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Curriculum Project Planning Sheet Please submit final plan in typed format Title of Curriculum Project ; Illuminated Manuscripts: Stories of Bravery Project Teachers and/or Leaders Julie Rosen Date Fall 2011 Age of Children/Youth 8-12 Project Description/Overview Participants will learn about illuminated manuscripts from the Middle Ages as they learn various related techniques to create their own. They will create books and illuminated manuscript pages that explore the style of the original texts as well as the traditions of narrative represented therein. Individual projects will guide them to express their own stories through poetry and narrative as well as through the elements of color, design and illustration. The jewel-like quality of the form and the nature of the colors used (described as showing the light that glows within) will provide an overarching metaphor that emphasizes how unique and important every individual’s story is. Narrative topics/prompts will be developed as the tone of the group becomes clear. With a consistent group. Ideally the level of self-reflection and sharing will become increasingly personal and meaningful as the community of learners becomes more comfortable with one another. Art skills will include watercolor painting, aluminum emboss, basic bookbinding, printmaking, calligraphy and (possibly) gilding. Concurrently, students will have a choice table at which they will work in various media. At his table, they will explore materials and engage in artistic inquiry that emphasizes the problem solving of a “process” emphasis, while giving them an opportunity to assert agency. Possible projects here will be marbleizing, collage/decoupage, basic stencil silkscreen printing and clay.

Goal(s) The overall goal of this project is to (A goal is what you hope to achieve during the course of the curriculum project or series of lessons. Goals are endpoints – the destination. They are comprehensive, longer-term, subjective and describe states of mind The goals of this curriculum are as follows: - 90% of students will expand their abilities to assert themselves and build confidence through taking risks with materials and imagery. -guide students to engage in creating a supportive and cooperative social environment -teach students visual art-making skills, concepts and vocabulary which will increase knowledge, self-esteem and confidence. -80% students will engage in work in work that will expand their abilities to selfreflect and to translate these reflections into visual, verbal and written communication. Guide students to explore their own stories and aspirations through parallel story-narratives.


G: 50% of students will develop in their ability to handle frustration and be proactive about finding alternatives and /or seeking help/accepting help. In so doing, they will be developing trust in themselves as well as connection to others. G: 90% of students will develop their ability to make good choices -enable participants to see their stories as precious and important. -80% students will grow in their abilities to make choices and work independently (on art and clean-up) -70% of students will improve writing skills through poetry and narrative. -100% of students will improve cognitive skills through assignments that challenge them to study a historical art form and develop their own art and narrative that integrates the qualities and structure of that form. 80% of students will develop a sense of hopefulness and future orientation

Social/Emotional Outcome 1: 90% of students demonstrate improved positive selfimage, confidence, and awareness of responsibility to others Social/Emotional Outcome 2: 90% of students demonstrate an improved sense of resiliency and improved coping skills through individual and cooperative learning Academic Outcomes Writing Goal : 90% of students demonstrate improved proficiency in writing Reading Goal : 90% of students demonstrate increased interest and proficiency in reading and vocabulary History Goal : 90% of students demonstrate increased awareness of cultures and historical periods Geography Goal : 90% of students demonstrate increased knowledge in geography, place and location Objectives Objectives are the smaller steps that need to be taken in order to reach the goal. Objectives are milestones – the rest stops and mile markers after each leg of the journey that tell you you’re making progress. They are detailed, shorter-term, objective, and describe things people do or say. They are what you (the teacher) want to accomplish to reach the goal 100%-Participants will score and bind illustration board to create books 100%-Participants will observe and discuss (word bank) medieval illuminated manuscripts 90%-Participants will learn vocabulary and aesthetic qualities of illuminated manuscripts


