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‫ﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﺣﻘوق اﻟﻧﺷر واﻟطﺑﻊ ﻣﺣﻔوظﺔ©‬ ‫ﺟﻣﻌﯾﺔ ادارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻻردﻧﯾﺔ واﻟﻣﮭﻧدس ﻧﺿﺎل دودﯾن‬ ‫‪Copyright© PMI Jordan chapter and‬‬ ‫‪Eng.Nidal Dudin‬‬

‫‪Noncommercial use only‬‬


‫إﺟ ﺜﺎث اﻟﻔﺴ ﺎد ﻣﻦ ﺟ ﺬورﻩ‬ ‫ﻼ اﳌ ﻋﺒﺪﷲ اﻟﺜﺎﱐ اﳌﻌﻈﻢ‬

“Rooting Out Corruption” HM King Abdullah II


“Emphasis on the need to strengthen the institutional infrastructure necessary to combat corruption” ‫ﯾﻌﻧﻲ اﻟﺗﺄﻛﯾد ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿرورة ﺗﻘوﯾﺔ اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺣﺗﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬


”‫دور إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ “إﺟﺘﺜﺎث اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﻣﻦ ﺟﺬوره‬ PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ITS ROLE IN “ROOTING OUT CORRUPTION”

Nedal Dudin, PMP®, PMOC®


Theory of Constraints

‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺔ اﻟﻘﯿﻮد‬


Theory of Constraints •

Is an overall management philosophy introduced by Dr. Goldratt in his 1984 book titled The Goal “The Goal” geared to help organizations continually achieve their goal. The title comes from the contention that any manageable org. system is limited in achieving its goal by a very small number of constraints, and that there is always at least one constraint. The TOC process seeks to identify the constraint and restructure the rest of the org. system around it, through the use of the Five Focusing Steps..

‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺔ اﻟﻘﯿﻮد‬ ‫ھﻲ ﻓﻠﺳﻔﺔ إدارﯾﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ أدﺧﻠﮭﺎ اﻟدﻛﺗور‬ ١٩٨٤ ‫ﺟوﻟدرات ﻓﻲ ﻛﺗﺎﺑﮫ ”اﻟﮭدف“ ﻋﺎم‬ ‫”اﻟﮭدف“ ھو ﻛﺗﺎب ﻣوﺟﮫ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدﺗﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﺳﺗﻣرار ﻓﻲ ﺗﺣﻘﯾق‬ ‫أھداﻓﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﻋﻧوان ھذا اﻟﻛﺗﺎب ﻣن اﻟزﻋم ﺑﺄن أي‬ ‫ﻧظﺎم ﻣؤﺳﺳﻲ ﻣﺣﺎط ﺑﻌدد ﻣن اﻟﻘﯾود اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ،‫ﺗﺣول ﺑﯾﻧﮫ وﺑﯾن ﺗﺣﻘﯾق أھداف اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ‬ ‫ودوﻣﺎ ﯾوﺟد ﻗﯾد واﺣد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻗل‬ ‫ﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﻘﯾود ﺗﺳﻌﻰ ﻟﺗﺣدﯾد اﻟﻘﯾود وإﻋﺎدة‬ ‫ھﯾﻛﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻣﻛوﻧﺎت اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣرﺗﺑطﺔ ﺑﮭﺎ ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﺗرﻛﯾز ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﻣس ﺧطوات رﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ‬

• • •


Theory of Constraints •

Goldratt contends that organizational systems are analogous to chains, or networks of chains. Like a chain, the organizational system performance is limited by the weakest link This means that no matter how much effort you put into improving the processes of organizational system, only the improvements to the weakest link will produce any detectable system improvement.

Throughput is limited by the weakest link... the constraint!

‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺔ اﻟﻘﯿﻮد‬ ‫• اﻟدﻛﺗور ﺟوﻟدرات ﯾﺄﻛد ﺑﺄن اﻷﻧظﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ ﯾﻣﻛن ﺗﻣﺛﯾﻠﮭﺎ ﺑﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻠﻘﺎت وأن اﻟﺧﻠل ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻷﻧظﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ ﯾﻌود ﻟوﺟود ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﻌﯾﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ھذه اﻟﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ واﻟﺗﻲ ﻧطﻠق ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ ﺗﺳﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻘﯾد‬ ‫ﻛوﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﺣد اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺣﻘﯾق أھداﻓﮭﺎ‬ ‫• ھذا ﯾﻌﻧﻲ ﻻ داﻋﻲ ﻟﺑذل اﻟﻛﺛﯾر ﻣن اﻟﺟﮭد‬ ‫ﻟﻣراﺟﻌﺔ واﻋﺎدة ﺗﺣﺳﯾن ﺣﻣﯾﻊ اﻹﺟراءات‬ ‫داﺧل اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﻲ ﺑل ﯾﻘﺗﺻر اﻟﺟﮭد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌزﯾز وﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻟﺣﻠﻘﺔ اﻷﺿﻌف ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ھذه اﻟﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ ﻣن اﻹﺟراءات‬ ... ‫ﻣﺣدودﯾﺔ اﻹﻧﺗﺎﺟﯾﺔ ﺳﺑﺑﮭﺎ اﻟﺣﻠﻘﺔ اﻷﺿﻌف‬ !‫اﻟﻘﯾد‬


Theory of Constraints 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Identify the constraint; Exploit the constraint; Subordinate everything else in the System Eliminate the root cause of the constraint; Go back to Art. 1 – and do not allow inertia to become the real constraint!

‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺔ اﻟﻘﯿﻮد‬ ‫ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻟﻘﯾد؛‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻐﻼل اﻟﻘﯾد؛‬ ‫ﻣﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻛل ﺷﻲء آﺧر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻧظﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺿﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﺳﺑﺎب اﻟﺟذرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﯾود؛‬

.١ .٢ .٣ .٤


‫اﻟﺤﻠﻘﺔ اﻟﺤﺮﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ دور إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ إﺟﺘﺜﺎث اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﻣﻦ ﺟﺬوره‬ ‫‪The Critical Chain of the role of org. project Mgt. & Rooting Out Corruption‬‬

‫ﻣﺣﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻔﺳدﯾن‬ ‫‪Fighting‬‬ ‫‪Corruptors‬‬

‫ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ ‪OPM Anti‬‬‫‪Corruption‬‬

‫إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫‪OPM‬‬


‫اﻟﺤﻠﻘﺔ اﻟﺤﺮﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫‪The Critical chain of Org. Project Mgt.‬‬

‫‪OPM‬‬ ‫‪Continuous‬‬ ‫‪Improvement‬‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻧﮭﺟﯾﺔ إدارة‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬

‫‪Organizational‬‬ ‫‪Project Mgt.‬‬ ‫إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬

‫‪Project‬‬ ‫‪Portfolio Mgt.‬‬ ‫إدارة ﻣﺣﺎﻓظ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬

‫‪Project Mgt.‬‬

‫‪Project‬‬

‫إدارة اﻟﻣﺷروع‬

‫اﻟﻣﺷروع‬


‫اﻟﺤﻠﻘﺔ اﻟﺤﺮﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺎم ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﺑﺈدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ The Critical chain of anti-corruption system within Org. Project Mgt.

Admin. Corruption Information

Dealing with Admin. Corruption

Admin. Anti Corruption Tools

‫ﻣﺎھﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫اﻹداري‬

‫اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﻹداري‬

‫أدوات ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﻹداري‬


Chain 1

Organizational Project Management ‫إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬


‫اﻹﻧﺗﻣﺎء ﻟﻠوطن واﻹﻧﺗﻣﺎء ﻟﻠوظﯾﻔﺔ‬

‫‪Belonging Home & Belonging Career‬‬

‫ﻣﺎذا ﯾﻌﻧﻲ اﻹﻧﺗﻣﺎء ﻟﻠوطن؟‬ ‫ﻣﺎذا ﯾﻌﻧﻲ اﻹﻧﺗﻣﺎء اﻟوظﯾﻔﻲ؟‬


Organization

Projects

Operations


‫اﻟﺤﻠﻘﺔ اﻟﺤﺮﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫‪The Critical chain of Org. Project Mgt.‬‬

‫‪OPM‬‬ ‫‪Continuous‬‬ ‫‪Improvement‬‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻧﮭﺟﯾﺔ إدارة‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬

‫‪Organizational‬‬ ‫‪Project Mgt.‬‬ ‫إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬

‫‪Project‬‬ ‫‪Portfolio Mgt.‬‬ ‫إدارة ﻣﺣﺎﻓظ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬

‫‪Project Mgt.‬‬

‫‪Project‬‬

‫إدارة اﻟﻣﺷروع‬

‫اﻟﻣﺷروع‬


Project • Is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result

‫اﻟﻤﺸﺮوع‬ ‫• ھو ﻣﺟﮭود ﻣؤﻗت ﯾﺗم اﻟﻘﯾﺎم ﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺷﺎء ﺧدﻣﺔ أو ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ أو ﻣﻧﺗﺞ‬ ‫ﻓرﯾد‬


Project Management • Is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.

‫إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ،‫ اﻟﻣﮭﺎرات‬،‫• ھﻲ ﺗطﺑﯾق اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻷدوات واﻷﺳﺎﻟﯾب اﻟﺗﻘﻧﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أﻧﺷطﺔ اﻟﻣﺷروع ﻟﺗﺣﻘﯾق‬ ‫ﻣﺗطﻠﺑﺎت اﻟﻣﺷروع‬


Project Portfolio Management

‫إدارة ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ‬

• Is the centralized management of one or more portfolios in order to achieve specific strategic business objectives. • Project Portfolio Management is the continuous process of identifying, selecting and managing a portfolio of projects in alignment with key performance metrics and strategic business objectives

‫• ھﻲ إدارة ﻣرﻛزﯾﺔ ﻟواﺣدة او أﻛﺛر‬ ‫ﻣن اﻟﻣﺣﺎﻓظ ﻣن أﺟل ﺗﺣﻘﯾق‬ ‫أھداف إﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺔ ﻣﺣددة )ﺧطﺔ‬ (‫اﻷﻋﻣﺎل‬ ‫• ھﻲ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ ﻣﺳﺗﻣرة ﻟﺗﺣدﯾد واﺧﺗﯾﺎر‬ ‫وإدارة ﺣﺎﻓظﺔ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ ﺑﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺗﻣﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻘﺎﯾﯾس اﻷداء‬ ‫اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ واﻷھداف اﻻﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻣل‬


Organizational Project Management • The systematic management of business and its processes in alignment with achievement of strategic goals. • The purpose of the Organizational Project Management is to enhance an organization's ability to implement organization strategy through successful delivery of project.

