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Office of the Vice President for Research

Northern Arizona University PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011-4087

928-523-4340 928-523-1075 fax www.research.nau.edu

Great minds don't think alike. If they did, the Patent Office would only have about fifty inventions. —Scott Adams Dear Colleagues, Welcome to Northern Arizona University’s Intellectual Property Portfolio. Within these “covers” you will find an evolving and dynamic collection of innovations that represent the desire and willingness of NAU faculty and staff to contribute to the global body of knowledge while discovering solutions to real-world problems. These inventions are generally available for licensing by both established and start-up companies, and we also welcome the opportunity to enter into research partnerships with companies interested in sponsoring further R&D on these inventions or with the specific researchers. NAU Innovations is a catalytic organization created to develop and promote NAU’s intellectual property holdings, with a mission to create value for the public by offering high quality opportunities to the private sector. The technologies featured here are anticipated to grow into viable commercial products and services for the benefit of all. Please contact us at NAUInnovations@nau.edu or 928-523-8288 to learn more about our offerings and to discuss how you can become one of Northern Arizona University’s partners in innovation. Sincerely,

Lesley K. Cephas Director, NAU Innovations


William Grabe, Ph.D.

Vice President for Research

Lesley K. Cephas

Director of Research Development and Technology Transfer

NAU Innovations

PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu


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Available Technologies Please select the side arrow to browse our IP available for licenesing, or select a link below:

System and Software for optimizing Energy Efficiency in Programmable Devices Germinating Chlamydomonas Zygospores as a Source of Abundant Extractable Lipid Vaccine against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Biofilms Rapid Diagnostic Assay for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Functionalized Paramagnetic Particles for In vivo diagnosis of MRSA Biofilms MOMECCA: Moist Membranes for the Cultivation and Collection of Algae Lateral Flow Diagnostic Reader with Multiassay Cassette - iTester™ Structural Supercapacitors Graphene-based Synthetic Leaves for Passive Water Pumping, Cooling, and Humidification Human Isoprenoid Pathway Inhibitors as Novel Antibiotic Adjuvants Shareview: Leveraging Mobile Devices for Rich Social Media Sharing TAXISS: Cross-Species Molecular Sensors for Environmental Analysis 3-D Imaging and Pattern Matching Algorithms for Firearms and Toolmarks Identification 5


Inventor Dr. Paul Flikkema

Professor Electrical Engineering

System and Software for Optimizing Energy Efficiency in Programmable Devices Invention Description This invention describes a programmed machine that, during the course of its operations, optimizes its energy efficiency. The invention provides an electronic circuit for sensing of power use and a means of controlling a sequence of register values, establishing the machine’s power-use configuration, along with a means to minimize energy use. In practice, this technology describes a hardware/software extension for embedded systems that are found in a variety of electronically controlled devices including appliances and consumer electronics. This extension monitors energy use and continuously adjusts system parameters in an attempt to improve energy efficiency. The process is undertaken autonomously, freeing the designer from the task of handoptimizing system performance. The system is implemented as a software library under a portable application programming interface (API), which allows it to be used with a variety of heterogeneous devices, presenting an abstracted hardware interface to the application code. This system may find applications in low-power embedded computing systems, such as those required to support the emerging Internet of Things.

Intellectual Property Status:

Patent Pending

Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

Licensing Status:

Insturments for industrial process control manufacturing

Frees the programmer from hand-optimizing energy usage and maintains energy optimization throughout unforeseen usage conditions.

Available

Contact

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

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Wireless sensor networks Implementation in consumer electronics

Handles the details of energyoptimization and presents a clean interface to the application programmer. Provides rich information regarding energy usage of particular peripherals.


Germinating Chlamydomonas Zygospores as a Source of Abundant Extractable Lipid Invention Description

Inventor

Markets as diverse as cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and biofuels are increasingly seeking commercial sources of renewable lipids. However, one of the biggest challenges in utilizing algal sources of lipids is the expensive and timeconsuming process of extraction and separation of the lipids from the non-lipid waste materials.

