AR IN G SN MA
ZINE FO A G
PE A T A E GR HEROES SUPER
Discover, Learn, Take Action! Quiz, puzzles, and a lot more fun inside!!
Created and published by Stichting Nature for Kids www.natureforkids.nl Copyright 速 2013. In connection with U.N.I.T.E. for the Environment, The Kasiisi Project and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in chief & production: Dagmar van Weeghel * Editor * Design & Lay out: Albrecht Design Illustrators: Marlies van der Wel, Mieke Driessen Photography: Andrew Bernard, * R onan Donovan, Richard Bergl, Martha Robbins,*Dagmar van Weeghel, Mark Edwards, David R. Mills & Panthera, Cleve Hicks
THE - Great Ape Superhero -PROMISE! t Ape Are you ready to become a Grea m Fish & Superhero just like me: Ajani fro ws! Greens Village? That is great ne and learn the Great Ape Just fill in your name on the left your passion and your voice Promise by heart. Remember: have to help the Great are the most effective tools you re The Promise with others Apes! So make sure that you sha a poem out of the words, as well! You can make a song or om to encourage others or you can hang it up in the classro brations in your village. perform The Promise during cele proud! If we all work Whatever you do- make me ngs happen. together we can make big thi
Wherever you live, it’s important that you grow up to become the next generation of environmental stewards. The best way to protect our environment in the future is for you to grow up with a love for Mother Earth! This Great Ape -Education through Entertainment -program with fun films, supporting materials and activities will do just that. We’ll show you how to save the Great Apes, the gorillas, the chimpanzees, the bonobo’s, all our forest cousins..and we will help you do it! The activities you will find in this magazine will suggest fun ways for you to help the world we share, become a “greener” and healthier place for both yourself and the Great Apes. You will find different chapters in these cool Magazines.
You can Discover, Know, Learn, and Take Action yourselves. Enjoy!
A SPECIAL TALE by Sonya Kahlenberg and Elizabeth Ross
This is special! Special is a young female chimpanzee living in Kibale National Park, Uganda. She is only 11 years old and is still living with the group of chimpanzees where she was born, but she has already had 2 very bad things happen to her. When she was only 6 her mother Nile died. Like you, chimpanzees need their mother’s care for a long time. If their mother dies when they are young they often die too. Sometimes other chimpanzees, maybe older brothers and sisters, will help take care of them, but Special was left to look after herself. Without her mother’s help she had to look for her own food, make her own nest and find her way safely through the forest. It was while she was walking through the forest one day that the second very bad thing happened to her – she got her hand caught in a snare!
Special lives in a National Park, a place that is supposed to be safe for animals to live, where people will not hurt or kill them, a place where anyone can come to watch them and learn about them, but where they are protected. Sadly some people like to eat forest animals and even though this is forbidden and they will be punished if they are caught, they quietly slip into the forest to hunt them anyway. These people are called poachers. The poachers in Kibale National Park want to catch wild pigs, buffalo and forest antelope. They use snares made of strong wire and traps made of iron with big sharp teeth, which they lay on paths where they know that these animals travel. But other animals also walk along these paths and get caught in the traps too - dogs, chimpanzees and sometimes even people. As chimpanzees grow older they learn to look out for the snares and traps but Special is still a child and she has no mother to lead her safely around the poacher’s snares,
so one day she put her hand into one. She didn’t see it because it was hidden under the leaves but as soon as she felt it around her hand she was frightened and pulled hard. Chimpanzees are very strong, much stronger than pigs and antelopes, even stronger than people, so instead of being trapped she pulled the snare right out of the ground. She didn’t understand what had happened but she knew that the wire around her arm hurt and she tried to pull it off. But the more she pulled the deeper it cut into her wrist and the more it hurt. She pulled so hard that the wire cut through her arm right down to the bone. Special was now in great danger. How could she climb trees to feed herself with only one hand? Would she starve? Would she get an infection that killed her? Would her hand die and fall off? All these things happen to chimpanzees that get caught in snares. Max, a chimpanzee in Special’s family has lost both his feet because of snares, so things did not look good for her.