‫إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬

‫• ﻣﻧﮭﺟﯾﺔ إدارة اﻷﻋﻣﺎل و ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻣﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺣﻘﯾق اﻷھداف‬ ‫اﻹﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﻐرض ﻣن ادارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ ھو ﺗﻌزﯾز ﻗدرة‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ‬ ‫اﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺎﺗﮭﺎ ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﻧﺟﺎح ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﻣﺷروع‬


Organizational Project Management

The process of managing the process from the beginning of the flow of ideas and put them in the framework of the project and then choose the most appropriate based on two main criteria, one over the impact on the objectives of the organization and the other the easier to apply and follow up with the d PgM and PM through to completion and learn from successful applications of them.

‫إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬

‫• ﺗﻣﺛل ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ إدارة اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺔ ﻣن ﺑداﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗدﻓق اﻷﻓﻛﺎر ووﺿﻌﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ إطﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﺷروع وﻣن ﺛم اﺧﺗﯾﺎر اﻷﻧﺳب‬ ‫ﻣﻧﮭﺎ ﺑﻧﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﯾﺎرﯾن رﺋﯾﺳﯾﯾن‬ ‫أﺣدھﻣﺎ ﻣدى ﺗﺄﺛﯾرھﺎ ﻓﻲ أھداف‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ واﻵﺧر ﻣدى ﺳﮭوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗطﺑﯾﻘﮭﺎ وﻣﺗﺎﺑﻌﺗﮭﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣدراء‬ ‫اﻟﺑراﻣﺞ واﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ ﺣﺗﻰ ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺟﺎز واﻟﺗﻌﻠم ﻣن اﻟﺗطﺑﯾﻘﺎت‬ . ‫اﻟﻧﺎﺟﺣﺔ ﻣﻧﮭﺎ‬


‫إﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺤﺔ و إﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ Doing the right Projects & Doing Projects in right way

Unrealized Value

Improving Portfolio Mgt. Improving Project Mgt.

Realized Value


‫إﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺤﺔ و إﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ Doing the right Projects & Doing Projects in right way Project 1-1 ID - Cost - Duration

Org. Vision, Mission, Strategic Objectives

Program 1

Project 1-2

ID - Cost - Time

ID - Cost - Duration

Portfolio A

Project 2

Project 1-3

ID - Cost - Duration

ID - Cost - Duration

ID - Cost - Duration

Project 3 ID - Cost - Duration

Org. Business Plan ID -Time - Cost

Sub - Project 3-1 Project 4 Portfolio B ID - Cost - Duration

ID - Cost - Duration Project 5 ID - Cost - Duration

ID - Cost - Duration Sub - Project 3-2 ID - Cost - Duration


‫إﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺤﺔ و إﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ Doing the right Projects & Doing Projects in right way

Creat

Select

Prioritize

Plan

Portfolio

Project & Pgm.

Project & Pgm.

Project & Pgm.

Manage Project & Pgm.

Capacity Planning

Resource Management Financial Management Time Reporting Portfolio Reporting Project Reporting Project Scheduling Team Collaboration Portfolio Management


‫ﻗﯿﺎس اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﻨﺎﺿﺞ ﻹدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ Measuring OPM3 State Assess and measure the level of maturity of systems and methodologies of the organizational project management within the organizations to assist in developing plans to improve the organizational project management based on the possibilities of the organization and needs

‫• ﻗﯾﺎس و ﺗﻘﯾﯾم ﻣﺳﺗوى ﻧﺿﺞ أﻧظﻣﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﻧﮭﺟﯾﺎت إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت واﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدة ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ ﺧطط ﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾن ﻧظم إدارة‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ ﺑﻧﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ إﻣﻛﺎﻧﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ وإﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬


‫إﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺤﺔ و إﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ Doing the right Projects & Doing Projects in right way

Portfolio

Program

Project Standardize

Measure

Control

Improve


‫اﻟﺤﻠﻘﺔ اﻟﺤﺮﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫‪The Critical chain of Org. Project Mgt.‬‬

‫‪OPM‬‬ ‫‪Continuous‬‬ ‫‪Improvement‬‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻧﮭﺟﯾﺔ إدارة‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬

‫‪Organizational‬‬ ‫‪Project Mgt.‬‬ ‫إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬

‫‪Project‬‬ ‫‪Portfolio Mgt.‬‬ ‫إدارة ﻣﺣﺎﻓظ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬

‫‪Project Mgt.‬‬

‫‪Project‬‬

‫إدارة اﻟﻣﺷروع‬

‫اﻟﻣﺷروع‬


‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت اﻹﺻﻼح اﻹداري ﻓﻲ أﻧﻈﻤﺔ إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ The Requirements of Admin. Reform of OPM • Strengthening the infrastructure of organizational project management according to institutional capabilities and needs of each institution: - The application of the global project management standards PMBOK derived from the PMI - Measure and evaluate the state of OPM on a regular basis and improve it to ensure the quality of output

‫• ﺗﻌزﯾز اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺣﺗﯾﺔ ﻷﻧظﻣﺔ إدارة‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ وﻓق إﻣﻛﺎﻧﯾﺎت‬ :‫وإﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت ﻛل ﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ‬ ‫ ﺗطﺑﯾق ﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻧﺑﺛﻘﺔ ﻋن ﻣﻌﮭد إدارة‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫ ﻗﯾﺎس اﻟﻣﺳﺗوى اﻟﻧﺎﺿﺞ ﻹدارة‬‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ ﺑﺷﻛل دوري‬ ‫وإﺟراء اﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾﻧﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ أﻧظﻣﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺿﻣﺎن ﺟودة اﻟﻣﺧرﺟﺎت‬


‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت اﻹﺻﻼح اﻹداري ﻓﻲ أﻧﻈﻤﺔ إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ The Requirements of Admin. Reform of OPM - Enhance the professional capacity of project managers and their team members through adoption annual training plans - Monitor the performance of government institutions in the field of project management and submitting annual assessment reports showing a formal opinion on the ability of these institutions to carry out the implementation of its project portfolios

‫ ﺗﻌزﯾز اﻟﻘدرات اﻟﻣﮭﻧﯾﺔ ﻟﻣدراء اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬‫واﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﯾن ﺑﮭﺎ ﻣن ﺧﻼل ﺗﺑﻧﻲ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺧطط ﺗدرﯾب ﺳﻧوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ ﻣراﻗﺑﺔ أداء اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻣﺟﺎل إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ وﺻﯾﺎﻏﺔ ﺗﻘﺎرﯾر‬ ‫ﺳﻧوﯾﺔ ﺗﺑدي اﻟرأي ﻓﻲ ﻗدرة ھذه‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﯾﺎم ﺑﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﮭﺎ‬


Chain 2

Organizational Projects Anti-Corruption ‫ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬


There is no international legal definition of corruption ‫ﻻ ﯾوﺟد ﺗﻌرﯾف دوﻟﻲ ﻗﺎﻧوﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺳﺎد‬


‫اﻟﺤﻠﻘﺔ اﻟﺤﺮﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺎم ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﺑﺈدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ The Critical chain of anti-corruption system within Org. Project Mgt.

Admin. Corruption Information

Dealing with Admin. Corruption

Admin. Anti Corruption Tools

‫ﻣﺎھﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫اﻹداري‬

‫اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﻹداري‬

‫أدوات ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﻹداري‬


What is meant by corruption? •

In its narrowest sense, corruption is interpreted as referring to bribery.

In its wider sense, corruption includes one or more of bribery, extortion, fraud, deception, collusion, cartels, abuse of power, embezzlement, trading in influence and money laundering. These activities will normally constitute criminal offences in most jurisdictions although the precise definition of the offence may differ.

‫ﻣﺎ اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮد ﺑـﺎﻟﻔﺴﺎد؟‬

‫• ﻣن ﻣﻧظور ﺿﯾق اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ھو إﺷﺎرة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ اﻟرﺷوة‬ ‫• ﻣن ﻣﻧظور أوﺳﻊ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ھو إﺷﺎرة‬ ،‫ اﻹﺑﺗزاز اﻟﺗﺟﺎري‬،‫إﻟﻰ اﻟرﺷوة‬ ‫ إﺳﺎءة‬،‫ اﻹﺣﺗﯾﺎل‬،‫ اﻟﺗواطؤ‬،‫اﻟﻐش‬ ‫ إﺧﺗﻼس اﻟﻣﺎل‬،‫إﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺳﻠطﺔ‬ ‫ ﻏﺳﯾل اﻷﻣوال‬،‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫• ﺗﺷﻛل ھذه اﻷﻧﺷطﺔ ﻋﺎدة ﺟراﺋم‬ ‫ﺟﻧﺎﺋﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌظم اﻟﺑﻼد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟرﻏم‬ ‫ﻣن أن اﻟﺗﻌرﯾف اﻟدﻗﯾق ﻟﻠﺟرﯾﻣﺔ ﻗد‬ ‫ﯾﺧﺗﻠف ﻣن ﺑﻠد ﻷﺧر‬


‫ﻟﻤﺎذا ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮر اﻷوﺳﻊ ﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻒ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد؟‬ Why use a wide definition of corruption? •

All the criminal offences can occur in the infrastructure projects

They often occur together. For example, a bribe may be concealed by fraudulent documents (e.g. an contract agreement).

A fraudulent act (e.g. over claiming for work done) may be facilitated by bribing the supervisor who certifies the amount of work done.