Dr. Karen VanWinkleSwift Regents’ Professor Biological Sciences

NAU researchers have developed methodologies and procedures that promote the accumulation and release of intracellular lipid bodies from zygospores of the single-celled green alga, Chlamydomonas monoica, through synchronization of zygospore germination and harvesting the lipid from the zygospores when in their most fragile state (just prior to the release of progeny). This approach is relevant to the commercial production of biodiesel and food supplements derived from fatty acids. Geminating Chlamydomonas zygospores: Courtesy of Dr. Karen Vanwinkle-Swift

Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

Production of lipids or carotenoids for nutritional supplements

The process can be automated and scaled up for commercial use

Production of lipids for alternative energy/biofuels Dormant zygospores can be induced to divide and germinate by manipulation of nutrient and light availability Production of lipids for organic or all-natural cosmetics

The process minimizes extraction costs Sustainable source for biofuels Environmentally benign High purity products with minimal clean-up costs Eliminates “pond-culture” maintenance issues

Intellectual Property Status:

Patent Pending

Licensing Status: Available

Contact

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

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Vaccine Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Biofilms Inventors Dr. Jeff Leid

Associate Professor Biological Sciences Dr. Mark Shirtliff Associate Professor University of Maryland, Balitmore School of Dentistry

Intellectual Property Status:

Invention Description According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, over 62,000 cases of MRSA infection were reported in 2011, with the vast majority affecting individuals over the age of 65. A joint research project between investigators at NAU and the University of Maryland - Baltimore has produced a vaccine for MRSA biofilms. This quad-valent vaccine, when supplemented with vancomycin treatment, clears a significantly greater amount of the infection than with the standard treatment using vancomycin alone. This is due to the selection of antigens expressed at high levels in the various stages of biofilm development. In contrast, current vaccines in development have selected antigens expressed during the prebiofilm stage, and do not cover the morphological and antigenic changes that occur during biofilm development. In combination with the lateral flow diagnostic assay (see portfolio page 11, and the ability to detect MRSA infections in vivo (see portfolio page 12, this trio of inventions provides the ability to detect, localize, and prevent MRSA –related biofilm infections.

Patent Pending

MRSA from NAU News-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Licensing Status: Available

Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

Contact

Prevention of hospital-acquired infections

Clears more of the infection than with standard treatment

Medical implant surgery patient monitoring

Covers the morphological and antigenic changes that occur during biofilm development

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

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MRSA infection prevention and treatment


Rapid Diagnostic Assay for MethicillinResistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Inventors

Invention Description The Numbers: More than 126,000 patients hospitalized in the U.S. are infected with MRSA (methecillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) annually, leading to over 5,000 deaths, increased length of hospital stays, and significantly higher healthcare costs. The Problem: A major hurdle to the success of diagnosing and treating a MRSA biofilm infection is the successful localization and targeting of biofilm infections in vivo. Moreover, MRSA infections are notoriously difficult to treat, as they are often associated with implanted medical devices such as artificial heart valves, catheters, and stents. Rapid diagnosis is critical to effective treatment. This patent- issued assay provides that diagnosis in ten minutes or less. The Solution: Researchers at NAU and the University of Maryland have developed a new diagnostic assay to provide clinicians with a rapid, inexpensive and sensitive tool for early diagnosis of MRSA infections. As a stand-alone device, it can be “inventoried� to an existing commercial diagnostics portfolio, or provide rapid revenue for a start-up company to build its diagnostics base. This is likely to be a CLIA-waived device, making regulatory hurdles minimal.

Dr. Jeff Leid

Associate Professor Biological Sciences

Dr. Timothy L. Vail

Adjunct Professor Chemistry & Biochemistry

Dr. Mark Shirtliff Associate Professor University of Maryland, Balitmore School of Dentistry

Intellectual Property Status:

US Patent 8,541,006 MRSA assay: Courtesy of Jennifer Kofonow

Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

Diagnosis of hospital-acquired infections

Distinguishes attached biofilm infections (e.g. endocarditis) from systemic infections

Medical implant surgery patient monitoring MRSA infection prevention and diagnosis

Allows rapid patient monitoring of medical device implant surgery pre- and post-operative Can be read visually with no need for expensive diagnostic equipment

Licensing Status: Available

Contact

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

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Functionalized Paramagnetic Particles for In vivo Diagnosis of MRSA Biofilms Inventors Dr. Jeff Leid

Associate Professor Biological Sciences

Dr. Timothy L. Vail Adjunct Professor Chemistry & Biochemistry

Dr. Mark Shirtliff Associate Professor University of Maryland, Balitmore School of Dentistry

Intellectual Property Status:

US Patent 8,697,375

Invention Description Biofilms are attached communities of microorganisms that are inherently resistant to antibiotics and killing from the human immune system. These communities are often associated with indwelling medical devices such as catheters, endotracheal tubes, surgical sutures, hip and knee joint prostheses and dental implants. However, biofilms also colonize heart valves (endocarditis), bone (osteomyelitis), tooth surfaces (dental caries), gums (periodontal disease), burn patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. In all cases, these infections dramatically increase morbidity and mortality costing an estimated $20 billion dollars annually. The CDC estimates that of all nosocomial infections, >70% are caused by biofilms. In conjunction with the diagnosis of, and vaccination against MRSA biofilm infections, a joint research project between investigators at NAU and the University of Maryland - Baltimore has produced an in vivo detection method for MRSA biofilm infections. These infections are often associated with endocarditis or osteomyelitis, and can be localized at or near medical device implants, such as catheters, heart valves, or stents. The inventors have successfully detected S. aureus biofilms on infected tibial pins whereas implanted sterile pins showed no sign of biofilm development. Specific visualization of the site of biofilm infection will give surgeons the exact site of infection leading to removal of less healthy tissue and more biofilm infection. Specific targeting of the biofilm would also allow for specific delivery of a well-defined quantity of chemotherapeutic agents that may then be effective against the biofilm-mode of growth.

Licensing Status: Available

Contact

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

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Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

Prevention of hospital-acquired infections

Early diagnosis

Medical implant surgery patient monitoring MRSA infection prevention and treatment

Minimizes removal of healthy tissue surrounding an infection


MOMECCA: Moist Membranes for the Cultivation and Collection of Algae Invention Description

Inventor

Mass cultivation of algae has focused on the use of open ponds or closed bioreactors. Both approaches depend upon routine liquid culturing of the algae and require the removal of large quantities of water at the time of cell harvesting and subsequent extraction of desired products. NAU researchers have developed a technology that drastically reduces the water content at the time of cell harvesting and enables automated mass production of algal cells.

Dr. Karen VanWinkleSwift Regents’ Professor Biological Sciences

The invention uses porous inert membranes to support the growth and subsequent harvesting of algae. Moisture and nutrients required for growth are provided by misting of the porous inert membrane from above, or percolation of an aqueous nutrient medium through a semisolid basement layer in contact with the membrane. Algal cells are then harvested from the membrane surface by scraping or lifting the cells using an industrial sized “squeegee”. The invention also induces environmental stresses, which often trigger oil accumulation in algae, by moving the membrane with adherent cells to a new basement layer, or by changing the misting or percolating solution. After cell harvesting, the membrane with residual cells can be moistened with complete medium (via misting or percolation) to induce a new round of growth and subsequent stress induction.

Intellectual Property Status:

Patent Pending

Licensing Status:

MOMECCA: Courtesy of Dr. Karen VanWinkle - Swift

Available

Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

Mass cultivation of algae for biofuel production

Decreased water consumption and contamination, and increased control of nutrient feed

Quick and efficient growth of food additives and cosmetics (e.g. carotenoids; beta carotene and astaxanthin)

Easier to induce stress on algae The membrane can be re-seeded

Contact

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

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Lateral Flow Diagnostic Reader with Multiassay Cassette - iTester™ Inventors Dr. Catherine R. Propper Professor Biological Sciences

Dr. Timothy L. Vail

Adjunct Professor Chemistry & Biochemistry

Dr. John Tester

Associate Professor Mechanical Engineering

Dr. Niranjan Venkatraman

Associate Professor Electrical Engineering

Invention Description The iTester™ is a diagnostic assay system in a hand-held electronic platform capable of running up to seven individual assays simultaneously, with results in approximately eight minutes. Diagnostic panels can be designed for environmental and public health needs such as water and wastewater testing, or for clinical diagnosis such as blood-borne disease, cardiac markers, lipid profiles, and drugs of abuse. The sample volume for the iTester™ diagnostic panel is less than one milliliter, and can include fluids such as water, whole blood, serum, and saliva. The iTester™ has wireless Internet capability, a USB port, a touchscreen interface, and a fully functional desktop PC environment. The iTester™ is battery–powered and intended for complete operation in remote locations.

Intellectual Property Status:

Patent Pending

Licensing Status: Available

Contact

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

Courtesy of Dr. John Tester

Courtesy of Edward Kemper

Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

The system provides nearly instantaneous test results for multiple market uses, including water testing, healthcare, drug testing, veterinary care

Near real-time analysis of samples in the field

This system can be readily adapted to uses such as triage and field medicine, disaster relief, or as part of a portable clinical diagnostics laboratory for developing countries

Complete analysis of entire diagnostic panel from a single small sample volume

Seamless upload, management, and sharing of data

Flexibility of use for different purposes Negates the need for sample transport for testing in laboratories

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Structural Supercapacitors Invention Description NAU researchers have developed a solid polymer electrolyte resin that interfaces with carbon fiber stacks to create a structural supercapacitor—a carbon fiber based composite material suitable for high-performance applications (such as aerospace components, medical devices, wind turbines, etc.), adding power storage capability without compromising the strength and durability of the material. The structural supercapacitor has morphology similar to that of an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC), and in addition to storing electrical charge will be able to withstand mechanical loading, making it suitable for building structures with added power storage capability.

