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a computational response to a rrested development

nay zaw soe

A Terminal Project Presented to the Faculty of The College of Architecture at the University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Master of Architecture Major: Architecture

Under the Supervision of Professor Steve Hardy Lincoln, Nebraska May, 2012

a computational response to arrested development

p. 12 township and sector size p. 13 site selection method p. 14-17 Lincoln, NE growth map p. 18-21 local sectors studies

p. 26 settlement pattern p. 27 natural pattern p. 28 unplanned settlement p. 29 planned settlement contents: p. 00 abstract

p. 35 quantifying pattern p. 37 tissue prototype p. 38 street intersection types p. 39 street length guidelines

p. 01 research proposal p. 11 site selection

p. 43 <e> p. 44-49 <p>

p. 31 taxonomy of patterns p. 33 composition and configuration

p. 54-57 housing typology A-H p. 59-65 street prototype

p. 41 iterative fractals p. 42 <g> <e> <p> p. 53 housing typology p. 41 iterative fractals p. 53 housing typology p. 66 branching: tissue pattern 1 p. 69 branching: tissue pattern 2 p. 94 tissue comparison p. 99 conclusion p. 101 reference p. 103 acknowledgements

p. 71 tissue pattern 2: exploded axonometric p. 72 tissue pattern 2: housing types p. 74 tissue pattern 2: land use p. 75 tissue pattern 2: local bus route p. 76 tissue pattern 2: local trails and parks p. 77 tissue pattern 2: local frequency of path use p. 78 tissue pattern 2: local intersection types p. 79 tissue pattern 2: local road grade p. 81 tissue pattern 2: path network p. 84 park space classification table p. 83 tissue pattern 2: site plan

p. 94 grid tissue pattern p. 95 curve tissue pattern p. 96 cul-de-sac tissue pattern p. 97 branching tissue pattern

a computational response to arrested development abstract

Current improvements in transportation, communication technology, and a steady rise in globalization has lead to the effect of suburbanization. While the exact effects and implications of suburbanization remain a matter of great controversy, it is undeniable that substantial qualitative changes are taking place in the world economy, with major spatial and social implications. These conditions pose significant challenges to the normative design practices in concern to planning and housing, requiring an approach that operates beyond the quick fix or the local solution. In order to operate critically and design effectively to these conditions, an examination of socio-spatial urban processes and transformations in the world economy is needed; along with an investigation into the evolution of ideas and approaches to the informal and irregular processes of suburbia making. In this context, the research will generate alternative templates of suburbanization based on strategies that stem from embryonic processes seeking the integration of cultural tradition, regional ecological systems and economic globalization. The ultimate goal of project is to create an alternative model for suburbanization while critically addressing the phenomena of mass-produced urban sprawl. With alternative templates for localized, sustainable strategies capable of addressing a wider range of scales and interests. These alternative templates will address issues of housing, poverty, and the concepts of urban intensification and density. Dealing with these divers and complex issues in the patterns of suburban growth in an architectural context, architecture can play a central role in the creation of strategies and generating novel suburban clusters. The end result will focus on understanding the most important changes in the contemporary suburban condition and show how architectural intelligence will help the development community to respond to these trends.

abstract

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BACKGROUND LITERATURE

Reemerging interest in the studies of landscape urbanism, along with current studies in the science of emergence, has allowed the architectural community to deal with the challenges of contemporary urban strategies. By applying similar methods to the suburban condition, the research can help to understand and address the significant global shifts in the patterns of suburban growth and decline. Current studies in the field of emergence have helped to understand how all forms and all systems change over time, and the forms of nature and the cultural forms of civilization are inextricably entwined. While landscape urbanism, in its interdisciplinary approach, has helped landscape design to address the dynamics of contemporary urbanism. The practice of landscape urbanism has been largely focused on stitching together the fabric of natural and manmade systems within the surface that supports the city and its ecology. The surface is treated on micro and macro levels by synthesizing both architecture and landscape as a hybrid form to create an environment that can house the existing and the rapidly growing urban life. The success of this practice lies within design communities to make cities “more adaptive, more fluid, and more capable of accommodating changing demands and unforeseen circumstances.” Emergence: In the book, Architecture of Emergence – The Evolution of Form in Nature and Civilization, by Michael Weinstock, he explains that the evolution and the development of human culture have extensively modified the natural forms and systems that exist on earth. He further describes the collapse of systems, in both nature and in civilization, due to these systems reaching a critical threshold of stability. With the outcome of the collapse, civilization goes through a phase of reorganization. This is where complete loss of social order and dispersal of the people by famine, disease, abandonment of cities and mass migration can occur. In consequence, such system goes through a phase of simplification into smaller and simpler assemblies or reorganization to a lower level of complexity. This occurs until civilization can reorder its cities, people, and subsidiary systems into a more complex system with a higher flow of energy and information. “The world is within the horizon of systemic change that will cascade through all the systems of nature and civilisation, and new forms will emerge.”

Figure 1 A) 1960s-era retirement community in Maricopa County B) A circle packing is an arrangement of circles inside a given boundary such that no two overlap and some (or all) of them are mutually tangent.

research proposal

In order grasp the scope of this situation, we must look at the system from a bottom-up approach. In this approach we can understand the individual components and their roles over the course of time. This view of understanding the system, not as a whole but as individual components, is considered to be the underlining principle of emergence. Emergence is an explanation of how natural systems have evolved and maintained themselves. In the book “Emergence” by Steven Johnson, he explains that emergence operates in the natural world but is not obvious when one looks at the systems from the outside. Johnson further explains that the complex simplification we know as the laws of motion in large systems emerge from the essential principles of individual particles. To view the system of interwoven complexity, we must first look at the individual thread that makes up the fabric.

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Drosscape:

Figure 2 Turning Pattern: Science of Turing patterns in a controlled threedimensional chemical system are even more suggestion of just how complex the patterns can be.

Most contemporary studies illustrate that human civilization, and in consequence city forms, has organized and evolved alongside ecological development. In accordance with systems in nature, the metabolic systems of cities can be characterized by “episodic and irregular expansions and incorporations, collapse and subsequent reorganization in more complex forms with greater flows of energy, information and material.” As the flow of energy is increased in the system due to the increase in complexity, the amount of waste being produced subsequently increases. As Alan Berger phrased it, “there is no growth without waste.” A form of waste being produced from the reorganization of these systems is the waste landscape or “drosscape.” Berger claims that waste landscape is an indicator of healthy urban growth. He also pinpoints two processes that form these drosscape. First is the rapid horizontal urbanization, and the second is from the left behind land and “detritus after economic and production regimes have ended.” The uncontrolled growth and rapid increased in horizontal urbanization (urban sprawl) can be comparable to a similar occurrence in nature, cancer. Many can agree with Alan Berger that this growth can produce waste in many forms. Waste from excessive watering, contamination to the local system from increase of automobile dependency, to “oversized parking lots or duplicate big-retail venues.” And as much as advocates of urbanization would argue that more and more people today are moving back to the cities, this is not entirely true. Reasons such as loft living has become fashionable, the number of single-person households has grown and commuting time has increased. Still, the growth of suburbia continues due to the same reason why families after the war moved to Levittown. Although the suburbia of today is very different from the post war suburbia, the reason for people to move to suburbia remains the same. The lower-density development characteristics such as lower ambient noise and increase in privacy, better schools, less crime, and a generally slower lifestyle are more preferable than the urban environment. As the middle class grows, the demand for suburbia will continue. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Figure 3 A) Interchange at Interstate Highway 210 and Interstate Highway 15, San Bernadino, 43 California. B)Plastidimplanted hillocks adjacent to housing in Irvine, California.

research proposal

The initial period of the project will operate on a descriptive research method. The aim will primarily be to gather knowledge pertaining to reasons of suburbanism and investigate the relationship of key political concepts to the generation of new urban spatialities. Along with gathering information on key events, projects, and texts that illustrate contemporary responses to the opportunities and problems created by growth. The initial aim will be to focus on post-World War II housing and planning in a number of European and US Cities, offering a vantage point from which to consider critical issues such as density, regeneration, mixed use and new working and living patterns, and it also reviews the development of ideas about housing form and production. This research portion will address the dynamics of contemporary sub-urbanism and its integrated knowledge and techniques from environmental engineering. In order to fully analyze the science of complexity and emergence in the research, digital design tools will be employed.

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NAAB CRITERION Much of the first phase of the project will be to classify, compare, summarize and interpret information; the second phase of the project will focus on a specific problem and applying a solution that is accompanied by appropriate information. Both portions will meet the Student Performance Criteria (SPC). Along with meeting the minimum NAAB criteria from Realm A-C, the project will incorporate A-9, A-11, and B-8. Figure 4: Levittown, New York. “To own one’s own house, with a yard and a garage, in an attractive neighborhood with safe streets, was the ideal of multitudes of young families.” Terry McNealy

A-9 Historical Traditions and Global Culture: Understanding of parallel and divergent canons and traditions of architecture, landscape and urban design including examples of indigenous, vernacular, local, regional, national settings from the Eastern, Western, Northern, and Southern hemispheres in terms of their climatic, ecological, technological, socioeconomic, public health, and cultural factors. A-11 Applied Research: Understanding the role of applied research in determining function, form, and systems and their impact on human conditions and behavior. B-8 Environmental Systems: Understanding the principles of environmental systems’ design such as embodied energy, active and passive heating and cooling, indoor air quality, solar orientation, daylighting and artificial illumination, and acoustics; including the use of appropriate performance assessment tools.

Historical and Spatial Development of Sprawl

research proposal

In order to operate critically and design effectively within the current suburban model, an examination into the evolution of suburban tissue is required. This includes exploring the history of suburbanization and its characteristics. To understand suburbia holistically, the term “sprawl” will need to be further defined and the progression of sprawl will need to be examined. First, the term needs to be defined. As is the case with many negative terms, there is often a good deal of disagreement on the actual target of disapproval. Second, the progression of sprawl during the pre and postwar years will need to be discussed. As sprawl progressed, so did many of the anti-sprawl arguments. These anti-sprawl campaigns will be showcased in this paper, along with antisprawl remedies that were placed into action since 1970s. Finally, the article will showcase specific sprawl tissue patterns that define suburbia. It is important to understand the development of decentralization and its characteristics before critically operating upon the suburban model.