‫• ﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﺟراﺋم اﻟﺟﻧﺎﺋﯾﺔ أن‬ ‫ﺗﺣدث ﻓﻲ ﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺣﺗﯾﺔ‬ ‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﯾل‬،‫• إﻧﮭﺎ ﻏﺎﻟﺑﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺣﺻل ﻣﻌﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺛﺎل ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﺧﺗﺑﺎ اﻟرﺷوة ﺑوﺛﺎﺋق‬ (‫ﻣزورة )إﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ ﻋﻘد‬ ‫• أو ﺗﺧﺗﺑﺄ اﻟرﺷوة ﺑﻔﻌل اﻹﺣﺗﯾﺎل )ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺑﯾل اﻟﻣﺛﺎل اﻟﻣطﺎﻟﺑﺔ ﺑﺗﻌوﯾض أﻛﺛر‬ ‫ﻣن اﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﻣﻧﺟز( ﺑرﺷوة اﻟﻣﺷرف‬ ‫اﻟذي ﯾﺷﮭد اﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﻣﻧﺟز‬


‫ﻟﻤﺎذا ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮر اﻷوﺳﻊ ﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻒ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد؟‬ Why use a wide definition of corruption? • Their objective is illicit profit.

‫ھدﻓﮭﺎ اﻟرﺑﺢ اﻟﻐﯾر اﻟﻣﺷروع‬

‫أو ﺧﻠل‬/‫ﯾﻣﻛن ان ﯾﻧﺗﺞ ﻋﻧﮭﺎ ﺧﺳﺎﺋر ﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ و‬ ‫أو ﻋﯾب ﺑﺎﻟﺟودة‬

• They can all result in criminal liability for the organizations and the individuals involved.

‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت واﻷﻓراد اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﯾن ﺑﮭﺎ واﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﯾن‬ ‫ﺑﻣﺛل ھذه اﻷﻧﺷطﺔ ﯾﻠﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﯾﮭم ﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ ﺑﮭذه اﻟﺟراﺋم اﻟﺟﻧﺎﺋﯾﺔ‬

• Similar measures can be used to prevent and detect these offences.

‫ﯾﻣﻛن إﺳﺗﺧدام ﺗداﺑﯾر ﻣﻣﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻟﻣﻧﻊ وﻛﺷف ھذه‬ ‫اﻟﺟراﺋم‬

• They can all result in considerable financial loss and/or defective quality.


‫ﻣﺨــﺎطـــﺮ اﻟﻔﺴـــــــــــﺎد‬ This Risk Of Corruption • Involvement in corruption is dangerous for you and your organisation. • Depending on the legal jurisdiction and the nature of your involvement, it could have the following results:

‫• اﻟﺗورط ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد أﻣر ﺧطﯾر ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻟك وﻟﻠﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﻣل ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫• ﺗﺑﺎﻋﺎ ﻟﻠﺗورط ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد واﺳﺗﻧﺎدا‬ ‫ﻟﻺﺧﺗﺻﺎص اﻟﻘﺎﻧوﻧﻲ ﻗد ﺗﻛون اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬


‫ﻣﺨــﺎطـــﺮ اﻟﻔﺴـــــــــــﺎد‬ This Risk Of Corruption For you • Criminal liability and possible fine or prison sentence • Civil liability and paying out of damages • Loss of reputation • Loss of employment • Dismissal from membership of any professional association of which you are a member.

‫ﻣﺧﺎطر اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻋﻠﯾك‬ ‫• اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺔ اﻟﺟﻧﺎﺋﯾﺔ وإﺣﺗﻣﺎل ﻋﻘوﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﺟن أو اﻟﻐراﻣﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺔ اﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ ودﻓﻊ ﺗﻌوﯾض ﻋن‬ ‫اﻟﺧﺳﺎﺋر أو اﻟدﻣﺎر ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫• ﻓﻘدان اﻟﺳﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫• ﻓﻘدان اﻟوظﯾﻔﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﻔﺻل ﻣن ﻋﺿوﯾﺔ أي ﻣن اﻟﺟﻣﻌﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻣﮭﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﻛﻧت ﻋﺿوا ﻓﯾﮭﺎ‬


‫ﻣﺨــﺎطـــﺮ اﻟﻔﺴـــــــــــﺎد‬ ‫‪This Risk Of Corruption‬‬ ‫ﻣﺧﺎطر اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺔ اﻟﺟﻧﺎﺋﯾﺔ واﻟﻐراﻣﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺔ اﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ ودﻓﻊ ﺗﻌوﯾض ﻋن‬ ‫اﻟﺧﺳﺎﺋر أو اﻟدﻣﺎر ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫• ﻓﻘدان اﻟﺳﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫• ﻓﻘدان ﻓرص اﻷﻋﻣﺎل واﻹﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر‬ ‫• اﻟﺣرﻣﺎن ﻣن اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫• اﻟﺧﺳﺎرة اﻟﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛون اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﺣﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬

‫•‬

‫‪For your organization‬‬ ‫‪Criminal liability and possible fine‬‬ ‫•‬

‫‪Civil liability and paying out of‬‬ ‫‪damages‬‬ ‫•‬

‫‪Loss of reputation‬‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬

‫‪Loss of business‬‬

‫‪Debarment from projects‬‬

‫• ‪Financial loss where your‬‬ ‫‪organization has been the victim‬‬ ‫‪of corruption.‬‬


‫ﻣﺨــﺎطـــﺮ اﻟﻔﺴـــــــــــﺎد‬ This Risk Of Corruption Some people become involved in corruption because: • They are not aware that the activity is criminal •

They believe that the activity is "standard business practice"

They do not realize the seriousness of the criminal penalties if they are prosecuted

They do not realize the damage that can be caused by their corrupt act

‫اﻟﺑﻌض ﯾﺗورط ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﺑﺳﺑب‬ ‫• ﻏﯾر ﻣدرﻛﯾن ﺑﺄن ھذا اﻟﻧﺷﺎط إﺟراﻣﻲ‬ ‫• اﻋﺗﻘﺎدھم ﺑﺄن ھذا اﻟﻧﺷﺎط ھو ﻣﻌﯾﺎر‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺔ اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫• ﻻ ﯾدرﻛون ﺧطورة اﻟﻌﻘوﺑﺎت اﻟﺟﻧﺎﺋﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺗد ﻣﺣﺎﻛﻣﺗﮭم‬ ‫• ﻻ ﯾدرﻛون اﻟﺿرر اﻟذي ﯾﻣﻛن أن‬ ‫ﯾﺣﺻل ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ ﻟﺗﺻرﻓﺎﺗﮭم و ﺳﻠوﻛﮭم‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﺳد‬


‫ﻣﺨــﺎطـــﺮ اﻟﻔﺴـــــــــــﺎد‬ This Risk Of Corruption Some people become involved in corruption because: • They do not believe that they will be caught; or • They are required to carry out or condone the corrupt activity and are afraid to refuse to do so.

‫اﻟﺑﻌض ﯾﺗورط ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﺑﺳﺑب‬ ‫• ﻻ ﯾدرﻛون أﻧﮫ ﺳﯾﺗم اﻟﻘﺎء اﻟﻘﺑض‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯾﮭم‬ ‫• ﻷﻧﮭم ﻣطﺎﻟﺑون ﺑﺗﻧﻔﯾذ أي ﻣن ھذه‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺷطﺔ اﻹﺟراﻣﯾﺔ وﯾﺧﺎﻓون ﻣن‬ ‫ﻋواﻗب رﻓض اﻟﻘﯾﺎم ﺑذﻟك‬


‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔــــﺔ اﻟﻔﺴــــــــﺎد‬ The Cost Of Corruption Corruption is one of the greatest obstacles to the development of safe and adequate infrastructure. This can have the following consequences: 1. Human Cost 2. Economic Cost

‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ھو واﺣد ﻣن أﻛﺑر اﻟﻌﻘﺑﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺣول دون ﺗطوﯾر اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺣﺗﯾﺔ‬ ‫ وھذا ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﯾﻛون‬.‫اﻵﻣﻧﺔ واﻟﻛﺎﻓﯾﺔ‬ : ‫ﻟﮫ اﻟﺗﺑﻌﺎت اﻟﺗﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬ ‫ أﺛر ﺳﻠﺑﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻓراد‬.١ ‫ أﺛر ﺳﻠﺑﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬.٢


‫اﻷﺛﺮ اﻟﺴﻠﺒﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻓﺮاد‬ The Human Cost • Fewer good roads, schools and hospitals. • Poor safety and environmental procedures. • People die due to lack of food and healthcare, and dangerous infrastructure. • Corruption kills

‫• اﻟﻘﻠﯾل ﻣن اﻟطرق واﻟﻣدارس‬ .‫واﻟﻣﺳﺗﺷﻔﯾﺎت اﻟﺟﯾدة‬ .‫• ﺿﻌف إﺟراءات اﻟﺳﻼﻣﺔ واﻟﺑﯾﺋﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﻧﺎس ﯾﻣوﺗون ﺑﺳﺑب ﻧﻘص اﻟﻐذاء‬ ‫ واﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺣﺗﯾﺔ‬، ‫واﻟرﻋﺎﯾﺔ اﻟﺻﺣﯾﺔ‬ .‫اﻟﺧطرة‬ ‫• اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﯾﻘﺗل‬


‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬/ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔــــﺔ اﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺔ‬ The Economic Cost / Global Cost Corruption is concealed. Much corruption is never discovered. So it is impossible to quantify accurately the cost of corruption. If you estimate the global cost at 5% of the world’s gross product, this would equate to US$1.5 trillion per annum. If you estimate the cost of corruption in the international construction sector at 5% of the global construction sector, this would equate to US$200 billion per annum.