100%-Participant will create “Historiated Initials” from the first letter of their names. 100%-Participants will write short poems about themselves that ill go on their historiated Initial pages. 100%-Participants will complete their initial pages with decorative elements from the manuscripts they’ve observed. 100%-Participants will develop fantasy characters based on personal stories of bravery that they share in class. 80%-Participants will share personal stories of bravery with one another. 90%-Participants will write narratives incorporating their developed character and elements from their own stores. These will be exaggerated/altered for dramatic effect. 100%-Participants will illustrate their stories, again using watercolor and sharpies to complete them. 90%-Participants will learn how to use watercolor paints. 80%-Participants will explore calligraphy as they write out the final drafts of their poems on their historiated initial pages. -Participants will learn about gilding-they will approximate this with glue (creating a decorative texture) and acrylic gold paint. Given time, they will use real gold-leaf to embellish the border of one of their pages. 90%-(given time) Participants will learn to emboss metal sheet to create covers for their illuminated manuscripts. Outcomes Outcomes are what students will know (knowledge) or be able to do (skills & abilities) at the end of the lesson(s) Students will be able to: • 90%-Work cooperatively in a creative environment-sharing supplies and supporting one another in creative endeavors • 80%-Learn to observe art and discuss visual elements within an art form. • 100%-Learn how to paint with watercolors • 100%-Learn basic bookbinding • 100%-Be exposed to gilding and calligraphy-explore directly as time allows. • 90%-Learn about illuminated manuscripts and medieval times. • 80%-Take risks in sharing their personal stories. • 80%-Learn about a historical form of writing and illustration and apply that knowledge to the expression of their own stories and visual forms of expression. • 80%-Develop writing skills • 90%-Understand, follow and (potentially) internalize the high expectations of the Buildabrige classroom including its rules and rituals. • 75%-Participate in clean up independent of instruction • 75%-Use choice time as a way to develop independence, confidence, personal agency and internal locus of control

Number of Courses/Lessons: __10___lessons over ___10__ weeks will incorporate ___6___ of the nine learning intelligences: (list them) and utilize ___5___ art forms (list them and give brief rationale for why these art forms). Spatial-translating ideas into visual imagery. All self-portrait projects.


-Linguistic-will engage in writing exercises and creating narratives for illuminated manuscripts. -Bodily-kinesthetic-nature of some of the materials and techniques using, Fine motor skills involved in illustration. -Musical-music during circle at start and end of class. Unifying as well as practicing rhythm and tone, -Interpersonal-sharing of supplies, participating in cooperative learning environment, taking risks in work in one another始s presence and sharing content in group-discussion.

-Intrapersonal-self-reflection through imagery and discussion.

Reference Resources/Books

Materials Needed for the Project Aluminum, watercolor paints, brushes, pencils, watercolor paper, illustration board, Oak tag (maybe), water-based printing inks, calligraphy markers, acrylic paint, gold-leaf, boxes, liquid starch, glue, scissors, forks

Assessment method(s) selected for the project Informal assessment-discussion and group critiques Formal assessment-rubric


Rubric: Attach a minimum five-element, four-point value rubric for the overall curriculum assessment of outcomes; or for the outcomes of at least one of the lessons.

State  Standards  addressing  through  10  week  course  highlighted  in  blue:     Production,  Performance  and  Exhibition  of  Dance,   Music,  Theatre  and  Visual  Arts…………..………………   A.  Elements  and  Principles  in  each  Art  Form   B.  Demonstration  of  Dance,  Music,  Theatre  and   Visual  Arts   C.  Vocabulary  Within  each  Art  Form   D.  Styles  in  Production,  Performance  and  Exhibition   E.  Themes  in  Art  Forms   F.  Historical  and  Cultural  Production,  Performance   and  Exhibition   G.  Function  and  Analysis  of  Rehearsals  and  Practice   Sessions   H.  Safety  Issues  in  the  Arts   I.  Community  Performances  and  Exhibitions   J.  Technologies  in  the  Arts   K.  Technologies  in  the  Humanities   9.1.   Historical  and  Cultural  Contexts..………………………..   A.  Context  of  Works  in  the  Arts   B.  Chronology  of  Works  in  the  Arts   C.  Styles  and  Genre  in  the  Arts   D.  Historical  and  Cultural  Perspectives   E.  Historical  and  Cultural  Impact  on  Works  in  the   Arts   9.2.   F.  Vocabulary  for  Historical  and  Cultural  Context   G.  Geographic  regions  in  the  arts   H.  Pennsylvania  artists   I.  Philosophical  context  of  works  in  the  arts   J.  Historical  differences  of  works  in  the  arts   K.  Traditions  within  works  in  the  arts   L.  Common  themes  in  works  in  the  Arts   Critical  Response………………………………………….   A.  Critical  Processes   B.  Criteria   C.  Classifications   D.  Vocabulary  for  Criticism  