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Definition Regarding the definition of sprawl, many anti-sprawl reformers believe that sprawl is a recent phenomenon caused by specific technological innovation or government policies. Arguably, characteristics associated with sprawl have been visible in most cities throughout history. Sprawl has been a persistent feature in cities since the beginning of urban history. In any city at any given time some parts will be increasing in density as the density in other areas declines. As cities mature, they have tended to extend outward at decreasing densities but what was new in the twentieth century was that sprawl became a mass phenomenon. For the purposes of this article, sprawl will be defined in the most basic and objective way possible: low-density, scattered, urban development without systematic large-scale or regional public landuse planning. Sprawl should not be considered a fundamentally negative phenomenon â&#x20AC;&#x201C; rather, it should be understood as an organic process that can be positively directed rather than eliminated. Historical context and development

Figure 5: Row houses in Camberwell, South London, a prodcut of nineteenthcentury sprawl.Once criticized for being cheap and monotonous, now considered the contrast of sprawl. photograph by Robert Bruegmann, 992

research proposal

An important fact about cities from the beginning is that there was a transitional zone between the urban and the exurban. In this zone, houses of powerful families who had the means to build and maintain working farms or villas or second houses where they could escape congestion and noise that characterized the center of large cities. Despite the obvious problems of large concerted cities, several factors made high densities in cities a necessary. First, cities had to be developed around a strategic point due to geographical feature (trade routes, harbor, bridges, water, etc.). Until the widespread availability of inexpensive public transportation, which was a development of the late nineteenth century, most urban functions had to be located in close proximity to one another. Second, the size of the urban core had to be a military consideration, since most cities until the nineteenth century were walled for security reasons. For example, citizens that lived outside the walls of Rome were called suburbium, meaning what was literally below or outside the walls. As most cities went through their early economic growth, populations from surrounding areas were drawn into the city center; which cause an increasing in concentration while decreasing in decentralization. Then, as the economy matured, the balance shifted as the number of residents who were able to move outward to the suburbs and exurbs increased, which exceeded the number coming into the city. To understand this cycle, modern London is a good example because these trends are most visible. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there was a vast influx of population due to the changes in agricultural production, which forced thousands of families off the land and into the new modes of industrial production. During this period, a group of Londoners that had profited from the expanding economy was able to build or lease houses well beyond the city limits. The direction of the suburban growth at this time was to the west, what is now Londonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Central West End. For many, this involved a long distance commute back into the city. There were developments to

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the east but it was vastly different. This area accommodated large-scale warehouses and industrial facilities near the great London Docklands. The industrial activities attracted the working class families, causing the densities in these areas to rival those within the city limit. The migration from the central London to suburbia and exurbia was offset by the continued arrival of poor newcomers from the countryside. This resulted in a constant centralization and decentralization. By seventeenth century, Londonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s density curve started to drop and flatten significantly as the center started to lose population and the periphery started to fill up. Along with London, cities throughout Europe experienced the full impact of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century. By 1921-31, London area displayed many of the traits that are associated with postwar suburbs. This progression in decentralization was not isolated to Europe; cities in America were noticing the decrease in density by the 1920s. The progression to suburbia was no longer confined to the wealthy and powerful; it had become a mass movement in both northern Europe and America. For example, the process was noticeable in lower East Side of New York, where the city began emptying out rapidly after 1900 as soon as immigrants accumulated enough money to allow them to get better housing in less dense neighborhoods farther afield. At first, the movement was towards nearby communities like Williamsburg and Greenpoint in Brooklyn. Once public transportation became inexpensive, people eventually moved outward towards northern Manhattan and the outlying boroughs. After several decades of outward movement, both the residential and the employment density curves in the New York area flatten rapidly. The trend applied to the new and more heavily industrialized cities as well, Manchester or Liverpool in England, for example, behaved in ways substantially similar to Chicago or Baltimore in the United States. Either in Europe or in America, aside from increase in public transportation or rising automobile ownership, the most important variable is when these cities reached economic maturity. As cities matured by the end of the nineteenth century, decentralization and sprawl became a widespread trend. A key factor in this growth and movement was the expansion of infrastructure. During the interwar years American cities finished the process of paving streets and sidewalks, installing curbs, gutters, streetlights, and sewers, and generally completing the package of urban amenities. Along with expansion of the highway system in many cities and construction of a number of limitedaccess superhighways, and planning for a great national superhighway network help the process of suburbanization. By the end of 1930s, the outlines of the multinucleated city, with its adjacent suburban and exurban zones that are associated with the postwar era were clearly visible. At the end of World War II, the sprawl in United States was much more apparent than in Europe for a brief period. One reason was that, most European cities had to be immediately rebuilt, allowing public interventions in the development process. This allowed for public planners the opportunity to implement idea about reshaping the city. The second reason for the divergence in urban development patterns between the United States and research proposal

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Europe was the difference between the degree of wealth and population. After the war, many cities such as Hamburg, Berlin, Vienna, Glasgow, and Birmingham saw their populations remain stable or even decline, and these cities grew slowly in respect to cities in American. In the first two decades after the war, population in the United States increased from 150 million to over 200 million. More specifically, population gain in individual cities was faster. For example Lost Angeles population doubled during this time, from 4 million to over 8 million. Along with Miami urbanized area grew nearly threefold, the Phoenix area nearly fourfold, and the San Jose area more than fivefold. As the population matured, the average household size decreased, and due to increased in wealth, many smaller family units were able to secure more living spaces. The result was a reduction in densities at the core and a growth in the suburban areas that were very low in density by historic standards.

Concentric Zone Model, 1923 Robert Park, Ernest Burgess, Roderick Mckenzie

As the majority of the development and population increased at the fringe, the older central cities struggled. By the end of the postwar years, the inner cities of Newark, Detroit, Saint Louis and other went through the phase of restructuring itself in order to compete with the suburbs. The result was an increase in urban gentrification. Entire districts like Boston’s Back Bay, South End, Philadelphia’s Society Hill and Rittenhouse Square, Washington’s Georgetown and Old Town Alexandria, Chicago’s Old Town and Lincoln Park, and San Francisco’s North Beach and Western Addition were transformed to accommodate wider demographic groups. For the others, the decline in housing prices in many urban areas allowed for minorities groups to reside. As a result from the cycle of restructuring to accommodate for new economic activates, cities had to change in urban forms or create new ones. Sprawl tissue patterns and development models

Sector Model, 1939 Homer Hoyts

Multiple Nuclei Model_1945 Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman

research proposal

To understand the urban structure and growth in the 1920s to 1930s, three urban land use models were created, using Chicago as a prototype. First was the concentric zone model, which was developed by Robert Park and Ernest Burgess. According to this model, the city grows outward beginning with the Central Business District (CBD) in the middle. The second ring contains industry and lower quality housing. The third ring contains modest older houses occupied by the working class. The forth ring is where more spacious housing for the middle-class families and finally the fifth zone is for people who work in the center but choose to live in the suburbs. Although this model was limited in its ability to capture the complex reality of a city, it was very popular due to its clarity that allows for most people to comprehend. The second model was the Sector Model, created by Homer Hoyt. According to this model, the city develops in a series of sectors, not rings. Certain areas are more attractive for different activates. The center again is for CBD but as the city grows, activates expand in a wedge, or sectors, form the center. Once a district with high-class housing is established, the most expensive houses are built on the outer edge of that district further from the center. Industrial and retailing activates develop in other sectors, as well as low-class and middleclass residential sectors. Hoyt observed that, in reality, development in cities didn’t’ expand outward in tidy rings but instead various kinds of uses pushed

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house sizes

20,000

1,500

lot sizes

10,000

1,000

500

2003

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5,000

1975

Based on “Lot Size of New One-Family Houses Sold,” 1976-2003, and “Median and Average Square Feet of Floor Area in New One-Family Houses Sold,” 1973-2003, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Construction Statistic.

2,000

15,000

1976

As wealth increase , the median size of American houses has risen dramatically. Median lot sizes in cities and suburbs, in contrast, after fluctuating in the 1970s and 1980s, started a significant decline in the 1990s. This change is visible on the fringe in most metropolitan area, where not only are lot sizes smaller but more of the dwelling are attached or multifamily units.

outward in distinct sectors and at different rates. The third was the HarrisUllman model, which was created during the postwar years by Chauncey D. Harris and Edward L. Ullman. This model was much more complicated in order to solve the problems for the previous two models. According to this model, a city includes more than one center that activities revolve. Examples of these nodes include: ports, neighborhood business center, university, airport, and parks. Some activates go with particular nodes while other do not. For example, a university node may attract well-educated resident, bookstores, and copy places or the airport may attract hotels and warehouses. All three of these models assume the notion that the city is constantly expanding outward with the most affluent resident in the fringe. Due to the necessity of graphic clarity, both models did not account for several important features of urban life. For example, urban gentrification of the core of cities in both Europe and North America had been demonstrated, and cities are not limited to a unidirectional growth. To describe this complicated and constantly shifting metropolitan pattern, Jean Gottmann coined the term megalopolis. During this time, the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), established in 1934, had issued new subdivision design incentives, and along with an increase in automobile ownership resulted in alternative suburban tissue. For example, Clarence Stein and Henry Wright design of Radburn, New Jersey was radically different than pedestrian focus grid. The Radburn model had hierarchy of streets, with no through traffic, instead relying on cul-de-sac and loop streets to access the home. The streets were categorized as local, collector, and arterial. The result was a greater emphasis on the separation between vehicles and pedestrians traffic. By the early 1960s, Planned Unit Development (PUD) legislation was adopted to account for the negative consequences of the typical subdivision developments. PUD standards allowed for a higher density than typical subdivision, greater diversity of use, including clustered housing to create open community space, and were generally more holistically designed. This resulted in having inner suburbs look and feel much like the adjacent communities within the central city. research proposal

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San Antonio -48% change 1950-1990

Detroit -49% change 1950-1990

Baltimore

Houston

-58% change 1950-1990

-5% change 1950-1990

Dallas-Fort Worth -32% change 1950-1990

Cleveland -43% change 1950-1990

Buffalo

Seattle -41% change 1950-1990

MinneapolisSaint Paul -54% change 1950-1990

Saint Louis

-54% -57% change 1950- change 19501990 1990

Kansas City

Los Angeles

-64% change 1950-1990

+26% change 1950-1990

San FranciscoOakland -41% change 1950-1990

San Jose +47% change 1950-1990

The Census Bureau’s figure for “urbanized areas,” 1,000 people per square mile

research proposal

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The difference between city and suburbs have blurred as the suburbs have become more diverse and heterogeneous than ever. New housing developments evolve along with new urban developments. For one thing, single-family houses have become much larger than they were in the postwar decades, as the average size of a new house was around 1,500 square feet at the end of the war to nearly 2,500 square feet by the end of the century. During this same period, lot size decreased from 10,000 square feet in 1950 to 8,750 square feet in 1999. Although at the turn of the century, a typical middle-class suburb lot size were around 25x100 feet, then by 1920, it had increased to 50x100 feet and by 1950s lot size reached 100x100 feet. In general the data from U.S. Bureau of the Census, Construction Statistics shows that 1975 to 2003, house sizes increased while lot sizes decreased gradually. This characteristics shows that, American cities grew much faster in urbanized land area than in population in 1950s, by the end of the 1990s this process had slow down or reversed itself. At the periphery of suburban Phoenix. Cities like Phoenix, Los Angeles, and Las Vegas are often described as the ultimate in sprawl. In fact they tend to be rather compact settlements with little abandoned housing or vacant land at the center and almost none of the exurban penumbra that surrounds almost all the older cities of the American northeast. Where water has been available, Phoenix has developed outward in a surprisingly orderly way, with densities that hardly vary between the center and far periphery. This has given it one of the flattest density gradients in urban history. Where the water mains end, the desert begins.

conclusion As with all natural processes, every change in the urban system affects everything else in the system. Any changes made by an individual member can affect the neighborhood to some degree, and eventually propagate to the metropolitan area. When many individuals make changes in a certain direction, it can lead to major shifts in the pattern of developments. To understand sprawl, it is necessary to look constantly back and forth from edge to the center, from the most specific to the most general, and from the individual to the neighborhood to the urban system as a whole. Arguments can be made to locate the forces that were the cause of the urban panorama, for example the grid or the planners that created subdivisions. Others will argue that it was the, developers, or governmental organizations like Fannie Mae or the FHA, but ultimately, the decisions were made by the people. The choices of millions of individuals and families that decided where and how they wanted to live shaped the suburban model that is in place today. research proposal

