health Organization has listed 20,000 medicinal plants and India has about 2000 drugs that are of plant origin. Andhra Loyola College is one of the oldest Colleges in Andhra Pradesh established in 1954 situated in the heart of Vijayawada city, it occupies nearly 100 acres of land and it acts as a store house for many plants. We conducted qualitative field surveys during 2006-2010 which were aimed at the documentation of floristic diversity with special reference to Medicinal plants, We identified 650 species so far which includes herbs, shrubs and trees. Out of all the plants one third of them have well recorded medicinal properties and it is used widely in alternative medicine for treating various ailments. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F), Strychnos nux- vomica L.,Calophyllum innophyllum L., Gymnema sylvestre L., Centella asiatica L., Vitex negunda L., Becopa moneri L., Saraca indica L., Tylophora indica L., Curcuma aromatic L., Cretaeva nurvala L., Rouwoufia serpentina L., Withania somnifera L., Stevia arudinacea L., Costos L. Desmodium gangeticum L., Carulluma adcendens L., are some of the important medicinal plants found in the campus. College has some important endemic rare plants like Crecentia cujete L., Elaeocarpus, Smilax zeylonica, Gloroisa Superba L., Metrygyna parvifolia L., Pterocarpus santalinus L., Santalum album L., Annona muricata L., present. Phytochemical and anatomical studies carried out in Crecentia cujete plant. Keywords: Rich bio-diversity, Conservation, Field survey, preservation, medicinal plants and rare plants. [AB141] Fly ash utilization – an attempt towards sustainable development Vikas Srivastava, Arpan Herbert*, R. K. Pandey, S. K. Singh and N. N. Harry Department of Civil Engineering, SHIATS (Formerly AAI-DU), Allahabad – 211007 ABSTRACT Owing to growing industrialization, urbanization, advancement in agricultural methods and techniques, upliftment of living standards in all sectors of life; power demand is growing day by day. In India almost 73% of power generation is based on thermal power plant. Fly ash is by-product of power plant resulting from combustion of coal and fossil fuel. More than 150 million tonne of fly ash is produced every year which will further increase due to growing demand of power. The disposal of such huge quantity of fly ash is a challenge to environmentalist and technocrats. The use of industrial or agricultural by-product for conventional building material has greatly contributed to sustainable development practice. Fly ash is a waste material which can be used in construction activities in several means. Use of fly ash in construction activities would be beneficial in controlling environmental pollution on the one hand and producing cheaper construction element on the other hand. This paper presents the scope of utilization of fly ash in construction activities in various means. Keywords: Fly Ash, Urbanization, Coal, Construction, Utilization, Environment

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB142] Water harvesting: Problems and solutions (With special reference to Brhatsaṁhitā of Vārāhamihira) Mamta Tripathi and Mukesh Kumar Mishra Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi Email: mamtatripathi.jnu@gmail.com, mukeshscssjnu@gmail.com ABSTRACT Water is essential for all creatures. Today we are facing much crisis regarding water availability. The technique of exploring groundwater in India goes back to antiquity. There is a great discussion about water, water level, water quality, evidence and indication of ground water, cloud formation and rainfall in Brhatsaṁhitā of Vārāhamihira. He called this technique of water-exploring as Udakārgala, which evidently refers to the determination of the existence of water (udaka) below the ground surface. Vārāhamihira says that water falls from the sky with the same colour and taste; assume various colours and tastes due to the difference in the nature of earth. The presence of water was ascertained mainly through the presence of vegetation. In Brhatsaṁhitā various types of clay, ant-hills, snake’s abode, frogs and their colours, various types of trees, bushes, groves, grasses and different ecological and environmental interactions are mentioned as indicator of ground-water. Ground water current can identify by a number of Flora and fauna, soils, rocks and insects. There is a list of herbs and other materials to ensure safety of drinking water. The text Brhatsaṁhitā deals various subjects as cloud formation, rainfall and its quantity, the appropriate planetary conjunctions, signs of immediate rain, digging of wells, plantation of different kinds of tree, drought, flood and hurricanes, etc. Brhatsaṁhitā also describes the relationships between irrigation tanks and trees. Vārāhamihira provided detailed scientific instructions on tank construction and direction about species to be planted on the edges of tanks. According to him, the edge of tanks should be planted, Saraca asoka (Aśoka) Ficus benghalensis (Baragada), Mangifera indica (Ᾱmra), Ficus religioa (Pīpala), Terminalia arjuna (arjuna), Syzgium cumini (Jāmuna) and Madhuca indica (Mahuā). We can get some ideas about tree-plantations and water-harvesting from Brhatsaṁhitā for maintenance of our ground-water-level as well as sustainable development. This paper presents views of Vārāhamihira on hydrology and its relevance for water-harvesting. Keywords: Water harvesting, Vārāhamihira, Brhatsaṁhitā, ground water, sustainable development, hydrology.

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[AB143] Wetlands of Punjab: An Overview M.S Dhanya Centre for Environmental Science & Technology, Central University of Punjab Email: dhanyasubramanian@gmail.com ABSTRACT India has totally 67,429 wetlands, covering an area of about 4.1 million hectares which accounts 18.4% of the country’s geographic area. The value of the wetlands are increasingly receiving due attention due to their contribution to a healthy environment in many ways such as habitat for rare, endangered and commercially or recreationally important species, feeding and breeding areas for wildlife, balancing hydrological cycle, water quality improvement and flood water storage. The wetland in Indian region has 930 species of freshwater fishes of which 223 or 8.7 percent are endemic; 220 species of freshwater molluscs, nearly 250 species of frogs and 242 of the Indian birds are wetland dependent. The major wetlands in Punjab are Harike, Kanjli and Ropar, which has been recognized as Ramsar sites, wetlands of international significance. These wetlands are avian paradise for many species but due to many causes like irrigation, discharge of untreated waste from catchment town, deforestation in lower Shivaliks, causing soil erosion and siltation, water quality degradation by fertilizer and thermal power plants in the vicinity made 67 bird species out of 90 under the rank of threatened species. The illegal fishing and poaching of wildlife also puts these species in danger. Punjab, according to the 1992-’93 satellite data, has 1,821 wetlands of the size 56.25 ha and above, covering an area of 718.75 sq km of wetlands. The district of Ferozepur has the largest number of wetlands (340), while the district of Amritsar has the largest extent of area under wetland (335.07 sq km). Punjab has seven Endangered and eight Vulnerable species of fishes; one each of Critical and Endangered, three Vulnerable, two Near Threatened and one Least Concern species of freshwater turtles; and four Threatened and two Near Threatened species of birds. The White breasted Water hen, Little Cormorant and the Indian Moorhen were the widely distributed species. Eutrophication in the wetland has resulted infestation of water hyacinth in heavy amount and resulting in the choking of water ways. The present paper is aimed at providing information on the distribution of wetlands, the value of wetlands and impact of the loss of wetlands in Punjab state. Keywords: wetlands, Ramsar sites, endangered, eutrophication

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[AB144] Plastic Pollution: A threat to environment M.K.Singh and K.K.Upadhyaya1 Department of Chemistry,Govt. P.G.College Dholpur ITM University, Gwalior1 Email: mks6092002@yahoo.com and kkupadhyay1980@gmail.com ABSTRACT

Plastics are non-biodegradable made from petroleum by chemical processes. Plastics earned their name from the Greek word `PASTIKO` meaning to mould or shape a soft substances permanent or temporary. Plastics are used because they are easy and cheap to make and they can last a long time. Unfortunately these same useful qualities can make plastic a huge pollution problem. Because the plastic is cheap, it gets discarded easily and its persistence in the environment can do great harm. Every year, around 500 billion plastic bags are used worldwide, over one billion bags are being used every minute and they are damaging our environment. India’s plastics consumption is one of the highest in the world. Plastics bags are difficult and costly to recycle and most end up on landfill sites where they take around more than 300 years to photo-degrade. They break down into tiny toxic particles they contaminate the soil and waterways and enter the food chain when animals accidentally ingest them. Plastics in the environment are regarded to be an aesthetic nuisance than the hazard, since the material is biologically quite inert. According to an estimate more than 100 million tone of plastic is produced every year all over the world. In India it is only 2 million tones. In India the use of plastic is only 2 kg per person per year while in European countries it is 60 kg per person per year while that in US it is 80 kg per person per year. If each one of us resolves to keep out use of plastics to the minimum and maintain our locality clean and safe, part of the battle is won. [AB146] Utilization of industrial waste in construction Vikas Srivastava*, Arpan Herbert, S. K. Singh, Y. K. Bind and V. C. Agarwal Department of Civil Engineering, SHIATS (Formerly AAI-DU), Allahabad – 211007 ABSTRACT Incremental growth in industrialization leads to production of huge amount of different types of wastes. By-products resulting from industrial processes and activities are mostly in abundance in various landfill sites. Disposal issue of waste products is a challenge for the community. Some of these materials are not biodegradable and often leads to disposal crisis and environmental pollution. Construction sector’s major contribution towards preservation of environment and sustainable development lies in recycling and reuse of the waste material. Different types of wastes can be used as supplementary material as an alternative of conventional material in construction activities. Of late the inclusion of different types of by-products in cement based materials and in aggregate has become a common practice. By substitution of wastes as supplementary material a cheaper construction can be achieved in addition to diminish the threat of environmental hazard. In this paper an attempt is made to study the scope of utilization of several industrial wastes as supplementary materials and their properties in various construction activities. Keywords: Industrial Waste, Environment, Conventional Material, Construction Activities

Supplementary

Material,

Partial

Replacement,

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB147] Role of women in conservation of forest biodiversity Sonia Saini Department of Botany, Isabella Thobur n College, Lucknow E-mail: lalitsonia29@gmail.com ABSTRACT Women are considered the primary users of natural resources i.e. Land, Forest and water, because they are the ones who are responsible for gathering food, fuel and fodder. Rural women tend to have a closer relationship with the environment, which promotes a new culture of respectful use and preservation of natural resources and the environment and and other natural resources. . They are more close to the nature than men and this very close relationship makes them perfect managers to maintain an eco-system properly women in India are playing a crucial role in Chipko movement: The women embracing the trees did not tag their action as feminist activism; protection and conservation of environment, Amrita Devi.The Green Belt movement which is one of the biggest in women and environment history, Nobel Prize (2004) winner Wangari Maathai of Kenya founded this movement on the World Environment Day in June 1977. Rachel Carson is the outstanding women environmentalists and ecologist. She argued that industrial activities such as pesticides use can damages the earth ecosystem. Maria Cherkasova is famous editor of USSR, Red Data Book. She was coordinating a campaign to stop construction of hydro-electric dam on the Katun River. Megha Patkar; movement was against the project of Narmada Bachao Andolan over Sardar Sarovar & Narmada Sagar project. Sushila Nepali worked along Nepal's border with India by restored through natural regeneration & plantations in"Terai Arc".Indira Gandhi in the International conference in conservation of natural resource in front of 113 countries, 17 inter governmental agencies 2400 NGOs, as the scientific management to provide food, water, sanitation and shelter of making the desert green and the mountains habitable. AmritaDevi Bishnoi (in 1542 A.D) has laid down her life by hugging a 'khejri' tree during its felling by the people of king of Jodhpur State. Sunita Narain: is an Indian environmentalist and worked both on forest-related resource management and water-related issues. . Vandana Shiva is environmentalist worked on biodiversity. .she wrote a report on Women and Agriculture entitled, “Most Farmers in India are Women. . The world realizes, clearly today that real development cannot take place if it by-passes women, who not only represent half of the humanity, but represent the very wide role around which social change takes shape. National Commission for women, through an act, of Parliament, to serve as a king of ombudsman for women. . Keywords: Environment, Conservation, Biodiversity, Women

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[AB148] Ethnomedicinal shampoo practiced by the local people of Puttur taluk of Karnataka for healthy hair Deviprasad K. N Department of Botany, Vivekananda College, Puttur – 574203, Karnataka Email: deviprasad.botany@gmail.com ABSTARCT Many countries in the world have decided to integrate traditional medicine in to their primary health systems. In these systems ethnobotanical research plays a crucial role in documenting the traditional health. A great deal of research is currently being focused worldwide on various herbs and traditional medicine in the hope that new cures for illness and disease can be found. In areas where the people are moving from traditional life styles, careful ethnobotanical documentation can provide the needed foundation for educational program. Now it is our duty to acknowledge traditional medicines as a part of primary health care to increase access to care and preserve knowledge and resources and also to ensure the use of safe, effective and quality products and practices based on available evidence. The main object of the present study is to document the indigenous knowledge of wild plants used to produce shampoo and to provide scientific basis for further research. The present investigations focus on the ethnobotanical study of important medicinal plants used to produce shampoo powder, oil and soap for maintaining the healthy hair. Indian traditional shampoo reduces hair fall, removes lice, reduce dandruff, conditions your hair and helps grow your hair long and strong. The present study reviews the ethnomedicinal shampoo practiced by the local people of Puttur taluk of Karnataka state for healthy hair. Keywords: ethnobotanical, indigenous knowledge, shampoo, medicinal plants

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[AB149] Refurnishing ecological system: A study in need and mode Pranjal Kamra and Shobhit Mishra Hidyatullah National Law University Chhattisgarh Email: shobhitmishra.hnlu@gmail.com ABSTRACT Wildlife Protected Areas are often assumed to exist for the sole purpose of protecting the fauna but the scope of Wildlife Protected Areas can vary from a specific variety of specific specie to the entire variety of wildlife available. Wildlife Protected Areas are of various kinds depending on the level of protection required to species and their vulnerability of being harmed by human interventions. India is blessed with huge variety of wildlife and doomed with huge quantity of human life. The chasm between increasing human life and decreasing wildlife is disaster further more wildlife in India is not only necessary to maintain the ecosystem but also the economic system. The function of Wildlife Protected Areas in India is not restricted to just protecting the flora and fauna but is aimed at aggressive protection of wildlife i.e. not merely protecting them aimlessly but bringing them out from the need of active protection. This paper aims to elaborate the problems in establishing Wildlife Protected Areas and maintaining their “Protected Status”. The paper would explain the level of protection each kind of Wildlife Protected Areas offers as per the listing with respect to “reserveness” they inherit Nature as per the IUCN guidelines. Further it aims to elaborate the importance of informed interventions when a specific wildlife rehabilitation program is planned, informed intervention includes oscillations related to rainfall and ecological factors for determining whether the species of flora and fauna, rehabilitated under the program would sync with the ecological environment and rainfall etc. This is especially important when providing A-LaCarte protection to specie of flora and migrating birds which forms the crux of the paper. India’s efforts to “protect” wildlife is often inter mixed with Individual efforts to “conserve” wildlife. The paper aims at distinguishing protection (saving the present) from conservation (protecting for the future).The paper finally strives to expand the scope of protection from mere saving the available to acquiring the “able” and thus enhancing the assertive multiplicity. Keywords: Aggressive Protection, Informed Intervention, Wildlife Rehabilitation, A-La-Carte Protection, Legislative Awakening, Assertive Multiplicity

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[AB150] Ethnoveterinary practices for cattle diseases in Puttur taluk of Karnataka state Kiran M.P, Shivaprakash and Deviprasad Department of Botany, Vivekananda College, Puttur, Karnataka Email: deviprasad.botany@gmail.com ABSTRACT Ethnoveterinary medicine encompasses the knowledge, skills, methods, practices and beliefs about animal health care found among the members of local community. Ethnoveterinary medicines are used extensively and quite effectively for primary health care treatment and maintaining animals productive. India has great traditional background in the field of ethnoveterinary medicine and practices but in the modernization this knowledge is vanishing gradually. The traditional treatment of the animals due to the lack of proper documentation, restricted to few herbal healers in our society. They keep no records and information is mainly passed on verbally from generation to generation. Hence documentation of this knowledge is urgently needed for the proper application in future. Documentation and standardization of ethnovterinary knowledge are also important in the context of Intellectual Property Rights [IPRs]to check the patent claims. Indigenous veterinary remedies are typically made from plant preparations. This paper deals with the indigenous knowledge of local people on medicinal plants used for curing various veterinary diseases. Therefore efforts should be made to retain this valuable information for validation and future uses. The present paper reports the age-old and time tested ethnoveterinary practices of many types of cattle diseases that are known to be treated by several plant resources available in the study site. Keywords:

Ethnoveterinary medicine, indigenous knowledge, Documentation, traditional

[AB151] A study on fascinating life cycle of Butterflies of Western Ghats parts of Puttur Taluk in Karnataka State Deepak Naik, Vishwas and Deviprasad K.N Department of Botan, Vivekananda College, Puttur, Karnataka Email: deviprasad.botany@gmail.com ABSTRACT In terms of indicator organisms for biodiversity studies, butterflies are an excellent choice. Their diversity and community composition are dependent on that of plants, as their caterpillars have strict dependence on specific host plants. As they undergo metamorphosis ecologically they contribute more to local diversity because of their dual fundamental role than the monographic organisms. Therefore they should be given more prominence in diversity studies. From egg to adult butterflies undergo a metamorphosis that is complex and often beset with problems like weather, predators, lack of food and human encroachment on habitat. The basic health of our ecosystem is directly dependent on number of butterfly species .Butterflies provide aesthetic appeal and are connected with all plants and crops at all stages of their lifecycle. The lifecycle of butterflies is one of the fantastic and fascinating occurrence of many kinds in the nature .The metamorphosis of butterflies is a natural metaphor for the transformation of human spirit. This study focused on detailed study of lifecycle of butterflies of Western Ghats parts Puttur taluk in Karnataka .This study focused on life cycle of several butterflies and explained how life cycle of a butterfly is a remarkable series of changes between seemingly very different forms culminating in the emergence of butterflies. Keywords: ethnobotanical, indigenous knowledge, shampoo, medicinal plants