E.  Types  of  Analysis   F.  Comparisons   G.  Critics  in  the  Arts   9.3.   Aesthetic  Response………………………………………...   A.  Philosophical  Studies   B.  Aesthetic  Interpretation   C.  Environmental  Influences   D.ArtisticChoice


Build a Bridge Workshop Normal Growth & Development Through the Visual Arts

Normal Development & Growth in the Visual Arts Michele D. Rattigan, MA, ATR-BC, NCC, LPC 101-A North Main Street Woodstown, NJ 08098 609.230.5817

Different perspectives: Children & Adults • • • • • •

Mental growth depends on a rich and varied relationship between a child and his environment; such a relationship is a basic ingredient for a creative experience. Art is different for a child than it is for an adult. For all of us, young and old, the process of creating is of utmost importance. Unfortunately, as we grow we become concerned with the product. Creative expression is intrinsic to our growth on many levels: emotionally, intellectually, physically, perceptually, socially, aesthetically, and creatively. The process of self-identification is intrinsic to our abilities to grow socially. Many adults see children’s art as interesting, exciting, colorful expressions of self. Some envy their ability to express with freedom and spontaneity.

Youth + The Visual Arts = “Perfect Together” • A natural expression from very early in life • Recognizable objects • Begins as kinesthetic discharge • Relationships within the art • “AH-HA! I made that mark!” connection is • Communications of new learning, • •

made Named scribbles Formation of the tadpole person

experiences, feelings Artistic development is universal!

Why is art so important for children and how does it relate to their development ? Emotional Growth Intellectual Growth Physical Growth Perceptual Growth

Social Growth Aesthetic Growth Creative Growth

Emotional Growth • In art there can be a low level to a high level where the creator is truly involved in portraying • • •

meaningful and personally important things; sometimes the children themselves are involved (the best opportunity for self-identification). Stereotyped, rigid repetition indicates a lack of emotional involvement. An emotionally unresponsive child may express detached feelings by not including anything personal. Human figures are not usually included; if they are, they are inactive. Intensity of involvement in art making provides for emotional growth.

Intellectual Growth • • •

In the child’s art, ask these questions: How aware are they of their surroundings? What amount of knowledge is actively being used? What is their ability to portray a relationship to the environment? One who lags behind in developing concepts and awareness of environment may show lack of intellectual growth. Full of details and showing awareness of the world = a child of high intellectual ability.


Build a Bridge Workshop Normal Growth & Development Through the Visual Arts • • • • •

“Draw-a-man” test: A valid test used as an IQ test for kids with a verbal handicap or language barrier. Sometimes a child could do poorly on an intelligence test but have a special talent in art. Artistic ability development closely parallels intellectual growth up to 10 years of age. Environmental conditions, social factors, emotional and psychological factors can affect intellectual growth. Drawings can stimulate and encourage intellectual growth.

Physical Growth

Seen by the way they control their bodies, guide their lines, and perform skills; also represented in the conscious and unconscious aspects of body image portrayed in art.

Continued overemphasis or omissions of body parts may reflect a physical condition.

Perceptual Growth • • • •

Increased perceptual growth can be seen in increasing awareness. In art, this refers to a developing sensitivity toward color, form, and shape. As a child grows, the surrounding space also grows. Auditory experiences are sometimes included. Children rarely affected by perceptual experiences show little ability to observe and little awareness in the differences of objects. Inability to utilize perceptual experiences may indicate lack of growth in other areas. Awareness of varieties in color, differences in shapes and forms, smoothness and roughness, sensitivity to light and dark… are all part of the creative experience.

Social Growth

• • •

Readily seen in creative work. First recognizable object drawn is a person. Art process itself is social growth. Expressing self on paper also means viewing that expression.

Viewing and looking is a first step to communication with others.

Art can provide social interaction with peers.

Aesthetic Growth • Considered the basic ingredient of any art experience. • Aesthetics: the means of organizing, thinking, feeling, and perceiving into an expression that • • • •

communicates these thoughts and feelings to someone else. Aesthetic growth develops naturally and is shown by a sensitive ability to integrate experiences into a cohesive whole. Aesthetics is ultimately tied to personality. Organizational framework used to portray experiences in art can often give an indication of some of the unconscious ordering that is unique for each person. Lack of organization or the disassociation (disconnection or fragmentation) of parts within a drawing may often be an indication of a lack of integration within the individual.