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site selection method

This issue of urban expansion of the city limits of Lincoln was occurring at an alarming rate to the east and now south, which was out of Lincolnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s predetermined growth limit and affected the public works system as it could not extend that distance. By 1967, the City Planning Department stepped in and basically drew a boundary line, in which new developers could not pass. This took place new Stevenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Creek, the outermost edge of the Salt Creek drainage basin. This was important because it was the farthest point in which sewers could reach without having to be pumped. In the past, Lincolnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s forceful, and possibly over aggressive annexation policy from the 1950 plan had encompassed most urban growth within the city limits and with that limit being intensified something had to be done. People wanted to live there and developers, because of the money, wanted to develop there, so a petition was circulated in order to change the zoning ordinances of the area. The city pushed back and revised a solution that required at least one acre of land and cutting off utilities to any urbanization that happened outside of the three mile radius. However, this motive made little progress in growth to the north and especially west of Salt Creek, a natural boundary. This example of Lincoln enforcing its founding principles had impact on the infrastructure as well. The public works encountered higher costs for the services of sewer treatment and electricity to the easternmost development. The fire departments, which had been strategically located in the previous plan, were now out of reach for some. Health issues with slower moving drainage to Salt Creek caused some disruption by Lincoln officials as a concern. The horizontal expansion led to inadequate traffic capacity in some areas, especially the commute to the downtown. With the residential density becoming more heterogeneous in nature, drive times varied and much traffic redevelopment happened at a very steep cost to the city (as much as 1 million dollars per mile in 1965!) . A 1966 study regarding the metro area transportation revealed that a more substantial system is needed to support (at that time) a rapidly growing population. It incorporated extensive construction of new arterial roads that would occur over a large area of Lincoln, lessening traffic congestion, especially.

site selection

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township grid

_based on the base line and meridian

township (US)

_36 square miles (93 km2)_norm _originally surveyed and platted by the US General Land Office using contracted private survey crews _marked on the U.S. Geological Survey maps

Sector

-normal division of the section into aliquot parts and the fractional division into government lots _~1 mile or 640 acres _ can be further subdivided into quarter-sections (160 acres),quarterquarter sections (40 acres),or any other mathematical subdivision

township and sector size 6 miles

A way of subdividing and describing land in most of the United States. Texas, Hawaii, and most of the original 13 states are not described by the PLSS. The system starts with a principal meridian, which is a north-south line. There are 37 principal meridians in the United States. Each principal meridian has a base line that runs east and west through it. Land is described as being east or west of the principal meridian, and north or south of the range line associated with that meridian. Land is typically divided into six square mile townships. Townships are described with reference to their principal meridian and base line. township and sectors size

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Historical Growth and Comprehensive Plan 2030 Growth Lincoln, NE 1927: 21.3% of 2010 growth 1970: 57.7% of 2010 growth 2030: 135.6% of 2010 growth

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00 01 02 03 1927

potential development undeveloped space

site selection method The graph focuses on the relationship between open spaces and the areas in which urbanization or suburbanization has occurred. It is also important to recognize the city of Lincolnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s projected expansion in the next twenty years as noted by the city of Lincoln Urban Development Department. This allows for a visual illustration of which sectors are possible for development and eliminates those within city limits in which development cannot occur site selection method

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curve tissue pattern

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cul-de-sac tissue pattern

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A st & S 84th st (feasible sector development)

A st & S 84th st

(feasible sector development) S 98th St

S 84th St

N 70th St

O ST

A St

E Van Dorn St

development sector

Pioneers Blvd

local sectors: site plan

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A st & S 84th st

(feasible sector development) S 98th St

S 84th St

N 70th St

O ST

A St

E Van Dorn St

local sectors: program analysis

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single family home

school

multi family dwelling

retail

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(feasible sector development)

E Van Dorn St

Pioneers Blvd

local sectors: frequency of use

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S 98th St

A St

S 84th St

N 70th St

O ST

A st & S 84th st

(feasible sector development)

E Van Dorn St

Pioneers Blvd

local sectors: road grade

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S 98th St

A St

S 84th St

N 70th St

O ST

tissue pattern precedent

Cities simultaneously emerged from the collapse and reorganization of the founding system of civilization, in five geographically separated and ecologically stressed regions across the world. The evolutionary development of city forms and their extended metabolic systems was strongly coupled to multiple changes of the climate and ecological system within which they were situated, and to the rise in the flow of energy from intense cultivation, increased social complexity and to the evolution of information systems. The proliferation of cities, systems of cities and their extended metabolic systems across the world was characterized by episodic and irregular expansions and incorporations, collapse and subsequent reorganization in more complex forms with greater flows of energy, information and material. The extensive modification of ecological systems at a variety of spatial and temporal scales is still evident in the arid and denuded landscapes that persist today. - Michael Weinstock

tissue pattern precedent

25

Tokyo Grid_ Giasgow Southside_ Reykjavik Central_ Glasgow Grid_

Sydney Inner_ Copenhagen Central_ Athens Inner_ Dorchester (Central)_

Elmwood_ Kentlands_ Hamilton (Bermuda)_ Bayswater_

Copenhagen Inner_ Cornhill_ Bloomsbury_ Tunis Medina_

KirkWall_ Shoreditch_ Glasgow 1790_ Babylon_

E.K. Village_ E.K. Suburban 1_ Poundbury_ Laguna West_

St. Andrews Central_ East Finchley_ Crawley Suburban_ E.K. Suburban 2_

Reykjavik Tributary 1_ Reykjavik Tributary 2_ Thamesmead_ Coventry Tributary_

fig. 5.1 built networks, including historic as well as contemporary examples

settlement patterns

26

sand model

crack pattern no. 1

the supply system of leaves

crack pattern no. 2

natural patterns

27

Labbezanga, Niger

Yaguine, Mali

Lake Natron and Serengeti, Tanzania

village in Ethiopia, Africa

village no. 1, Africa

village no. 2, Africa

village no. 3, Africa

village in Mali, Africa

Sokota, Ethiopia, Africa

Bida, Nigeria, Africa

Harar, Ethiopia, Africa

Martina Franca, Italy

unplanned settlement patterns

28

Copenhagen, Denmark

Nevada, US

Sterling Ridge III, Florida, US

Arizona, US

Arizona, US

Nevada, US

Arizona, US

Eden Prairie, Florida, US

Deer Crest V, California, US

Skyle Isle III, Florida, US

Nevada, US

Cape Coral, Florida, US

planned settlement patterns

29

Jagged

Acute

Angular

All Square

Obtuse

Cellular

T-cell

Rectilinear

All Oblong

With cells/ circuits Orthogonal

Rectangular

X-cell

Nonrectangular

Square

Oblong

T-cell

Curvilinear

All patterns X-cell

Radial Focal Curvilinear

X-tree

With branching

Without cells/ circuits

T-tree

Tree

Rectilinear

Orthogonal

T-tree

Tributary

Linear

X-tree

Without branching Straight

Serpentine

Oblong

Parallels

Square

MultiDifferential

BiDifferential

NonDifferential

taxonomy of patterns

Integrated taxonomy of patterns. This taxonomy both distinguishes and unites the main general pattern types encountered in the tissue pattern studies. This taxonomic structure can be sliced at different levels to create different typologies for different degrees of resolution. Using this systematic kind of taxonomic structure , one can either use the broader, blunter end of the spectrum (distinguishing, say, three or four most basic types) or a much finer distinction. The whole system can retain a systematic integrity, yet in practical application it can be flexible through selective use of the most useful types for particular purposes This Taxonomy can be seen to be structured by recognizing pure (elemental or homogenous) types at each level of resolution. From this starting point, one may deal with heterogeneous layouts in at least two different ways. One may create permutations of basic types, to create hybrids; or one can create a continuous spectrum or continuum interpolation.

genotype

31

composition and configuration

As a first and fundamental step, in order to make distinction between two types of formation: those relating to absolute physical geometry, as opposed to those referring to abstract topology. Thee may be referred to respectively as composition and configuration. The terms are set up here so that they may refer either to the product of formation (a composition or configuration) or the process of formation. The distinction between composition and configuration can be made specifically and systematically. This means that one can make a distinction between compositional properties and configurational properties of patterns. One can recognise the labels rectilinear and orthogonal as compositional, and the label cellular as configurational. Therefore the term grid, which connotes rectilinear, orthogonal and cellular properties can be seen as composite, combining compositional and configurational overtones.

composition and configuration

33

A-type

Irregular, fine scale angular, streets mostly short or crooked, varying in width, going in all direction

Mixture of configurational properties (T- and Xjunction, some culs-de-sac; moderate connectivity.

B-type

Regular, orthogonal, rectilinear, streets of consistent width, going in two directions.

Mainly grid with with crossroads (high connectivity). Continuity of cross routes.

C-type

Mixture of regularity and irregularity, streets typically of consistent width; curved or rectilinear formations, meeting at right angles.

Mixture of configurational properties (T- and Xjunctions, some culs-de-sac; moderate connectivity.

D-type

Based on consistent road geometry. Curvilinear or rectilinear formations, mostly meeting at right angles.

Loop roads with many branching routes in tree-like configurations (mainly T-junctions, mainly culs-desac; low connectivity.

As a first and fundamental step, one can make a distinction between two types of formation: those relating to absolute physical geometry, as opposed to those referring to abstract typology. These may be referred to respectively as composition and configuration. The terms are set up here so that they may refer either to the product of formation (a composition or configuration) or the process of formation. composition and configuration

34

Composition

Configuartion

Geometry

Topology

Dimension

Fully two-dimensional

Lying between one and two dimension

Properties

Length

Adjacency, Continuity, Connectivity

Square, Oblong, Quadrilateral

Circuit (cell), Tree

Association

Examples of overall shapes or structures Properties of Elements Values Exampes

With three-way nodes(T-junctions), With Rectilinear, Orthogonal, Wide or narrow, four-way nodes (X-junctions), With Straight or curved pendant nodes (culs-de-sac) Real numbers, including fractions

Rational numbers, typically integers

10.5m Long, 7.3m Wide, 62° angle

Links = 72, Nodes = 49

`

T-ratio and X-ratio

Cell and cul ratios

Nodegram parameters (in %)

quantifying patterns

A-type

B-type

C-type

D-type

Example configuration

A

B

C

D

No. of Three-way junctions (●)

16

13

27

24

No. of four-way junctions (■)

4

14

1

0

Total no. of junction nodes

20

27

28

24

T-ratio

0.8

0.48

0.96

1

X-ratio

0.2

0.62

0.04

0

No. of cells (□)

5

16

10

1

No. of culs-de-sac (○)

5

0

4

21

Total

10

16

14

22

Cell ratio

0.5

1

0.71

0.05

Cul ratio

0.5

0

0.29

0.95

Culs-de-sac

20

0

13

47

T-junctions

64

48

84

53

X-junctions

16

52

3

0

35

fig. 8.1 T and X ratios plotted against cul and cell ratios. The plot shows the positions of configurations A, B, C and D.