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[AB152] Promoting intergenerational partnerships in conservation and sustainable development: the role of the IUCN Commission for Environmental, Economic and Social Policy (CEESP) Youth Network Shalini Dhyani and Catie Burlando IUCN CEESP Youth Network ABSTRACT The IUCN World Conservation Strategy (1980) and the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) both recognized the value of intergenerational equity. Expressed through the concept of sustainable development, it embodied a concern for “the needs and aspirations of future generations” (Bruntland, 1987). This focus has become all the more prominent as the youth of today have both special concerns and responsibilities in relation to the changing environments in which they live. A number of environmental risks and hazards disproportionately affect young people and their families. They have inherited deteriorating environments where rapacious forms of development and enclosures have depleted needed resources and constrained access. Young people face the challenges of adapting to different forms of stress in their environments and their communities, including climate change, and responding through innovative solutions. Through new forms of action and activism, youth are involved in generating effective responses to ecological challenges in ways that go often unnoticed—in their communities, their regions, and internationally. Across the board, youth are taking responsibilities as stakeholders, policy makers and a major resource group, galvanizing support from other stakeholders, promoting a link between generations, and acting as a catalyst for fostering change. Whether this capability is expressed through explicit youth mobilization, or through every-day forms of action, the sustained engagement of youth and the creation of intergenerational partnerships is a required strategy in conservation and sustainable management. Since the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, individual youth have been participating in international negotiations related to different environmental and sustainable development issues. At the 2008 World Conservation Congress held in Barcelona, young professionals also became involved in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) with the explicit goal to bring forward youth voices, and to foster intergenerational partnerships for sustainability. IUCN Commissions have since then committed to establishing a strong young professionals’ presence within their own commissions. The Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy (CEESP) is an inter-disciplinary network of professionals whose mission is to act as a source of advice for the IUCN on the environmental, economic, social and cultural factors that affect natural resources and biological diversity and to provide guidance and support towards effective policies and practices in environmental conservation and sustainable development. The network of expert volunteers provides technical advice, leads policy reforms, and works to enhance the tools, knowledge and standards of practice that inform and shape the governance of conservation and sustainable development. The CEESP Youth Network is an emergent team of young and committed practitoners and professionals who envision an intergenerational community of leaders who learn and work together within and through IUCN, for a just, sustainable and peaceful world. Our mission is to contribute to CEESP's work program through intergenerational partnerships between established and emerging leaders and CEESP thematic and regional groups. Our goals are to recognize and support emerging leaders in the structures, policies and activities of CEESP; promote the involvement of youth in the development of CEESP policy and policy-making; and foster cross-commission collaboration to increase intergenerational discussion of and participation in IUCN activities. For more information on our activities, or if you would like to join our network, please visit: http://www.iucn.org/about/union/commissions/ceesp/ http://intergenerationalpartnership.wikispaces.com/yp-ceesp

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[AB153] Effect of Na2CO3 on micropropagation of Stevia rebaudiana (natural sweetener) Pratibha Gupta1, Satyawati Sharma1 and Sanjay Saxena2 Center for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi (India) -110016 2 The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi (India) -110003 Email: pratibha.iitd@gmail.com, satyawatis@hotmail.com, sanjays@teri.res.in

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ABSTRACT Salinity is a stress factor that has a major impact in semi arid and arid regions. In the terrestrial environment, salt is also a limiting factor. Stevia rebaudiana is a multipurpose medicinal plant in all the ways and known as producer of diterpenoid steviol glycoside (SGs) which is highly sweet compound non-toxic and non-mutagenic in nature. Stevia has shown promise in medical research for treating a number of health problems like obesity, high blood pressure etc and has negligible effect on blood glucose. The cultivation of Stevia plant on wasteland will lead to proper utilization of wasteland besides increasing its production for the use for medicinal purposes. Hence, the development of appropriate techniques for in vitro culture and micropropagation of Stevia (natural sweetener) is necessary for germplasm collection, breeding program and mass propagation for meeting the supply of demand. Although much research work has been done on Stevia regarding it potential uses and in vitro propagation, no work has been done on raising of salt tolerant saplings of Stevia for wasteland utilization. Nodal explants (collected form in vitro raised shoots of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) were cultured on MS medium (1962) with vitamins, sucrose (30 g/l) and supplemented with 4.0 mg/l of kinetin and different concentrations of Na2CO3 (0.025%, 0.05%, 0.075% and 0.10%) to produce salt tolerant saplings. It was observed that Na2CO3 gave better results as compared NaCl and NaHCO3. The shoot proliferation response was found maximum (95.5 %) on 0.025% of Na2CO3 and minimum (44 %) with 0.10 % Na2CO3. It was seen that Stevia rebaudiana grew well in the MS Basal Media supplemented with 4.0 mg/l kinetin. It was also observed that number of shoots/node, multiplication fold and shoot length got decreased with increased concentrations of Na2CO3. The paper will present the findings on the effect of Na2CO3 on in vitro culturing of Stevia rebaudiana. Keywords: Stevia, micropropagation, Kinetin, Na2CO3.

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[AB154] Water Quality Assessment of River Yamuna in Delhi stretch during Idol immersion MP George and Biba Jasmine Kaur Delhi Pollution Control Committee, 4th Floor, ISBT Building, Kashmere Gate, Delhi 110006, India Email: srscitdpcc.delhi@nic.in, bibajasmine@gmail.com

ABSTRACT The manuscript deals with the assessment of water quality of River Yamuna during the idol immersion. Yamuna enters Delhi at Palla village bordering Haryana, about 15 km upstream of the Wazirabad barrage, which acts as a water reservoir for Delhi, and exits at the Okhla barrage, covering a total stretch of 40 km. Yamuna is the not only a sacred river according to the Indian mythology but is also life line of the National Capital and particularly plays a significant role in the economy of the country. Immersion of idols in the river during the festival season has become a cause for concern because of increased use of cheap lead and chrome-based paints in most of them. Increased use of plaster of Paris is not only affecting the humans and animals dependent on them but is also deteriorating the ecological condition of the river. During the immersion ceremony, puja articles such as polythene bags, foam cut-outs, flowers, food offerings, decorations, metal polish, plastic sheets, cosmetic items, all of which are highly polluting, are also thrown into the water. Most of these throwaway items being non-biodegradable and contain harmful heavy metals that is harmful to animals and to humans. The study was conducted by the Delhi Pollution Control Committee. The sampling was done in three phases; pre idol immersion sampling, during idol immersion and post immersion sampling. The samples were collected from 13 different locations of the Yamuna along the Delhi stretch, primary sites for practicing idol immersion. The following parameters were analyzed to assess the quality of the river: Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total solids, and pH. Methods prescribed by APHA were used throughout the work. The composed data was analyzed for the year 2011, to understand deterioration in the water quality of the river due to idol immersion practices. According to the results, the value of DO, BOD, Total Solids and COD were found to vary from 6.07.5 mg/L; 3.3-38 mg/L; 430-1268 mg/L; 28-136 mg/L respectively. The low levels of DO and high BOD and Total solids levels at different sites indicate the poor water quality due to idol immersions. The study demands not only concrete measures, awareness and consciousness among the masses to practice immersion of idols in a more responsible way as the idol immersion activity has not only grossly polluted the river but has also affected the human health and bio-diversity of the river eco-system. Keywords: Yamuna, Pollution, Idol immersion, Water quality, Immersion guidelines

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[AB155] Climate change and vulnerability of indigenous underutilized vegetables of South/Southeast Asia, India: A review Senjam Jinus Singh1, Sanjive Kumar Singh2, N. Reemi Devi3, N. Ram Singh4 and Senjam Jharna5 1, 2 Department of Vegetable Science. 3Department of Food science & Nutrition, C. S. Azad University of Agriculture &Technology, Kanpur-208 002, U.P. India. 4 Department of Agricultural Economics, Central Agriculture University, Imphal-795001, Manipur. 5 Department of Geology, Punjab University, Chandigard-160014, India. ABSTRACT Climate change is predicted to bring about increased temperatures across the world in the range of 1.6°C to as much as 6°C by 2050. It is likely to be an additional threat to agricultural biodiversity, increasing genetic erosion of landraces and threatening wild species, including crop wild relatives. Global diversity in vegetable crops is estimated at approximately 400 species, with approximately 80 species of major and minor vegetables reported to have originated in India. South/Southeast Asia is a centre of diversity of a number of tropical and temperate vegetables; Indian subcontinent comprising vast semi-arid and arid areas have enormous diversity of underutilized vegetables species. The underutilised vegetables crops indigenous to India like vegetables; Amaranthus tricolor, A. dubius and tristis, Brassica juncea var. rugosa, Corchorus olitorius, Eryngium foetidum, Fagopyrum esculentum, F. tataricum, Leucas aspera, Spilanthes oleracea, Rumex vesicarius, R. acetosella, R. patientia, R. scutatus; Chekkurmanis, Star gooseberry, Spine gourd, Kakrol, Water hyssop, Indian brahmi(green), B. alba var., rubra (red); Indian spinach, Poi, Moringa oleifera; Drumsticks, Horse Radish tree, Tree bean (Yongchak), Bhut Jolokia(U-Morok); C.chinense Jacq, Solanum indicum; Bush tomato, Indian nightshade, Sechium edule, ridged gourd and smooth gourd (Luffa spp.), Praecitrullus fistulosus, Trichosanthes dioica, Coccinia indica, rat tailed radish/mungra (Raphanus caudatus), rice bean, winged bean, adzuki bean, sword bean, tuberous/ rhizomatous types as taro/yam, Amorphophallus campanulatus and some bamboos species are directly interwoven in the socio-economic fabric of rural masses and especially of tribes dwelling in remote hot, arid and fragile ecosystems. These potential crops of the future are awaiting their full utilization now. The impacts of climate change on natural environments could result in the loss of genetic diversity from areas which experience major environmental or climatic disturbances. Moreover, the effects of natural disasters such as the Indian’s ocean 2004 Tsunami; the 2008 earthquake in Sichuan, China, hurricane “Nargis” in Myanmar, and the monsoon flood in Bihar, India, for e.g., on the loss of local plant species cannot be underestimated. Unfortunately, underutilized species are especially vulnerable to climate change because they do not receive management interventions that help them adapt to changing conditions. Vegetables species are generally sensitive to environmental extremes, and thus high temperatures and limited soil moisture are the major causes of low yields in the tropics and will be further magnified by climate change. Meanwhile, Climate change, as well as changing pest and disease patterns, is likely to affect how food production systems perform in the future. These factors will directly influence food security and poverty levels, particularly in countries with a high dependency on agriculture. In addition, narrowly adapted species and endemics are especially vulnerable to the direct effects of climate change. Based on a cross section of about 1100 wild plant species, Thomas et al. (2004) predict that 15–37% of wild plant biodiversity is threatened with extinction due to climate change by 2050. Jarvis et al. (2008) predict that 16–22% of wild relatives of species with direct value to agriculture may be in danger of extinction. Hence, it is emphasized that a complementary conservation strategies viz., In situ conservation, Ex situ conservation (Field genebanks), Genebank and cryogenebank conservation, involving the use of more than one relevant approach would be the best option for achieving safe conservation of these underutilized vegetables species facing severe threat of extinction due to climate change. Keywords: Agricultural biodiversity, climate change, conservation, extinction, food security, underutilized vegetables, yields.

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[AB156] The “key” Concepts of “KEYSTONE” species and its Ecological Significance Sakshi Goyal and Priya Jain MATS law school ABSTRACT A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance. Such species play a critical role in maintaining the structure of an ecological community, affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem and helping us to have a diversity assurance of various other species in the community thus acting as a diversity manager. The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. The Paper will broadly discuss the various varieties, types and functions of keystones and will also highlight the role of keystone as Predators, Mutualists and Engineers. The paper will discuss in detail, the role of keystones in preserving and conserving biodiversity as pervasive protectors and their role as bio-dependants. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. The research paper will focus on community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process. The problem of keystone extinction and its detrimental effects on the environment will be the focus of our research for ex Plankton supporting abundant sea life are dying, fish that is a staple part of the diet of many people around the world are being fished to extinction, bees pollinating crops are threatened by many factors, and topsoil sustaining agriculture is disappearing. I would like to conclude it by adding that their virtual caching should be done on a large scale otherwise consequences for our own survival would be profound. Keywords: conserving biodiversity, pervasive protectors, Bio-dependants, diversity manager, virtual caching, diversity assurance. [AB157] Natural colorants from plants and microorganisms with health and environmental benefits. Neeraj Nagpal1*, Neera Munjal1* University School of Biotechnology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi

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ABSTRACT The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc.), and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria) are quite common. Consumers are avoiding synthetic food colorants and ready to buy food products with natural colorants at premium price. The demand for natural source of such compounds is increasing day by day because of awareness of positive health benefit out of natural compounds. It is therefore, essential to explore various natural sources of food grade colorants and their use potentials. Most often, the colorants are extracted from plant material, but other sources such as insects, algae, cyanobacteria, and fungi are used as well. Microorganisms could be made to produce colorants in high yield by inserting genes coding for the colorant even colorants not naturally produced by microorganisms (e.g., turmeric) could be made in this way. Public perception of biotechnologyderived products also had to be taken into account. Furthermore, natural colorants will not only be beneficial to the health of human beings, but it will be a boon for the preservation of biodiversity as harmful chemicals released into the environment while producing synthetic colorants could be stopped.

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[AB158] Diversity and distribution of invertebrate macrofaunal groups in anthropogenically influenced rocky shores of Saurashtra coast off Arabian sea Poonam Bhadja, Ashokkumar Vaghela and Rahul Kundu Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot – 360 005. Email: poonambhadja@yahoo.in ABSTRACT The Present study deals with the spatial and temporal variations in the community structure of invertebrate macrofaunal groups in relation to abiotic factors in two anthropogenically influenced rocky shores of the South Saurashtra coastline off Arabian Sea (India) for four consecutive seasons during November 2008 to October 2009. The selected coastal areas contrast each other in terms of human interference. Six major groups of intertidal macrofauna were considered for the detailed ecological study. Species diversity, evenness and richness of the intertidal faunal assemblage were measured to study the community structure and distribution. Results showed that high species diversity was observed during winter and monsoon in the selected shores. In most of the coasts, molluscan group showed the maximum species richness and evenness followed by annelids and arthropods. Significant spatial variations of the species diversity and evenness in all four coasts studied were also observed. Since the shores studied shares similar coast characteristics and climatic conditions, the observed variations in the intertidal faunal assemblage was possibly influenced by anthropogenic activities observed in few shores studied and few abiotic factors cumulatively influenced the distribution of benthic organisms. Keywords: Abiotic factors; community structure; spatial and temporal variation; species diversity richness and evenness [AB159] Morphological, anatomical, biochemical and cytological studies of Ricinus communis linn. Leaf under the impact of atlas cycle industry effluent Kavita Tyagi1, Sandhya Sharma2, Sadia Ayub3 and Rajat Rashmi4 National Medicinal Plants Board, Deptt. of AYUSH, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, 36, Janpath, Chandralok Building, New Delhi- 110001 2 Department of Botany, M.M.H.College, Ghaziabad – 201001, India 3 Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Jankpuri, New Delhi. 4 H.P.L. Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, Ghaziabad. Email: kavitatyagii@gmail.com

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ABSTRACT Ricinus communis Linn. (Castor oil plant) belongs to family Euphorbiaceae is monotypic genus, found though out India. An attempt is made to study the morphology, anatomy, chlorophyll content of the leaves and analysis of TLC under the stress condition due to industrial effluent (Environmental) pollution. The samples were collected from two sites i.e. control as well as environmentally affected area. Leaves are light in colour, smaller in size with some brown patches, petiole size is 7-10 cm, lobes are 7-10 in numbers in polluted plant samples. The samples collected from non polluted were showed anatomical characters such as10-14 layers of collenchyma below the upper epidermis and 5-6 layers above the lower epidermis in midrib region. 4 vascular bundles present in midrib. Mesophyll cells differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma; single layer palisade, 2- 3 layers of spongy parenchyma; micro, prismatic and rosette crystal present. The samples environmentally affected showed 13-14 layers of collenchyma below the upper epidermis and 6-7 layers below the lower epidermis, two vascular bundles present in midrib, single layer

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palisade and 3-4 layered spongy parenchyma; micro and rosette crystal of calcium oxalate present in parenchymatous cells. The chlorophyll content shows a decreasing trend in plants growing in those areas where effluent is discharged as compared to control. The spots are 4-5 in non-polluted and 3-5 in polluted plants. The value of MI is higher in 25% effluent treatment set but a continuous decrease in mitotic index is observed in 50% and 100% effluent treated sets. The value of AMI again decreased in effluent treated sets except in 50% effluent, where the value of AMI shows slight enhancement. In control root meristem shows more or less normal mitosis having anomalies just about 0.025%. The mitotic anomalies is highest i.e. 8.499% in 100% treatment sets. The changes in morphology & anatomy of leaf, chlorophyll content, spots of TLC and cytological observations may be due to the changes in climatic conditions due to discharged industrial effluent. Keywords: Ricinus communis Linn., Industrial effluent, anatomy, chlorophyll content, TLC. [AB160] Modern agricultural practices and its environmental implications in Punjab. Anamika Das, Shilpa Nag and Manohari Centre for Environmental Science and Technology, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda ABSTRACT Punjab occupies only 1.57% of the country’s land area. But, it produces 60% of India's wheat, and 40% of India's rice. In worldwide terms, this represents 1/30th or 3% of the world's production of these crops, so Punjab produces 2% of the world's cotton, 2% of its wheat and 1% of the world's rice. And this was all attributed to green revolution which is the introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds after 1965 and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation collectively. Various modern approaches for the production of grains like changes in cropping pattern, usage of pesticides, introducing GM crops, farm mechanization, planting of non-natives were practised and these practises have severely affected the environment of this state. Not only the environment even the socio-economic status has been also affected. Key words: Punjab, environment, pesticides, cropping pattern, farm mechanization, GM crops. [AB161] REGENERATION AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS THROUGH SEEDLING EXPLANT Trigonella foenum-graecum l. Mahip Kumar Singh ABSTRACT In recent years, plant biotechnology has made an impressive progress as one of the frontiers of biotechnology of scientific and economic importance. Developments in the technology of plant tissue culture since its pioneering experiments by White (1934,1937), Laibach (1925,1929), Murashige and Skoog (1962) have contributed in establishing a strong foundation for the application of this versatile technology. The important morphological application of plant tissue culture is micropropagation. Small amount of tissue can be used to raise hundreds or thousands of plants in a continuous process. The benefits of using this methord was that genetically identical plants could be obtained from a single bud. The use of micropropagation has also become of much important in medicinal plant due to its different advantages. The important medicinal are becoming extinct and endangered due to heavy exploitation and low propagation response.

