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1. The text emphasizes that a big difference between intuitive theories about people and scientific theories of personality is that the personality scientist must A) engage in scientific observation. B) interrelate concepts about people systematically. C) provide ideas that are testable. D) all of the above. 2. A unique feature of a course in personality psychology is that, unlike other courses, the focus is on A) motivation. B) nervous system functioning. C) the whole person. D) social systems and culture. 3. The text defines personality mainly in terms of
A) consistent patterns of behavior. B) unconscious wishes. C) traits. D) all of the above. 4. In general terms, the text suggests that the science of personality A) is the study of how individuals differ in their perceptions and how these differences relate to their total functioning. B) attempts to understand how people are alike while recognizing that individuals are different in some ways. C) attempts to develop strategies for further research. D) all of the above. 5. Which of the following are emphasized as central to the study of personality? A) individual differences and consistent patterns of functioning. B) individual differences and the operation of conscious processes. C) patterns of organization and the operation of conscious processes. D) all of the above. 6. Structural concepts refer to A) stable aspects of personality. B) dynamic aspects of personality. C) parts of the body.
D) all of the above. 7. â€œUnits of analysisâ€? refer to A) the basic variables of a given theory. B) the original source of data for a given theory. C) the research methods employed most frequently in a given theory. D) the theoretical assumptions of a given theorist. 8. The personality concept that refers to individual consistency and approximates the lay person's concepts to describe people is A) response. B) habit. C) trait. D) motive. 9. A clustering of traits is called a A) unit of analysis. B) type. C) factor. D) dimension. 10. Concepts such as trait and type fall into which of the following areas? A) structure. B) process.
C) growth and development. D) psychopathology. Chapter: Chapter 02: The Scientific Study of People Multiple Choice 1. The theories and research of scientific personality psychologists differ from those of the ordinary person in being A) more general and testable. B) more explicit and testable. C) more general and valid. D) more explicit and valid 2. The text emphasizes that: A) theory and research are separate endeavors. B) one cannot have â€œtheory-free researchâ€? because theory inevitably informs research procedures. C) to get a good theory, one first must engage in theory-free research, with the research findings being used to generate a theory. D) the measures used to assess personality, in doing personality research, generally are, and should be, theory-free. 3. In clinical research there is A) minimal experimental control and maximum emphasis on naturally occurring phenomena.
B) maximum experimental control and maximum emphasis on naturally occurring phenomena. C) minimal experimental control and minimum emphasis on naturally occurring phenomena. D) maximum experimental control and minimum emphasis on naturally occurring phenomena. 4. The approach to research emphasizing the intensive study of individuals is A) correlational. B) clinical. C) experimental. D) naturalistic observation. 5. In clinical research A) many variables can be considered at one time. B) behavior can be observed naturally. C) verbal reports can be used. D) all of the above. 6. In clinical research, the investigator generally A) makes things happen. B) studies one person. C) studies few aspects of the person.
D) all of the above. 7. Manipulating one variable and observing its effects on another variable is characteristic of A) clinical research. B) experimental research. C) correlational research. D) none of the above. 8. The effort to gain control over the variables of interest and establish if-then causal relationships is descriptive of which approach to research? A) correlational. B) clinical. C) naturalistic observation. D) experimental. 9. Which of the following is not a characteristic distinctive of experimental research? A) manipulation of specific variables. B) recording of data objectively. C) establishment of cause-effect relationships. D) all of the above are distinctive. 10. Which of the following is not a feature of experimental research?
A) establishment if-then relationships. B) establishment consistent individual differences. C) establishment experimental control over variables. D) All of the above are features of experimental research.