Cell ratio Pure T-tree

C

D

0.9

0.1

A

0.8

T ratio

Pure T-Cell

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

0.2

0.7

0.3

0.6

0.4

0.5

0.5

B

0.4

0.6

0.3

0.7

0.2

0.8

0.1

0.9

Pure X-tree

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

X ratio

Pure X-Cell

Cul ratio

1.0 0.9 C Proportion of 0.8 T-cells T-junctions 0.7 A 0.6 D 0.5 T-tree

B

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 fig. 8.2 The nodegram. Each point represents a network, according to its proportion of T-junctions and culs-de-sac, thereby giving a quantified graphical impression of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;morphological continuum.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

quantifying patterns

X-cells

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Proportion of culs-de-sac

36

X-tree

Proportion of X-junctions

tissue prototype

:0 : 132 : 143 :0 seed: 1 probability: 1

: 36 : 97 : 103 :0 seed: 7 probability: .7

: 75 : 37 : 34 :6 seed: 13 probability: .5

: 299 : 161 :0 :0 seed: 1 probability: 1

: 258 : 113 :0 :3 seed: 7 probability: .7

: 106 : 15 :0 : 60 seed: 13 probability: .5

:0 : 147 : 126 :0 seed: 1 probability: 1

: 38 : 115 : 84 :0 seed: 7 probability: .7

: 50 : 62 : 33 :7 seed: 13 probability: .5

:0 : 211 : 224 :0 seed: 1 probability: 1

:25 : 37 : 224 :0 seed: 7 probability: .7

: 36 : 15 : 65 :0 seed: 7 probability: .7

37

one approache two approaches three approaches four approaches five or more approaches dead end +

roundabout

x+

straight +

skewed L +

L+

T+

skewed T +

Y+

oblique +

oblique -2 +

offset +

5 -leg +

6 -leg -1 +

6 -leg -2 +

roundabout- rightangle +

street intersection types

38

Design Speed (mph) 15-30 35-40 45-50 50+

Spacing (ft) Between: offset-intersections intersections (IS, ft) (OS,ft) 200 250 350 500

50 75 150 500

Intersection Space Guidelines In most situations, only a minimum spacing is recommended. However, for streets in urban areas, maximum spacings are also recommended to enable a proper density of connecting street network. Frequently, intersection spacing is not a controllable element of intersection design, and the spacing is â&#x20AC;&#x153;givenâ&#x20AC;? as a fixed condition. In such circumstances, spacing guidelines are not applicable. However, in many situations, particularly involving areas of new development, intersection spacing is an important part of the context, and should be considered in light of the above guidelines. Most intersections have three or four legs, but multi-leg intersections (five and even six-leg intersections) are not unusual. Examples of intersection configurations frequently encountered by the designer are shown in Exhibit 6-5. Ideally, streets in three-leg and four-leg intersections cross at right angles or nearly so. However, skewed approaches are a regular feature of intersection design. When skew angles are less than 60 degrees, the designer should evaluate intersection modifications to reduce the skew. street length guideline

39

Perfect Fern, fractal iterative shapes also reveal tree-like structures, which can take on an infinite variety of formations CANTOR SET: One very simple way to understand fractals and the meaning of “iteration” is to examine a simple recursive operation that produces a fractal pattern known as Cantor Set. You take a line of arbitrary length and remove the middle third. This is the first step or “Iteration”, then take the remaining two lines and repeat the clipping procedure. Eventually after 5 or 10 iterations you have dozens of tiny lines which take up only as much room as the two original ones from the first step.

What are fractal properties? A mathematical fractal 1) has structure on all levels of scale, and 2) is self similar. The first property 1) of a fractal is occurrence of structure on all scales. This property can also be identified in cities, which also have structure on all scales. Selfsimilarity 2) means that parts of a fractal are similar to other parts of a fractal. In particular, we find that parts (structure) repeated on different scales. Especially property 1 gives confidence that one can use elements of the fractal concept to increase the understanding of urban environments. Living suburban environments have intrinsically fractal properties, in common with all living systems. To utilize the properties of fractal, it is necessary to understand several things in some detail: 1) what these fractal properties are; 2) the intricate connectivity of the living suburban fabric; 3) methods of connecting and repairing suburban space; 4) an effective way to overlay pedestrian, automotive, and public transports; and 5) how to integrate physical connections with electronic connections.

iterative fractals

41

genotype <g>

T -tree <gT1>: all 3 way intersections all branching structure with mix length open system with curvilinear path   X -tree <gX1>: all 4 way intersections all branching structure with mix length open system with curvilinear path    

T-tree

X-tree

T-cell

X-cell

Acute

Hex-Obtuse

All Oblong

Square

T -cell <gT2>: all 3 way intersections all loop structure with mix length close system with curvilinear path     X -cell <gX2>: all 4 way intersections all loop structure with mix length close system with curvilinear path     Acute <gA1>: all 6 way intersections with similara path all loop structure with equal length close system with linear path     Hex_Obtuse <gH1>: all 3 way intersections all loop structure with equal length close system with linear path       All Oblong <gO1>: all 3 way intersections all loop structure with mix length close system with linear path       Square <gS1>: all 4 way intersections all loop structure with equal length close system with linear path      

environment <e>

contour <e(x)>: the outline of a mass of land at varying height drainage <e(x)>: the natural or artificial removal of surface and subsurface water from an area rain saturation <e(x)>: a representation of ground saturation over time based on slope and elevation changes on a surface collector road <e(x)>: low to moderate-capacity road which serve to move traffic from local streets to arterial roads , with speed ranging 20-35

<feeder_road>

<subdivisions>

<collector_road>

intersection type <p(x)>: no. of three-way junctions no. of four-way junctions total no. of junctions nodes T-ratio and X-ratio

<rain_saturation>

feeder road <e(x)>: a secondary road used to bring traffic to a major road, usually outlining the border of a sector, with speed ranging 45-50mph

<drainage>

<contour>

subdivisions <e(x)>: a zone within a sector to outline the development of

frequency of use <p(x)>: connection between all start and end points of the system that are connected via the <shortest path> average length between nodes<p(x)>: the average distance of a start point refers to the links with all end points of the system and is calculated from this sum of distances as an average value

phenotype <p>

area of green space<px)>: available green space allocated within the system

<intersection_type>

42

<frequency_use>

<g> <e> <p>

<average_length>

paved_road<p(x)>: leaner feet of paved streets

<area_ green space>

road_grade<p(x)>: the highest grade a vechicle can ascend while maintaining a particular speed

<lot arraignment>

cut and fill<p(x)>: the amount of material from cuts roughly matches the amount of fill, measure the amount of material moved within subdivisions

<pedestrian_path>

pedestrain path<p(x)>: paths within the system allocated for pedestrains, can be part of the road system

<cut_fill amount>

<road_grade>

lot arraignment<p(i)>: the total number of lots within the system can be measure based on the width and depth of the individual lots

environment <e1>

<subdivisions> subdivisions <e1(x)>: ~ 76.5 hectares

<rain_saturation> _(-33 to 36) factor slope & elevation _(-58 to 63) ground saturation factor _(-4 to 112) max & min elevation values

<drainage> _drainage <e1(x)>: _926 drop points _1601 ft average water travel length

<contour>

_contour <e1(1)>: _2â&#x20AC;&#x2122; contour _total elevation change 116â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

<e1>

_Lincoln, NE _O st & S 84th _~1mi x 1 mi

<e>

43

Square <(gS1)>:

contour <e1(gS1)>: _zero respose drainage <e1(gS1)>: _zero respose rain saturation <e1(gS1)>: _zero response collector road <e1(gS1)>: _zero respose subdivisions <e1(gS1)>: _~ 76.5 hectares feeder road <e1(p<gS1>)>: _zero response intersection type <p(gS1)>: _16 three -way intersection _49 four-way intersection _62 cells frequency of use <p(gS1)>: _center of the system is highly used average length between nodes <p(gS1)>: _.413 mi area of green space<p(gS1)>: _0 cubic feet lot arraignment<p(gS1)>: _930 lots _each lot `53â&#x20AC;&#x2122;x147â&#x20AC;&#x2122; pedestrain path<p(gS1)>: _zero response road_grade<p(gS1)>: _0.00099 to 4.55degree _0 path above 5 degree cut and fill<p(gS1)>: _zero response paved_road<p(gS1)>: 4.5 mi

_gh<settings> _rnd destinations <pc 400>,<dc 15903>,<Rnd 400> _<remove road factor 0> _<min street length 300> _<street width from center 15> _<lot width 60> _<lot depth 140> _<side walk width 6> _prox<min 0, max 0>

<p> square

44

Hex_Obtuse <gH1>: contour <e1(gH1)>: _zero response drainage <e1(gH1)>: _zero response rain saturation <e1(gH1)>: _zero response collector road <e1(gH1)>: _none stated subdivisions <e1(gH1)>: _~ 76.5 hectares feeder road <e1(gH1)>: _zero response intersection type <i(gH1)>: _22 three -way intersection _0 culs-de-sac _12 cells frequency of use <p(gH1_e1)>: _center of the system is highly used average length between nodes<p(gH1_e1)>: _0.367 mi area of green space<p(gH1_e1)>: _1547047 cubic feet lot arraignment<p(gH1_e1)>: _480 lots _each lot `60â&#x20AC;&#x2122;x150â&#x20AC;&#x2122; pedestrain path<p(gH1)>: _zero response road_grade<p(gH1)>: _1.15 to 4.36 degree _0 path above 5 degree cut and fill<p(gH1)>: _zero response paved_road<p(x)>: _3.827 mi

_gh<settings> _circle packing <initalRad 700>,<count 341>,<rnd 0> _<remove road factor 0> _<min street length 300> _<street width from center 15> _<lot width 60> _<lot depth 140> _side walk width 6>

<p> hex obtuse 1

45

Hex_Obtuse <gH1>: T -tree <gT1>: contour <e1(gH1_gT1)>: _zero respose drainage <e1(gH1_gT1)>: _cells merge base on drainage path rain saturation <e1(gH1_gT1)>: _zero response collector road <e1(gH1_gT1)>: _none stated subdivisions <e1(gH1_gT1)>: _~ 76.5 hectares feeder road <e1(gH1_gT1)>: _zero response intersection type <p(gH1_gT1)>: _15 three -way intersection _1 culs-de-sec _8 cells frequency of use <p(gH1_gT1)>: _center of the system is highly used average length between nodes<p(gH1_ gT1)>: _0.408 mi area of green space<p(gH1_gT1)>: _1819970 cubic feet lot arraignment<p(gH1_gT1)>: _466 lots _each lot `60â&#x20AC;&#x2122;x150â&#x20AC;&#x2122; pedestrain path<p(gH1_gT1)>: _zero response road_grade<p(gH1_gT1)>: _1.157 to 4.36 degree _0 path above 5 degree cut and fill<p(gH1)>: _zero response paved_road<p(x)>: _3.521 mi

_gh<settings> _circle packing <initalRad 700>,<count 341>,<rnd 0> _<remove road factor 76> _<min street length 300> _<street width from center 15> _<lot width 60> _<lot depth 140> _side walk width 6>

<p> hex obtuse 2

46

T- tree <gT1>: contour <e1(gT1)>: _zero respose drainage <e1(gT1)>: _collector road respond to drainage path rain saturation <e1(gT1)>: _zero response collector road <e1(gT1)>: _path systems respond to collector road subdivisions <e1(gT1)>: _~ 76.5 hectares feeder road <e1(gT1)>: _zero response intersection type <p(gT1)>: _23 three -way intersection _26 culs-de-sec _0 cells frequency of use <p(gT1)>: _2 highly used branches average length between nodes<p(gT1)>: _0.419 mi area of green space<p(gT1)>: _165739 cubic feet lot arraignment<p(gT1)>: _403 lots _each lot `60â&#x20AC;&#x2122;x150â&#x20AC;&#x2122; pedestrain path<p(gT1)>: _zero response road_grade<p(gT1)>: _.001 to 3.520 degree _0 path above 5 degree cut and fill<p(gT1)>: _zero response paved_road<p(x)>: _3.77 mi

collector road

_gh<settings> _circle packing <initialRad 400>,<dc 500>,<Rnd 0> _<remove road factor 0> _<min street length 300> _<street width from center 15> _<lot width 60> _<lot depth 140> _<side walk width 6> _prox<min 489, max 663> <p> branching 1