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Indigenous people all over the world have an instinctive knowledge of therapeutic uses of the plant in their environment. The Tribal bodies of India and Africa are a treasure house of knowledge of traditional herbal medicines. The use of Trichopus zeylanicus by tribals of kerala to maintain stamina is a case in hand. The plant has been recently scientifically studied and has been found to have anti fatigue and anti stress properties. The Charaka Samhita, one of the earliest available treatise of medicine, mentions over 2000 herbs used in the various system of medicines- Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani. ethnobotanical findings are, therefore, now being used for targeting plant materials that can be meaningfully analyzed for therapeutic activity using appropriate assays and when these are significant, for chemical isolation and characterization of the active principle of the plants. Only a few medicinal plants of high economic value like Atropa belladonna, Catharanthus (vinca). The majority of plants used for medicines are harvested from the wild, this result in several serious problems such as depletion of resources, extinction of rare species, material not being available in large quantities and throughout the year, incorrect identification and adulteration of plant material. [AB162] Effective Degradation of Plastic Waste in the Environment Mehtab Yasmeen Department of Science and Humanities AlHabeeb College of Engineering and Technology, Chevella, RR District, Andhra Pradesh Email: mehtabyasmeen2003@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Plastics are very popular among people as they are cheap, strong, lightweight, water proof and very convenient to carry any material. But when they turn into waste they are the major threatening polluting agent in the environment and responsible for degradation of health of human beings and animals. A very general estimate of worldwide plastic waste generation is annually about 57 million tons (Bollag et al. 2000). Release of a chemical bisphenol A (BPA) by plastics has been shown to interfere with reproductive development in animals and has been linked with cardiovascular disease and diabetes in man (BPA, 2009). It is estimated that some 1 million seabirds and 100,000 other marine animals including turtles, whales and dugong and countless fish are killed as a result of plastic litter every year. The polythene could sometimes cause blockage in intestine of fish, birds and marine mammals (Spear et al. l995). Plastics cannot degrade easily and remain in the environment slowly releasing the toxic gases. Burning of plastics again releases toxic fumes in the atmosphere. Degradation of plastics is a great challenge as the materials are increasingly used. It is therefore required to find effective methods of plastic waste degradation which are fast and safe to the environment. The degradation of plastics has been investigated for more than three decades now. During early years research was mainly concerned about understanding the deterioration process (Johnson, 1987) and how light (photo degradation) and heat (thermal degradation) may help in degrading the plastics (Day and Wiles, 1972a). But now the focus of research is on biodegradation of plastics using different types of microorganisms from different sources (Klausmeir and Osmon, 1976) and on the production of biodegradable (Wool and Cole, 1988) and photodegradable plastics (Horsfall 1981). Microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes can degrade the plastics (Gu et al., 2000a) in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Keywords: Plastics, environment, degradation, bisphenol A, microorganisms, biodegradable

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[AB163] Effects of iron deficiency stress on growth, expression of membrane proteins and siderophore production in Rhizobium spp. Sugandha Saxena, Santosh Kumar and Kamal K. Aggarwal* University School of Biotechnology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka New Delhi-110 075 * Email: kkagg36@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Inspite of its abundance in nature, iron is generally not available to most of the microorganisms at biological pH under aerobic conditions. One of the strategies adopted by microorganisms for acquisition of iron is the production of siderophores. In the present study the effects of iron deficiency on growth of Rhizobium, expression of membrane proteins and production of siderophore was done. Rhizobium spp. was subjected to in vitro iron deficiency by growing it in the deferrated medium. Under in vitro iron deficiency stress, Rhizobium showed a lag phase of 32 hours as compared to 16 hours lag phase in control (non deferrated medium), synthesis of a siderophore and induction of ~162.1 kDa and 74 kDa membrane proteins. Siderophore was purified using the ethyl acetate extraction followed by Dowex Cl- ion exchange-chromatography. The siderophore activity was confirmed using CAS dye assay. The purity of the siderophore was confirmed on Thin Layer Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The purified siderophore was also characterised by infra-red spectroscopy. The iron solubilisation activity of the isolated siderophore was studied with respect to time, temperature, pH and concentration. [AB164] Lake Maltreatment and its effect on Microclimatic State of City: a case study of Bhopal City Focal Topic: Wetlands & Climate Change Ajitesh Chatterjee & Kanishka Raj Rathore ABSTRACT Freshwater resources of ‘India’ comprise the single most vital division of natural heritage facilitating its economy and its human settlement patterns. The fresh water resources comprises of the river systems, groundwater and wetlands. Each of these has an exclusive role, and characteristic association to other environmental entities: - Wetlands, natural and manmade, freshwater or brackish, provide numerous ecological services. They serve as a habitat to aquatic flora and fauna, as well as numerous species of birds, including migratory species’. A holistic view of Wetlands is necessary which looks at each identified Wetlands in terms of its causal linkages with other natural entities, human needs, and its own attributes. The Bhoj Wetlands comprises of the upper and the lower lakes of Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh of India which is a major source for the city’s water supply system. The catchment area of lake is 362.35 square kilometer out of which 80% is agricultural land, 5% forest and rest is urban. In the observed period of last 15 years there has been a lot of change in the physiographic characteristics of lake and the micro level climatic changes in Bhopal. The maltreatment of lake and encroachment of lake land are the prime cause for such a change in the physiography of the wetlands and also the secondary effects over the city’s climate can be considered as a part of this phenomenon. Even the diminutive change in the physical feature of a geographical region can result in severe bend in the natural environmental cycles and through this the reason for worldwide global climate change can be inferred. The paper explores the change in microclimatic state of city due to presence & influence over wetlands.

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[AB165] ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AT THE PRIMARY LEVEL Kusum Lata Kapoor Email: klkapoor1967@gmail.com ABSTRACT Environmental Studies (E.V.S) has been an integral component of school education in one form or the other for more than four decades. The aim of E.V.S.(environmental studies) is to develop a world population that is aware of and concerned about the environment and its associated problems and which has the knowledge ,Skills, attitudes ,motivations and commitment to work individually and collectively towards solutions of current problems and prevention of new ones. At present the concept, issues, and problems related to environment are either integrated with different disciplines or introduced as a subject. For example at the primary stage, environmental education is introduced as environmental studies as a subject. At the upper primary and the secondary stages, it is incorporated into different subjects, mainly science and social sciences. In the present paper we will look at what methods should be adopted for teaching E.V.S.at primary level because environmental education evolved many methods over the years and different approaches being followed in the country and elsewhere at school level. Eleven such methods viz Demonstration Method, A.V. Aids, Demonstration Cum discussion, Discussion Method, Field trips, Illustration with e.g./activity, . Experimentation, Play way Method, Textbook Method, Story Telling, Q.A. Method are taken into consideration to study the percentage of – • Difference between the teaching methods being adopted for teaching of E.V.S. in govt. & public schools of Delhi. • Difference between the teaching methods being adopted for teaching of E.V.S. in urban and rural area schools of Delhi. The findings of the study on the basis of the data collected through 160 teachers teaching in the various schools of Delhi is given in the present paper. [AB166] A study on Impact & Disturbances of Flood on the Reptilian Habitat (Snakes & Monitor Lizards) Baiju R, Janoo N K, Prerna, Kartick S and Geeta S Keetham, Agra, Uttar Pradesh-282007 E-mail: baiju@wildlifesos.org, baijuwildlife@gmail.com ABSTRACT A study was carried out for understanding the impact and the disturbances of flood in Yamuna on the reptilian habitat mainly Snakes and Varanus bengalensis. The study was mainly carried out as base at Soor Sarovar Bird Sanctuary and a 40 km stretch towards upstream and 40 km stretch downstream of Yamuna River. The study was conducted in coordination with the Wildlife SOS Reptile Rescue Unit and Forest Department. The reptile rescue unit is working round the clock round the year, but the study was carried out mainly for the monsoon seasons from July to October to understand the impacts of the flood on the habitat. Due to the regulation of water in Yamuna River from the upstream the high land and the banks were flooded and the snakes and other reptiles were found straying into higher land. The negative impact of the 2010 flood was more compared to the 2011 flood in this stretch of Yamuna River. August to October 2010 the snakes which were rescued in conflict were mainly near the river bank houses and trees. The main species rescued were Python molurus molurus, Ptyas mucosa, Naja naja, Bungarus caeruleus and Eryx johnii Out of these species the maximum rescued species was Python molurus molurus N=64 in 2010 and N=42 in 2011. Varanus bengalensis were the other reptilian species which were affected badly as it mainly lives in burrows. This were rescued > 25 and <32 during this in 2010 and < 25 were

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rescued in 2011. Maximum rescues were within a short radius of < 1.5 km from River main stream. Also the snakes were found dead on rescue due to flood and conflict. The dead specimens rescued in 2010 were 11 and in 2011 were 4. With the help and coordination of rescue and awareness through print media and other electronic Medias the conflict between reptiles and Man had been drastically reduced in the city and around. Keywords: Wildlife Biologist, DFO, Student, Forestry & Environment Management, Co founders, Wildlife SOS [AB167] Scope of Geo-Engineering in combating Global Climate Change Purusharth Mohan 1, Sherin David 1, Sahiba Mohan 2 and Charu Mehta 3 Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Sec-125, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 2 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Acharya Narender Dev College, Delhi University, Govindpuri, New Delhi 3 Department of Biotechnology, IIT- Delhi, New Delhi Email: purusharthmohan@gmail.com, sherindavid1304@gmail.com

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ABSTRACT Geoengineering is the intentional, large-scale intervention in Earth’s Oceans, soils and/or the atmosphere with the aim of combating climate change. Geoengineering includes a wide range of schemes, including: Blasting Sulfate particles into the stratosphere to reflect the Sun’s Rays ; dumping iron particles in oceans to nurture CO2 -absorbing plankton ;firing silver iodide into clouds to produce rain ;genetically engineering crops to have reflective leaves. Environmentalists and mainstream Scientists across the globe said the focus should be on reducing Green House Gases and preventing global warming in first place. Our Planet earth needs a dose of emergency cooling. Geoengineering if done correctly will act like an Insurance policy, if one day world faces a Crisis of Overheating. Whenever we think of Climate or Environment, we must respect each Country and should consider the threats common to the world.. UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change) Fact Sheet says “Environmentally Sound technologies are able to provide winwin solutions, allowing global economic growth and climate change mitigation to proceed hand in hand”. Technology like Geoengineering will enable us to produce and consume more without suffering consequences. India is Signatory to many multilateral environmental agreements with UN, such as the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete Ozone layer in 1992, and has brought Chloro- Fluoro Carbons (CFC) emission down by 85 %.CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) by UN allows carbon emission Reductions (CER) and allows trading on CER by industrialized countries to meet a part of emission reduction under Kyoto Protocol. Report by NASA’s Ames Research Centre, which convened an elite meeting of Geoengineering, advocates exploring options to safeguard Planet Earth. Acc to NASA About 90% of World’s Total Carbon Content has settled down at bottom of sea in form of dead mass with safe practices of Geoengineering. Agro-Biotech, Biofuels and Synthetic Biology firms are all racing to develop “Climate Ready Crops that will sequester CO2, Reflect Solar ray or withstand Environmental Stresses Attributable to Climate Changes (like Drought, extreme heat) and will provide food, feed and Fuel.As every Technology have its merits and demerits, Practices like Geoengineering will be an act of Geopiracy, if they are carried out without Mutual Understanding between the countries and without informing IOC /IGBP/WCRP. This paper focuses on Geoengineering as an expedient solution that uses additional technology to counteract unwanted effects without eliminating root cause and to Retool the planet.

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[AB168] Sustainable Development keeping intact Development & Environment Ayush Yadav Institute of Law, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat ABSTRACT Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: • •

The concept of 'needs', in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs."

Environment is what we see, feel and live in and around us whereas the development is the modification done to the circumstantial state of the environment to uplift/automate the nature widespread around us to aid life to get easy but not always better. Today’s dilemma for everyone is that how we can generate power/electricity, run motors, built houses, dams, bridges, mines, refineries etc keeping the land green and forestry alive with resources that can be renewed. Sense of responsibility along with sound adaptability to live and let live attitude can only enlighten this quandary. “Can we build a house keeping the nest safe?” Yes, we can for E.g. – A famous analogy “REDUCE, REUSE and RECYCLE” of non-renewable, renewable and scarce resources respectively can make things eco- friendly, as small steps do have a profound impact-and the sooner we realize this, the better it will be for our Earth and our future generations. Development and Environment are closely related concerns and has a direct impact on each other. Today the civil society needs them to impact themselves together in growth instead of one at the cost of other. In this context the author intends to take in hand the very important dimension of directly proportional relationship between Development and Environment i.e. – the Growth and Prosperity along with breathing surroundings. In this end it has been rightly said by the Father of the Nation, India that, “the earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need, but not for every man’s greed”.

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[AB169] Plastic Pollution: A Threat to Environment M.K.Singh* and K.K.Upadhyaya1 *Department of Chemistry, Government P.G.College Dholpur 1 ITM University, Gwalior Email: mks6092002@yahoo.com, kkupadhyay1980@gmail.com ABSTRACT Plastics are non-biodegradable made from petroleum by chemical processes. Plastics earned their name from the Greek word `PASTIKO` meaning to mould or shape a soft substances permanent or temporary. Plastics are used because they are easy and cheap to make and they can last a long time. Unfortunately these same useful qualities can make plastic a huge pollution problem. Because the plastic is cheap, it gets discarded easily and its persistence in the environment can do great harm. Every year, around 500 billion plastic bags are used worldwide, over one billion bags are being used every minute and they are damaging our environment. India’s plastics consumption is one of the highest in the world. Plastics bags are difficult and costly to recycle and most end up on landfill sites where they take around more than 300 years to photo-degrade. They break down into tiny toxic particles they contaminate the soil and waterways and enter the food chain when animals accidentally ingest them. Plastics in the environment are regarded to be an aesthetic nuisance than the hazard, since the material is biologically quite inert. According to an estimate more than 100 million tone of plastic is produced every year all over the world. In India it is only 2 million tones. In India the use of plastic is only 2 kg per person per year while in European countries it is 60 kg per person per year while that in US it is 80 kg per person per year. If each one of us resolves to keep out use of plastics to the minimum and maintain our locality clean and safe, part of the battle is won. [AB170] Synergy of biotechnology and nanotechnology: a tool for sustainable environment Nishtha Lukhmana1 and Sahil Tahiliani2 University School of Biotechnology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi 2 Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur

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ABSTRACT Environmental sustainability is one of the top priorities in the contemporary world today. As exploitation and improper utilization of natural resources deteriorates the environmental conditions that ultimately affects the health, life and wellbeing of human in general; sustainable environment by itself becomes the need of the hour. To curb the mal-effects of damage, frugal use of environment has to be encouraged. The potential of biotechnology and nanotechnology to act as the ‘new world’ solution to this universal issue is increasingly becoming popular. Sustainability and clean technology have been able to provide remedies to problems concerning pollution, global warming, clean environment, water resources, food supply, mineral resources, green manufacturing, habitat, transportation, climate change, energy solutions and biodiversity. With the ever increasing population and stress on the ecosystem, it is imperative to achieve the universal desire of a sustainable future. Conventional technologies have become defunct to cater to the need of facing this threat. Biotechnological processes and recombinant DNA Technology have provided us green alternatives relating to waste minimization, efficient use of raw materials, new sources of bioenergy, reduction in carbon dioxide emission, high production of chemicals and feed stocks. There is almost limitless scope for further development based on tailored enzymes and genetically modified microorganisms. Since the famous Feynman speech of 1959 ‘There is plenty of room at the

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bottom’, nanotechnology has been able to deliver more than it has promised. Nanotechnology offers to clean up soil and water, atmosphere, nuclear waste, orbital waste, reduce pollution and help in desalination of water. Nanobiotechnology is one of the upcoming fields that has plethora of opportunities for food production, renewable materials, waste prevention and energy production. To ensure the sustainability of environment, poise between renewable resources and enabling technologies like biotechnology and nanotechnology is essential. Nanotechnology and biotechnology provide in themselves inter and multidisciplinary solutions to the problems faced by the mankind in relation to sustainability. Every technology is judged on its ability to affect environmental clean up and reduce cost, these are two promising technologies with track records of doing just that and providing synergistic solutions. The greatest challenge for the future generation is to realise the potential and essence of these technologies for the benefit of the environment and all the aspirations entrusted upon sustainable development. In the coming years, we will see a number of environmental solutions impending from biotechnology and nanotechnology. Therefore, we need to incubate more research in such interdisciplinary fields for a sustainable future. [AB171] Policy spaces for individual and collective strategies for adaptation Kirtika Rana & Sony Pellissery Institute of Rural Management, Anand Email: kirtika279.rana@gmail.com, sony.pellissery@stx.oxon.org ABSTRACT Limited participation of the people in policy design has been one of the key reasons for limited implementation success in India. Size of funds allocated, without this basic tenet, had no impact on the target. This paper assesses policy alternatives to deal with general issue in policy making in the arena of climate change. Based on the fieldwork carried out in Uttarakhand, we distinguish policy spaces created for individual and collective strategies for coping. The National Mission for Sustainable Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE), one of the eight missions under National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC), aims to address this problem to some extent by taking into consideration the traditional knowledge of the people in the rural communities across the Himalayan states. This integration of people’s understanding of their micro-environment into policy formulation offers hope for designing reliable, sustainable, and cost-effective adaptation strategies. This requires interface of climate change researchers with rural communities. Interpretation of climate change events in scientific and ‘unscientific’ terms need to be understood in dialogical manner. Also, lack of proportional alternatives suggested by the policy framework may cause people to maintain status quo. Thus, the paper suggests that though engagement with the communities may be a laborious exercise, it will lead to formulation of efficient, cost-effective adaptation strategies pertinent to local conditions after a careful assessment of location specific vulnerabilities. The paper concludes that an effective strategy will be one which adopts a bottomup approach and combines the best of scientific and traditional knowledge. The paper shows a road map as to how this combination facilitates a synergy between individual and collective strategies. Keywords: traditional knowledge, micro-environment, cost-effective adaptation strategies, location specific vulnerabilities