‫ وﻛﻠﻣﺎ ﻛﺑر ﺣﺟم‬،‫• اﻟﻔﺳﺎد أﻣر ﻣﺧﻔﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻗﻠت ﻓرص اﻟﺗﺣدﯾد اﻟﻛﻣﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺻﺣﯾﺢ ﻟﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫• اذا ﻛﻧت ﺗﻘدر اﻟﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫ ﻣن اﻟﻧﺎﺗﺞ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ‬٪ ٥ ‫ﺑﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬ ‫ ھذا ﻣن ﺷﺄﻧﮫ أن ﯾﻌﺎدل‬، ‫اﻹﺟﻣﺎﻟﻲ‬ .‫ ﺗرﯾﻠﯾون دوﻻر أﻣرﯾﻛﻲ ﺳﻧوﯾﺎ‬١.٥ ‫• اذا ﻛﻧت ﺗﻘدر اﻟﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ،٪ ٥ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻗطﺎع اﻟﺑﻧﺎء واﻟﺗﺷﯾﯾد ﺑﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬ ‫ ﻣﻠﯾﺎر دوﻻر‬٢٠٠ ‫ﻓﺈن ھذا ﯾﻌﺎدل‬ .‫أﻣرﯾﻛﻲ ﺳﻧوﯾﺎ‬


‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﻮطﻦ‬/ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔــــﺔ اﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺔ‬ The Economic Cost / National Cost •

Corruption in a country results in: – Reduced investment – Distortion of public expenditure – Depletion of public funds – Circumvention of safety and environmental safeguards

: ‫• اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﺑﻼد ﯾﻧﺗﺞ ﻋﻧﮫ‬ ‫اﻧﺧﻔﺎض اﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺷوﯾﮫ اﻹﻧﻔﺎق اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻧزاف اﻷﻣوال اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺣﺎﯾل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺳﻼﻣﺔ واﻟﺿﻣﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺑﯾﺋﯾﺔ‬

– Inadequate infrastructure – Slower economic growth

‫ﻋدم ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺔ اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺑﺎطؤ اﻟﻧﻣو اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدي‬


‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔــــﺔ اﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺔ ‪ /‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫‪The Economic Cost / Projects Cost‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ ﯾﻧﺗﺞ ﻋﻧﮭﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫• زﯾﺎدة اﻟﺗﻣوﯾل‪ ،‬و رأس اﻟﻣﺎل‪ ،‬و ﺗﻛﺎﻟﯾف‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾل واﻟﺻﯾﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫• ﻣﺳﻠﻣﺎت ﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ ﻣﻌﯾﺑﺔ‬ ‫• ﯾﻠﺣق اﻟﺿرر ﺑﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ ﻓﺎﻟﺷرﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻏﯾر اﻟﻣﺗورطﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﺗﻔﻘد ﻓرص اﻟﻌﻣل‬ ‫ﺑﯾﻧﻣﺎ اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟﻣﺗورطﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﯾواﺟﮭون‬ ‫ﺧطر اﻟﻣﻼﺣﻘﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﻧوﻧﯾﺔ واﻟﻐراﻣﺎت‬ ‫واﻟﺣرﻣﺎن‬ ‫• ﯾﻠﺣق اﻟﺿرر ﺑﺎﻷﻓراد ﻓﺎﻷﻓراد ﻏﯾر‬ ‫ﻣﺗورطﯾن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﯾﻛوﻧوا ھدﻓﺎ ﻟﻺﺣﺗﯾﺎل‬ ‫واﻟﺧطر ﺑﯾﻧﻣﺎ اﻷﻓراد اﻟﻣﺗورطﯾن ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫ﯾواﺟﮭون ﺧطر ﻓﻘدان اﻟﻌﻣل ودﻓﻊ اﻟﻐراﻣﺎت‬

‫‪Corruption on a project:‬‬ ‫‪– Increases financing, capital,‬‬ ‫‪operating and maintenance‬‬ ‫‪costs‬‬ ‫‪– Produces defective projects‬‬ ‫‪– Damages project companies:‬‬ ‫‪• Those which are not‬‬ ‫‪corrupt lose work‬‬ ‫‪• Those which are corrupt‬‬ ‫‪risk prosecution, fines and‬‬ ‫‪debarment‬‬ ‫‪– Damages individuals:‬‬ ‫‪• Those who are not corrupt‬‬ ‫‪face extortion and danger‬‬ ‫‪• Those who are corrupt risk‬‬ ‫‪imprisonment, fines and‬‬ ‫‪loss of work.‬‬


‫‪Consequently, it makes sense to deal with these offences together‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ ﺳﯾﻛون ﻣن اﻟﻣﻧطق أن ﻧﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ ھذه اﻟﺟراﺋم ﻣﻌﺎ‪...‬‬ ‫ﯾﻣﻛﻧك أن ﺗﻠﻌب دورا ﻓﻲ ھذا‬


‫اﻟﻔﺴـﺎد اﻹداري‬ Administrative Corruption Administrative corruption is defiant behavior is associated with a particular goal is a personal interest in upholding the public interest

‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﻹداري ھو ﺳﻠوك‬ ‫ﻣﻧﺣرف ﻣﻘرون ﺑﮭدف‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯾن ﯾﻣﺛل ﻓﻲ إﻋﻼء‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬


‫اﻟﻔﺴـﺎد اﻹداري‬ Administrative Corruption Corruption starts from the self when making some minor concessions that quickly grows and grows

‫ﯾﺑدأ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﻹداري ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻔس ﻋﻧد ﺗﻘدﯾم ﺑﻌض‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻧﺎزﻻت اﻟطﻔﯾﻔﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺳرﻋﺎن ﻣﺎ ﺗﻛﺑر وﺗﻧﻣو‬


‫اﻟﻔﺴـﺎد اﻹداري‬ Administrative Corruption There is almost unanimous consensus that corruption is the most important problems and the main difficulties encountered in programs and development plans Effects of administrative corruption are more in societies with weak institutional methodologies

‫ﯾوﺟد ﺷﺑﮫ اﺟﻣﺎع ﻓﻲ اﻷراء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ أن اﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﻹداري‬ ‫ﯾﻣﺛل أھم اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬ ‫واﻟﺻﻌوﺑﺎت اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺗرض ﺑراﻣﺞ وﺧطط‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻧﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫أﺛﺎر اﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﻹداري ﺗﻛون أﻛﺛر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻔﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺎن اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﻲ‬


‫اﻟﻔﺴـﺎد اﻹداري‬ Administrative Corruption • Most infrastructure projects are government owned, controlled, financed or guaranteed, and/or require government approvals. • Because of this central role, government conduct has significant influence in relation to the degree of corruption in any project.

‫• ﻣﻌظم ﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺣﺗﯾﺔ‬ ‫ وﺗﺳﯾطر‬،‫ﺗﻣﻠﻛﮭﺎ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ،‫ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ وﺗﻣوﻟﮭﺎ أو ﺗﺿﻣﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫أو أﻧﮭﺎ ﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ ﺗﺗطﻠب‬ .‫ﻣواﻓﻘﺔ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ،‫• وﺑﺳﺑب ھذا اﻟدوراﻟﻣرﻛزي‬ ‫ﻓﺈن إﺟراءات ﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻘطﺎع اﻟﻌﺎم ﻟدﯾﮭﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﯾر‬ ‫ﻛﺑﯾر ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻌﻠق ﺑدرﺟﺔ‬ .‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ أي ﻣﺷروع‬


‫اﻟﻔﺴـﺎد اﻹداري‬ Administrative Corruption • Corruption may be materially increased by the involvement of government officials. • On the other hand, corruption in a project may be materially decreased where the relevant government department has good governance internally and requires the implementation of anticorruption measures on the project.

‫• اﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﻹداري ﯾﻣﻛن أن‬ ‫ﯾﺗزاﯾد ﺑﺷﻛل طردي ﺑﺳﺑب‬ ‫ﺗورط ﻣوظﻔﻲ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫• ﻣن ﻧﺎﺣﯾﺔ أﺧرى ﻓﺈن اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ ﯾﻧﺧﻔض ﻓﻲ ظل‬ ‫وﺟود إدارة ﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ ﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ ﻧﺎﺿﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻧﻔذ ﺗداﺑﯾر وﻗﺎﺋﯾﺔ ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻌﮭﺎ‬


‫اﻟﻔﺴـﺎد اﻹداري‬ Administrative Corruption • To minimize the risk of corruption by government officials, government departments should take anticorruption action by implementing a systematic program to prevent and detect corruption internally, in government projects, and in other dealings with third parties.

‫• ﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾل ﻣﺧﺎطر اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻣن‬ ،‫ﻗﺑل اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾن اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﯾن‬ ‫ﯾﺗﻌﯾن ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻدارات‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ اﺗﺧﺎذ إﺟراءات‬ ‫ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻣن ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﻧﮭﺟﻲ ﻟﻣﻧﻊ‬ ، ‫وﻛﺷف اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟداﺧل‬ ،‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫وﻏﯾرھﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣﻼت ﻣﻊ‬ .‫أطراف ﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ‬


‫ﺣﻘــﺎﺋــﻖ‬ Facts •

There is no single or simple method by which to prevent such corruption. Comprehensive anticorruption measures need to be integrated into the project as part of project management. During the last 30 years, material improvements have been made to the safety of personnel in factories and on construction sites. Similarly, significant improvements have been made to the quality of manufactured products and construction projects.

‫• ﻟﯾس ھﻧﺎك أﺳﻠوب واﺣد أو ﺑﺳﯾط‬ ‫ ﻟﻛن‬.‫ﯾﻣﻛن ﻣن ﺧﻼﻟﮫ ﻣﻧﻊ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫ﻧﺣﺗﺎج ﻟﺗداﺑﯾرﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫ودﻣﺟﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺷروع ﻛﺟزء ﻣن‬ .‫إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬ ،‫ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﯾﺔ‬٣٠ ‫• ﺧﻼل اﻟﺳﻧوات ال‬ ‫أدﺧﻠت ﺗﺣﺳﯾﻧﺎت ﻣﻠﻣوﺳﺔ ﻟﺳﻼﻣﺔ‬ .‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﯾن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺻﺎﻧﻊ وﻣواﻗﻊ اﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫ أدﺧﻠت ﺗﺣﺳﯾﻧﺎت ﻛﺑﯾرة ﻓﻲ‬، ‫• وﺑﺎﻟﻣﺛل‬ ‫ﺟودة اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت اﻟﻣﺻﻧﻌﺔ واﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺷﺎﺋﯾﺔ‬


‫ﺣﻘــﺎﺋــﻖ‬ Facts •

These improvements have come about only as a result of improved management practices. These practices include detailed written procedures, contractual obligations, training, independent inspection, audit, reporting and enforcement. • These improvements have been achieved as a result of hard work and increased resources. A similar approach needs to be taken in relation to corruption prevention.