47

T -tree <gT1>: T -cell <gT2>: contour <e1(gT1_gT2)>: _zero respose drainage <e1(gT1_gT2)>: _collector road respond to drainage path rain saturation <e1(gT1_gT2)>: _zero response collector road <e1(gT1_gT2)>: _path systems respond to collector road subdivisions <e1(gT1_gT2)>: _~ 76.5 hectares feeder road <e1(gT1_gT2)>: _zero response intersection type <p(gT1_gT2)>: _17 three -way intersection _8 culs-de-sec _5 cells frequency of use <p(gT1_gT2)>: _fairly evenly distributed road average length between nodes<p(gT1_ gT2)>: _0.418 mi area of green space<p(gT1_gT2)>: _1108915 cubic feet lot arraignment<p(gT1_gT2)>: _426 lots _each lot `60â&#x20AC;&#x2122;x150â&#x20AC;&#x2122; pedestrain path<p(gT1_gT2)>: _zero response road_grade<p(gT1_gT2)>: _0.00084 to 4.519 degree _0 path above 5 degree cut and fill<p(gT1_gT2)>: _zero response paved_road<p(gT1_gT2)>: _3.417 mi

collector road

_gh<settings> _rnd destinations <pc 400>,<dc 15903>,<Rnd 400> _<remove road factor 0> _<min street length 300> _<street width from center 15> _<lot width 60> _<lot depth 140> _<side walk width 6> _prox<min 489, max 663>

<p> branching 2

48

T -tree <gT1(p<gT1_gT2>)>:

contour <e1(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _zero respose drainage <e1(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _collector road respond to drainage path rain saturation <e1(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _zero response collector road <e1(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _path systems respond to collector road subdivisions <e1(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _~ 76.5 hectares feeder road <e1(gT1(p<gH1_gT1>))>: _zero response intersection type <p(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _14 three -way intersection _15 culs-de-sec _0 cells frequency of use <p(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _one highly used path average length between nodes <p(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _0.560 mi area of green space<p(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _1714841 cubic feet lot arraignment<p(gT1(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _428 lots _each lot `60â&#x20AC;&#x2122;x150â&#x20AC;&#x2122; pedestrain path<p(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _zero response road_grade<p(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _0.00084 to 4.519 degree _0 path above 5 degree cut and fill<p(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: _zero response paved_road<p(gT1(p<gT1_gT2>))>: 2.899 mi

collector road

_gh<settings> _rnd destinations <pc 400>,<dc 15903>,<Rnd 400> _<remove road factor 0> _<min street length 300> _<street width from center 15> _<lot width 60> _<lot depth 140> _<side walk width 6> _prox<min 0, max 0>

<p> branching 3

49

0.077009 0.080189

0.001073 0.517697 0.14285 0.267922 0.049478 0.030597 0.078934 0.216569 1.397084 0.181857

0.304456

0.357112

0.405444 0.215287

0.204 0.315019

0.61032

0.604149

0.309002

0.448045

0.349379

0.131893

0.340505 0.313359

0.279582

0.021268

0.168863 0.296473 0.546532

0.425255

0.146997

0.894029

0.714532

0.323649 0.230089

0.132538

0.200782

1.001213

0.091193

0.385939

0.584601 0.187426 0.230829

0.111828

0.068608 0.112849 0.362302

0.390273 2.645193

0.056171

0.097437 0.362844 0.217706

0.1 0.046708 0.172803 0.600428

0.305345 0.473621 0.257104

1.782865 0.102414

0.127563

0.515256

0.964641

0.065631

0.289348 0.075891 0.182722

0.362204

0.682302 0.862731

0.30152 0.099985

0.734171 0.113434 0.314426

0.012846

0.227449

0.074951 0.498434 0.01738 0.187557 0.072442 0.026543 0.13894

0.347239 0.051366 0.195704

0.294911

0.204782 0.092491 0.239062 0.503693 1.088526 0.230207 0.142516

0.081014 0.345419

0.19233 0.290804

0.348265 0.383106

0.086632 0.303034

1.281778

0.042599 0.353708

0.169708

0.163887 0.271372

0.47

0.031488 0.227688

0.007517 0.44429 0.0446250.128139 0.027008 0.3963 0.966648 0.365336 0.0563 0.571098 0.126673 0 0.252547 0.428785 0.013529