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[AB172] Environmental Pollution: An awareness in Mandi H.P. Monika Panchani VGC Mandi H.P ABSTRACT Environment consists of both biotic and abiotic substances which create favorable conditions for the existence and development of living organisms. Environment is the sum of all social, economical, biological, physical or chemical factors which constitute the surroundings of man. There exists equilibrium among all the components of environment which makes the balances in nature. But due to some human activities the equilibrium in nature is disturbed which causes the environmental pollution. Man is the most important environmental agent, equipped with modern technologies capable of modifying the environment according to his needs and has caused environmental pollution in many aspects. This deteriotion has caused health hazards. Currently, In India, air pollution is widespread in urban areas where vehicles are the major contributors. Himachal Pradesh is northern hilly state which is comparatively less polluted than other states. In present scenario the rapid increase in urban population has resulted in unplanned urban development, increase in consumption patterns and higher demands for transport, energy, other infrastructure, thereby leading to pollution problems. More over tourism in Himachal Pradesh is one of the most important sectors for the state’s economy. Despite being small, the state ranks fifth in domestic tourist visits. The state enjoyed 14 per cent growth in tourist visits against a national average of 6 per cent in 2001. How do people out of different cultures perceive these problems? How do they react to them? The aim of this study is to figure out what factors are most important in explaining different levels of awareness concerning environmental problems in Himachal Pradesh. Keywords: Environmental pollutants, Abiotic and Biotic factors, Air pollution, Pollution problems. [AB173] Assessment of Solid Waste Management and its Associated Occupational Hazards- A Case Study of Delhi Nandita Ahuja, Ishita Kumar and Potsangbam Albino Kumar Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi-110042 Email: albinoiit@gmail.com ABSTRACT Delhi is the largest producer of solid waste in India, producing nearly 8,000 metric tons of solid waste everyday and is collected by Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), New Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC) and Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB). In Delhi, solid waste processing is mainly practiced through the process of landfill or composting. Out of the total waste generated, around 6000 MT/ day of waste is transported to three landfill sites of Delhi i.e. Bhalswa, Ghazipur and Okhla and waste transported to these sites per day are 2700 MT, 2100 MT and 1200 MT respectively. At present, all the three sites have been exhausted with their life span. Some part of the municipal solid waste generated is also disposed by composting at three sites- Bhalaswa, Tikri khurd/ Khampur and Okhla and the installed capacity of these plants are 600 MT/day, 200 MT/day and 200 MT/day respectively with performance of all the three compost plants below satisfactory. Presently, 94% of the waste is deposited in dump sites with most dumpsites having several health and environmental implications including groundwater contamination, spread of disease, air pollution, and the release of methane gas. A physical analysis reveals that it consists of about 32%

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compostable matter, 6.6% recyclable components, 1.5% plastics and 2.5% metals. Various stakeholder groups, such as waste pickers, waste dealers, recyclers and recycling unit workers play significant roles in the overall scheme of management. The present key concern during the management of solid waste is the vulnerability of individuals who are dealing with the solid waste and especially the waste pickers, to occupational hazards. The recent Mayapuri Delhi radiation episode of radio active element (Cobalt 16) was reported mainly due to improper handling and disposals of hazardous solid waste. Common problems faced by rag pickers include injury in the form of cuts and bruises from glass, metal sharps, broken bottles etc with 28% waste pickers reported experiencing frequent injuries and 61% got injured once. Breeding of vector disease carriers such as mosquitoes as a consequence of open dumping of solid waste is quite a common situation causing diseases like tuberculosis, scabies, multi-system allergic disorders, asthma, respiratory infections, ophthalmic diseases, ulcers and stomach problems to the waste pickers in large. Therefore a technologically driven and comprehensive approach is required to address the existing issue of solid waste management and associated occupational hazard. Keywords: Solid waste management; sanitary land filling; composting; occupational hazards. [AB174] Biodiversity conservation Mapping and Monitoring of Jim Corbett National park Using GIS and Remote Sensing technique Prashant Kumar Arya* and Heera singh** *Centre for the Study of Regional Development, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi **SSJ Campus Kumaun University, Almora, Uttarakhand Email: prashantarya5@gmail.com, harshsiral_1986@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT Given the importance of biodiversity and wildlife conservation various measures have been implemented to save our ecosystem. For decades, Remote Sensing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been used successfully for the mapping and extraction of surface structures and therefore represent an integral part of applied knowledge. Remote sensing data have become more and more popular for geographical investigations because their steadily increasing level of detail and accessibility opens up new potentials. This study deal with the biodiversity conservation of Jim Corbett National Park, which lies in Nainital District, Uttarakhand. This paper is an attempt to generate a land use - land cover map of Jim Corbett national park, of different temporal sections in order to notice the changes that have taken place in the land use land cover pattern particularly in the area under vegetation, water and analyse its impact on biodiversity and predict the likely changes that may subsequently take place in this region. And finally, prepare a final map of vulnerability which provides information regarding the subsequent need of conservation and management of biodiversity. The dataset is based on the Land sat satellite images of Jim Corbett National Park (Uttarakhand) for various time periods. This was obtained from Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF) an Earth Science Data Interface. The data analysis is based on the Hybrid classification technique and provides a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), drainage pattern of the study area.

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[AB175] Biodiversity and Sustainable development Priyanka Singh Department of Political Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi – 110025 E-mail: priyasingh192020@gmail.com ABSTRACT Biological diversity - or biodiversity - is the term given to the variety of life on earth and the natural patterns it forms. This diversity is often understood in terms of the wide variety of plants, animals and micro-organisms. So far, about 1,75 million species have been identified, mostly small creatures such as insects. . At present, biodiversity is a result of a series of turnovers in the rate of evolution and extinction since the geological past. Sustainable development is a process that aims to meets the needs of the present generation without harming the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It is not only about particular environmental issues such as species extinction and pollution but also about economic progress which meets all our needs without leaving future generations with fewer resources than we enjoy. It can be seen as a way of living from nature's income rather than its capital account. Sustainable development is not easy to achieve; it often demands changes in lifestyle particularly if we continue to use up non-renewable natural resources, as we do at present, if we ignore the plight of the poor or if we continue to pollute and waste, then we can expect a decline in the quality of life at present and for future generations. For wealthy nations, achieving sustainable development means adopting and implementing policies concerning issues such as recycling, energy efficiency, conservation and rehabilitation of damaged landscapes. For the developing nations it means policies for equity, respect of the law, redistribution of wealth and wealth creation. International Environmental Law (IEL), International Human right Law (IHL), and International Economic Law are the three pillars presents sustainable development as integrating and interactive. The Precautionary Principle and Polluter Pay Principle (PPP) are the salient principles for the sustainable development. The ‘PPP’ as interpreted by the Supreme Court of India, means that the absolute liability for harm to the environment extends not only to compensate the victims of pollution but also the cost of restoring the environmental degradation. Thus, it includes environmental cost as well as direct costs to people or property, Remediation of the damaged environment is part of the process of “sustainable development” and as such the polluter is liable to pay the cost to the individual sufferers as well as the cost of reversing the damaged ecology. Keywords: Sustainable development, biodiversity and environmental degradation.

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[AB176] Biodiversity for food and nutritional security Sharmila Dutta Deka Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat ABSTRACT Climate change and increasingly dramatic shifts in land use threaten to exacerbate the existing biodiversity crisis. Meeting the imperative of environmental stewardship requires support for the scientific endeavours of documenting, predicting and managing ecological change on a global scale. Various international conventions have addressed this topic; this has moved the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources issue to the top of the international development agenda. Conservation, exploration, collection, characterization, evaluation and documentation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are essential in meeting the goals of the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action and for sustainable agricultural development for this and future generations. Over the past decade, a series of important steps have been taken to protect agro-biodiversity in particular, which mainly includes the plant genetic resources on which agriculture depends. These and further efforts are vital for enabling countries and communities to meet their food needs, for improving rural livelihoods, and ultimately for protecting the well-being of all people now and in the future. Economic and social development often leads to abandonment of agro-bio diverse systems, abandoning valuable assets, preventing agro-biodiversity from contributing to healthy and sustainable livelihoods. Unfortunately, commercialization of markets limits opportunities for smallscale farmers selling minor crops. Strategies must be develop for identification of management practices, technologies and policies that promote the positive and mitigate the negative impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, and enhance productivity and the capacity to sustain livelihoods. Introduction of CBM (Community Biodiversity Management) will strengthen the capacity of farmers, their communities, and organisations and other stakeholders, including agro-enterprises to manage agricultural biodiversity and the promotion of increased awareness and responsible action. Home garden is another very effective participatory approach for conservation of genetic resources and food diversification for rural nutritional security. Key words: Biodiversity, Agro-biodiversity, nutritional security, CBM, home gardening

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[AB177] Community Based Tourism: Quest for community conservation in geographically remote regions. Mridul Dutta and Nayan Barua Department of Commerce, Gauhati University ABSTRACT The Monpa people of western Arunachal Pradesh (AP) are very hospitable, love nature and prohibit animal killing. For conserving the forest and wildlife in the Tawang and West Kameng districts in western AP, WWF-India and Sir Dorabji Tata Trust were successful in motivating the village councils (panchayats) to embrace conservation activities by institutionalising Community Conserved Areas (CCA) such as Thembang Bapu CCA of Dhirang and Pangchen Lumpo Muchat CCA of Zemithang. WWF-India has helped in awareness creation to stop logging and overgrazing, training of conservation tools, demarcation of forest areas, identification of wildlife, provided motorcycles and monthly stipend to few community mobilisers. However, villagerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s spontaneous participation in this community based conservation was missing because conservation activities were interfering with their traditional livelihoods. The Panchayats and WWF-India realised that community participation is possible only if the primary stakeholders believe that the community conservation process can return new livelihood opportunities based on the forest and nature. The CCA committees have identified community-based tourism (CBT) model to promote tourism which is aligned to their primary goal of conservation. WWF-India has provided some necessary equipment required for outdoor camping & trekking activities as well as aids to improve the home stay facilities to few village residents. CBT guidelines and rules are framed in such way that the economic opportunities from tourism are shared among the village entrepreneurs and some portion of receipts is mandatorily earmarked for conservation activities. Things which can be controlled by the CCA are improvement in operational conditions and leisure service quality, availability of local professional guides and finance for upgrading or construction of homestay facility or home based restaurants. Arrival of tourists under CBT model is expected to increase with an alternate road route from Guwahati to Tawang via Bhutan which is under construction. The Arunachal Pradesh State Wide Area Network which will be laid up to block level to provide e-Governance and internet services is expected to come in another year will also help CBT model. Keywords: Monpa Community, Livelihood opportunities, Community Based Tourism, Community Conserved Areas, Thembang, Zemithang

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[AB178] Indian Biodiversity Geetika Department of Energy & Environmental Sciences, Choudhary Devi Lal University Sirsa - 125055, Haryana India. Email: sharma.geetika@hotmail.com ABSTRACT India has a rich and varied heritage of biodiversity, encompassing a wide spectrum of habitats from tropical rainforests to alpine vegetation and from temperate forests to coastal wetlands. India is figured with two biodiversity hotspots - the Western Ghats and the Eastern Himalayas. India contributes significantly to latitudinal biodiversity trend. With a mere 2.4% of the world's land area, India accounts for 7.31% of the global faunal total with a faunal species count of 89,451 species. Biodiversity products have a vital role in the development and GDP of India. The increasing pace of development will lead to loss of biodiversity in India and will also result in considerable drop in Indian GDP. Thus the demand of the hour is to formulate stronger and comprehensive legislation on biodiversity conservation and to bridge up the existing policy gaps in India. Keywords: Biodiversity, Habitat Biodiversity, Hotspots, Biodiversity Conservation [AB179] Biomass energy in India Geetika Department of Energy & Environmental Sciences, Choudhary Devi Lal University Sirsa - 125055, Haryana, India. Email: sharma.geetika@hotmail.com ABSTRACT Biomass use is growing globally. Biomass is a renewable source that accounts for nearly 33% of a developing country's energy needs. In India, it meets about 75% of the rural energy needs and the rural population constitutes 70% of the total population. Despite advancements in biomass energy technologies, most bioenergy consumption in India still remains confined to traditional uses. The challenge is with the Indian policy makers to support the energy transformation away from exhaustible and polluting energy resources towards renewable and clean energy resources on the road to sustainable development. Modern biomass technologies provide viable options for such an energy transformation, on the way to a sustainable energy system of the future. Keywords: Biomass, Renewable Resource, Bioenergy, Clean Energy

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[AB180] Mitigating the effect of climate change on plant growth and productivity using cold tolerant microbes Sonia Rani, Dushyant Pratap Singh, Tripti Dogra, Kanika and J.C Padaria. NRC of Plant Biotechnology, IARI, New Delhi ABSTRACT Climatic changes are likely to impact on agriculture and food security across the globe through their direct or indirect effects on crops. Crops yields are influenced by many environmental factors such as temperature, moisture drought, salinity. Transgenic crops are being developed worldwide that are tolerant to abiotic stresses which will enable crops to adapt to different environments. Cold shock proteins have been used to provide tolerance against different abiotic stresses. A number of cold shock proteins have been reported in microbes especially in Escherichia.coli, among which cspA is the major cold shock protein that is induced during the cold shock responses. We have collected soil samples from Indo-gangetic regions and screened microbes for tolerance toward cold temperature by incubating them at different temperature 28°C, 16°C, 4°C. Isolates that were growing on 16°C and 4°C were screened for csp gene. Amplicons of 190bp and 175bp were observed for cspA and cspB genes respectively. These isolates were further identified by 16SrDNA sequencing. 16SrDNA sequence analysis showed homology with Bacillus selenitireducens, Shigella flexneri, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, and Enterobacter clocae. [AB181] Study of macrobenthic faunal diversity in two water bodies of north-west arid region of Rajasthan N.S. Rathore, H.K. Lubana, Ankush Sharma and Poonam Lata P.G. Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner 334003. India E-mail: sankush38@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Macrobenthic faunal communities are the integral part of any aquatic ecosystem. Their role in trophic dynamics is very important. These play a vital role in the nutrient regeneration. Macrobenthic invertebrates can be used as barometer of overall biodiversity in any aquatic ecosystem (Chatzinikolaou et al., 2006). Benthic species and communities are often considered to be the best indicators of organic pollution because of their constant presence, relatively long lives, sedentary habits and differing tolerance to stress (Saxena, 1987). The present study was carried out on diversity of macrobenthic faunal communities at two water bodies of a village Gajner located 25 km South- West of Bikaner city (27° 57` N latitude, 73° 03` E longitude and 233 meter MSL altitude) in the Indian desert region. A year round study (2010-11) was carried out. To study macrobenthic faunal diversity quadrate method was used. Even under harsh and hostile environmental conditions of desert a variety of macrobenthic faunal species are found, which are typically adapted for the given conditions of existence, macrobenthic faunal diversity constituted three important phylum Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda. Keywords: Macrobenthic faunal diversity

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[AB182] Species specific differences in the nesting habits of Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) and Lesser Flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) in Gujarat, India 1

Anika Tere1, 2, B. M. Parasharya1 and A. V. Ramchandran2 AINP on Agricultural Ornithology, Biological Control Research Laboratory. Anand Agricultural University, Anand - 388 110, Gujarat, India. 2 Present Address: Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara - 390 002, Gujarat, India. Email: parasharya@yahoo.com, anikatere@rediffmail.com, avrcn@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT

The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) and Lesser Flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) are the two species of flamingo occurring in India. The flamingos are colonial nesters and make mounds of mud in inundated areas, on the top of which single egg is laid. The Flamingo City in Great Rann of Kachchh and Wild Ass Sanctuary as well as Purabcheria located in Little Rann of Kachchh are well known regular breeding sites of flamingos. Their nesting sites were surveyed during 2001 to 2009 and nesting ecology was studied. This included the characteristics of nesting sites, nesting pattern and morphometry of nests. The nest morphometry included the height of nests, their circumference at top and base, inter-nest distances as well as the concavity on the top. The height of nests varied according to the nesting sites. The height of nests of Lesser Flamingos varied at Wild Ass Sanctuary (between 27 and 29cm) and at Purabcheria (between 6.40 and 18cm). There was mark differences in the shape and the maximum height of nests of Greater Flamingo (35.0 cm) and Lesser Flamingo (29.0 cm.). Various threats related to their nesting and conservation plans are also discussed. Keywords: Greater Flamingo, Lesser Flamingos, Nesting Ecology, Gujarat

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB182] A comprehensive study towards the deterioration of River Yamuna and its remedial actions Diksha Gupta, Charu Sharma and Rajeev Kumar Mishra Civil & Environmental Engineering Department, Delhi Technological University, Delhi-110042 ABSTRACT Delhi, the capital of India is located on the bank of river Yamuna and also depends for its share of raw water. Yamuna, a perennial river, provides the major share of its water supply (i.e. 52%) to the people of Delhi. The Yamuna River passing through 22 km stretch in Delhi and was once described as the lifeline of the city, but today it has become one of the dirtiest river stretch in the country. A barrage 200 km upstream of Delhi, the diversion through the Agra canal of the wastewater from Delhi and extensive channelization has resulted in the nearly complete withdrawal of water from the river. This together with heavy discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents has turned the river into a sewer at least between Delhi and Agra. The water quality and the biota have been changed greatly over the past few decades. Delhi generates about 3,267 million litres per day (mld) of sewage while the city's installed waste water treatment capacity is only 2,330 mld. More than 937 mld of waste is not treated. Out of Delhi's 2,330 mld treatment capacity, 37 per cent is under-utilized and 1,270 mld of sewage is untreated and allowed to enter the river every day. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values ranging from 14 to 28 mg/l and high faecal coliform indicates the presence of disease causing micro-organisms. There are 17 drains entering river Yamuna in Delhi and almost 3,500 million liter of waste water enters everyday without any treatment. The objective of this paper is to identify the existing problems and possibility of renovation of river Yamuna to maintain its water quality. It is proposed to restore considerably large areas of floodplain, a 40-50 km stretch upstream of Delhi, with the primary goal of improving flow downstream. In addition to this, the treatment capacity of sewage treatment plants must also be augmented and shall also be upgraded to tertiary treatment to recycle the wastewater which will be helpful to fulfill the diverse kind of domestic purposes. Keywords: River Yamuna, water quality, tertiary treatment