Inventors Dr. Constantin Ciocanel

Assistant Professor Mechanical Engineering

Dr. Cindy Browder

Associate Professor Chemistry & Biochemistry

Using our specific formulation of the solid polymer electrolyte, specific capacitance of 1.4kF/m3 and leakage resistance of 380kΊ has been achieved.

Intellectual Property Status:

Photos Courtesy of Dr. Constantin Ciocanel

Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

Structurally integrated actuators for medical devices such as prosthetic limbs

Added power storage capability by using structural material.

Battery-free electrical windpowered generators or electric vehicles Multifunctional lightweight aviation and aerospace components Lightweight handheld devices such as calculators, cell phones, and GPS units

Moldable polymer matrix provides support for device manufacture. No compromise to strength and durability of structure Reduced power consumption, device size, the number of required components, and can be made into virtually any required shape

Patent Pending

Licensing Status: Available

Contact

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

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Inventors Dr. Eric Morgan

Postdoctoral Scholar Institute for Sustainable Energy Solutions

Dr. Thomas Acker

Professor Mechanical Engineering

Dr. George Koch Professor Biological Sciences

Graphene-based Synthetic Leaves for Passive Water Pumping, Cooling, and Humidification Invention Description Tree leaves and graphene oxide thin films both have amazing properties. When water evaporates from the surface of a leaf, more water is drawn into the leaf, and the leaf acts as a miniature water pump. Also, when water evaporates from leaves, the surrounding air becomes cooler. Leaves act as air conditioners. Graphene oxide (GO) thin films allow water to flow through them easily, while helium and other substances cannot. NAU researchers are combining the novel properties of leaves and GO films in the form of synthetic tree leaves. This technology will allow the realization of solar –powered water lines that can both filter and move water to great heights without a mechanical pump, and air conditioning systems capable of cooling and humidifying entire buildings with little to no energy from the power grid.

Intellectual Property Status:

Graphene Oxide Thin Film Š Nanotechweb.org

Patent Pending

Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

Available

Lifting water from an aquifer without using a mechanical pump

Contact

Passive air conditioning systems for residential and commercial buildings

Providing clean water to developing countries at minimal energy cost

Licensing Status:

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

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Low-Energy access to clean water of an aquifer in developing countries

Providing low energy cost air conditioning through evaporative cooling Significant energy savings in urban environments Low cost of maintenance due to a lack of moving parts


Human Isoprenoid Pathway Inhibitors as Novel Antibiotic Adjuvants Inventors

Invention Description Boosting the effectiveness of an antibiotic is a critical component in the fight against infectious disease. This technology is based on the ability to exploit a microorganism’s metabolic pathways to make them more susceptible to standard antibiotics. It has been shown that disrupting the biosynthetic pathway of isoprenoids (compounds related to cholesterol synthesis) in microorganisms makes them more susceptible to antibiotic treatment.

Dr. Nathan Nieto Assistant Professor Biological Sciences

Dr. Andrew Koppisch

Assistant Professor Chemistry & Biochemistry

This adjuvant therapy may provide a means to reduce the over-use of antibiotics that has led to the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.

Intellectual Property Status: Ixodes pacificus nymph, a tick vector of bacterial disease. Magnified 59X. Courtesy of Dr. Nathan Nieto.

Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

Medical infectious disease therapy for recalcitrant infections such as Lyme disease or MRSA

May provide a new weapon to fight infections by increasing microbial susceptibility to antibiotics

Auxiliary treatment for veterinary antibiotic regimens to lower levels of antibiotics used in animals for dairy and meat consumption

May lower overall treatment costs by lowering required dosages of antibiotics Relatively low regulatory hurdles: several drugs that affect the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway in humans are already FDA- approved

Early Stage

Licensing Status: Available

Contact

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

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Shareview: Leveraging Mobile Devices for Rich Social Media Inventors Inventor Dr. John Georgas

Assistant Professor Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

Intellectual Property Status: Intellectual Patent Pending Property Status:

Invention Description Shareview is an integrated system of hardware and software aimed at capturing, sharing, and viewing point-of-view audiovisual content in real time. This patent-pending system uses an over-the-ear Bluetooth ® enabled device to capture streaming video and audio from the user’s point-of-view, and combines it with a mobile phone app to upload the captured data to the Shareview servers to associate the video with the user’s account. The content is made available on the Shareview service as a real-time stream (a “view”). Users have full editorial and security management options over the degree to which any or all of their shares are accessible to others. A content channel, which allows conceptual groupings of shares with similar thematic content and access privileges (such as sporting event views), is integral to the sharing mechanism. Shareview will also support notifications, so that users can register their interest in specific channels and receive notifications if a new “share” becomes available in any of their registered channels. This system will focus on real-time streams of content, not recorded content: only four hours of © Philippe Henry, Flickr.com

Patent Pending

Licensing Status: Available

Licensing Status: Available

Contact

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations Contact PO Box 4087 Dr. Tim Vail Flagstaff, AZ 86011 NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 928-523-5311 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

928-523-5311

NAUInnovations@nau.edu

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Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

Real-time video and audio that can be used by friends and family to share their life experiences

Enhanced global experience sharing among focused interest groups

Education and distance learning

Enhanced law enforcement, quality control operations, or other verifiable experience capture and recall, thus relieving the user of notebook recording, or other recall-intensive procedures

Law enforcement and social services The creation of reality entertainment programming that does not demand the production overhead customary to this type of content


TAXISS: Cross-Species Molecular Sensors for Environmental Analysis Inventors Invention Description Amphibians are sentinel organisms that are highly sensitive to changes in their environment, including exposure to increased pollutants and other stressors. This invention presents an innovation that relies upon a gene expression readout for detecting thyroid hormone disrupting activities using anuran (frog or toad) species as model organisms. This is a significant improvement over the standard frog tadpole metamorphosis assay. It provides greater predictive value and applicability to both laboratory testing and field applications across a range of all frog sentinel species. These species include those commonly used in laboratory studies for developmental and/or toxicity testing, as well as sentinel species used for environmental toxicology or ecological assessment. The use of these primer sets provides a simple, low‐cost solution to the issue of cross‐species comparison of responses and sensitivities.

Dr. Catherine R. Propper Professor Biological Sciences

Dr. Caren Helbing Professor Biochemistry & Microbiology University of Victoria, British Columbia

Dr. Nicholas Veldhoen

Biochemistry & Microbiology University of Victoria, British Columbia

Intellectual Property Status:

Patent Pending ©Dr. Laurent Sachs

Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

Environmental monitoring of complex mixtures such as municipal wastewater and aquatic ecosystems

Highly conserved primer sets screen the same genes found in many species

Toxicological testing of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals for thyroid hormone disruption Developmental biology research

Simple and low-cost comparisons using quantitative PCR Validated primer sets for “normalizer” genes provide internal reference standards

Licensing Status: Available

Contact

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

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Inventors Dr. Christopher Mann Assistant Professor Physics and Astronomy

3-D Imaging and Pattern Matching Algorithms for Firearms and Toolmarks Identification Invention Description The science and technology of forensics and crime scene investigation has been growing rapidly in recent years. Along with DNA evidence, the ability to validate scientifically the evidence that connects a weapon or bullet casing to a crime scene can be a critical determinant in the legal process. Currently, a tedious and costly process of visual microscopic comparisons is performed. This technology is a robust and cost effective imaging system that provides high-speed, quantitative 3-dimensional topological measurements of ballistics cartridge casings. Consisting of two components, this technology combines an imaging system with data-rich 3D pattern matching algorithms that will automate ballistics identification with high precision and accuracy. This may be developed into a bench-top system that can be further developed into a field portable system for onsite use by crime scene forensics experts.

Intellectual Property Status: Early Stage

Licensing Status: Available High resolution 3D image Captured from a 9 mm Bullet Casing Courtesy of Dr. Christopher Mann

Contact

Dr. Tim Vail NAU Innovations PO Box 4087 Flagstaff, AZ 86011 928-523-5311 NAUInnovations@nau.edu

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Potential Applications

Benefits and Advantages

Crime Scene Investigation

High Speed 3-dimensional imaging and processing

Litigation proceeding and expert witness testimony Development of a national or international database of ballistics identification information

Increased precision and accuracy of ballistics toolmark identification processes Digitized information adds statistical robustness and reduces human error associated with the legal process



Available Technologies FY14