0.125956

0.611106

0.00148 1.059225 0.123843

0.211331

0.116376 0.028808 0.75276

0.284546

0.275046 0.466906 8.008438

0.287143 0.013027 3.086586

0.428171 0.138775 0.199307

0.004309 0.182563

0.183387

0.223035 1.959952

0.215032

0.603713 0.280521

0.11044 0.679551

0.585889

0.140965 0.227319 0.0694580.612626 0.179608

0.471572 0.153287

0.029689

0.442482

0.165171 0.03421 0.581727 0.022726 0.005835 0.332967 0.128072 0.382547 0.202524

0.444881

0.362887

0.277493 0.206446

0.032925 0.135501 0.389017 0.047365

0.231835 0.554904

0.76555

0.195308

0.135364 0.267605 0.293173 0.102172

0.135233

0.300803 0.393721 0.343213

0.632092

0.27226 0.118204

0.225656

0.440877

0.188702

0.136717

0.232308

1.128944

0.5654680.149885 0.257075

0.1160

0.210011 0.451979 0.08872 0.214766

0.238126

0.641545 0.139223

0.360464 0.117488 0.731742

0.33117

0.095101

0.037587 0.10426 0.399225 0.113873

0.316937

0.009818 0.293874

0.344364

0.885312 0.00463 0.363475

0.085801 0.111137 0.032489 0.069225 0.145027 0.187369 0.043266

0.4042070.341053 0.096538

0.167278

0.306694 0.228058 0.008823 0.252536 0.153297

0.16373 0.297793 1.02437

0.5149380.835913 0.270569

0.014001

0.145711

0.311085

0.380835 0.111606 0.281012 0.299493

0.079487 0.313077 0.126438

0.385542

0.325354

0.381662

1.107936

0.145277

0.21386

0.071284 0.090576

1.613975

0.267306

0.5957 0

0.03517

0.60679

0.011643 0.139377

0.02

0.33759

0.08512 0.500059 0.192584 0.211119

0.492336 0.872566 0.16395 0.2470120.002161

0.208447

0.303594

0.565716

0.189306 0.635474

0.166456

0.425542 0.003409 0.380307 0.107864 0.137269 0.321972 0.421332

0.367043

0.145182

0.08046

0.205236 0.076087 0.506123

0.176592

1.255561

0.13674 0.185339

0.158618

0.530839

0.090485 0.004118 0.090521 0.03877 0.017496 0.043959 0.018887 1.646183 0.327162

0.351617 0.13649

0.174073

0.139871 0.439463

0.149949

0.190647

0.159798 0.144537 0.074885

0.019507

0.054769 0.09205

0.09224

0.192625

0.320526

0.149598 0.220706 0.076361

0.289073 0.18135 0.060312

0.108987 0.843944 0.184395

0.457179 0.083275 0.039072

0.11378 0.440482

0.269942 0.28393

0.677435 0.230994

0.09622

0.328058 0.369076

0.908

0.047916 0.791977 0.054204

0.511308

0.238127 0.143706 0.312886 0.0021 0.122977

0.027545

0.264038 0.01976

0.188035 0.034702 0.106777

0.243748

0.330626 0.289081

0.233923 1.123433 0.015871

4.32007

0.41485

0.341427 0.178194

0.236384

0.165608

1.082982

0.758

0.340589

4.719246 0.405088

0.156338 0.288986

0.319667

0.091295

0.027476 0.643008

0.035857 0.338809

0.494768 0.625141

0.058775

0.535721 0.051478

0.13728

0.362969 0.28164 0.166533 0.233421 1.100937

1.032298 0.112141

0.147219

1.212639 0.157211

0.511701 0.064983

0.547658

0.158429 0.229906

0.109945 0.195675

0.171754 3.991048 0.14943

0.091299

0.251915

0.243016

0.230787 0.664019

0.371595 0.300405

0.199341

0.081266 0.02246 0.064003

0.483528

0.233508 0.30322 0.460937 0.052506

0.020631 1.231608

0.265082

0.198591 0.174309

0.040425

0.05053 0.181575 0.168537

1.503564 0.127985 0.202163

0.418012 0.017229 0.040406 0.20779

0.388101 0.406459 0.008478

0.14198

0.211282

0.396781

0.244496

0.066205 0.032122

0.139273

0.064556

0.026408 0.01539 0.187049 0.155509 0.404461

0.181573

0.453676

0.1 1.158415 0.374919

0.138975 0.401588

0.06061 0.224331

0.661454 0.507256

0.322958

0.291325

0.299179 0.034728

0.149795

0.201576 0.125371

0.250027

0.316448 0.019264

0.052626 0.273984

0.034129 0.075761 0.374731

0.823377 0.095549

0.115862 0.329312 0.121063

0.349017 0.343446

0.169629

0.01943 0.238311 0.079251 0.159545 0.092984

0.352339

0.396767

1.618964 0.30568 0.431755 0.107243

0.275454

0.091691 0.716589

0.32687

0.559205

1.104409 0.710857

0.563523 0.198509

0.445257

0.281026 0.132006

0.532562

0.242632 0.181709 0.244486

0.204251

0.545303 0.098711 0.11952

0.370026

0.297598 0.345867

158031 0.475239

0.337416

0.029466 0.270626 0.021915 0.359853 0.23999

0.403061 0.150917

0.374068 0.298163 0.446174 0.015896

0.722081

0.153203

0.108289 0.326744

0.141452 0.198647

0.701455

0.216645 0.0500190.273458

2.951091

0.082655 0.369536 0.039347 0.267908 0.038435

0.139547

0.254881

0.374455

0.929394

0.1573

0.075338

0.264457 0.236781

0.255094

0.23836

0.429206 0.257567 0.076723

0.07454 1.52 0.330388 0.004362

0.745244

0.925283 0.214667

0.228489 0.349056 0.347136

0.304928 0.314425 0.041534 0.264285 0.237535 8.86081

0.04477 0.777025

0.39566 0.117562 0.413599

0.050353

1.543327 0.156131

0.338293 0.082827

0.449861

0.049432 0.354967

0.046242 0.237537 0.061003 0.28214

0.304957

0.044871 0.323662

0.238042 0.175595

0.021332 0.015847 0.009518 0.041212

0.081291 0.048687 0.001475 0.085453

0.170744 0.06091

1.025773 0.370569

0.161936 0.51029

0.490748

1.09947 0.203387 0.055468

0.694534

0.168903

0.435268 0.190687 0.197674

0.099089

0.03474 0.213245

0.494133 0.096673

0.494342

0.093563 0.208236

0.157646 0.1550

0.422591

0.149316

0.179888 1.179649 0.212712

0.680134

0.326409 0.268257

0.307773

2.096891

7

0.08

0.195107

0.15289

0.0894

0.280085

0.097018 0.047571 0.254513 0.237402

0.21685

57

0.050527 0.150521 0.535997

0.316525

0.171835

0.386622 0.3951980.132245 0.218729 0.238031

0.301807

0.227094

0.178092 0.062236

0.174412 0.75392

0.041599 0.409805 0.747146 0.086433

0.5096 1.944928

0.065605

0.045861 0.07963

0.400676

0.273369 0.06136 0.244249 0.116171 0.229319

0.92679 333 0.201049

0.048393 0.658693 0.030159 0.0966270.339558 0.351526 0.028902 0.327338 0.098253

0.056581 0.172342 0.25739

0.205069 0.054621 0.435883 0.025733

0.179995 0.072652 0.063516

0.329324

0.262682

0.462042

0.09061 0.404186 0.233826

0.13998 0.151559 0.144156

0.209333

0.386765

0.651346

0.431336

0.394554 0.0481050.379152

0.09708 0.985782

0.288583 0.219745

76348

0.547098 0.683394

0.741266

0.057474 0.008253 0.088864 0.07574

8631

0.328227

0.247072

0.250419 0.065076 0.223233 0.10925

1.052655

0.327861

0.590069

0.069405

0.327991 0.502972 0.151735

0.292212

0.041758 0.774598 0.321138

0.750354

0.200169

1.727633

0.251594

0.239058

1.084955 0.24166

0.085387

8859

0.157761 0.016967 0.201528

0.357317

0.366137

0.045418 0.013586 0.322742 0.062033 0.09816 0.242243

0.054697 0.525223

0.056126 0.679866 0.406264 0.163224 0.05864 0.100107

0.016839

014 0.223526 0.339087

741 0.423003

0.483556

0.241713

0.035632 0.280266 0.177494

0.247109

0.021981

0.770319 0.002332

0.505232

0.276297 0.202028 0.381591

0.442621

0.148373 0.310039 0.226814 0.238427

0.22243

0. 0.366782

0.063546 0.044074 0.356347

0.123059

0.282511

0.103693

0.568806

0.125288 0.002138 0.159526

3.472891 0.181752

0.870817 0.203366

0.408962

0.131701

0.120203 0.246103 0.355154

0.382298 0.420784 0.055284 0.110331 0.082494 0.622516 0.137162

0.438583

0.113533 0.339745

0.085602

0.230945

0.132497

028067 0.249997

0.222763

0.24611

1.028393 0.016936 0.2389210.02493

0.089446

0.496576 0.579562 0.066255 0.360948 0.129677 0.159513 0.081715 0.113478 0.425135 0.032655

0.388381 0.258142

0.125539

0.067954 0.423877 0.214836

0.124594 1.138878 0.151365

0.137607

0.559574 0.129217

0.124338

1.80487

1.042942 0.317301 0.013296

0.256847 0.076986 0.311571 0.153628

0.266262 0.137309 0.435947

0.146942

0.039331

0.142498 0.219808

0.166769 0.887336

0.2416

0.213501 0.429974 0.081359

0.297825

0.0484070.506314

0.226854

0.511774 0.305362 0.2099950.114704 0.382298

0.622415 2.166741 0.151873

0.133708

0.209291 0.364613

0.027156

1.454346 0.031365 0.460255 0.140495 0.225739

0.566246 0.490448

0.133457 0.331261

0.344901 0.572952 0.012618

0.172024

0.754727 0.144382 0.396543 0.108559

0.036238 0.537175 0.010424 0.123482

0.275022

1.055025

0.16796 0.626203 0.268044 0.432705

0.232584

0.146561 0.2101

1.633175 0.009972

0.497899

0.10908 0.289631

0.23566

0.301036

0.28297 0.146071 0.250396

0.184772

0.146245

0.45087

0.174133

0.011038

0.074206 0.067578

0.073846

0.220609

4.218006

0.661847

0.030659 0.294396

0.293439 0.087054

0.172969 0.501506 0.251124

0.618681

120995 5

0.799456

0.204287

0.134649 0.744389

0.576404

Single family house typology

In shaping our physical environment today we are influencing future attitudes and individually experienced needs. We are confronted with a problem of true planning and policy making. Svend Riemer, a sociologist explained, â&#x20AC;&#x153;if we provide well integrated neighborhoods in which the individual dwelling unit is supplemented by community facilities, the future citizen will be endowed with a different personality than if we focus attention upon the provision of specialized rooms within the family residence. â&#x20AC;&#x153;In response to Riemer, both spaces from community planning to individual room design needs to be studied further with recent change in technology, and both aspect of space from personal space to territorial space needs to be designed holistically when it comes to dwelling spaces. With regards to designing dwelling spaces, architects are confronted with contradictory demands. Clients challenge for more privacy and an increasing number of specialized rooms are required, such as the study, the library, the guest room, the workshop and the recreation room. Yet, clients emphasize large living rooms and an easy flow of communications between kitchen, dining room and all other units located on the main floor. The creativity of the architect, thus, seems to be challenged by cross-purposes. As any architect knows, good design addresses scores of issues; focusing on one concern leads eventually to catastrophe. For example, assume that the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house faces south, directly onto a busy street. Where does the client install a solar room, a greenhouse, even a glass wall if they choose privacy above energy concerns? It is here that the architect supersedes the engineer, for the question involves knowing vastly more than purely technical information about sun patterns. It seems that, new ideas about functional architecture in magazines and architectural journals appear rather chaotic and whimsical to one outside of the discipline.

housing typology

53

type A

type A :

type B :

1395 sq ft_attic space

2364 sq ft_attic space

type A:

type B:

241 sq ft_bedroom 1 173 sq ft_bedroom 2 279 sq ft_bedroom 3 228 sq ft_bedroom 4 209 sq ft_bedroom 5 3 bathrooms

447 sq ft_bedroom 1 386 sq ft_bedroom 2 386 sq ft_bedroom 3 503 sq ft_bedroom 4 246 sq ft_bedroom 5 3 bathrooms

type B

circulation

type A :

type B :

2 door garage 378 sq ft_ kitchen 571 sq ft_living room 34 ft front setback w/ sidewalk

2 door garage 692 sq ft_kitchen 1035 sq ft_living room 45 ft front setback w/ sidewalk 60 ft 70 ft

123 ft 161 ft

housing typology: A & B

54

type C

type A :

type B :

non-useable attic space

693 sq ft_attic space

type A:

type B:

type D

231 sq ft_bedroom 1 533 sq ft_bedroom 1 345 sq ft_bedroom 2 330 sq ft_bedroom 2 204 sq ft_bedroom 3 240 sq ft_bedroom 3 231 sq ft_bedroom 4 3 bathrooms 204 sq ft_bedroom 5 345 sq ft_bedroom 6 4 bathrooms

circulation

type A :

type B :

2 door garage 1 door garage 318 sq ft_kitchen 303 sq ft_kitchen 306 sq ft_living room 330 sq ft_living room 25 ft front setback 7 ft front setback w/ sidewalk wo/ sidewalk

48 ft

96 ft 91 ft 43 ft

housing typology: C & D

55

type E

type A :

type B :

1066 sq ft_attic space

1728 sq ft_attic space

type A:

type B:

293 sq ft_bedroom 1 192 sq ft_bedroom 2 153 sq ft_bedroom 3 255 sq ft_bedroom 4 228 sq ft_bedroom 5 4 bathrooms

225 sq ft_bedroom 1 195 sq ft_bedroom 2 385 sq ft_bedroom 3 176 sq ft_bedroom 4 bathrooms

type F

circulation

type A :

type B :

1 door garage 1 door garage 384 sq ft_kitchen 630 sq ft_kitchen 414 sq ft_living room 480 sq ft_living room 15 ft front setback 7 ft front setback w/ sidewalk w/ sidewalk

46 ft

44 ft

93 ft

housing typology: E & F

56

107 ft

type H

type G

type A :

type B :

1085 sq ft_attic space

1344 sq ft_attic space

type A:

type B:

258 sq ft_bedroom 1 284 sq ft_bedroom 2 407 sq ft_bedroom 3 186 sq ft_bedroom 4 252 sq ft_bedroom 5 170 sq ft_bedroom 6 4 bathrooms

218 sq ft_bedroom 1 230 sq ft_bedroom 2 288 sq ft_bedroom 3 369 sq ft_bedroom 3 3 bathrooms

circulation

type A :

type B :

1 door garage 2 door garage 416 sq ft_kitchen 506 sq ft_kitchen 264 sq ft_living room 506 sq ft_living room 25 ft front setback 21 ft front setback w/ sidewalk w/ sidewalk

58 ft

91 ft

101 ft 30 ft

housing typology: G & H

57

building footprint _lot outline

green zone

sidewalk

paved road

house type: D&E subdivisions <e1(x)>: ~ 76.5 hectares total lot count: 845

street prototype: D & E

59

building footprint _lot outline

green zone

sidewalk

paved road

house type: B subdivisions <e1(x)>: ~ 76.5 hectares total lot count: 481

street prototype: B

61

building footprint _lot outline

green zone

sidewalk

paved road

house type: F subdivisions <e1(x)>: ~ 76.5 hectares total lot count: 678

street prototype: F

63

building footprint _lot outline

green zone

sidewalk

paved road

house type: A subdivisions <e1(x)>: ~ 76.5 hectares total lot count: 447

street prototype: A

65

A st & S 84th st

(tissue pattern 1)

E Van Dorn St

Pioneers Blvd

branching tissue: figure ground

66

S 98th St

A St

S 84th St

N 70th St

O ST

A st & S 84th st

(tissue pattern 1)

Park Land Area (sq ft)

6,220,903

(acre)

143

3- way

96

4- way

1

cul-de-sac

90

House Size (average sq ft)

1,448

Front Setback (average ft)

25

Height (average ft)

35

Lot Count

3,079

Density (per sector)

9,237

Lot Size (average sq ft)

5,329

Street Layout (linear ft)

71,496

(linear miles)

13.5

Linear ft/Person

7.74

Sidewalk Layout (linear ft)

178,670

(linear mi)

33.8

branching tissue: pattern v1

67

A st & S 84th st

(tissue pattern 2)

The findings from earlier tissue pattern studies can inform future iteration design guidance, by plugging directly into those parts of guidance addressing street type and layout structure. Street pattern is just one area of urban design concern, but sets the spatial framework or other aspects of urban design. In particular, the affinity between street types and patterns or topology has been demonstrated. A number of specific interpretations of desired properties for street layout has been suggested, including interpretations of connective networks, clear hierarchy as well as other properties such as legibility and coherence. As well as addressing suburban patterns, the research suggests design processes , in the form of the constitutional approach. This suggests the possibility of generic coding for structure, as an alternative to desired pattern templates. It suggests the possibility of an approach that is both rational and organic. The next steps would be to work towards combining different types of street with different kinds of spatial composition and built form: am ore detailed typology of open green networks, wider range of programs, etc.; design codes for building types, and planning codes for frontage use, in a single system of design guidance. This could be developed for different cities and countries.

branching tissue: pattern v1

69

Park Land Area (sq ft)

7,995,618

(acre)

184

3- way

74

4- way

16

cul-de-sac

61

House Size (average sq ft)

1,497

Front Setback (average ft)

25

Height (average ft)

35

Lot Count

2,563

Density (per sector)

7,689

Lot Size (average sq ft)

5,435

Street Layout (linear ft)

79,818

(linear miles)

15

Linear ft/Person

10.38

Sidewalk Layout (linear ft)

183,584

(linear mi)

34.8

tissue pattern 2: exploded axonometric

71

84 th & A st

(tissue pattern 2)

pattern 2: housing types

72

84 th & A st

(tissue pattern 2)

single family home sport field elementary school open green space private green space mixed-use multi family housing commercial zoning

pattern 2: land use

73

84 th & A st

(tissue pattern 2) S 98th St

S 84th St

N 70th St

O ST

A St

E Van Dorn St

pattern 2: local bus route

74

54 Veteranâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital

42/43 Bethany/Normal

41/40 Havelock/ Heart Hospital

Pioneers Blvd

84 th & A st

(tissue pattern 2)

E Van Dorn St

Pioneers Blvd

pattern 2: local trails and parks

75

S 98th St

A St

S 84th St

N 70th St

O ST

84 th & A st

(tissue pattern 2)

E Van Dorn St

Pioneers Blvd

pattern 2: local road hierarchy

76

S 98th St

A St

S 84th St

N 70th St

O ST

84 th & A st

(tissue pattern 2)

E Van Dorn St

Pioneers Blvd

pattern 2: local frequency of path use

77

S 98th St

A St

S 84th St

N 70th St

O ST

84 th & A st

(tissue pattern 2)

E Van Dorn St

Pioneers Blvd

pattern 2:local intersection types

78

S 98th St

A St

S 84th St

N 70th St

O ST

84 th & A st

(tissue pattern 2)

E Van Dorn St

Pioneers Blvd

pattern 2: local road grade

79

S 98th St

A St

S 84th St

N 70th St

O ST

84 th & A st (branching tissue pattern_v2)

Park Land Area (sq ft)

7,995,618

(acre)

184

3- way

74

4- way

16

cul-de-sac

61

House Size (average sq ft)

1,497

Front Setback (average ft)

25

Height (average ft)

35

Street Layout (linear ft)

79,818

(linear miles)

15

Linear ft/Person

10.38

Sidewalk Layout (linear ft)

183,584

(linear mi)

34.8 Lot Count

2,563

Density (per sector)

7,689

Lot Size (average sq ft)

5,435

tissue pattern 2: path network

81

Classification & General description

Mini-Park Used to address limited, isolated or unique recreational needs.