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB183] Diversity of halophilic bacilli in the hypersaline environments of the Rann of Kutch of Gujarat in India Sherathia, D. N.*, Patel, I. N.*, Dalsania, T. L. Savsani, K. A., Dey, R. and Pal, K. K. Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagadh-362 001, Gujarat, India ABSTRACT The relatively unexplored extreme hypersaline conditions of the Little and Great Rann of Kutch is ideal for the natural enrichment of extreme halophilic organisms. To study the diversity of extreme halophilic bacilli of these hypersaline environments, bacilli were isolated from samples comprising saline water and crystallized crust of salts, etc. collected from various locations of the Little and Great Rann of Kutch between 23º 08.114'N/70º45.065'E and 23º57.720'N/69º43.761'E longitudes and latitudes. From the samples, 46 different morphotypes of bacilli were obtained. The diversity of the bacilli was studied by generating and analysing the ARDRA and RAPD profiles and sequencing of near complete 16S rDNA. Out of the 46 isolates, 13, 15, 15, one, and two isolates (SB47 and SB49) could tolerate upto 10%, 20%, 23.5%, 30% and saturated salt concentrations (35%), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using ARDRA, developed by double digestion of PCR amplified 16S rDNA with AluI and MspI, grouped 46 bacilli into five major and 16 different clusters indicating the extent of diversity among the 46 representative bacilli obtained from salterns. However, analysis of RAPD profiles grouped them into more clusters than that obtained in ARDRA. The identification of 46 isolates by near complete 16S rDNA sequence revealed that all the isolates belonged to phylum-Fermicutes, order-Bacillales and family- Bacillaceae. The forty-six bacilli included Salinibacillus, Sediminibacillus, Salibacillus, Pontibacillus, Halobacillus, Piscibacillus, Virgibacillus, Thalassobacillus, Oceanobacillus and some uncultured bacillus genus. The similarity of the isolates with the existing rDNA databases ranged from 91% to 99%. Out of the 46 isolates, eight isolates were having similarity <97% indicating that presence of novel genus and/ or species. The validation of new genera and species are underway at present along with elucidation of mechanisms of extreme osmotolerance among some of the bacilli. This work is supported by the World Bank funded National Agricultural Innovation Project of Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India Keywords: Bacilli, Diversity, Phylogeny, Rann of Kutch, ARDRA, RAPD

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB184] Relationship between Diversity of Herbaceous Species and Gap Size in a Managed Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) Forest,Northern Iran Kambiz Abrari Vajari1, Hamid Jalilvand2, Mohammad Reza Pourmajidian2 and Kambiz Espahbodi3 1 Forestry Department, Academic member of Agriculture Faculty, Lorestan University,Iran 2 Forestry Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agriculture Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran 3 Research Center in Agricultural and Natural Resources of Mazandaran Province, Sari, Iran ABSTRACT The present research was conducted to investigate the diversity of herbaceous species in harvestcreated gaps in beech forest , Northern Iran .To achieve this purpose, sixteen gaps were selected .The gaps were further divided into four area groups with four replications for each (4 treatments ×4 replications). At each gap, five sub-plots of 2.5m×2.5m size were set at the four corners and the center of it and the number of herbaceous species was recorded. Considering the calculated diversity indices, correlation analysis and the one- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test differences between diversity indices. The results indicated that there was significant difference in mean for Margalef and Brillouin diversity indices (p<0/05) .There was no significant difference in terms of Minhinick richness index and Sheldon, Heip evenness indices and Shannonwiener diversity index (p>0/05). Moreover, Result of correlation analysis showed the significant correlation among more indices. So, single-tree selection system had no effect on diversity indices (except for Margalef and Brillouin indice) of herbaceous species within gaps after eight years. Keywords: beech, gap size, diversity, herbaceous species, Northern Iran

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB185] Phytoremediation of Arsenic contaminated soil: Pteris vittata Mohit Jain University School of Biotechnology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi ABSTRACT Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants and many of them are toxic even at very low concentration. Arsenic is a non essential heavy metal. Arsenic accumulation in soil may be due to natural (volcanic action, erosion of rocks, and forest fires) or anthropogenic sources (insecticides, herbicides, pesticides and wood preservatives). Arsenic is a carcinogen and its presence in soil causes major environmental and health problems associated with animal and human skin, lung cancer and bladder cancer. Arsenic is present in two most common inorganic forms arsenite (III) and arsenate (V). Both Arsenite and Arsenate are toxic and they interrupt biological functions in different manner. Arsenite binds to proteins with sulfhydryl groups, and inhibits respiration and also induces intrachromosomal homologous recombination. Arsenate, on the other hand, interferes with oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remove or detoxify pollutants and is a powerful technique for environmental clean-up. Plants are ideal agents for soil remediation because of their unique genetic, biochemical and physiological properties. Plants develop different mechanisms to resist arsenic either by reducing its uptake by suppression of the high affinity phosphate uptake system by providing it with large amount of phosphate or by hyperaccumulating arsenic in its tissues like Pteris vittata. The fern take arsenic in the form of arsenate and stored it in fronds in the arsenite form. Genetically tailored plants can be utilized to monitor the acceptable concentrations of arsenic in the soil in order to remove this major contaminant from the humid tropical regions worldwide. Certain species of pteridophytes are adapted to warm and humid tropical regions and have been widely used for remediation of arsenic. These engineered crops may be rotated to detoxify any accumulation of arsenic in the soil each time before sowing. Keywords: Phytoremediation, Arsenic, Pteris vittata

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Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB186] Diversity Indices of avian community in intensively mono-cultivated agricultural field Bhavna Bharucha* & Geeta Padate Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat *Email: cyprea_bb@yahoo.com ABSTRACT The enormity of the impact of human activity on biodiversity has been documented by many researchers. There have been numerous studies on the effects of local-scale changes in land use (e.g. intensive mono-culture agricultural practise) on the abundance and diversity of groups of organisms, especially aves. This changing pattern of land use, associated with the appropriation of increasing proportions of net primary productivity by the human population, seem not only to have reduced the diversity of life, but also to have reduced the carrying capacity of the environment in terms of the numbers of other organisms that it can sustain. Here, we estimate the size and diversity of the existing bird population in two different intensively mono-cultivated agricultural crops and then make approximation as to how much this has been modified as a consequence of land-use changes shaped by human activities. It was observed in the present study that not only the population size decreased but also the diversity of the avian community in these agricultural fields decreased over a period of time. Dominance by a single species in these crops not only suggests the decrease in the diversity but also indicates that the dominant species has become a functional cereal crop pest. Keywords: Sorghum, pigeon pea, monocultural practice, diversity, avian species

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB187] Economic aspects of Biodiversity conservation: A review Anshu Gupta1 and Nijara Deka2 School of Environmental Sciences (SES), Jawaharlal Nehru University(JNU), New Delhi 2 Centre for the Studies of Regional Development (CSRD),Jawaharlal Nehru University(JNU), New Delhi 1

ABSTRACT The Earth’s biodiversity and other natural resources provide many economic and social benefits to mankind. An effective programme for sustainable development must therefore incorporate conservation objectives.The main concept of sustainable development is Economic, Ecological and Sociological. Improving the incomes and welfare of local communities especially poor ones in procuring physical and biological systems offers opportunities for developing countries to pursue all their goals of sustainable development in a complementary manner. With the developmental processes, the deterioration of ecosystems is high. However, sustainable development and consumption would help avert the ecological problems. As a part of expanding response to declining global biodiversity, interdisciplinary research terms of economists and ecological have conducted costs and benefits of biodiversity conservation. Economic research on Biodiversity conservation has focussed on the costs of conservation reserves and the benefits of intact ecosystem. The perceived conflict between the environment and current patterns of development requires new initiatives of sustainable development. A critical review of key concepts essential for a proper understanding of such evaluation issues is very essential. Particular attention is given here to various approaches and methods from the prospective of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. From the discussion of past researches it is very essential to identify the most important variables responsible for changes in economic estimates of biodiversity. Keywords: Sustainable development, Biodiversity, Deterioration, Conservation, interdisciplinary research

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB188] Agriculture, Environment & Seed Research Information through Open Access - A Review Rakesh C Mathad1 Naveen C M2 S B Patil3 S N Vasudevan4 and B L Lokeshappa5 1 Dept. of Seed Science and Technology, UAS, Raichur 2 Mangalore University 3 College of Agriculture, Bhimarayanagudi, UAS, Raichur 4 Department of Seed Science and Technology, UAS, Raichur 5 Department of Agriculture, Karnataka ABSTRACT Agriculture is backbone of Indian economy though the contribution to GDP is falling, but half of the population depend on it. A century ago Indian agriculture was considered subsistence nature which now rapidly evolving in to an industry. Though there are institutional and corporate initiatives, still it is considered as critical component of food security. The changes and innovation in agriculture scenario not only help in state policy making but fight poverty. Since agricultural research depends on environment, seed science & technology-the question now is whether the research is accessible. Most of the research happening is not at all accessible or reaching the stakeholders. Sharing agriculture knowledge and know-how help not only scientists but farmers. Dissemination of agriculture information through open access will bridge the gap of lab and land. In many countries agriculture information is accessible freely. The time has come- India too must make available agriculture and seed research through open access. Indian agriculture has tremendous diversity which will help in improving timely decisions thus productivity. In an review study conducted in UAS, Raichur in 2011 various open access methods initiated by various ICAR / Central institutions were evaluated. Initiatives such as Agropedia, open agri, E-PKSR, ICAR Net, CeRA, e-Granth, AGROWEB, JTROPA, OAJMAP, and AGRIVISTA were evaluated for their effectiveness in disseminating research information on agriculture, environment and seed science & technology. Though ICAR-country’s top agriculture organization too took the initiative of providing all its journals through open access from March-2010. In India most of the agriculture research is state owned through state agricultural universities, so there is need to make the research available to every stakeholder. The review on research information through open access has got some conclusions: 1. New systems and methods agriculture, environment are critical to the fight against poverty & sustainable use of natural resources 2. Making agriculture, environment and seed information available in all languages help in exchange of new ideas and systems. 3. New types of research, organisations, and collaboration create new demands 4. Agriculture information exchange between stakeholders help in faster problem recognition and practical solutions in shortest possible time. 5. Agriculture information through open access increases profit and attract educated people to take up agriculture as profession which is very critical for food security. 6. Since seed is a critical component and dissemination of information on seed research (like Bt cotton or Genetic Engineering) five farmers decision making ability and transparency. Keywords: agriculture, research, information, open access, seed information

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB189] Conserving Indian biodiversity through sustainable agriculture Richa Raghuwanshi Department of Botany, MMV, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, UP, India Email: richabhu@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT Agriculture being backbone of Indian economy is facing major challenge to meet the food grain demand by 2020. India emerging as a nuclear power and pacing fast towards industrialization brings concern over environmental pollution and loss of biodiversity. Sustainable development as solution must meet economic, social and environmental demands. Present system of agriculture relies more on monoculture, mechanization, chemical pesticides and fertilizers which needs alternatives in this area for a secured future. Excess fertilization for increased productivity lead to poor nitrogen utilization by target crops resulting in its passage to water bodies, green house gases to the atmosphere and simultaneously converting fertile lands to a barren piece. 90% of the rural population depends on underground water and its eutrophication results in death of humans and other aquatic animal life. Changing climatic conditions are further adding new challenges to the plant biologist. 75% of genetic diversity of agricultural crops has been lost by current practices. Studies indicate that less than 20 species of plants and 14 domesticated animals contribute to over 90% of our global food supply. Agrobiodiversity a manifestation of the co-evolution between natural and sociocultural subsystems is prevalent. In the present scenario we need to think of alternatives as biofertilizers whose production, consumption and recycling is eco-friendly is a promising step towards sustainable development. Mycorrhiza based biofertilizer technology is one of the successful technology capable of wasteland reclamation because of its broad host range. Biopesticides endowed with features of diverse activity are relative safe to non-target organisms and are ecofriendly. Need for biological disease management is looking forward to low crop losses in a more eco-friendly way. Modern Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on non-renewable energy sources, especially petroleum which should look for alternates like solar energy and materials such as bamboo, small timber chemical intermediates from plants. Alleviating poverty while increasing food production and maintaining biodiversity can be achieved in India through germplasm conservation and enhancement, participatory plant breeding, least chemical input, by better microbial and technological development and better marketing of products. At the national level, we need formulation of national policies and programs in response to the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commitment to the goals of sustainable development and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Keywords: Agriculture, biodiversity, management, microbes, sustainability

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB190] Threats to fresh and aquatic biodiversity: a human impact Sabiha Imran Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, MRIU, Faridabad HARYANA ABSTRACT Only a tiny fraction of the planet’s abundant water is available to us as fresh water. As 2.6 % water is fresh water in our planet an locked up in ice or glaciers or its too deep underground to be reached or too salty to be used and only about 0.0145 of the earth’s total volume of water is easily available to us as soil moisture, usable groundwater, water vapour, and lakes and stream. In all ecosystems, the existence and operations of human society inevitably have an effect on the way of life in a freshwater community. Lakes and ponds are large, natural bodies of standing water. They are fed mainly by rainfall and melting snow, and they consist of various different life zones. The first life zone in freshwater lakes is the littoral zone, found near the shore where rooted plants grow and is the most productive zone sustains floating plants, surfaced plants, submerged plants and phytoplankton. Under the littoral life zone there is the limnetic life zone on the surface of the lake, extending to the depth where sunlight penetrates. Depending on the available nutrients it contains phyto- and zooplankton, and various fish species. Then the profundal life zone, deep, dark water that cannot be reached by penetrating sunlight. In this zone only find fish that can survive in cooler, darker circumstances Finally, at the bottom of freshwater bodies there is another life zone called the benthic life zone, mainly inhabited by decomposers and insect larvae.. Human activities are causing species to disappear at an alarming rate. Aquatic species are at a higher risk of extinction than mammals and birds. Losses of this magnitude impact the entire ecosystem, and the creation of dams and water diversion have been identified as the greatest challenges to freshwater environments. In addition, air and water pollution, sedimentation and erosion, and climate change also pose. Detailed study is discussed in the paper. [AB191] Environmental impacts of coal based thermal power plants in India Manohari, Jaskiran Kaur and Anamika Das Centre for Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Earth Sciences Central University of Punjab, Bathinda. Email: m.choudhary19@gmail.com ABSTRACT Electricity sector or power producing sector plays an important role in the economic growth of any country. In most of the developed and developing countries, much interest has been created for the extensive research on the commercial use of coal as an alternative source of energy due to the shortage of petroleum and natural gas. Because of limited hydroelectric power generation, great dangers and cost involved in nuclear power, the thermal power plants (coal-fired) are commonly used for the production of electricity and is expected to rise further. The burning of coal in thermal power plants and small scale industrial units gives rise to various environmental problems (air and water pollution), corrosion and fouling of boilers and heat exchangers. Mainly the mineral composition of the coal is responsible for this kind of problem. In addition, a serious economic and environmental problem is also aroused in disposal due to the quality of ash (more than 30 percent by weight) produced by coal combustion in thermal plants. This paper reviews in detail about the quality of coal used in thermal power plants, status of thermal power plants, different emissions and their impacts , fly ash quantity and its composition and technology used in thermal power plants in India. Keywords: Thermal power plants, coal, environment, tones, mineral composition, fly ash.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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National Conference

Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB192] Phytochemical Screening of Eremurus himalaicus - An Endemic Medicinal Plant of NorthWestern Himalaya Ishfak H. Wani1, Bilal A. Wani1, Ahlam Mushtaq1, Bashir A. Ganai1 Akbar Masood and Rabia Hamid1* 1 Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar- 190006, J&K, India. Email: rabeyams@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT The ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of roots and aerial parts of Eremurus himalaicus were creened for the presence of various bioactive phyto-constituents. Being endemic to Kashmir the plant stands a good chance for its inclusion among the medicinal plants of the valley. Till date no work has been reported on the medicinal values of Eremurus himalaicus. Therefore, the present study attempts to assess the potential medicinal values and separation of bioactive principles present in the plant. In addition this effort will be effective in strengthening the case in favour of the conservation of the plant itself vis-a-vis the habitat. The phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of moderate to high amount of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes and reducing carbohydrates. Our study provides the rationale for some of the traditional uses of the extracts of Eremurus himalaicus aerial parts and clearly indicates that ethyl acetate extract of Eremurus himalaicus from high altitude of Kashmir Himalaya has the potential of possessing significant medicinal values. Keywords: Eremurus himalaicus, medicinal plants, Kashmir Himalaya [AB193] A study on common snakes & myths Shiats campus Prerna S.1, Lal S.B.1 and Enid M2 School of Forestry, 2Joseph School of Management Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. E mail. prernawildlife@gmail.com 1

ABSTRACT “A study on Common Snakes & Myths, SHIATS Campus” was conducted from February to August 2011. The data was collected for the survey by indirect and direct method. Questionnaires was made for the interviews of intellectual people and field staffs of the Campus for the snakes and survey by rescue calls, surveying both morning and evening. Out of sixteen species recorded from Allahabad Four species are venomous, One is mildly venomous and the remaining Eleven species are non venomous. The most common snakes came across were Pytas mucosa, Naja naja, Bungarus caeruleus, Daboia russellii and Eryx jhonii. The other species identified were Lycodon aulicus, Xenochrophis piscator, Coelognathus helena Helena and Gongylophis conicus. One of the interesting fact was that Varanus bengalensis was included as snake by 90% of the people (Field staffs like Gardeners, Guards) and believes it as highly poisonous. 95% Snakes were killed and 5% were escaped. Maximum snakes were killed by the staff due to lack of knowledge on their importance in the ecosystem. The other important topic was myths regarding the snakes like-snake drink milk, snake keep revenge, snake have two mouths on both side, Pytas mucosa mate with Naja naja, snakes grow a beard as they get older, snakes carry a diamond in their forehead, snakes remember you if you hurt them, Flying Snakes can pierce somebody’s forehead or put out their eyes, Eryx johnii deposits of rare metals in its body etc was completely cleared with the real facts.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