‫• وﺗﺄﺗﻲ ھذه اﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾﻧﺎت ﻓﻘط ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ‬ ‫ وﺗﺷﻣل‬.‫ﻟﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺎت اﻹدارة اﻟﻣﺣﺳﻧﺔ‬ ‫ھذه اﻟﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺎت إﺟراءات ﺗﻔﺻﯾﻠﯾﺔ‬ ، ‫ واﻻﻟﺗزاﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻗدﯾﺔ‬،‫ﻣﻛﺗوﺑﺔ‬ ،‫ واﻟﺗﻔﺗﯾش اﻟﻣﺣﺎﯾد‬، ‫واﻟﺗدرﯾب‬ ‫ واﻹﺑﻼغ‬،‫وﻣراﺟﻌﺔ اﻟﺣﺳﺎﺑﺎت‬ .‫واﻟﺗطﺑﯾق‬ ‫• وﻗد ﺗﺣﻘﻘت ھذه اﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾﻧﺎت ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ‬ .‫ﻟﻠﻌﻣل اﻟدؤوب وزﯾﺎدة اﻟﻣوارد‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ ﻧﻌﺗﻘد أن ﻧﮭﺞ ﻣﻣﺎﺛل ﺑﻧﻔس‬ ‫اﻟﻌزﯾﻣﺔ ﯾﺗﻌﯾن اﺗﺧﺎذھﺎ ﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻌﻠق‬ .‫ﺑﺗﺟدﯾد وﺗﺟﻧب اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻛﺈﺟراء وﻗﺎﺋﻲ‬


Organizational Projects Anti-Corruption System “OPACS”

‫ﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬


‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ Organizational Projects Anti-Corruption System (OPACS) Is an integrated and comprehensive system designed to assist in the prevention and detection of corruption on organizational projects. It uses a variety of anti-corruption measures, which can be integrated into Org, project management. These measures impact on all project phases, on all major participants, and at a number of contractual levels. OPACS comprises the OPACS Standards and the Templates.

‫• ھﻲ ﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﻣﺗﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ وﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺗﮭدف‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺎﻋدة ﻓﻲ اﻟوﻗﺎﯾﺔ واﻟﻛﺷف ﻋن‬ ‫ و‬.‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣﺗﻧوﻋﺔ ﻣن ﺗداﺑﯾر‬ ‫ واﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻣﻛن دﻣﺟﮭﺎ‬،‫ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫ ھذه‬.‫ﻓﻲ إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗداﺑﯾر ﺗؤﺛر ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﻣراﺣل‬ ‫ وﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ أﺻﺣﺎب‬، ‫اﻟﻣﺷروع‬ ‫ وﻋﻠﻰ ﻋدد ﻣن‬،‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺷروع‬ ‫ ھذه اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ‬.‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗوﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻗدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺷﻣل ﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر وﻧﻣﺎذج ﻋﻣل ﻟﺿﻣﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺟودة‬


‫ﺿﺮورة وﺟﻮد ﻧﻈﺎم ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ The need of for OPACS Corruption on organizational projects is a complex problem: • It may occur in the form of bribery, extortion, fraud, deception, cartels, collusion, abuse of power, embezzlement, trading in influence, money laundering and equivalent criminal offences. • It can take place during any phase of a project, including project identification, planning, financing, design, tender, execution, operation and maintenance.

‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ ھو‬ : ‫اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ اﻟﻣﻌﻘدة‬ ‫• ﻗد ﺗﺣدث ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻛل اﻟرﺷوة‬ ‫واﻻﺑﺗزاز اﻟﺗﺟﺎري واﻻﺣﺗﯾﺎل‬ ‫ وإﺳﺎءة اﺳﺗﺧدام‬، ‫ واﻟﺗواطؤ‬،‫واﻟﺧداع‬ ‫اﻟﺳﻠطﺔ واﺧﺗﻼس اﻟﻣﺎل اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫واﻟﻣﺗﺎﺟرة ﺑﺎﻟﻧﻔوذ وﻏﺳل اﻷﻣوال و‬ .‫ﻏﯾرھﺎ ﻣن اﻟﺟراﺋم اﻟﺟﻧﺎﺋﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻣﺎﺛﻠﺔ‬ ‫• ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﯾﺣدث اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﺧﻼل أي‬ ‫ ﺑﻣﺎ‬، ‫ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ ﻣن ﻣراﺣل اﻟﻣﺷروع‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ذﻟك ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ واﻟﺗﺧطﯾط‬ ،‫ واﻟﻌطﺎء‬،‫ واﻟﺗﺻﻣﯾم‬،‫واﻟﺗﻣوﯾل‬ .‫ واﻟﺻﯾﺎﻧﺔ‬، ‫وﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬


‫ﺿﺮورة وﺟﻮد ﻧﻈﺎم ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ The need of for OPACS • It may involve the government, project owner, funders, consultants, contractors, subcontractors, suppliers, joint venture partners, and agents. • It may occur at any level of the contractual structure. • It is usually concealed and those aware of it are either complicit in it or reluctant to report it. This makes it more difficult to detect.

، ‫• ﻗد ﺗﻧطوي ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ،‫ واﻟﻣﻣوﻟﯾن‬،‫وﺻﺎﺣب اﻟﻣﺷروع‬ ‫واﻻﺳﺗﺷﺎرﯾﯾن واﻟﻣﻘﺎوﻟﯾن واﻟﻣﻘﺎوﻟﯾن‬ ‫ﻣن اﻟﺑﺎطن واﻟﻣوردﯾن واﻟﺷرﻛﺎء ﻓﻲ‬ .‫ واﻟوﻛﻼء‬، ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ‬ ‫• ﻗد ﺗﺣدث ﻓﻲ أي ﻣﺳﺗوى ﻣن‬ .‫ﻣﺳﺗوﯾﺎت اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻗدﯾﺔ‬ ‫• ﻋﺎدة ﻣﺎ ﯾﺗم إﺧﻔﺎء أوﻟﺋك اﻟذﯾن ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ أو‬، ‫ﻋﻠم ﺑﮫ وإﻣﺎ ﻣﺗواطﺋﺔ ﻓﻲ ذﻟك‬ ‫ ھذا ﯾﺟﻌل‬.‫ﯾﺗرددون ﻓﻲ اﻹﺑﻼغ ﻋﻧﮫ‬

.‫ﻣن اﻟﺻﻌب اﻛﺗﺷﺎﻓﮭﺎ‬


‫ﻣﺎھﻲ ﻣﺨﺮﺟﺎت إﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ؟‬

What is the output of OPACS? OPACS is not a guarantee against corruption.However, the use of OPACS will: • discourage corruption; • reduce the opportunity for corruption; • increase the chance of identifying and avoiding corruption.

‫اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﻟﯾﺳت ﺿﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺿد‬ ‫ ﻓﺈن اﺳﺗﺧدام‬، ‫ وﻣﻊ ذﻟك‬.‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ : ‫اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﺳﯾﻧﺗﺞ ﻋﻧﮫ‬ ‫• ﺗﺛﺑﯾط اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ؛‬ ‫• ﺗﻘﻠﯾل ﻓرﺻﺔ ﺣدوث اﻟﻔﺳﺎد؛‬ ‫• زﯾﺎدة ﻓرﺻﺔ ﺗﺣدﯾد وﺗﺟﻧب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻛﺈﺟراء وﻗﺎﺋﻲ‬


‫ﻣﺎھﻲ ﻣﺨﺮﺟﺎت إﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ؟‬

What is the output of OPACS? Therefore, the use of OPACS will help: reduce project costs; • improve project quality; • provide a level playing field • for companies undertaking the works and services; reduce the risk of a project • participant being a victim of corruption in that project; satisfy the public that • corruption is being tackled.

: ‫ ﻓﺈن اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﯾﺳﺎﻋد ﻓﻲ‬،‫ﻟذا‬ ‫• ﺗﺧﻔﯾض ﺗﻛﺎﻟﯾف اﻟﻣﺷروع ؛‬ ‫• ﺗﺣﺳﯾن ﺟودة ﻣﺳﻠﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ ؛‬ ‫• ﺗوﻓﯾر اﻟﻣﻠﻌب اﻟﻣﺳﺗوى ﻟﻠﺷرﻛﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺗوﻟﻰ اﻷﻋﻣﺎل واﻟﺧدﻣﺎت ؛‬ ‫• ﺗﻘﻠﯾل اﻟﺧطر ﻋﻠﻰ أﺻﺣﺎب اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺷروع ﻓﻲ أن ﯾﻛوﻧوا ﺿﺣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ ھذا اﻟﻣﺷروع؛‬ ‫• إرﺿﺎء اﻟﺟﻣﮭور اﻟذي ﯾﻧﺎدي‬ .‫ﺑﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬


‫ھﻞ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻘﻄﺎع اﻟﻌﺎم واﻟﺨﺎص‬ ‫?‪Is OPACS a public sector or private sector system‬‬

‫• ﻛون اﻟﻣﺎل اﻟﻌﺎم ھو دوﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣﺣك‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ ﯾوﺻﻰ ﺑﺈﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻘطﺎع اﻟﻌﺎم )ﺗﻠك اﻟﺗﻲ ھﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻣﻠوﻛﺔ ﻛﻠﯾﺎ أو ﺟزﺋﯾﺎ ‪ ،‬أو اﻟﻣﻣوﻟﺔ و‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺿﻣوﻧﺔ ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ أو ھﯾﺋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻣوﻟﺔ(‪ ،.‬ﻓﻣن اﻷھﻣﯾﺔ ﺑﻣﻛﺎن أن ﯾﺗم‬ ‫وﺿﻊ ﺿواﺑط ﺳﻠﯾﻣﺔ ﻟﺗﺣدﯾد وﺗﺟﻧب‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻛﺈﺟراء وﻗﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻛن ﻟوﺟود‬ ‫ﺷراﻛﺔ ﺑﯾن اﻟﻘطﺎع اﻟﻌﺎم واﻟﺧﺎص ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺣﺗﯾﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻟﻘطﺎع اﻟﺧﺎص ﻣﻠزم ﺗﺑﺎﻋﺎ ﺑﺈﺳﺗﺧﺎم‬ ‫واﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ ھذه اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﺗﺑﺎﻋﺎ‬

‫‪OPACS is recommended for‬‬ ‫‪use on public sector‬‬ ‫‪projects (those which are‬‬ ‫‪wholly or partly owned,‬‬ ‫‪financed or guaranteed‬‬ ‫‪by the government. As‬‬ ‫‪public money is at stake,‬‬ ‫‪it is vital that proper anti‬‬‫‪corruption controls are‬‬ ‫‪put in place. However,‬‬ ‫‪OPACS can also be used‬‬ ‫‪by private sector project‬‬ ‫‪owners.‬‬


‫ﻣﻦ ھﻲ اﻟﺠﮭﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻖ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ Who can require the OPACS measures to be implemented on projects? A government regulatory authority may require (through law or regulation) that some or all of the PACS measures are implemented on all public sector projects, or on public sector projects above a certain value or size. A project funder may require some or all of the OPACS measures to be implemented on all projects funded by it, or on all projects above a certain value or size. It may make this requirement a condition of providing funding. A public or private sector project owner may decide to implement some or all of the OPACS measures on its projects.