Location Criteria

Less than a 1/4 mile distance in residential setting

Neighborhood Park Neighborhood park remains the basic unit of the park system and serves as the recreational and social focus of the neighborhood. Focus is on informal active and passive creation.

1/4 to 1/2 mile distance and uninterrupted by non-residential roads and other physical barriers

School-Park Depending on circumstances, combining parks with school site can fulfill the space requirements for other classes of parks, such as neighborhood, community, sports complex, and special use.

Determined by the location of school district property

Community Park Serves broader purpose than neighborhood park. Focus is on meeting community-based recreation needs, as well as preserving unique landscapes and open space.

Determined by the quality and suitability of the site. Usually serves two or more neighborhoods and 1/2 to 3 mile distance

Size Criteria

Between 2500 sq. ft. and one acre in size

5 acres is considered minimum size. 5 to 10 acres is optimal.

Variable

As needed to accommodate desired uses. Usually between 30 and 50 acres.

As needed to accommodate desired uses. Usually a minimum of 50 acres, with 75 or more acres being optimal

Large Urban Park Large urban parks serve a broader purpose than community parks and are used when community and neighborhood parks are not adequate to serve the needs of the community. Focus is on meeting community-based recreational needs, as well as preserving unique landscapes and open spaces.

Determined by the quality and suitability of the site. Usually serves the entire community

Natural Resource Areas Lands set aside for preservation of significant natural resources, remnant landscapes, open space, and visual aesthetics/buffering.

Resource availability and opportunity

Greenways Effectively tie park system components together to form a continuous park environment.

Resource availability and opportunity

Variable

Determined by projected demand. Usually a minimum of 25 acres, with 40 to 80 acres being optimal

Sports Complex Consolidates heavily programmed athletic fields and associated facilities to larger and fewer sites strategically located throughout the community.

Strategically located community-wide facilities

Special Use Covers a broad range of parks and recreation facilities oriented toward single-purpose use.

variable-dependent on specific use.

Variable

Private Park/ Recreation Facility Parks and recreation facilities that are privately owned yet contribute to the public park and recreation system.

variable-dependent on specific use.

Variable

park space classifications table

84

84 th & A st

(tissue pattern 2)

00 01 02 03

tissue pattern 2: site plan

83

00

908

12

2051

920 966

909

1830

13 910

1829

968

965

907

958

946

1828 911

950

905

969

912 913 914

906

951

904

953

957

956

952

16 895

930

977

894

934

889

937

30

867

864

995

369

1117

1110

863 2033

1116

1031

65 1149 366

1024

1012

76

2028

374

365

75

380

389

1009

378

388

61

387

1005

386

314

1016

1017

1018

2040

1014

1015

1013

2036

1085

349 331

348

1082

328

327

1076

1077

2060

1040

aP1

1042

335

1047

341 340

1051

357

1064 1063 1066 1065 1069 1068 1067

1062

1061

1060

1059

1058

1

775 763

778

852

942

780

843

1

842

1

853 854

762 835

781

841

851 941

779

1056

1319

862

850

764

777

1055 1057

1316

837

849

776

1053 1054

359

838

848 765

774

1052

339

356

767

771

773

1050

338

1318 839

847

772

1049

358

769 770

1048

337

361

846

766

1045

353 342

1309 1317

840

1046

336

354

1310 1315

858

2061

1044

344

360

1307

860 861

1043

334

343

355

1342

2059

1041

352

362

1328

2057

325

1 1344

1314 1311

1139

844

333

345

364

1312 1313

1138

324

351

363

1135 1137

2058

332

346

2034

326

739

1343 1320

859

347

1081

329

330

1 1455

1134 1136

1128

1038

1080

1078

1132 1133

1127

1037

323

1039

1088

1079 1075

321

319

1129 1130

322

1084

1458 1142 1141

1131

350

1083

276

1140

265

2038 2037

275

274

273

272

264

1126

1036

313

1087

271

266

320

1086

279

267

1035

318

317

316

315

270

269

268

2032

306 307

312

2035

60 385

308

1089

1004 1003

280

278

207

2031

1094

63 384

855

744

782 783

1464

277

208

305

309

1095

1006

64 62

1125

288

1148

1034

311

1090

1007

1124

205

1147

371

1123

283

284

285

286

287

1146

1096

304

1091

1008

383

301

1145

206 1092

372 379

382

1867

289

1093 1010

377

381 390

1122

282

290

1011

68

373

391

1818

281

1144 1033

303

302

1820

291

300

2029

310

1118

292

299

1112

2030

1029

1866

293

1121

1074

1028

67

375

1020 1025

298

1032

66

376

1023 1022

1119

294

1111

1030

1100

297

1097

999

1021

1865

296

367 1002

1868 1844

1109

865

1001

368

1869 1105

295

1027

1819

1115

1108

872

1000

1873

1822

1107

870

868

1114 1113

1143

871

997

1870

1106

874

869

998

1875

1821

1120 1098

873

1019

1871

1099

866

992

1823

1102 1103

1104

886 31

1872

1885

888

928

1026

1876 1884

887

892

996

1883

880

1101

938

370

1831

879 28

926

994

1877

877

881

29

927

876

884 883 882

936

14

878

885

893

935 972

1878

1882

27

981

1879 1880

1832

25

933

980

1888 1881

1834

26

932

978 979

915

1886 1833

896

976

973

921

901

900

899

898

897

929

922

991

891

17 15

931

974

184 1836 1890

890

18

959 975

923

1889

20 19

971

960

1843 1845

21

989 948

962 925

1842

939 22

902 967 961

940 903

988

954

918

924

1840 1841

1824 987

947

943

949

919

1839

1825

990

964

917

183

1826 24

945

985

986

944

993

983

984

23

963

916

1827

970

982

955

745

832

834

2062

845

01

2050 2049

1835

1959

1850

1837 1946

1948

38

1947

1917 1916 1915 1914 1913 1912

1949

1911 1910

1918 1848

1851

1852 1853 1854 1855 1857 1858

1856

1958

46

8

1909

1908

1919

1957

1874

1849

1859

1945

1920 1956

1861

1905

1921

1860

1847 1940

1862

1943

1864

1941

1891

1923

1899

1944

1892

1924

1922

1939 1942

1896

1925

1927

1933

1812

1897

1926

1931

1811

1898

1934 1906 1904 1903 1901 1902 1953 1900

1952 1954

1907

1563 1504

P9

1486

1461

1498

1496

1529

1487 1488

1462 1460

1490

1459

1489

1471

1472

1434

2011

1440

1438

1442

1449

1445

2007

2006 1308

1349

1323

1304

1350

1324 1341

1300

1338

1351

1325 1386

1326

1395

1355

1339

1346

1387

1332

1327

1329

1330

1331

2042

1401

1403

1394

1393

1399

1400

1402

1538

1559 1539

1576 1575 6

1574

1573

1572

1571

1570

1569

1540

1568

1541

1567

1542

1603

1967 1973

P7

1968 1969

1970

1975

1358 1582

1977 1971

1974

1359

59

1583

58

57

1966

1360

33

32

34

1584 1361

35

1585 1981

1586

1362

1982

1589

1392

56

36

39

38

37

53

52

51

46

40

41

1978

1590

1366

55

1979

1588

1364

54

1980

1587

42

1591

1367

1960

1354

1537

1577

1581

1368 1396

1558 1536

1580

1389

1385

1535

1357

1363

1391

1557 1534

1579

1578

1365

1398

1547

2043

1390

1334

1554

1533

2015

1388

1335 1333

1421

1416

1348

1322

1553

P8

1556

1420

1415

1321

1303

1555

2014

1417

1347

1552

1560

1426

2000

1551

1543

1517

2001

1456 1305 1306

1302

1525

1425

1427

1448 1450 1452

1550

1561

2041

1423

1549

1544

1527

1424

1428

2002

1548

1545

1516

1418

1441 1443

1345

1414

1562 1546

1514

1524

2054

1419

1430

1439

1451

1301

2055

1

1515

1518

1429

1435

1437

1340

1478

2013

1431

1432

1446

1336

1465

1511 1510

1519

1507

1422

1433

1436

1444

1453

1797

1512

1521

1520

1526 2012

1457

1337

1466

1513

1522 1799 1798

1506

1499

1447

1468 1467

1469

1470

1476 1501

1509

1800

1805 1807 1803 1804 1801 1802 1492 1491 1494 1493

1473

1474

1475

1477

1500

1454

1528 1508

1530

1523

1497

1502

1532

1564

1808

1495

1503

1566

1531

1806

1463

1505

1809

1887

1951

1565

1810

1932

1950

1479

1813 1928

1935

1480

2052

1895

1937

1936

1481

1482

1483

1814

1930

1938

1815

1484

1485

1817

1894

1863

1955

2053

1893

1929

1816

1961

1592

1594

43

2017 48

1593 1993

49

50

47

45

44

1972

1976

2026 2027 1072

1073

400

401

399

407

406

408

03

741

426

P2

443 419

445

470

436

444

429

422

465

524

464

475 1995 1997

533

460

480

503

459 521

447

535

451

485

520 452 518

454

513

567

500

564

501

418 539

505

504

585 507

583

552 580

554

617

577

710

673

730

731

708

P1

707

716

728

660 661

729 662

712 715 713

648

659 727

1206

1202

1189 2025

657 658

725

718

1

1204

1196

1181

1200

1190

1179 1178 1176 117

1180

1201

2024

735

726

711

676 677

655 656

732

674 675

733

1643

1187

717

670

672

642

1644 1193

1188

736

1645

1203

1199

654

737

681

679

709

669

671

684

1646 1205

1186

652

724

1648 1647

1197

653

680

647 668

650 651

738

641

682

649

723

692

683

646

678

721 722

693

685

624

623

645

643

695 694

687

1702

720

686

625

667

719

689

622

1999

1703

699 706

688

621

1705 1704

644

691

620

1706

2003

1224

701

690

619

605

1707

1231

1225

697

1708

1233

1226

704

696

618

626

742

698 615

607

596

1230 703

17

1232

1229

700

616

606

1287

1228 705

612

603

555

578

1227 702

614

604

553 579

610

636

1288

1286

611

635

551

1289

1285

613

634

550

582

1266 609

632

595

1291 1290

1267

608

633

129 1292

1268

602

629

594

221

222

P5

597

631

593

P4

563 562

508

22

223

1264

598

630

592

584

640

601 628

591

586

502

506

638 637

590

238

247

246

1265

600

589

565

245

1263 639

599

588

566

484 483 392

549 548 587

239

251

1262 627

547

568

218

240

1275

545 546

569

498 499

217

241

249 250

1281

581

570

497

P3

253

1284

543

571

237

1282

544

572

495 496

512

1280 540

573

242

252

1274

22

236

254

1283

212

235

248

541

575

494

514

457

542

558

574

493

515

556

213

234

244

1279

576

491 492

516

456

557

490

256

1276

1277

1237 560

559

488 489

1998

511

517

455

458

487

510

534

519

561

214

216

255

1278

1236

482 486

233

258 257

243

1235

481

509

537

211

215

232 259

1244

1261

1

231

260

1241 1242 1243

1245

1234

1996

536

448

453

830

538

450

430

476

526

461 449

478

527

462 734

433

829

1210 230

261

1240

817

819

9

1238

1246 1247 823 1248 826 1249 827 1250 828 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1257 1272 1273 1256