The study was very interesting and resulted in an opportunity and need for intensive awareness among the staff that can bring respect for the co existence of man and snakes reducing the conflict. Keywords: Snakes, MBA, Wildlife, Reptiles, Myths, SHIATS, [AB194] Forest and wildlife conservation by Environment Protection Laws in India Enespa Department of Environment Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (A central) University, Vidya Vihar, Raebareilly Road Lucknow - 226025, U.P. India. Email: enespasingh@gmail.com ABSTRACT India has an immense variety of natural resources. It has rich animal and plant heritage. Which sustain millions of its people? India is the home of 5,042 moll scans, 57,245 insects, 2,546 fishes, 1,228 birds, 372 mammals, 428 reptiles, 204 amphibians and several other species of invertebrates. It is the single country to have all the five major vertebrates Panthera tigris, Elephas maximus, Panthera leo, Panthera onca, Rhinoceros unicornis, with a forest cover of 19 percent of its total geographical area which covers 11 percent good or dense forest. India has two –one is the north east ‘Himalayas’ and the other is the ‘Western Ghats’ biodiversity Hot Spots. The forests are the natural renewable resources form one of the major terrestrial eco – systems, and constitute vital source of the national wealth. Forests cover nearly 40 percent of the world’s land. Forests and wildlife are the great importance to life and prosperity of human beings. They maintain climate, stabilize water and soil resources. The conservation of wild life and Forests is the immense important to the mankind. The extinction of wild life and destruction of forests will ultimately lead to the extinction of human race itself. The product and by-products of different plants are used by human beings for different activities of their life. They also release oxygen, prevent soil erosion, floods and advancement of deserts. The concept of environmental protection is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in Article 48(a) and 51(g). The various Central Acts are supported by a number of State Laws and Statues concerning forests and other natural resources. The Indian constitution; a healthy environment as part of the right to Life, Article-21, 48 A, 51 A (g). And Article 14, 19, 21 are called the green triangle. The Indian Forest Act, 1927 contains 86 sections and it deals with four categories of forests namely (i) Reserve Forest (ii) Village Forests (iii) Protected Forests and (iv) Non –Government Forests . The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 Act has been passed with a view to check deforestation which has been taking place in the country on a large scale and which had caused ecological imbalance and thus led to environmental deterioration. List III of the Seventh Schedule contains the following entries under which both Center and the State can make Laws: Entry 17. Prevention of cruelty to animals. Entry 17-A, Forests. Entry 17-B. Protection of wild life and birds. Entry 29. Prevention of the extension from one State to another of infectious or contagious disease of pests affecting men, animals or plants. Further, List II of the Seventh Schedule also contains the following entries under which the State can make laws to preserve, protect and improve the livestock and prevent animal diseases, and on fisheries. Entry 15. Preservation, protection and improvement of stock and prevention of animal diseases: veterinary training and practice. Entry 21 Fisheries.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 has been amended by the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002. The long title of the Principal Act has also been amended and now from the amended title of the Principal Act it is evident that the said Act has been enacted for the following Purposes: • To provide for protection of wild animals, birds and plants and for matters connected their with or ancillary or incidental thereto. • To ensure the ecological and environmental security of the country. Keywords: Environmental Laws, Wildlife and Forest, biodiversity, healthy environment [AB195] Environmental magnetism and geochemical analysis of road dust from Allahabad city, U.P., India and its implications for urban environment Ravindra K. Gautam1*, Jagjeet B. Jegwar2, Kavindra K. Gautam3, A.O. Ayeni4, Nkurunziza Theoneste5 1 Environmental Sciences, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, (U.P.), India-211002 2 Department of Geography, University of Allahabad, (U.P.), India-211002 3 Department of Biochemistry, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India –221005 4 Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Km. 10 Idiroko Road, Canaan land,Ota, Nigeria. 5 Environment management, Kigali Institute of Science and Technology, Avenue de l'Armée, P.O. Box 3900, Kigali, Rwanda ABSTRACT Measurements of environmental magnetism from road dust samples, reflecting magnetic enhancement of topsoil due to anthropogenic induced and atmospherically deposited magnetic particles of industrial origin, are used recently in studies dealing with outlining polluted areas, as well as with approximate determination of soil contamination with heavy metals. In this study we examine the applicability of magnetic measurements of road dust samples to discrimination of anthropogenic and lithogenic contributions in areas characterized by different geological and environmental settings. The spatio-temporal variations of anthropogenic induced particulate matters in road dust of Allahabad city have been investigated using 132 dust samples collected from six major zones during pre-monsoon period. The magnetic susceptibility values and the acquisition patterns of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) were measured on the Bartington Magnetic Susceptibility Meter and Agico Spinner Magnetometer JR5, respectively. The measurement shows that ferromagnetic minerals are the dominant phases in these road dusts. Distribution of magnetic susceptibility and the reported heavy metal concentration indicate that magnetic susceptibility can be a useful proxy indicator for urban environmental pollution. The dust particulate matters have been characterized by microscopic techniques and EPMA analysis has been carried out on select grain to decipher their chemistry. Overall, this study shows that the mineral magnetic methods in conjunction with microscopic-sub-microscopic observation and magnetic analysis for urban road dust can be used as a powerful tool for assessment of pollution features in an urban to semi-urban area in terms of source and spatial distribution of anthropogenic induced magnetic materials and associated heavy metals. Keywords: Environmental magnetism, road dust, magnetic susceptibility, IRM *Corresponding author Present address: Eco-Restoration Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur - 440020 Email: ravindragautam1987@gmail.com

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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Environment and Biodiversity of India 30th – 31st December 2011, New Delhi

[AB196] Using metabolomic analysis to study biodiversity Jazeel Limzerwala, Afsha Khalfay, Isha Mhatre, Anupma Harshal* Department of Biotechnology, K.C. College, D.W. Road, Churchgate, Mumbai 400020, India * Email: anupma.anuphd@gmail.com ABSTRACT Metabolomic analysis is recognised as an important facet of systems biology which helps us identify the varied nature of metabolites present in a system of interest. The metabolome of an organism is under genotypic as well as environmental influence, and since it directly reflects into it’s phenotype, the study of the metabolome can yield plenty of insight into the nature of the organism. It helps to establish a fingerprint individual to each organism. In our study we have tried looking at the protein profiles of different plants, obtained after performing a gradient SDS-PAGE, to check for particular proteins which could be exclusive to that particular plant species and eventually help us to study the diversity across different species. We have also performed NMR spectroscopy on a few samples as it was a better technique available to analyse the diversity across samples. This was a very prelimnary and basic study carried out and holds lot of scope for establishing a metabolomic database of indigenous species. Keywords: Metabolomic analysis, metabolome, gradient SDS-PAGE, NMR spectroscopy [AB197] Impact of industrialization on the environment of Punjab Jaskiran Kaur and Manohari Centre for Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Earth Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda ABSTRACT Industrialization is one of the processes of social and economic change that transforms a human group from a pre-industrial society into an industrial one. Rapid industrialization leads to an increase in number of small and large scale industries. Although it improves the economic condition of the country but it results in a number of problems like pollution generation, resource depletion etc. Thus industrialization as a whole has played an important role in bringing a disadvantageous change in the environment and at the same time the presence of industries in fragile zones of the ecosystem has also altered the unstable physical and biological entities of the already imbalanced ecosystem. This paper reviews in detail the status of industrialization in Punjab, list of industries in Punjab and its impact on air, water and land and cities under threat due to rapid industrialization and initiatives taken by government for pollution control. Keywords: Industrialization, small scale industries, large scale industries, pollution, resource depletion.

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[AB198] Indigenous People, Social Taboos and Biodiversity Conservation Gunjana Chaudhury and Prasanna K. Samal G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, North East Unit. Vivek Vihar, Itanagar 791 113, Arunachal Pradesh. ABSTRACT Biological diversity is an asset of vital significance to human beings with an immense potential for ensuing many unknown benefits to future generations. Owing to the important role played by biodiversity in the survival of mankind, this has called for the adoption of biodiversity conservation practices. The areas rich in biodiversity are abodes of diverse ethnic groups possessing a valuable reservoir of indigenous knowledge system (IKS) acquired and developed during a long period of time. Totems and social taboos of the indigenous people, as constituents of the IKS, play a major role in biodiversity conservation. But increased appreciation and adaptation of certain unsustainable components of modernization has enforced the indigenous people to follow lifestyles that are distinctly different from their livelihoods. This is eroding traditional values and beliefs, which were instrumental in conserving and/or protecting habitats or ecosystems. Hence there is a necessity for deeper understanding of social engineering of the indigenous communities for better conservation of biodiversity. Creating a sustainable mechanism by integrating traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) with modern policies and approaches for biodiversity conservation will critically require active and effective engagement of the indigenous people. Without their full engagement, major conservation initiatives under way today, both public and private, will be compromised. Keywords: Biodiversity, Conservation, Indigenous Societies, Social Taboos, Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Natural Resource Management.

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[AB199] Human-Wildlife Conflict in a Degraded Habitat of Lower Chambal Valley Hemant Kumar Research Scholar, Centre for Study of Regional Development, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi Email; Kumarhemant.jnu@gmail.com ABSTRACT Human-Wildlife Conflict crop-up when wildlife requirements overlap with those of human populations. The issue of crop depredation and subsequent conflicts arising between human-wildlife in recent times is a growing concern. The growing loss of habitat is a major cause of increasing conflict between humans and wildlife. As wildlife range becomes more and more fragmented and as wildlife gets confined into smaller pockets of suitable habitat, humans and wildlife are increasingly coming into contact and in conflict with each other. Due to expansion of ravines wildlife habitats as well as arable land is shrinking in semi-arid region of Chambal valley. Villages in lower Chambal valley reported crop and livestock depredation by wild carnivores including as nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra), wild boar (Sus scrofa), Indian gazelle (Gazella gazella), Indian porcupine (Hystrix indica), Sambar (Rusa unicolor). Conflicts are particularly serious, where rural people live in close association with protected areas. In the present study peasants’ perception about encroachment of arable lands by wild-animals has been assessed. In all three surveyed villages 36.65% peasants reported wild-animal as a cause of low production. It is reported high (60% peasants) in the village inhabited nearby protected forest covers. Due to excess animal encroachment 45% peasants of all surveyed villages are reported to prevent growing some particular crops. About 84% peasant believes wild-animal as one of the cause to stopped growing some particular crops, therefore forced to bring a change in crop pattern. This paper discusses agricultural crop-raiding by locally overabundant populations of wild and the possible management strategies that can limit or reduce the conflict animal in a part of lower Chambal valley. Keywords: Lower Chambal valley, ravine expansion, wildlife, protected areas, crop depredation, management strategies [AB200] Folk veterinary medicines in Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India Kumar Avinash Bharati Raw Materials Herbarium and Museum (RHMD), CSIR-NISCAIR, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012. E-mail: kumaravinashbharati@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to document the prevalent folk medicinal knowledge of plants used for the treatment of various ailments of livestock in the district Kushinagar of Uttar Pradesh. The study was carried out during June 2009 to December 2010 by taking interviews and discussions with the local inhabitants of the district. In total 57 plant species have been found to be used against 21 ailments of livestock in the form of 27 medicinal formulations. The comparative analysis between the previous studies conducted by several authors in India and the present study undertaken in Kushinagar district revealed that out of 57 remedies reported here, 55 remedies are found novel since they have been recorded first time.

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[AB201] Removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution and tannery effluent by heat treated biomass of Termitomyces clypeatus Lata Ramrakhiani and Suman Khowala Drug Development and Biotechnology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, (CSIR, Govt. of India), 4, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India E-mail: lata_ram@hotmail.com Hexavalent chromium is contained in wastewaters produced by industrial processes, such as leather tanning, electroplating, metal finishing, metallurgical, dye, wood preservation and battery manufacturing. It is strong oxidizing agent capable of being absorbed through the skin and has carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogeic potential. Traditionally, heavy metals are removed by chemical precipitation, membrane process, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, liquid extraction and electro-dialysis. However these methods are non-economical and not very efficient to reduce the metal concentration to the level as required by environmental legislation. Recently, biosorption has gained momentum for employing low-cost biological materials (biosorbents) with effective binding capacities towards different heavy metal ions. The fungus Termitomyces clypeatus, is edible mushroom, commonly found in near-surface system can be exploited as ecofriendly and low cost materials for their biosorption properties. The heat treated fungus biomass has ability to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution and tannery effluent. The influences of different environmental parameters (pH, biomass dose, initial Cr concentration, contact time, shake condition) on biosorption were investigated. Adsorption characteristics fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and kinetics parameters are evaluated. Changes in surface properties of the biomass (before and after each metal adsorbed) were studied using potentiometric titration, functional group modification, FTIR, SEM-EDX analysis. Tannery effluents collected from a CETP of leather industry complex at Kolkata, India were characterized for physicochemical parameters and metal concentrations. The heat treated biomass was able to remove Cr up to 80.4% as well as Fe up to 45.21% from effluent without adjustment of pH. Thus the study offered an ecofriendly, easy to handle and efficient biosorbent for substantial decrease or complete removal of hexavalent chromium under weak acidic and neutral conditions that can solve one of challenges in industrial application of known biosorbents removing Cr (VI) only under strong acidic condition.

Keywords: Termitomyces clypeatus, Biosorption, Cr(VI), Potentiometric titration, chemical modification, heat treated biomass.

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[AB202] Lichenoremediation Neetu Singh1#, Ajay kumar1*, S.S.Gaurav2 and Harsh Gupta Dept of Biotech, Mewar Institute of Management, Ghaziabad-U.P 2 Dept of Biotech, CCS University, Meerut-U.P *Email: ajaykmr1986@gmail.com, #neetu.avni@gmail.com

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ABSTRACT Lichen has a significant property of absorbing cations present in inorganic forms from the available natural substrates on which they grow in amounts which are in excess of any expected requirements. We examined 20 terricolous lichens which are known to fix metal ions found in Kullu and Manali regions of Himachal Pradesh (India). Lichenic thallus is the location of its metal detecting property. Touminen (1967) proposed that alkali and alkaline metal ion uptake involved a simple ion-exchange process, which can occur inside the thallus cells of lichen by Intracellular ionexchange mechanism of the proteins metallothioneins. For this we dissected the thallus of selected lichens and isolated the metallothionein proteins by disrupting cells of lichenic thalli followed by protein purification. Metal chelate chromatography is used to detect the concentration of metal ions in the protein sample. Out of 20 protein samples 9 samples were found to have bound metal ions in considerable amount. Keywords: Metal-Chelate Chromatography, Metallothioneins. [AB203] Eutrophication: effect and assessment of detergent phosphates

Tarun Pillai and Prachi Agrawal Hiddayatullah National Law University, Raipur (C.G) Email: tarun.pillai1@gmail.com ABSTRACT Eutrophication is a syndrome of ecosystem responses to human activities that fertilize water bodies with nitrogen and phosphorus, often leading to changes in animal and plant populations and degradation of water and habitat quality. Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP) is an imperative ingredient of many detergents. Detergents contain wetting agents and emulsifiers, based on nonsoap synthetic surfactants. The exercise of STPP has been connected with the environmental problem of “eutrophication”, the increase of nutrient levels in water, which can lead to the formation of large masses of algae or blooms which are unsightly, cause slow moving water to be turbid, and may be toxic. A study was done to understand the consumers and it was found that 77.6 % of people have experienced some kind of skin irritation due to detergents. India has addressed the eutrophication problem only at the level of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). The rising demand of phosphate-laden detergents in rural areas will increase eutrophication of the local water bodies that serve as the primary water resource. While India's Environment Protection law (1989) recognizes and categorizes phosphine, phosphorus and its compounds as toxic chemicals, there are no regulations that are applicable to household detergents. The Paper will give a collective assessment of policies by EU and The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). A recent test done by Consumer Voice on detergents show that of the 14 brands selected, only one complied with the BIS standards for detergent labeling. There are lots of recent incidences on Eutrophication like Ousteri lake in Puducherry and Udiasagar Lake in Rajasthan. The Paper will also contain methods through which water treatment can be done. The consumer needs to be informed that the smaller detergent products can also be the least polluting ones. The usage of 'green detergents' that do not contain non-essential additives like perfumes, colour and brightening agents in minimal packaging will go a long way in ensuring a cleaner and healthier environment. Keywords: Eutrophication, Detergent Phosphates, STPP, BSI, EU, Sewage Treatment Plant

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB204] Studies on Life history of the Oleander Hawk Moth, Daphnis nerii (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), S. I. Ahmed, Meeta Sharma and Anchal Sharma Arid Forest Research Institute, Jodhpur-342005 ABSTRACT The studies were conducted on the oleander hawk moth, Daphnis nerii (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), in and around Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The egg is a tiny, round, oval, or cylindrical object, usually with fine ribs and other microscopic structures. The female lays the egg to leaves, stems, or other objects, usually on or near food on which caterpillar feed. The caterpillar (or larva) is the long, worm-like stage of the moth. It often has an interesting pattern of segmentation. It is the feeding and growth stage. As it grows, it sheds its skin four or more times so as to enclose its rapidly growing body. The incubation period is about ten to fifteen days during hot weather. Keywords: Olieander hawk moth, Daphnis nerii, oleander, sphingidae. [AB205] Contamination of non essential heavy metal in sea sediment around ONGC installations of western offshore of Arabian Sea-A trend analysis report G.L. Das ONGC, IPSHEM, Goa Email: gadalaldas@gmail.com ABSTRACT Heavy metals can be termed as conservative pollutants, introduce into the aquatic systems as a result of the weathering of soils and rocks, from under water volcanic eruption and other anthropogenic activities. Thereby it changes the natural concentration of metals in seawater resulting in a ten or even hundred fold increase near the source of an effluent discharge. While some metals like manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) are biologically important for marine life, others like lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), Nickel(Ni) and chromium (Cr) are non essential and become toxic at higher concentrations. Associated to particulate matters, heavy metals tends to stay in solution for a very long time, but they will end up in the sediments, therefore concentrations in the sediments are often higher than those in solution. In the sediments, these particles may form an important secondary source of contamination, even after the primary source has disappeared. Therefore, there is a need for timescale monitoring of the levels of these metals in all the marine resources, so as to establish the trends that could be linked to anthropogenic activities. After the discovery of oil in Western offshore area, Mumbai High in 1974, ONGC increased its attention towards the field and deployed several rigs and commissioned process platforms and more than 100 unmanned platforms. In its efforts towards environmental protection, ONGC has started regular environment monitoring of its oil fields and installations around Western Offshore areas. Out of all different environmental parameters, monitoring of heavy metal contamination in sea water, sediment and in biota is an essential module. The paper focuses on the study of the concentration of non essential heavy metals in sea sediment around the operational areas of ONGC in western offshore area. Water column being mobile in nature, the paper has given more importance to analyze the trend of contamination of non essential heavy metals in the sea sediment in the study area. Three metals e.g. Chromium, Lead and Nickel are considered for trend analysis from the period of 1994 to 2009. The study reveals that the concentrations of Lead and nickel are in decreasing trend whereas Chromium found in increasing trend. Although, there is an