‫• أﺟﮭزة اﻟرﻗﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﺗطﻠب )ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﻘﺎﻧون أو‬ ‫اﻟﻠواﺋﺢ( أن ﯾﺗم ﺗﻧﻔﯾذا ﺑﻌض أو ﻛل ﺗداﺑﯾر‬ ‫ أو ﻓﻲ‬، ‫اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻘطﺎع اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻘطﺎع اﻟﻌﺎم اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗزﯾد ﻋن ﻗﯾﻣﺔ ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ‬ .‫ﺣﺳب ﺣﺟﻣﮭﺎ‬ ‫• اﻟﮭﯾﺋﺎت اﻟﻣﻣوﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ ﺗطﻠب ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ‬ ‫ﺑﻌض أو ﻛل ﺗداﺑﯾر اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫ أو ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﯾﻣﺔ ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ ﻣن‬،‫اﻟﻣﻣوﻟﺔ ﻣن ﻗﺑﻠﮭﺎ‬ .‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ ﻛﺷرطﺎ ﻟﺗوﻓﯾر اﻟﺗﻣوﯾل‬ ‫• اﻟﺟﮭﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻛﺔ اﻟﻣﺷروع ﻓﻲ ﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت اﻟﻘطﺎع اﻟﻌﺎم أو‬ ‫اﻟﺧﺎص ﺗﻘرر ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﺑﻌض أو ﻛل ﺗداﺑﯾر اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ‬ .‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻌﮭﺎ‬


‫طﺮﯾﻘ��� ﺗﻔﻌﯿﻞ وإﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫?‪How to activate and use OPACS‬‬

‫• ﻛل ﻣﻌﯾﺎر ﻣن ھذه اﻟﻣﻧظزﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺗﺿﻣن ﻋددا ﻣن اﻟﺗداﺑﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﻣوﺻﻰ ﺑﮭﺎ‪ .‬وﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﻠﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫أو ﺻﺎﺣب اﻟﻣﺷروع ﻣﻣول‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷروع ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ اﻟﺗداﺑﯾر اﻟﺣﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻣﻊ اﻟﺗداﺑﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﻣوﺻﻰ ﺑﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻘﺗرﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪Each OPACS Standard lists a‬‬ ‫‪number of recommended‬‬ ‫‪measures. A government,‬‬ ‫‪project owner or funder‬‬ ‫‪can compare its existing‬‬ ‫‪project anti-corruption‬‬ ‫‪measures with the‬‬ ‫‪measures recommended‬‬ ‫‪in the OPACS Standards.‬‬


‫طﺮﯾﻘﺔ ﺗﻔﻌﯿﻞ وإﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ How to activate and use OPACS? •

If a government, project owner or funder determines that it is not currently implementing a recommended measure at all, it may decide to implement the measure in whole or in part. • If it determines that it is currently implementing a measure, but that its implementation can be improved in accordance with the recommended measure, it can introduce improvements into its system.

، ‫• إذا ﻛﺎﻧت اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺟﮭﺎت اﻟﻣﺎﻟﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ واﻟﺟﮭﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻣوﻟﺔ ﻗد أﻓﺻﺣت ﺑﺄﻧﮭﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻧﻔذ ﺣﺎﻟﯾﺎ‬ ،‫أي ﻣن ﺗداﺑﯾر اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﻘﺗرﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ ﯾﻣﻛﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﺗداﺑﯾرﻛﻠﯾﺎ أو ﺟزﺋﯾﺎ‬ .‫ﺣﺳب اﻷﺻول‬ ‫• إذا رأت أي ﻣن ھذه اﻟﺟﮭﺎت أﻧﮭﺎ‬ ،‫ﺗﻘوم ﺣﺎﻟﯾﺎ ﺑﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻹﺟراء اﻟوﻗﺎﺋﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻣن اﻟﻣﻣﻛن ﺗﺣﺳﯾن ﺗﻧﻔﯾذھﺎ وﻓﻘﺎ‬ ‫ و إدﺧﺎل‬، ‫ﻟﻠﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر اﻟﻣوﺻﻰ ﺑﮭﺎ‬ .‫ﺗﺣﺳﯾﻧﺎت ﻓﻲ ﻧظﺎﻣﮭﺎ‬


‫طﺮﯾﻘﺔ ﺗﻔﻌﯿﻞ وإﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ How to activate and use OPACS? •

The OPACS Standards have been designed with the intention that they should all be used in order to achieve the maximum level of anti-corruption protection. However, implementation needs to be tailored to the size and value of the project. On major projects, the full measures may be used. On smaller projects, only some of the measures, or simplified versions of the measures, may be used. Some or all of the OPACS Templates, appropriately customized, can be used in order to implement the anticorruption measures.

‫• ﺗم ﺗﺻﻣﯾم ﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﻘﺗرﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣن أﺟل ﺗﺣﻘﯾق أﻗﺻﻰ درﺟﺔ ﻟﻠوﻗﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ وﻣﻊ ذﻟك ﻓﺎﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﯾﺣﺗﺎج‬.‫ﻣن اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫إﻟﻰ أن ﯾﻛون ﻣﺗﻼﺋﻣﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺟم وﻗﯾﻣﺔ‬ ‫ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬.‫اﻟﻣﺷروع اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﻲ‬ ‫ ﯾﻣﻛن اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗداﺑﯾر‬،‫اﻟﻛﺑرى‬ ‫ أﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﺻﻐﯾرة‬.‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ .‫ﻓﻘط ﺑﻌض اﻟﺗداﺑﯾر‬ ‫• ﯾﻣﻛن اﺳﺗﺧدام ﺑﻌض أو ﻛل ﻧﻣﺎذج‬ ‫ ﻣن‬،‫اﻟﻌﻣل وﺗطوﯾﻌﮭﺎ ﺑﺷﻛل ﻣﻧﺎﺳب‬ ‫أﺟل ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﺗداﺑﯾر وﻗﺎﺋﯾﺔ ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ‬ .‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬


‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ اﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫‪The Suggested OPACS Standards‬‬

‫• اﻟﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر ﺗﺻف اﻟﺗداﺑﯾر اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠوﻗﺎﯾﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ‬ ‫دﻣﺟﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﺿم اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ إﺛﻧﺎ ﻋﺷرة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯾﺎر‪ ،‬ﻛل ﻣﻧﮭﺎ ﯾﺗﻧﺎول ﺗداﺑﯾر‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺗﻘﻠﺔ ﻟﺗﺣدﯾد وﺗﺟﻧب اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻛﺈﺟراء وﻗﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫وھﻲ ﻛﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ‪.:‬‬

‫‪• The OPACS Standards‬‬ ‫‪recommend and describe‬‬ ‫‪anti-corruption measures‬‬ ‫‪which should be‬‬ ‫‪integrated into the‬‬ ‫‪management of‬‬ ‫‪construction‬‬ ‫‪projects. There are‬‬ ‫‪twelve OPACS Standards,‬‬ ‫‪each of which deals with‬‬ ‫‪a separate anti-corruption‬‬ ‫‪measure.‬‬


‫ اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬:‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر اﻷول‬ OPACS1: Independent assessment • An independent assessor should be appointed whose duty is, for the duration of the project, to monitor and assess the project for corruption and make appropriate reports. In the case of a large and complex project, • An independent assessor may be appointed specifically for that project. • For smaller projects, an independent assessor may be appointed to monitor a number of projects.

‫• ﺗﻌﯾﯾن ﻣﻘﯾﯾم ﻣﺳﺗﻘل طﯾﻠﺔ ﻣدة‬ ‫ ﻟرﺻد وﺗﻘﯾﯾم ﻣدى ﺗطﺑﯾق‬، ‫اﻟﻣﺷروع‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷروع ﻟﺗداﺑﯾر اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ وﺗﻘدﯾم‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎرﯾر ﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺟﮭﺎت اﻟﻣﻌﻧﯾﺔ ﺑﮭذا‬ .‫اﻟﺧﺻوص‬ ،‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ وﺟود ﻣﺷروع ﻛﺑﯾر وﻣﻌﻘد‬ ‫ﻗد ﯾﺗم ﺗﻌﯾﯾن ﻣﻘﯾم ﻣﺳﺗﻘل ﺧﺻﯾﺻﺎ‬ .‫ﻟﮭذا اﻟﻣﺷروع‬ ‫ ﻗد ﯾﺗم ﺗﻌﯾﯾن ﻣﻘﯾم‬،‫• ﻟﻠﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﺻﻐﯾرة‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺗﻘل ﻟﻣراﻗﺑﺔ ﻋدد ﻣن اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ .‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬


‫ اﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﯿﺔ‬:‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ OPACS2: Transparency • The government or project owner should disclose project information to the public on a website on a regular basis and in an easily accessible and comprehensible form.