Creative Growth • Shows as soon as a child begins to make marks (not just with art materials, but also playing with food). • Do not have to be skillful to be creative, but in any form of creation there are degrees of freedom… • • • •

freedom to explore and experiment, and freedom to become involved. Every art product, truly the work of a youngster, is a creative expression in and of itself. Creativity cannot be imposed but must come from the child. Development of creative abilities is essential to society. Both the process (making the art) and the product (the result) reflect creative growth.


Build a Bridge Workshop Normal Growth & Development Through the Visual Arts

Lowenfeld’s stages 18 months through adolescent + • The Scribbling Stage (18 mos. – 3 yrs.) • The Pre-schematic Stage (4 - 6 or 7 yrs.) • The Schematic Stage (6 – 8 or 9 yrs.) • The Gang Stage (9 – 12 years) • Adolescent Art: The Pseudo-Naturalistic Stage (12y +) The scribbling stage Three phases of the scribbling stage: Disordered scribble, Controlled scribble, Named scribble

Disordered scribble

• • •


1 scribble is “vertical” (creates an arch of elbow to wrist). 2


is “horizontal”.


3 is circular in nature.

Controlled scribble

• • • • •

6 months later: child shows more control (may be potty training). They want to make something and control it. “Ah-ha” experiences: the light bulb goes off… they notice what their hand can do. “I did that”. Kids can pick up and begin new lines, circles, & dots. They can group shapes, make spirals and patterns. This matches their ability to manipulate (behaviorally) and say “no”. At 2, they think they can “control” their parents.

Named scribble • “I can make this stand for something else”. • Occurs around age 3. • This is the 2nd “ah-ha” experience. • Kids can use symbols and use words. • Not every scribble has to have a name… the name and meaning can also change. The child will

change the representations. It stands for what is on their minds at the time. 5 minutes later, it can be something different.

Appropriate media for the scribbler • Thick (fat) crayons • High contrast • Paint = tempera (thick and not running) • Finger paint • When they are a bit older in the scribbling stage, thick brushes (3/4”) can be used. • Provide a brush for EACH COLOR. Handles can also be cut so kids can get closer. • For kids that get upset/flustered by drips, have them paint on a flat horizontal surface (low table or ground).

• Clay = soft enough, pliable, tactile… keep it a process. It’s 3-D and so is life. They can use both hands. (By the controlled stage, kids will have a dominant hand).

• Play dough, model magic… water based clays. Both OK. Don’t use oil-based clay. • Color usage = Most use whatever is close, whatever order it’s in. Some kids have favorite colors. Color can be used randomly or in an emotional fashion.

• Suggestion: avoid coloring books and patterns for the scribbler. 3

Build a Bridge Workshop Normal Growth & Development Through the Visual Arts

• Avoid ballpoint pens. Transition from Scribbling to Pre-Schematic (between 3 – 4 yrs.) Shapes appear. Outlines and shapes are colored in.

Developmental milestones

At age 3, most children can start and stop a circle. From this they may add lines around the circle. This is a radial… NOT A SUN.

• •

At age 4, most children can make a square. You cannot hurry the process. Children will get there on his/her own.

The Pre-schematic Stage (4-7 years, mainly 4-6)

The child draws what they know, not what they see

• •

They draw what is most important to them

• •

Color = arbitrary Human figure = the “tadpole” person

Space = “touch space”

Appropriate media for the pre-schematic child

• •

Clay Thinner crayons, more colors

• •

More choices Choice of paper

Transition from Pre-schematic to Schematic st

The 1 sign = the baseline appears

The Schematic Stage (6 – 8 or 9 years)

• •

The baseline represents linear relationships with other things .

Cognitively, the baseline also reflects the relationship to letters and reading readiness. The child is learning to read and cannot do so without understanding linear relationships.

Emotionally, it allows kids to take someone else’s POV/ not as ego-centric. The child puts him/herself in the environment.

Schematic stage characteristics

Baseline usually begins in representational colors.

The schematic child keeps the sun and the clouds in the sky.

• •

Rigid schemas of people, trees, & houses.

• •

Skylines and cloud lines may appear.

Clothes can change color.

Rigid use of color: the sky is always blue and the grass is always green.

X-rays and flipping.

Relationships for the Schematic Child The self, parents, and teachers are very important. This is often reflected in their choice of subject matter.