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indication of the impact of anthropogenic activity on marine environment, no conclusion can be made on the operational influence of ONGC activities on marine environment. [AB206] The Pragmatic Approach of Carbon Forestry for Rural Development in India: towards the Conservation of Biodiversity Om Prakash*, Ruhumuriza Gervais*, Karagwa Gervais and R Ramesh Center for Rural Development, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu ABSTRACT Forestry represents the second-largest land use in India after agriculture, but the contribution of forestry is nearly 1 % in the national GDP. As per the estimation of Planning commission of India, the 60 million hectare land comes under the degraded waste land in the country out of which 33 million hectares constitute degraded forest land. The prime cause is Deforestation that aggregates to global environmental change through biodiversity loss and emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. As per the COP 13, where the parties of UNFCCC agreed upon reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and other forest activities. For the forest development, they put the forestry and land use project into the carbon market, in which the carbon credit trade between countries with ‘carbon sinks’ (planted forests), that comes under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in which the Certified emissions reductions (CERs) are the currency of the clean development mechanism (CDM) and the can be use for the rural development project, that enhance the socio-economic and environmental development of India. By the pragmatic approach of carbon forestry, the waste land can convert into the productive land & carbon forestry meet the needs of the rural people and it leads to the conservation of biodiversity. It significantly mitigates the challenges of biodiversity, livelihood, poverty & rural problems. This paper first examine the recent trends on carbon forestry, and trade patterns, followed by various impacts on the conservation of biodiversity including rural development, food security, energy security, climate change mitigation, economic growth Finally, we investigate the prospects of carbon forestry for the rural development in India Keywords: Carbon forestry, poverty alleviation, rural development & conservation of biodiversity

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[AB207] Folk veterinary medicines in Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India Kumar Avinash Bharati Raw Materials Herbarium and Museum (RHMD) CSIR-NISCAIR, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 Email: kumaravinashbharati@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to document the prevalent folk medicinal knowledge of plants used for the treatment of various ailments of livestock in the district Kushinagar of Uttar Pradesh. The study was carried out during June 2009 to December 2010 by taking interviews and discussions with the local inhabitants of the district. In total 57 plant species have been found to be used against 21 ailments of livestock in the form of 27 medicinal formulations. The comparative analysis between the previous studies conducted by several authors in India and the present study undertaken in Kushinagar district revealed that out of 57 remedies reported here, 55 remedies are found novel since they have been recorded first time. [AB208] Phosphorous deficiency in maize crop under high rainfall conditions Neetu Singh1*, S.S.Gaurav2$, Ajay Kumar1# Department of Biotech, Mewar Inst. of Management, Ghaziabad-U.P-201012, 2 Department of Biotech, CCS University, Meerut Email: #ajaykmr1986@gmail.com, *neetu.avni@gmail.com

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ABSTRACT Phosphorus deficiency is a growth-limiting factor among crops grown in areas of high rainfall and extremely cold weather. It is due to the low availability of intrinsic and supplementary Phosphorous. Adaptation to such climatic condition of high rainfall mainly varies with crop genotypes. The study evaluated responses of some of maize genotypes to Phosphorous application rates under typical annual climatic conditions in high rainfall regions of Maharashtra. Five Maize genotypes (Mero-99, Ralpha, Napha-66, Sonal, and Panda) and one control and four treatment Phosphorous application rates (0, 7, 15, 38 and 82 kg P ha-1) were used in a 3-year (2007/08, 2008/09, 2009/10) field experiment. Increasing Phosphorous application level in most of conditions enhanced the leaf Phosphorous (0.21 - 0.58 %) and Maize grain Phosphorous (0.06 - 0.21%) concentrations of the genotypes. Grain yields values ranged from 1.65 - 5.02 tha-1 and optimum yields were achieved with 42 kg P ha-1 application rate in all three years. Thus, leaf Phosphorous concentration and grain yield can be used for identification of genotypes that could be adapted to low or high soil Phosphorous availability under condition of high rainfall. Keywords: Genotypes, Phosphorous

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[AB209] Reptilian Diversity of Jambughoda Wildlife Sanctuary Geeta Padate, Sapna Surendranath, Arpita Guha and Dharmendra Shah Division of Wildlife Biology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390002, Gujarat, India ABSTRACT Nested in the southern most extensions of Aravalli hills and western fringes of the Vindhyan mountain range Jambughoda wildlife sanctuary (JWLS) is located in the Panchmahal and Vadodara districts of Central Gujarat and was declared as a sanctuary on 22nd May 1990. JWLS spreads in an area of 130.36 km2 falling between latitudes 20o 0’ N and 23o 18’ N and longitude 73o 8’ E and 74o 28’E. The terrain is undulating and is covered by hills running in east west direction as well as S-SW to N-NE direction. The vegetation of JWLS is 5A-type i.e. Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous forest. After a preliminary ground survey of the JWLS, depending on the forest cover, all together nine transects were laid down in various areas covering all parts of the Sanctuary. These were divided into three categories: (1) Water reservoirs (2) Forested areas (3) Areas with perennial water streams. Total 24 species of reptiles have been noted over a period of 2 years. This indicates that Jambughoda supports more than 0.8% of world species; 4.5% of Indian species and 26.37% species from Gujarat. Out of these 1 species is Near Threatened (NT) as per IUCN red list categories (2008). Out of nine families of lizards represented in India, five are represented in JWLS. Out of 24 species of reptiles noted 14 are snakes. 11 species have been listed in the Management Plan of Jambughoda wildlife sanctuary 2002-2011. Keywords: Reptiles, Jambughoda, Vadodara, Central Gujarat, Tropical Dry Deciduous forest. [AB210] Biochemical Changes taking place under the influence of industrial effluents in human body with special reference to the status of essential metals Deepa Sethi Singh, Rahber Ul Islam and Yogesh Kumar Department of Zoology, Hindu College (M.J.P. Rohilkhand Univeristy, Bareilly), Moradabad (U.P) Email: deepasethisingh@gmail.com ABSTRACT Industrial effluents exercise biochemical effects on human through change in normal level of body fluid pH and influence specific types of cell systems during onset of a health problem by depleting particular metal/metals and render the cell nutritionally deficient which attracts the environmental infection. The nature of depleted metal depends upon the chemical nature of effluents that also decide the nature of infection and cell systems to be involved in disease process. For identifying the nature of depleted metal /metals , biopsy material(scalp hair) are collected on random basis from workers engaged in different sections of the industry and subjected to elemental analysis using atomic absorption spectro photometer technique. Analytical data so obtained on comparison with standard values reveal the change in status of essential metals under the influence of industrial pollution. Keywords: Industrial effluents, essential metals

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[AB211] What is the exact taxonomic status of Taxus - A study to be in urgent need ! Prabha Sharma and P. L. Uniyal Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi – 110 007. Email: sharmaprabha3@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT Taxus contorta is the only yew occurring in Afghanistan, Pakistan, northwestern India, western Nepal and Xizang in China. Literature records of Taxus wallichiana, Taxus baccata ssp wallichiana and Taxus fuana Nan Li and R.R. Mill represent T. contorta. In northwestern India, T. contorta occurs usually along streams within coniferous forests in Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh. The typical variety (Taxus wallichiana var wallichiana) has a very extensive, almost continuous distribution. A considerable amount of research is still required to gain a comprehensive understanding of Taxus throughout Asia. Asian yews are in serious decline throughout most parts of their range and henceforth, their global taxonomic, conservation status urgently needs to be updated. [AB212] Prevalence of extreme halophilic fungi in the salterns of the Rann of Kutch of Gujarat Vanparia SP, Dey R and Pal KK Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagadh-362 001, Gujarat, India ABSTRACT The Little and Great Rann of Kutch are special ecosystems evolved probably through thousands of years of evolution and only specialized groups of microbes started thriving in the “salty settings” due to capability of these specialized organisms to adapt to the extreme hypersaline situations. Though there is prevalence of archaea and prokaryotic organisms, there is also possibility of presence of few eukaryotes as well. Therefore, to study the presence of extreme halophilic fungi and their diversity and characterisation, samples were collected from the salterns of Little and Great Rann of Kutch and fungi were isolated by improvised techniques onto malt extract agar (MEA). From the samples, 47 different fungal isolates were obtained and characterized. Among the isolates, 20 isolates grew at 23.5% NaCl; seven grew at 65ºC; fourteen were able to grow at 10% NaCl and 50ºC; and six isolates MSPF 1, MSPF 2, MSPF 3, MSPF 4, MSPF 5 and NSPF 1 grew at 23.5% NaCl and 50oC. There was variation in growth and pigmentation in these fungi with increase in NaCl concentration from 0% to 20% in all the seventeen fungi. The sequencing of the PCR amplified ITS region identified 18 of the isolates as species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Hortaea, Alternaria, Stemophylium, etc. besides one uncultured fungus. Further characterization of intracellular solutes of Aspergillus syndowii BF5 indicated that there was increased accumulation of Mg+2 and Na+ with increase in salinity. The studies confirmed the presence of diverse groups of fungi in the hypersaline environments in the Little and Great Rann of Kutch of Gujarat. Aspergillus syndowii BF5 is now being used for mining salinity tolerant genes. This work is supported by the World Bank funded National Agricultural Innovation Project of Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India Keywords: Rann of Kutch, fungi, diversity, ITS amplification, Aspergillus syndowii BF5

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[AB213] Production of thermo-, salt- and heavy- metal tolerant proteases by biotransformation of deoiled groundnut cake 1

Chauhan SM, 1Dey R, 1Pal KK and 2Parikh SC Directorate of Groundnut Research (ICAR), Ivnagar Road, PB No. 5, Junagadh-362 001, Gujarat 2 S. M. Panchal Science College, Patan-384 265, Gujarat

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ABSTRACT Proteolytic enzymes account for nearly 60% of the enzyme market globally. As groundnut cake is a readily available and comparatively cheap byproduct of the oil industry in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat, it can be utilized profitably for production of proteases. Thermo-, salt- and heavy-metal tolerant proteases are important to cater to the need of detergent industries to develop detergents to use them wherein wash water is hard and needs pre-soaking at high temperature. A number of Bacillus spp. were isolated by enrichment technique at different temperatures of 50o, 60o, 70o, 80o, 90o and 100oC. After screening, seven isolates at 50oC, six isolates at 60oC, one isolate at 70oC and one isolate at 80oC were obtained and characterised for salt, heavy metal and high temperature tolerance. Finally, on the basis of tolerance to high temperature (50-90oC), heavy metal (2.5 to 15 mM of Cd, Ni, Co and Hg) and NaCl (upto 3M), isolates P1, P4, P7, F1, F6, SP5-8, SP8-14, etc. were selected for studying the protease production potential using de-oiled groundnut cake as substrate by slurry fermentation. Bacillus sp. isolate SP8-14 was the most efficient proteolytic isolate and produced all three types of proteases, i.e. acidic, neutral and alkaline proteases. The maximum activity was obtained after 96 h of fermentation at pH 8.6 (174 IU/g de-oiled cake). As compared to 5% NaCl, there was decrease in protease activity of the enzymes produced by the cultures and maximum activity was obtained after 96 h of fermentation as compared to 48 h when fermented with 5% NaCl. Maximum activity of 165.7 IU protease/ g de-oiled groundnut cake was obtained with Bacillus sp. isolate SP8-14 at 50oC. Proteases were also produced at 60oC and 5% NaCl by employing Bacillus isolates viz. P6, F1 and F6. While Bacillus sp. F1 produced both neutral (44.0 IU/g de-oiled cake at pH 7.0) and alkaline proteases (107.1 IU/g de-oiled cake at pH 9.0), Bacillus sp. F6 and Bacillus sp. P6 produced only alkaline proteases. Thus, Bacillus sp. SP8-14 can be used in slurry fermentation for utilizing de-oiled groundnut cake as substrate for the production of high temperature (50oC) and salt (10% NaCl) tolerant proteases. Similarly, Bacillus sp. P6 can also be employed for production of proteases at 60oC and 5% NaCl. Keywords: Proteases, heavy metal-thermo-salt tolerance, Bacillus spp., de-oiled groundnut cakes, biotransformation

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[AB214] Silvipastoral Land development and its significance in Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh, India Ankita Pandey* and K.R Yadav Forest Research Institute, Kanpur, U.P, India ABSTRACT The Bundelkhand region is located south of the Yamuna River, between the fertile Gangetic plain stretching across northern U.P. Forests of Bundelkhand, today face the serious problem of biotic pressure like uncontrolled grazing, over exploitation and excessive harvesting, forest wild fires and so on. These factors have lead the once dense forests to their degraded stage. This paper aims at providing a silvipastoral model based on the edaphoclimatic condition for improving the forest condition of Bundelkhand. A silvipastoral system will produce highly nutritious top fodder and forage, fuel wood, timber and optimize land productivity, conserve plants, soil and nutrients etc. This will also include replantation, substitution or intervention in the existing vegetation by desirable species. A diversified or multi-tired silvipasture will ensure better utilization of environmental resources as the polymorphs are of different heights and their roots extend to different depths. It will be near natural, comparatively stable, and will ensure better flow of solar energy through the food chains. Keywords: Silvipasture, Bundelhkand, over grazing, conservation, fodder, forage [AB215] Studies on liver glycogen level of common carp Cyprinus carpio subjected to phosphamidon exposure Ch. Srinivasa Prasadacharyulu S.K.P.Govt Degree College, Guntakal, Anantapur (Dist), Andhra Pradesh ABSTRACT Liver Glycogen levels are estimated in small and large individuals of Cyprinus carpio exposed to sub-lethal concentration (10 ppm) of Phosphamidon at different exposure periods like 24-hrs, 7day, 15-day, 20-day and 30-day besides in the control medium (fresh water without Phosphamidon). Liver glycogen was estimated by anthrone method, calorimetrically at wave length of 625 nm. The level of liver glycogen initially decreased both in small large individuals of Cyprinus carpio during the 24 hrs sub-lethal period of Phosphamidon. Later glycogen level raised at 7-day period and a maximal % elevation in liver glycogen at 15-day period. But in the later half of the exposure period the liver glycogen dropped at 20-day period and reached nearer to the normal at 30-day exposure period. The maximal percent elevation in liver glycogen level at 15-day period of phosphamidon exposure in both small and large individuals of Cyprinus carpio are found in relation to control. Where as the percent recovery in liver glycogen at 30-day period of Phosphamidon exposure in both sizes of this carp are found in relation to control. The small and large individuals of this carp exhibited fairly a good amount of % recovery in liver glycogen level at 30-day sub-lethal exposure period of Phosphamidon. The % recovery is greater in the order of large individual > smaller individual body size differences are found to be highly significant. Tables and figures are prepared and the same will be explained at the time of oral presentation.

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB216] Study on contamination of groundwater in Delhi with Fluoride due to industrialization and its removal by waste materials Ishita Kumar, Nandita Ahuja and Potsangbam Albino Kumar Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi-110042 Email: albinoiit@gmail.com ABSTRACT Since last decade, fluoride (F-) which is quite essential in dinking water to prevent dental carries causes an alarming issue throughout the world due to appearance in ground water with concentration much above the desirable limit (1.5 mg/L). Toxicity of F- includes dental and skeletal fluorosis, tumors and mutagenic effects. It had been estimated that about 62 million people of India are affected with different forms of fluorosis. Presence of F- bearing mineral in the host rock and their interaction with water though remain one of the main reasons for F- in ground water, increase in annual discharge of fluoride containing wastewater from industry was observed to be another prime cause. Fluoride effluent generating industries include aluminum smelters, steel, phosphate fertilizer, refrigeration, oil refinery, pharmaceutical, automobile, thermal power plants, enamel, pottery, glass, bricks, plastic, tooth paste, etc. Effluent containing fluoride generated from industries such as semiconductors and integrated circuits generally generates a flow-rate of 350- 700 m3/d with F- concentration in range of 500– 2000 mg/L. A recent assessment of industrial effluent from ten various locations of Delhi, reveals F- contamination with range of 2.4 - 22 mg/L against the desirable limit of 2 mg/L causing ground water contamination as high as 3.1 mg/L. Management of F- contaminated wastewater from industries has become an important issue at least in the Indian context. Many enterprises still lack sound wastewater treatment facilities to deal with the wastewater which exceeds the national permissible standards for fluoride concentration in effluents. Various treatment technologies were developed and practiced for removal of F- ions with their inherent advantages and limitations and include ion exchange, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, Donnan dialysis and electrodialysis, adsorption and electrochemical technology, including electrocoagulation, electroflotation and electrochemical oxidation. This paper deals with the employment of waste materials having no economic value for effective adsorption of fluoride from industrial effluent thereby checking the F- contamination of ground water and surface water bodies. Keywords: Fluoride; fluorosis; adsorption; industrial effluent; waste materials.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB217] Study of influence of gender on environmental awareness, environmental attitute and intentional ecological behavior among secondary students. Prashant Thote1 and DPS Rathoure2 Gyanodaya Vidya Mandir, Narsingarh 2 Human Welfare and Environmental Research Society, Morena . Email: prashant.thote@rediffmail.com 1

ABSTRACT Environmental Education is a process of recognized values and clarifications in order to develop skills and added tools to understand and participate, appreciate the inter-relationship among man, his culture and his bio-physical surroundings. It creates an overall perspective, which acknowledge the fact that natural environment and man made environment are inter-dependent. It should consider the environment in its totality and should be a continuous lifelong process beginning at the pre-school level and continuing through all stages. It should be inter-disciplinary and examine major environmental issues from local, national and international point of view. It should utilize various educational approaches to teach and learn about and from the environment with stress on practical activities and first hand experience. It is through this process of education that people in the society to be aware towards protection of environment and make them skilled to solve environmental problem so as to enable them to participate in the activities undertaken for the protection of environment. Environmental attitude is learned predisposition to respond towards a consistently given object negative or positive. Environmental behavior determines those actions which contribute towards environmental preservation and conservation is more eco-friendly awareness .The present study was conducted on the students of classes IX to XII of Narsingarh. In this study 200 students participated (100 boys and 100 girls) from Private Co-educational school. Result showed that 76% girls and 66% boys had high environmental awareness and 26% of girls and 48% of boys had favorable attitude towards environment. The majority of students were found to be positive behavior trends towards eco-friendly environment. Keywords: Ecological behavior, attitude, conservation, protection and students