‫• ﯾﺟب ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺣب‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷروع أو اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﻓﺻﺎح ﻋن ﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷروع ﻟﻠﺟﻣﮭور ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣوﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﻧﺗرﻧت ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أﺳﺎس ﻣﻧﺗظم وﺑﺷﻛل ﯾﺳﮭل‬ .‫اﻟوﺻول إﻟﯾﮭﺎ وﻓﮭﻣﮭﺎ‬


‫ اﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﯾﺎت‬:‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ OPACS3: Procurement • The project owner should implement fair and transparent procurement procedures which do not provide an improper benefit or advantage to any individual or organization.

‫• ﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺟﮭﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻌﻧﯾﺔ ﻣراﺟﻌﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻘﯾﯾم و ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ إﺟراءات‬ ‫ﺷراء ﻧزﯾﮭﺔ وﺷﻔﺎﻓﺔ واﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗوﻓر ﻣﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﺑطرﯾﻘﺔ ﻏﯾر‬ ‫ﺳﻠﯾﻣﺔ أو أﯾﺔ ﻣﯾزة ﻟﻔرد أو‬ .‫ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ‬


‫ اﻹﻓﺼﺎح اﻷوﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻘﻮد‬:‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ‬ OPACS4: Pre-Contracts Disclosure At tender stage, the project • owner and each tenderer for a major contract should provide each other with relevant information which could reveal a risk of corruption (for example in relation to their principal shareholders, officers, financial status, agents, joint venture partners, major sub-contractors, criminal convictions and debarment). Each major contractor should do the same with each tenderer for its major sub-contracts.

‫ ﯾﺗوﺟب ﻋﻠﻰ‬، ‫• ﻓﻲ ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﻌطﺎء‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣب اﻟﻣﺷروع واﻟﻣﻘﺎول ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻘود اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ ﺗزوﯾد ﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ اﻟﺑﻌض‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت ذات اﻟﺻﻠﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻣﻛن أن‬ ‫ﺗﻛﺷف ﻋن وﺟود ﺷﺑﮭﺎت ﻓﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷروع )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﯾل اﻟﻣﺛﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎ‬ ،‫ﯾﺗﻌﻠق ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺳﺎھﻣﯾن اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﯾن‬ ،‫ واﻟوﺿﻊ اﻟﻣﺎﻟﻲ‬،‫واﻟﻣوظﻔﯾن‬ ‫واﻟوﻛﻼء وﺷرﻛﺎء اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫ اﻟﻣﻘﺎوﻟﯾن ﻣن اﻟﺑﺎطن‬، ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻛذﻟك ﯾﺟب ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛل ﻣﻘﺎول رﺋﯾﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻌل اﻟﺷﻲء ﻧﻔﺳﮫ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻣﻘﺎوﻟﯾن ﻣن‬ . ‫اﻟﺑﺎطن‬


‫ إﻟﺰام إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺮوع ﺑﺘﻄﺒﯿﻖ اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬:‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ‬ OPACS5: Project anti-corruption commitments • The project owner and each major project participant should provide anticorruption contractual commitments which expressly cover the main types of corruption, and which oblige them to implement anti-corruption measures. Remedies should be specified in the event of breach of these commitments.

‫• ﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺣب اﻟﻣﺷروع‬ ‫وﻛل أﺻﺣﺎب اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺷروع‬ ‫اﻹﻟﺗزام ﺗﻌﺎﻗدﯾﺎ ﺑﺗطﺑﯾق اﻟﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻧﺻوص ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻐطﻲ‬ ‫ﺻراﺣﺔ أﻧواع رﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ ﻷﺷﻛﺎل‬ ‫ واﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻠزﻣﮭﺎ ﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ‬، ‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫ وﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ‬.‫ﺗداﺑﯾر ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫ﺗﺣدﯾد ﺳﺑل اﻟﻌﻘوﺑﺎت ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ .‫ﺧرق ھذه اﻻﻟﺗزاﻣﺎت‬


‫ إﻟﺰام اﻟﻤﻤﻮل ﺑﺘﻄﺒﯿﻖ اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬:‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر اﻟﺴﺎدس‬ OPACS6: Funder anti-corruption commitments • The project owner and each project funder (equity investor, bank or guarantor) should provide anticorruption contractual commitments to each other which expressly cover the main types of corruption, and which oblige them to implement anti-corruption measures. Remedies should be specified in the event of breach of these commitments.

‫• ﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺣب اﻟﻣﺷروع‬ ‫واﻟﺟﮭﺎت اﻟﻣﻣوﻟﺔ ﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫)اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺛﻣرﯾن واﻟﺑﻧوك أو‬ ‫اﻟﺟﮭﺎت اﻟﺿﺎﻣﻧﺔ( ﺗﻘدﯾم‬ ‫اﻟﺗزاﻣﺎت ﺗﻌﺎﻗدﯾﺔ ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫ﻟﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ اﻟﺑﻌض واﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻐطﻲ‬ ‫ﺻراﺣﺔ أﻧواع رﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ ﻣن‬ ‫ واﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻠزﻣﮭﺎ ﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ‬، ‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫ وﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ‬.‫ﺗداﺑﯾر ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻟﻌﻘوﺑﺎت ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺧرق‬ .‫ھذه اﻻﻟﺗزاﻣﺎت‬


‫ إﻟﺰام اﻟﻘﻄﺎع اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﯿﻖ اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬:‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‬ OPACS7: Government anti-corruption commitments Relevant government • departments should take steps to minimize extortion by their officers in the issuing of permits, licenses and approvals. They should appoint a senior officer to whom complaints of bribery and extortion can be made, and should publicize a list of fees and time-scales which apply to government procedures.

‫• ﯾﺗﻌﯾن ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌﻧﯾﺔ أن ﺗﺗﺧذ ﺧطوات ﻟﻠﺣد ﻣن‬ ‫اﻻﺑﺗزاز اﻟﺗﺟﺎري ﻣن ﻗﺑل ﻣوظﻔﻲ‬ ‫ھذه اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻌﻠق ﺑﺈﺻدار‬ .‫اﻟﺗراﺧﯾص واﻟﺗﺻﺎرﯾﺢ واﻟﻣواﻓﻘﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ أن ﯾﻌﯾن ﺿﺑﺎط إرﺗﺑﺎط ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺎﻣل‬ ‫ﻣﻊ اﻟﺷﻛﺎوى اﻟﻣﻘدﻣﺔ ﻣن اﻟرﺷوة‬ ‫ وﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ أن ﺗﻧﺷر‬،‫واﻻﺑﺗزازاﻟﺗﺟﺎري‬ ‫ﻻﺋﺣﺔ اﻟرﺳوم واﻟﺟداول اﻟزﻣﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧطﺑق ﻋﻠﻰ إﺟراءات‬ .‫اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ‬


‫ اﻟﺘﻮﻋﯿﺔ‬:‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر اﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬ OPACS8: Raising awareness Major project participants should raise awareness among their staff of the damage and risks of corruption by: Posting up anti-corruption • rules at all project and site offices. Providing anti-corruption • training for relevant staff. Implementing a gifts and • hospitality policy.

‫ﯾﺗﻌﯾن ﻋﻠﻰ ادارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫رﻓﻊ ﻣﺳﺗوى اﻟوﻋﻲ ﺑﯾن ﻣوظﻔﯾﮭﺎ ﻣن‬ : ‫أﺿرار وﻣﺧﺎطر اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻣن ﺧﻼل‬ ‫• ﻣﻠﺻﻘﺎت وﻟوﺣﺎت إرﺷﺎدﯾﺔ ﺗﺑﯾن‬ ‫ﻗواﻋد ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﺗﻌﻠق ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﻗواﻋد ﻣﻛﺎﺗب اﻟﻣﺷروع‬ ‫• ﺗوﻓﯾر اﻟﺗدرﯾب ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ .‫ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻣوظﻔﯾن اﻟﻣﻌﻧﯾﯾن‬ .‫• ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ اﻟﮭداﯾﺎ واﻟﺿﯾﺎﻓﺔ‬


‫ اﻹﻣﺘﺜﺎل‬:‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر اﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‬ OPACS9: Compliance Major project participants should appoint a compliance manager who will take all reasonable steps to ensure compliance by the company and its management and staff with their anti-corruption commitments.

‫• وﯾﺗﻌﯾن ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ ﺗﻌﯾﯾن ﻣدﯾر ﺿﺎﺑط‬ ‫إرﺗﺑﺎط اﻟذي ﺳوف ﯾﺗﺧذ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺧطوات اﻟﻣﻌﻘوﻟﺔ ﻟﺿﻣﺎن‬ ‫اﻣﺗﺛﺎل اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ وإدارﺗﮭﺎ واﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﯾن‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ ﺑﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر ھذه اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ‬ .‫ﻟﺿﻣﺎن ﺟودة ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬


‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر اﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬اﻟﺘﺪﻗﯿﻖ‬ ‫‪OPACS10: Audit‬‬ ‫•‬