Benefits of the schematic stage

Freed up energy so the child can learn


Build a Bridge Workshop Normal Growth & Development Through the Visual Arts

• •

Child has super ego that is solidified Delay of gratification behavior = rigid behavior and rigid drawings

Downside of the schematic stage

• •

Children develop a schema and won’t change it. Make projects flexible like “child picking apples” to encourage variation.

Appropriate Media for the Schematic Child

• • •

Crayon = to communicate Paint = to express and to use gross motor skills Schematic kids regress in paint

Transition from Schematic to Gang Observed in the space usage… multiple baselines appear before they disappear.

The Gang Stage (9 – 12 years)

• • • • • •

Relationships in gang: peers/friends are most important Human figure schema: sex/gender characteristics appear Drawings may look stiff (lid on id) Gang stage kids include lots of detail to express what is important in the image Exaggerations and omissions evident in schematic imagery now gone

• • • • •

X-rays and flipping (also in schematic) now gone Space = a PLANE develops: The sky meets ground, and there is a foreground and a background. The baseline begins to disappear because relationships are more complex and relationships are different. Objects can be in front of/ in back of… not just “lined up”. Color: more representational with a sense of subtleties and hue They look at size relationships and distance. Gang stage kids are drawing the way they see it. Attempts at proportion and perspective develop.

Gender-specific subject matter:

• •

– –

Boys = mechanical things, sharks; things that symbolize power and potency Girls = horses, flowers, hearts, rainbows, curtains and designs

Importance of “Designs” in the Gang Stage It’s important to let gang stage kids get a break from realism and play with designs and patterns. Otherwise, they may experience frustration with realism at this stage and abandon drawing (art) all together…

The average non-talented adult draws at a 10 year-old level. Boys are from Mars and Girls are from Venus?

• •

For Gang Stage children, it’s really important to fit in… Who is popular?

At least for boys… girls become lower life forms.


Build a Bridge Workshop Normal Growth & Development Through the Visual Arts

Gang Stage kids enjoy being with the same

gender group.

Tips for working with Gang Stage children

• • •

Gang stage kids often want to use pencil first then color (offers more control). Teaching perspective is appropriate at this stage. Promote working in same sex groups in classes and in therapy groups (Boys/girls still have ‘cooties’ at this stage).

Appropriate Media for the Gang Stage Child ‘Normal’ children should be able to work with any medium at this stage.

Adolescent Art: The Pseudo-Naturalistic Stage (12y +) • Teens focus on the product as being more important than the process. • The Age of Decision: continue with art or not? Haptic, or visual? • Human figure: secondary sex characteristics are visible, joints (elbows, knees) are appearing, more • • •

natural in poses; attention to clothes, hair, facial features, folds in cloth, light and shading… they consider: where is the light source? Self continues to be looked at negatively: they may choose to draw in cartoon to be critical. Space becomes 3-D. Color: EMOTIONAL

Not Quite a Child, Not Yet an Adult… Adolescence = body changing, identity changing, physiological changes, friends of the opposite sex… they want the freedom of an adult but without the adult responsibilities. It’s a very difficult time, like being psychotic!

The Lid is Off the Id • Emotion: Labile (meaning that they flip-flop). • Artistically they are extremely self-critical (suffer from the “if only…” syndrome). They will choose not • •

to draw if it’s not working for them. Relationship with adults: Much resentment and a “hero-worship” experience with some teachers. There is a stage of rebellion against most adults… this is very important and necessary for growth. This adolescent rebellion is similar to the “terrible 2’s” all over again (but in a much bigger kid!)

Tips for Working with Teens • Avoid asking teens to draw their emotions (they do not wish to express them, and it will come out • • • •

anyway without you asking). Let them teach you what is “in”/popular. Promote self-identity: focus on social issues or environmental issues such as “Save the Planet”. Do not put your own value system onto others in therapy OR in the classroom. When reviewing their art process and products, look at how much effort was put into it. Ask yourself, “Is it a valid expression?” Talk about it to them in those terms. You cannot approve of everything they do.

Remember: Stage does not always equal age…Stages are approximations and assume that the child is developing normally without psychological, emotional, or physical complications, traumas, or illnesses. One can see regressions in any stage and such are based on multiple factors such as those listed above.

References & Recommended Resources (omitted due to NEA page limitations)