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB218] A case for voluntary biodiversity offsets in India Divya Narain B-11, Shaheed Hemu Kalani Colony, E-8 Extension, Bhopal - 462039 Email: divyanarain01@gmail.com As the Indian economy is moving up the growth curve, the country’s biodiversity is taking a beating. Even though legislation is in place to regulate and compensate for diversion of forests for nonforest uses, the diversion and the resultant biodiversity loss continue unabated. The regulatory compensatory regime has fallen woefully short of truly offsetting the biodiversity impact of economic development. Voluntary biodiversity offsets can help strike a balance between conservation and development. It’s high time businesses in high-impact industries engage in voluntary biodiversity offsets not only to minimize their reputational and financial risks but also to gain a competitive edge. This paper presents a policy discussion bringing to the fore the need and the business case of voluntary biodiversity offsets in India. The paper also puts forward a model for potential biodiversity offsets projects in India. Keywords: voluntary biodiversity offsets, compensatory afforestation, biodiversity risk, forest diversion, biodiversity restoration, Western Ghats [AB219] Effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on the kinetic properties of Zea mays NADP- malic enzyme Amin S* and Masood A Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar (J&K), 190006, India *Email: shajrul@rediffmail.com A B ST RA CT The effect of sulfur dioxide exposure on the activity of NADP- malic enzyme was studied in the leaf extracts of control and exposed Zea mays plants. Ten - days old plants of Zea mays were exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide (0.8 to 23 ppm) for 4 hours in a continuous flow exposure chamber under illumination (500W tungsten bulb). The visible injury symptoms in leaves produced due to the exposure were correlated with sulfur dioxide concentration. A concentration dependent decrease in the activity of the enzyme was observed in relation to sulfur dioxide exposure. The inhibition of NADP- malic enzyme by sulfur dioxide was found to be non-competitive with a Ki value of 52.6 ppm sulfur dioxide, with respect to NADP+. The enzyme showed a partial competitive inhibition by sulfur dioxide with respect to malate, whereas the inhibition was competitive with a Ki value of 15 ppm, with respect to Mg2+. The relatively low Ki value with respect to Mg2+ demonstrates a sensitive factor for sulfur dioxide damage. The Km values were 26.3, 142 and 51 µM for NADP+, malate and Mg2+ respectively.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB220] Organic molecular markers in ambient aerosols and their sources: A review Kumar A and Deshmukh SU National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur - 440020, India Email: a_kumar@neeri.res.in and sony_dskh@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT Atmospheric fine particles and the associated organic compounds are of current concern because of their putative health effects. There is a general consensus that the organic composition of the ambient aerosols should be understood to correctly describe the chemical mechanisms and models concerning the multiphase atmospheric system. Organic molecular markers in ambient aerosols are also being increasingly used as tool for quantifying contribution from their source of origin. Various researchers have published their findings on the ambient fine organic aerosols using various analytical methods. They also characterized samples collected from various sources. A combination of these two research efforts permits determination of the source origin of much of the primary organic aerosol. This review article is part of a larger study designed to explore source/receptor relationships for organic aerosols on molecular level and limited to occurrence of various class of molecular markers in ambient aerosols and sources of emissions. Keywords: Ambient aerosols, molecular markers, organic tracers Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to Dr. Tapan Chakrabarty, Director, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute for his encouragement to publish this review article. [AB221] Human-Wildlife conflicts in Northeast India: A Media Analysis for Setting Priorities Mohd. Sajid Idrisi North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal Email: sajid@neceer.org.in ABSTRACT Northeast India, being one of biodiversity rich region, is a safe abode to most of the magnificent wild mammals of the country. With continued increasing population pressure, human intervention and anthropogenic activities have taken a toll on the intact forests of the region. Due to degraded and almost fragmented habitats, the cases of human-wildlife conflicts have increased considerably over time. Media and other communication tools play a vital role in communicating conservation issues and decides at large, how the effectively the issues are communicated to the people, (including, general public, scientists, conservation practitioners, policy makers, government and other stakeholders) framing their priorities, focus, perceptions, and behavior towards wildlife. This article draws major representation of human-wildlife conflict issues in northeast India by examining the national and international media sources and tries to communicate the analysis results for the application in the following key areas (a) setting priorities for conservation planning and efforts; (b) implementation in policy making and governance, (c) framing people perception and attitude towards wildlife. Keywords: Media, conservation, human-wildlife conflict, northeast India, governance and policy

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB222] Role of indigenous people in biodiversity conservation and sustainable development in tropical countries Khuraijam Jibankumar Singh, FLS1,2 North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal 2 IUCN CEESP Youth Leader Team (YLT) Email: khuraijam@neceer.org.in

1

ABSTRACT Indigenous people play an important role in conservation of bioresources in all the tropical regions on the planet. Empowering indigenous people and involving them in policy making and framing of strategies for conservation of biodiversity around them would definitely be more successful than any other strategies that don’t involve indigenous people. Before invent of Protected Area concept, indigenous people around the globe have been conserving the biodiversity through their tradition and cultural beliefs. Still in most of the tropical countries, indigenous people are safeguarding the bioresources in the form of their old tradition ie, community forests. In the present study, a case study of community based biodiversity conservation in tropical countries is given. The paper also analyses the impact of urbanization and deterioration of traditional values that is affecting the centuries old concept of community based conservation. A special note on the conservation initiatives that have been started by the indigenous people of Northeast India is also given. The paper also highlights the future plans of Young Leader Team of IUCN CEESP that will incorporate regional and indigenous people for sustainable development and biodiversity conservation. Keywords: Indigenous people, tropical countries, community, conservation

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB223] Impacts of anthropogenic stresses on biodiversity: A case study of Lumbini, Nepal 1,2

*Rajendra Poudel1and Kathryn Arano2 Division of Forestry and Natural Resources, West Virginia University Morgantown, WV 26506 ABSTRACT

This paper examines the loss of biodiversity of a well-known tourism destination in Nepal, which has drawn the attention of the government of Nepal. The fragile ecosystem of hilly area has been under excessive pressure for decades. The natural and human accelerated factors include but not limited to uncontrolled grazing in ecologically sensitive areas, rapid population growth (2.6%), unsustainable exploitation of natural resources and inadequate agricultural management practices which are directly responsible for damaging the sensitive and fragile ecosystems of hilly region of Nepal The increasing poverty (32%) forces people to encroach vulnerable marginal lands for cultivation, deforestation and slash & burn cultivation. As a consequence, the country is losing its fertile soil, severe damages to irrigation canals, deposition of sediment in lakes, blockade to hydropowers, destructing roads and bridges, and more importantly severe loss in socio-economy and loss of life intensified each year. It is therefore imperative to find immediate and medium term solutions to avoid further loss of biodiversity around the country. In order to assess the anthropogenic stresses, two sites were selected in the same micro climatic condition, measured the variation of vegetation using the Modified Whittaker plot method and finally assessed the loss of biodiversity. Keywords: Biodiversity, Lumbini, Laxmipur, community, wildlife and tree species Corresponding author: *Rajendra Poudel (rpoudel@mail.wvu.edu), Kathryn Arano (Kathryn.Arano@mail.wvu.edu) Rajendra Poudel, PhD student, Division of Forestry and Natural Resources, West Virginia University, WV, USA Dr. Kathryn Arano, Associate Professor, Division of Forestry and Natural Resources, West Virginia University, WV, USA

[AB224] Studies on Floral Diversity of Nokrek Biosphere reserve, Meghalaya, An overview B.K. Sinha and V.N. Singh Botanical Survey of India, Eastern regional Centre, Shillong ABSTRACT Nokrek Biosphere Reserve (NBR) is one of the richest biodiversity centre of the North-East India, lying between 25° 15’-25° 29’N latitude and 90°13’ E longitude, situated in Garo Hills o Meghalaya having an area of 820 sg.km (including the core zone o 47.48 sg.km designated as Nokrek National Park). It has a virgin lush evergreen forest with highest elevation point is Nokrek peak (1412 msl). The reserve is famous in the world for Citrus sanctuary. It has been observed that the reserve is having a richest plant diversity on the basis data collected during the survey and exploration work for the last three years. Synoptically, the plant wealth of the area comprises a total number of 73 species under 469 genera and 158 families (537 species of dicotyledonous plants under 341 genera and 111 families, 162 species of monocotyledonous under 87 genera and 19 families; 69 species of pteridophytes under 36 genera and 24 families and 05 species of gymnosperms under 5 genera and 4 families). On the basis of plant habitats all 773 species may be categorized into 301 species of trees, 84 species of shrubs, 197 species of herbs, 79 species of climbers/ lianas, 103 species of epiphytes and 9 species are of parasites. At generic level

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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family Poaceae shows maximum diversity (38 species under 28 genera), whereas at species level. Family Orchidaceae shows maximum species diversity (52 species under 20 genera). Data has been recorded for 12 species of RET categories and 122 species of rare occurrence were identified in the area. One species is found (new to India); 17 species (new record for Meghalaya) and Hemiorchis pantlingii king and Fissistigma manubriatum Hook.f. &Thomson are recollected after more than hundred years from the reserve. The rare and important species conserved in the experimental botanical garden and National Orchidarium of Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong under ex-situ conservation and multiplication of germ-plasm. The information related to Ethno-botanical and wild edible plants used by the garo tribes along with threats, biotic interference and conservation measures of the reserve were also suggested. Keywords: Plant Diversity, Nokrek Biosphere reserve, Conservation measures [AB225] Comparative analysis of bioethanol production from wheat straw and bagasse using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation Nidhee Chaudhary1*, Subhash Chand2, Nupur Sinha1, Nameet Kaur1, Kanishk Singh1 and Prabhanshu Kumar1 1 * Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Noida-201303, Uttar Pradesh * Email: nidhee.chaudhary@gmail.com 2 Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi ABSTRACT Bioethanol has been produced and optimized from wheat straw and bagasse by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cellulase and co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Steam pretreated wheat straw and bagasse were used as substrate for ethanol production in the ratio 4:6 (wheat straw: bagasse). Temperature of 30°C, inoculum size of S. cerevisiae 6 % and (v/v) Aspergillus niger 4 %(v/v), incubation period of 48 h and agitation for the first 24 h were found to be best for ethanol production using the combination of two wastes. The pretreated steam exploded biomass after enzymatic saccharification containing 56 and 60 gL–1 reducing sugars in wheat straw and bagasse, respectively, was fermented under optimized conditions resulting in ethanol production, yield and fermentation efficiency of 20.26 gL–1, 0.35 gg-1 and 68.62 %, respectively, in case of wheat straw whereas the values were 22.35 gL–1, 0.38 gg-1 and 74.50 %, respectively, in bagasse. This study shows the future prospects of effective utilization of wheat straw and bagasse for bioethanol production.

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB226] E-waste, issues and challenges: Intelligent Technique for E-Waste Control & Reuse A.Q. Ansari, Pankaj sharma and Pankaj kumar sharma Dept of Electrical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi - 110 025 Dept of Computer Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi - 110 025 ABSTRACT Electronic Waste is increasing tremendously and there is the need to think out for some necessary method to reduce and reuse it until it’s too late. Further the disposal of electronic waste in open atmosphere is harmful to humans as well as animals. Toxic substances such as lead enter into our body through animals that search for their food in the E-waste. Also the developed countries are transporting e-waste to developing countries like India in the name of charity. Keywords: E-Waste, innovative, productive, poisonous, Hazardous, sensors [AB227] Mycorrhiza a tool for rejuvenation of waste land J.S. Thakur, UD Sankhian, Jaswant Singh, Raj Kumar, Smriti Thakur, Uttam Bhardwaj and *Satish Kumar Govt. PG College Mandi HP (175001), *IARI Regional station Shimla HP (171004) ABSTRACT Waste lands are the areas which are not suitable for cultivation of crops of economic importance. Different factors like deforestation, developmental activities viz construction of roads, dams, buildings etc, free livestock grazing are responsible for the formation of waste lands by increasing the rate of soil erosion. Considering the shrinking cultivable land resources it has become imperative to take necessary conservation measure to save the hill lands being further degraded. The waste lands are categorized in different categories for different land use planning. Land categories not suitable for cultivation of agricultural crops could be used for plantation of horticulture crops, multipurpose trees, forest trees or development of pasture lands by promoting growth of grasses and other perennial shrubs in a sequential way to rejuvenate the waste lands. It has been observed that plant growth in degraded soil could be promoted by inoculation of ectomycorrhiza or endophytes (Arbuscular Mycorrhiza). The mycorrhiza inoculated plants of different species have shown higher percentage of establishment due to better ecological fitness under adverse growth supporting conditions and attain appropriate growth even under nutrient deficient degraded soils. Mycorhizosphere improves the uptake of the nutrients particularly of nutrients which are present in unavailable form because of different pH regimes. The mycorrhizal root system has larger root surface area because of fungal hypha ramification in the soil. This helps in exploration of larger soil volume for moisture and nutrients uptake. These factors help in attaining the plant growth under limited moisture conditions and equip the plant tolerance to drought conditions. The mycorrhiza inoculated plants have shown better endurance against soil borne diseases and pests. The endophytes stimulate the production of various metabolites in the system to defend against different diseases and pests. Number of metabolites which are antifungal, antibacterial and anti nematode has been reported by several symbiotic associations which give endurance to the host against serious diseases and pests. Thus mycorrhizal inoculation techniques in tree nurseries can be utilized as a tool to rejuvenate degraded waste lands. Keywords: Mycorrhiza, wasteland, horticultural nurseries

© 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB228] Conservation of Genus Hedychium Koen. (ex-situ) in Experimental Botanic Garden, Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong. Ramesh Kumar and B. K. Sinha Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong ABSTRACT Zingiberaceae is one of the ten largest monocotyledonous families in the order Zingiberales. The family comprises 1,200 species under 53 genera, pantropical in distribution with maximum concentration in the south and south-East Asia. In India, the family is represented by ca 239 spcies and 32 varieties belonging to 21 genera with maximum diversity in Himalayas, North East India, Peninsular India and oceanic islands of Andaman and Nicobar. Interestingly North East India comprises 109 species and 19 varieties of 20 genera shows maximum represented of the species of the Zingiberaceae in the country with high endemism. Out of 128 species, 34 species are confined to NE India only. Members of this family have been used in various systems of medicine such as Ayyrveda, Sidha, Unani and home remedies as well. Among them the important are Alpinia galangal, A. calcarata, Amomum subulatum, Curcuma longa, C. aeruginosa, C. caesia, Ellattaria cardamomum, Hedychium spicatum, Kaempferia galangal, K. rotunda, Zingiber offinale etc are used in spices industries and daily use of life. Some other species are well known for their food values, ornamental values, worship, extraction of dye and socio-economic values. Being ornamentals, most of the plants bear attractive foliage, showy inflorescence with bright coloured bracts and fragrant flowers. Zingiberales are easy in multiplication, regeneration and plantation they became very popular amongst horticulturist, botanists and plant growers. They form impressive clumps quickly without any insecticides, pesticides or taking special care. Due to their high endemism, socio-economic value and use in pharmaceuticals industries, Botanical Survey of India, eastern regional circle, Shillong has initiated to conserve thesuch plants in its experimental botanical garden located at Umiam, Barapani (within area of 22 acres). So far, ca 75 species belonging to 15 genera conserved here. Out of 43 species of genus Hedychium In NE India, 24 species have been conserved as germplasm. The present communication provides an over view of the 24 conserved species of Hedychium in the experimental garden along with their accepted nomenclature, brief diafnostic features, ecology, distribution along with phenology, uses and method of propagation/regeneration/nursery techniques will be provided. A part from that the distribution of genus Heychium in India (51 species) has also been provided. Keywords: Conservation, Genus Hedychium, N. E. India

Š 2011. National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of India Published by North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research (NECEER), Imphal

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[AB229]

Note on the distribution and biology of Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from Kashmir Valley Aijaz Ahmad Qureshi*1, R. C. Bhagat2 and V. K. Walia3 1 Islamic University of Science and Technology, Awantipora, Pulwama, J&K-192122 2 Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Kashmir-190006 3 Department of Zoology, Punjab University, Chandigarh-160014 *Corresponding author: draijazphd@gmail.com ABSTRACT Butterflies form an important group in the living faunal diversity, not only because of exemplary Bioindicator and valuable pollinator status but also due to aesthetic and ornamental appeal. Observations on biology, host-plants, distributional status, taxonomy etc. of these majestic creatures form an important part of their biodiversity. However, information on these parameters of butterflies of Kashmir Valley is not very well-known as compared to other parts of India. In order to explore the information about butterfly fauna of this zoo-geographically important part of Himalayas, an exhaustive study was conducted. Field observations along with the laboratory investigations brought to the fore that Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus), a member of family Nymphalidae completes its life cycle on Tagetus petula in 31 to 45 days depending upon the climatic conditions. Intensive and extensive field surveys conducted in 10 administrative districts of the Valley from 2004 to 2007 revealed that it is very commonly distributed. Besides this, intense observations brought to light seven new host-plants of aforementioned butterfly species from Kashmir Valley for the first time, along with inferences on mud puddling behavior and its biology. Keywords: Cynthia cardui, Kashmir Valley, distribution, biology. [AB230] Positive approach for environment Madhulika Gupta Department of Chemistry, C.C.S University Email: madhulika_mom@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT The aim of environmental studies is to create awareness among people about environment. As the advancement of life is increasing rapidly we can’t avoid the use of things which give us luxurious life but we can select the mid path which can reduce the depletion of natural resources we can conserve the biodiversity. We should select innovative techniques to replace the toxic substances or the extraction of the substances from natural products which will give less by-products and easy to recycle. In the formation of desirable product first of all conversion of harmful catalyst in to ecofriendly catalyst. Replacement of CFC from HCFC and after making of new strategies we can save the environment.

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[AB231] Deteiorating quality of River Yamuna: A serious threat to biodiversity Sakshi Gupta1, Srishti Goel1 and Jyotsna Gupta2 1 CITM, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 2 NRCDF, NBPGR, Pusa Campus, New Delhi ABSTRACT Yamuna River is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in the Northern India. It passes through the states of Uttarakhand, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi, and meets several of its tributaries on its way including Tons, Chambal, Sind, Betwa and Ken. Over past few years, the quality of water in the river has deteriorated from reasonably fresh to the Sewage dumping ground. The discharge of waste water through 15 drains between Wazirabad barrage and Okhla barrage renders the river severely polluted after Wazirabad in Delhi. Its biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values now ranges from 14 to 28 mg/l with high coliform content which makes it similar to the sewage water. This has resulted in the negative impact on biodiversity like steep downfall in the number of negative riverine fishes and indigenous flora. There are three main sources of pollution in the river, namely households and municipal disposel sites, soil erosion resulting from deforestation going on to make way for agriculture along with resulting chemical wash off from fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides and run off from commercial activity and industrial sites. Numerous attempts have been made to clean it, however the efforts have brought few changes. The conscious efforts are required by the public and the Delhi Government to clean the river. Keywords: Yamuna, pollution, threats, biodiversity

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NeBIO â&#x20AC;&#x201C; an international peer reviewed quarterly journal NeBIO publishes original research, short communication, book review, general and review articles on biodiversity and environment of Northeast India and adjoining region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Southern China, Eastern Nepal and Myanmar). Note: NeBIO now publishes articles (under the Guest Section) from across the globe irrespective of region. Journal website: www.nebio.in


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