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‫وﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ إﺟراء ﻣراﺟﻌﺔ اﻟﺣﺳﺎﺑﺎت اﻟﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﺷروع ﻟﺿﻣﺎن ﻗدر اﻹﻣﻛﺎن أﻧﮫ ﺗم اﻻﻧﺗﮭﺎء‬ ‫ﻣن ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟدﻓﻌﺎت ﻣن ﻗﺑل ﺻﺎﺣب اﻟﻣﺷروع‬ ‫ﺑﺷﻛل ﺻﺣﯾﺢ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﻘﺎوﻟﯾن‪ .‬أي اﻟﻔﺎﺗورة‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻠﯾﺔ ﺗﻣﺛل اﻟﻘﯾﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﻛﺗﺳﺑﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻌﻣل‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻧﺟز ﻓﻲ ﺣدود زﻣن أو ﻓﺗرة ﺗﻘدﯾم اﻟﻔﺎﺗورة‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬ ‫وﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ إﺟراء اﻟﻣراﺟﻌﺎت اﻟﺗﻘﻧﯾﺔ ﻟﺿﻣﺎن ﻗدر‬ ‫اﻹﻣﻛﺎن أن ﺗﺻﻣﯾم اﻟﻣﺷروع‪ ،‬واﻟﻣواﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻧﯾﺔ واﻟﺑﻧﺎء ﯾﺗم وﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺔ اﻟﻔﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺟﯾدة‬ ‫واﻟﺟودة اﻟﻣطﻠوﺑﺔ‪ ،‬وﺗوﻓﯾر اﻟﻘﯾﻣﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺑل‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺎل‪.‬‬ ‫وﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣدﻗﻘﺄن ﯾﻛون ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﯾ���ﺔ ﻣن أن‬ ‫أي ﻗﺻور ﻗد ﺗﻛون ﻧﺎﺟﻣﺔ ﻋن ﺷﺑﮭﺎت ﻓﺳﺎد‪،‬‬ ‫وﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﺗﻘدﯾم ﺗﻘﺎرﯾر ﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺟﮭﺎت اﻟﻣﻌﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬

‫‪Financial audits should be carried out‬‬ ‫‪to ensure as far as possible that all‬‬ ‫‪payments by the project owner have‬‬ ‫‪been properly made to legitimate‬‬ ‫‪organizations for legitimate services.‬‬ ‫‪Technical audits should be carried out‬‬ ‫‪to ensure as far as possible that the‬‬ ‫‪project design, specification and‬‬ ‫‪construction are in accordance with‬‬ ‫‪good technical practice and provide‬‬ ‫‪value for money.‬‬ ‫‪Auditors should be aware of the risk‬‬ ‫‪that any deficiencies they identify‬‬ ‫‪may be caused by corruption, and‬‬ ‫‪should make appropriate reports.‬‬

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‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر اﻟﺤﺎدي ﻋﺸﺮ‪ :‬اﻹﺑﻼغ و اﻹدﻋﺎء‬ ‫‪OPACS11: Reporting & Claiming‬‬ ‫• وﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ وﺿﻊ ﻧظم آﻣﻧﺔ وﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﯾﻣﻛن‬ ‫ﻣن ﺧﻼﻟﮭﺎ اﻹﺑﻼغ واﻹدﻋﺎء ﻋن‬ ‫وﺟود ﺷﺑﮭﺎت أو ﻣﻼﺑﺳﺎت ﻓﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻟﺟﻣﮭور‬ ‫و ﻣن ﻗﺑل ﻓرﯾق اﻟﻌﻣل ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺷروع ‪،‬‬ ‫وذﻟك ﻣن ﺧﻼل ﻣﻘﯾم ﻣﺳﺗﻘل ﺗوﻓﯾرا‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺟﮭد واﻟﻣﺎل‪.‬‬

‫‪Safe and effective systems‬‬ ‫‪should be established‬‬ ‫‪by which corruption on‬‬ ‫‪the project can be‬‬ ‫‪reported by the public,‬‬ ‫‪by project staff, and by‬‬ ‫‪the independent‬‬ ‫‪assessor.‬‬


‫ اﻟﺘﻄﺒﯿﻖ‬:‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ OPACS12: Enforcement Enforcement measures for breach of anti-corruption commitments should include civil enforcement (e.g. disqualification from tender, termination of contracts, damages and dismissal from employment). The risk of criminal enforcement (e.g. fines and imprisonment) should be highlighted.

‫• وﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ اﺗﺧﺎذ ﺗداﺑﯾر ﻣﻠزﻣﺔ ﻋﻧد‬ ‫ﺣدوث ﺧرق ﻟﮭذه اﻟﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر ﺗﺷﻣل‬ ‫إﺟراءات ﻣدﻧﯾﺔ )ﻣﺛل اﻻﺳﺗﺑﻌﺎد ﻣن‬ ‫ وإﻧﮭﺎء ﻋﻘود واﻟﺗﻌوﯾض‬، ‫اﻟﻌطﺎء‬ .(‫ﻋن اﻷﺿرار واﻟﻔﺻل ﻣن اﻟﻌﻣل‬ ‫وﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﺗﺳﻠﯾط اﻟﺿوء ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺧﺎطر‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﺟﻧﺎﺋﻲ )ﻣﺛل اﻟﻐراﻣﺎت‬ .(‫واﻟﺳﺟن‬


‫اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫‪The Templates‬‬ ‫ﺗم إﻋداد وﺗﺣرﯾر ﻧﻣﺎذج ﻋﻣل‬ ‫ﺗﺷﻛل أدوات ﺑﺟﺎﻧب اﻟﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻘﺗرﺣﺔ واﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻣﻛن اﺳﺗﺧداﻣﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣن ﻗﺑل إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ واﻟﺟﮭﺎت ﺻﺎﺣﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدﺗﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﺗداﺑﯾر‬ ‫وﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر ھذه اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫وﻗد ﺗم ﺗﺻﻣﯾم ﻧﻣﺎذج اﻟﻌﻣل ھذه‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻛﺑرى‪ .‬وھﻲ ﻛﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ‬

‫‪The Templates are model‬‬ ‫‪agreements and tools‬‬ ‫‪which parties can use to‬‬ ‫‪assist them in‬‬ ‫‪implementing anti‬‬‫‪corruption measures on‬‬ ‫‪projects.‬‬ ‫‪These templates have‬‬ ‫‪been designed for‬‬ ‫‪major projects.‬‬


‫اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ The Templates • Template 1: Independent Assessor Agreement • Template 2: Anti-Corruption Agreement • Template 3: Notices of Breach • Template 4: Disclosure Form • Template 5: Disclosure Assessment Guide • Template 6: Anti-Corruption Rules for Individuals • Template 7: Benefits Register • Template 8: Anti-Corruption Training Manual

‫ﻧﻣوذج اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘل‬ ‫ﻧﻣوذج اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ اﻹﻟﺗزام ﺑﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻣوذج إﺷﻌﺎرات اﻹﺑﻼغ واﻹدﻋﺎء‬ ‫ﻧﻣوذج اﻹﻓﺻﺎح ﻋن ﺷﺑﮭﺎت ﻓﺳﺎد‬ ‫ﻧﻣوذج دﻟﯾل اﻟﺗﻘﯾﯾم و اﻹﻓﺻﺎح‬ ‫ﻧﻣوذج ﻗواﻋد ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﻹداري‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣوظﻔﯾن‬ ‫ﻧﻣوذج ﺳﺟل اﻟﻔواﺋد وﻣﻛﺗﺳﺑﺎت اﻟﺗداﺑﯾر‬ ‫ﻧﻣوذج دﻟﯾل اﻟﺗدرﯾب ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬

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‫اﻟﺘﻮﺻﯿــﺎت‬ ‫‪Recommendations‬‬ ‫•‬

‫إﻟزام ﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت اﻟﻘطﺎع اﻟﻌﺎم واﻟﺧﺎص ﺑﺗطﺑﯾق وﺗﻧﻔﯾذ‬ ‫ﻣﻧﮭﺟﯾﺎت ﻋﻠﻣﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ وﻓﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ ﻹدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﻧﺑﺛﻘﺔ ﻋن ﻣﻌﮭد‬ ‫إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ‬ ‫دﻋم و ﻣؤازرة ﺟﮭود ﺟﻣﻌﯾﺔ إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻷردﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﺎل اﻟﻣراﻗﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻧﮭﺟﯾﺎت اﻟﻌﻣل ﺑﺈدارة‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ‬

‫‪Requiring both public sector and‬‬ ‫‪the private sector institutions‬‬ ‫‪implementing of organizational‬‬ ‫‪project management‬‬ ‫‪methodologies, based on the best‬‬ ‫‪practices of PMI (PMBOK Global‬‬ ‫)‪Standards‬‬

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‫إﻋﺗﻣﺎد ﺟﻣﻌﯾﺔ إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻷردﻧﯾﺔ ﻛطرف‬ ‫رﻗﺎﺑﻲ ﻣﺣﺎﯾد ﯾﺑدي اﻟرأي اﻟﻘﺎﻧوﻧﻲ و ﯾﺑﯾن ﻣﻘدرﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ إدارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ ‪ ،‬أﺳوة ﺑﺟﻣﻌﯾﺔ ﻣدﻗﻘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺣﺳﺎﺑﺎت اﻷردﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺑدي اﻟرأي ﺑﺎﻟﻣرﻛز اﻟﻣﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫وﻧظﺎم اﻟرﻗﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﻣﺎﻟﻲ اﻟداﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت‬

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‫ﺗﺑﻧﻲ ﻣﺷروع ﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﯾﺔ واﻹﯾﻌﺎز ﺑﺗطﺑﯾﻘﮫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘطﺎع اﻟﻌﺎم ﻛﺧطوة‬ ‫أوﻟﯾﺔ‬

‫‪Support and sustain the efforts of the‬‬ ‫‪Jordanian Association of Project‬‬ ‫‪Management in the field of‬‬ ‫‪monitoring the internal‬‬ ‫‪organizational project management‬‬ ‫‪Procedures‬‬ ‫‪Adoption of OPACS standards and‬‬ ‫‪Templates and instruct its application‬‬ ‫‪in the public sector as a preliminary‬‬ ‫‪step‬‬

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‫إﺟ ﺜﺎث اﻟﻔﺴ ﺎد ﻣﻦ ﺟ ﺬورﻩ‬ ‫ﻼ اﳌ ﻋﺒﺪﷲ اﻟﺜﺎﱐ اﳌﻌﻈﻢ‬

“Rooting Out Corruption” HM King Abdullah II


‫ﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﺣﻘوق اﻟﻧﺷر واﻟطﺑﻊ ﻣﺣﻔوظﺔ©‬ ‫ﺟﻣﻌﯾﺔ ادارة اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻻردﻧﯾﺔ واﻟﻣﮭﻧدس ﻧﺿﺎل دودﯾن‬ ‫‪Copyright© PMI Jordan chapter and‬‬ ‫‪Eng.Nidal Dudin‬‬

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Pmi rooting out corruption pdf