802

477

821

820

825

824

803

479

525

463

432

804

818

10

262

1239

816

805

532

523

466

431

530

529

522

467

814

822

263

1260

815

801

528

1299 1220

813

800

531

468 423

421

795

794

793

1269

1259

811 812

797

796

1413 1271

1270 1258

810

791

799

798

469

424

808 809

785

474

473

471

472

446

425

755

743

758

1384

2056

807

789 790

393

420

437

427

757

394

806

788

141

857

831

787

749

750

751

752

753

754

759

440

438

756

395 442

740

417

761

397

856 792

786

747

760

833

836

748

768

398

439 435

428

412

411

410

409

416

415

414

413

396 441

434

746

784

405

404

403

402

1071 1070

1182 1191

1198 1183

1207 1192 1156

11 1155

1174

1184 1185

1173

1154

663

1153

664

1152

665

1151

666

1150

714

1172

1171 1170

2046

11

1407

1353

1405 1380

1412

1601

1602

1409

1410

1408

1406

1404

1381

1382

1211

1376

1213

1215 8

2020

7

209

1217 1208 1219

224

1218

26

204

2022

1209

227 228 229 1298 219

1761

1721

1296

1718

1222

1748 1747

1716

1294

1715

93

1759

1714

1781

1771

1755

1650

1779

1772 1773

1756

1749

1782

1770

1776

1757

1712

165

88

103

102

146

158

99 101

145

159

98

147

100

157

148

156

116

149

155

115

151 153

1794 1737

92 96 93

95

1740

94

1792

709

P6

1786 1788

1724

1789

1725

1729 1790

1722

1661

1723

1688

1742

1690

1687

1686

1689

1691 1641

1692 1693

1640

1694 1695

1639 1696

1638 1637

1167

1697

1636 1166

1698

1662

1195

1699 1159

175

1194 1164 1165

1161 1162

1169

1168 1163 1160

1157 1158

800 ft

200 ft

1685 1684

2008

2009

1683

0

1728

1730 1682

1681

1680

1679

1727

1726

1678 1677

1660

1642

77

91

1793

1754

1791

90

97

1711 1710

150

154

152

1739

1777

85

86

144

1738

1713 1741

104

1783

1775

1774

87

166

114

1780

82

80

89

117

1784

1610

169

161

113

1785

1609

167

105

112

1778 1769

1608

84

160

119

1736

1768

79

143

162

185

1649

1767 1758

1607

168

118

1654

1766

1750

1717

1223

1765 1752

1606

170

163

184

69

1655

78

106

183

1652

1764 1753

1719

1221

1763

1735

1656

138

139

1985 1983

164

182 187

1651

77

174

171

71

186

1657

140

1762 1751

1720

1295

1733

175

109

72

70

1734

137

1653

180

178

179

188

1731

141

1760

1297

1986

173

181

190

1732

1611

1605

81

189

136

202

1700

1987

1988

1994

1984

1989

83

110

191

129

135

1990

172

192

122

123

130 134

1634

107

193

121

203

1701

1633

108 120

128

201

2023

1992

73

74

177

195

127

131

1991

111

196

132 200

2021

142

194

124 2018

1621

176

125

133

1604

1632 1626 1625 1628 1627 1631 1629 1630

1624

2048 2047

1617

197

2019

1216

225

1618

1623

1622

126

199

1612

1620 1619

198

1614 1613

1397

11

20

2016

1377

1214

1616

1615

1378

1352

1212

1370

1595

2044 2045

1962

1963

1965

04

1375

1379

210

1372

1373 1374

1383

1369

1356

1371

1964

1596

1597 1599 1598

1600

1746 1676

1675

1745 1674

1673

1672

1671

1743 1670

1669

1668

1635

1744 1659

1667

1666 1665 1664 1663

1658

00

P1

01

P10

P9

P8

03

P2

P6 P3

P4

P5

04

P7

800 ft

200 ft

0

40 th & O St

Park Land Area (sq ft)

527,688

(acre)

12

3- way

63

4- way

59

cul-de-sac

7

House Size (average sq ft)

1,344

Front Setback (average ft)

40

Height (average ft)

35

Lot Count

2,617

Density (per sector)

7,851

Lot Size (average sq ft)

9,737

Street Layout (linear ft)

106,148

(linear miles)

20.1

Linear ft/Person

13.52

Sidewalk Layout (linear ft)

286,676

(linear mi)

54.3

grid tissue pattern

94

70 th & Holdrege St

Park Land Area (sq ft)

334,557

(acre)

8

3- way

71

4- way

25

cul-de-sac

14

House Size (average sq ft)

1,727

Front Setback (average ft)

35

Height (average ft)

35

Lot Count

2,106

Density (per sector)

6,318

Lot Size (average sq ft)

8,947

Street Layout (linear ft)

86,789

(linear miles)

16.4

Linear ft/Person

13.73

Sidewalk Layout (linear ft)

184,796

(linear mi)

35

curve tissue pattern

95

27 th & Old Cheney Rd

Park Land Area (sq ft)

407,634

(acre)

9

3- way

95

4- way

2

cul-de-sac

33

House Size (average sq ft)

2,454

Front Setback (average ft)

35

Height (average ft)

35

Lot Count

1,134

Density (per sector)

3,402

Lot Size (average sq ft)

12,773

Street Layout (linear ft)

70,921

(linear miles)

13.4

Linear ft/Person

20.85

Sidewalk Layout (linear ft)

156,288

(linear mi)

29.6

cul-de-sac tissue pattern

96

84 th & A st

Park Land Area (sq ft)

7,995,618 (acre)

184

3- way

74

4- way

16

cul-de-sac

61

House Size (average sq ft)

1,497

Front Setback (average ft)

25

Height (average ft)

35

Lot Count

2,563

Density (per sector)

7,689

Lot Size (average sq ft)

5,435

Street Layout (linear ft)

79,818

(linear miles)

15

Linear ft/Person

10.38

Sidewalk Layout (linear ft)

183,584

(linear mi)

34.8

branching tissue pattern 2

97

conclusion

This system will not solve all problems, but it points a way forward for tackling several issues, not least problems created by existing practices and conventions of typology, hierarchy and planning. Unlike urban problems such as congestion pollution, poverty, disease or danger, the raft of engineering and planning regulation and zoning practices, typologies and hierarchies are all rational human constructs, put there expressly to serve human purposes. We should tailor them so that they are not part of the problem, but part of the solution. Planning, and to an extent any form of design, are in a sense an exercise in futurism. A potential problem with futuristic visions comes if too narrow a frame of reference is envisaged. We are tempted to extrapolate a single variable, such as traffic growth or city size, without considering the circumstances in which overall scenarios would develop or evolve. This can limit the ability to visualize solutions. For example, it is difficult to imagine the car-free city of tomorrow, if we simply try to imagine the city of today without the cars. So, while it is easy to imagine cities of tomorrow, it is not easy to imagine viable ones or the path to get from here to there. The research has demonstrated uncustomary permutations of existing things, exiting modes, street types, hierarchical structures. These may now be used to anticipate possible developments for the city of the future, at least in terms of streets and patterns, transport and suburban design. The city of the future envisaged here is not so much a projection of trends into the future, but just a glimpse of different permutations of existing forms.

99

Reference

Allen, Stan. Points + Line: Diagrams and Projects for the City. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999. Andraos, Amale , Dan Wood and P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center. Above the pave ment - the farm! : Architecture & Agriculture at PF1. New York: Publisher Group UK, 2010. Antrop, Marc. “Changing patterns in the urbanized countryside of Western Europe.” Landscape Ecology 15 (2000): 257-270. Branzi, Andrea. Weak and Diffuse Modernity: The World of Projects at the Beginning of the 21st Century. New York: Skira, 2006. Bruegmann, Robert. Sprawl: a compact history. Chiciago:The University of Chciago Press, 2005. Burgess, Ernest W. The Growth of the City: An Introduction to a Research Project in robert E. Park, Ernest W. Burgess, and Roderick D. McKenzie, The City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1925. Ferré, Albert, and Tihamér Hazarja Salij. Total Housing: Alternatives to Urban Sprawl. New York: Actar, 2010. Johnson, Steven. Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Soft ware. New York: Scribner, 2001. Merkel, Jayne. “Urban American Landscape.” Architectural Design. 77 (2007): 36-47. Stoll, Katrina, and Scott Lloyd. Infrastructure as Architecture: Designing Composite Networks. Berlin: Jovis, 2010. Newman, W. G and Jeffrey R. Kenworthy. Cities and Automobile Dpendence: a Sourcebook. Aldershot: Gower Publishing, 1989. Otto, Frei. “Non- Planned Settlements - Characteristic Features - Path System, Surface Subdivision.” Information of the Institute for Lightweight Structures (IL): Federal Republic of Germany.. Germany, 1991. Turing, A. M. “The Chemical basis of Morphogenesis.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Science 641 (1952): 37-72. Waldheim, Charles. The Landscape Urbanism Reader. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. Weinstock, Michael. The Architecture of Emergence: The Evolution of Form in Nature and Civilsation. Chichester: Wiley, 2010.

reference

101

acknowledgements

thesis mentor: Steve Hardy thesis critics: Tim Hemsath and Janghwan Cheon Thanks to all my friends and colleagues at the University of Nebraska, College of Architecture, whose company I have enjoyed for many years, and particularly to my mentor, Steve Hardy, whose passion and commitment is a continual source of inspiration. To Jordan Lake , Pat Heermann, Tara Lea Meador, Jason Culbertson and Darin Russell for helping me throughout my research. Due to their help, the research was able to reach resolution that would not have been achieved by myself alone. Thank you to my peers, without whose distraction the long nights in the attic would have been unbearable. And finally, to Lindsay Groshans who has been supportive of me throughout the days and nights, and even at my worst. I thank you for everything that you have given me, for all of the help that you have provided, and for all of the support that you have given. To summarize my experience, I would like to quote Gob from Arrested Development, “I’ve Made A Huge Mistake.”

acknowledgements

103


A Computational Response to Arrested Development