Over 1 million metric tons of bushmeat are taken each year from African forests alone. Source: Wildlife Conservation Society
But Special now finally had a piece of very good luck. The scientists who study her family saw her hand and they telephoned the team of vets who look after wild animals in Ugandan National Parks. The vets fired a dart into Special that put her to sleep and they were then able to remove the wire, clean her wound and sew up her arm. Darting is dangerous for chimpanzees and the vets have to be careful and clever. Sometimes chimpanzees climb trees before they are asleep and die falling to the ground and sometimes they are with friends who stop the vets reaching them. So most of the time the chimpanzees cannot be darted and either lose their hands and feet or die of infection. Even after darting and treatment the damage from the snare can be so bad that the hand can never be used properly. Happily for Special her treatment was successful, and one month later she was climbing trees and playing with her friends, her hand almost as good as new. But because most other chimpanzees or gorillas are not so lucky, there is another important group of people who work hard to prevent the great apes being harmed by poachers. They are called the Snare Removal Team and their job is to look for snares in the forest and remove them before any animals get caught in them.
that most hunting for bushmeat is illegal!? Bushmeat hunting is not sustainable when:
* * * *
DID YOU KNOW?
They are very good at finding the snares even when they are well hidden and sometimes they even find the poachers. When this happens they call the National Park rangers and the poachers are arrested. Setting snares inside a National Park is illegal, dangerous to people and their dogs and hurts the animals that live inside the park. When poachers set snares they are not only hurting the antelope they are trying to catch, but also animals they donâ€™t want to eat, like chimpanzees and gorillas. They also harm all the animals who eat the antelope and who now do not have enough food. Plants and trees also depend on chimpanzees, gorillas, antelope and pigs to help spread their seeds around and when the animals disappear so do the trees, the medicinal plants that help keep you healthy and eventually the whole forest. Special is a very special chimpanzee. Like you she has lots of good times and sometimes she has bad times, but getting caught in a snare should never be one of them.
Illegal methods of hunting (wire snares, guns) are used; p rotected or endangered species (protected.e.g, gorillas and chimpanzees) are hunted; T oo many people are hunting in the forest; H unting is done for commercial trade (selling it in cities and outside the Country)
SNARING - one of the
biggest threats to the Great Apes Snare traps are made of wire, rope, or nylon set within the forest by hunters to catch bushmeat. Setting snares inside a National Park or protected area is illegal. Chimpanzees’ and gorillas’ hands and feet can become trapped in snares when they travel on the ground between feeding trees. Even though they are very intelligent, they cannot remove the snares, which over time cut into their flesh, causing pain, infection, and permanent damage. Snared individuals are often crippled or lose hands or feet and they often die from their injuries.
What is ‘Bushmeat’?
Forest is also referred to as ‘the bush’, and so wildlife and the meat derived from it is referred to as ‘bushmeat’. In many communities, hunting is traditional, having been practiced for generations. People hunt all sorts of forest animals; forest antelope; crocodile; porcupine; bush pig; cane rat; pangolin; guinea fowl; etc. But nowadays TOO MANY PEOPLE are hunting in the forest. In addition to hunting the meat for consumption, they also sell the meat to earn an income. So much wildlife is being hunted at such a rapid rate that some forests become
empty. The trees are there, but the animals aren’t. Many animals in the forest, like gorillas, chimpanzees and elephants are in danger of extinction as a result. Often wild animals are taken from the forest because of a demand for meat from many people living in cities (commercial trade). A lot of bushmeat is disappearing into their homes and stomachs while they have many other ways of putting meat in their diet. In the cities people can buy meat taken from domestic animals such as cows, goats, pigs and chickens. This commercial trade is not sustainable at all. The forest cannot provide enough meat for so many people. Overhunting made worse by logging and mining in forests. These activities create roads which allow hunters to go deeper into the forests than ever before.
What is ‘the Bushmeat - Crisis’? Commercial hunting for the meat of wild animals has become a huge threat to the future of wildlife in Africa; some wild animals have gone extinct
because of overhunting already! And soon many more will follow. This is a Crisis. Wild animals are disappearing from many African forests. Because of that; plants and trees are also disappearing: it’s all connected. Removing wildlife from the forest reduces biodiversity and causes harmful changes in ecosystems. It’s a matter of time before many wild animals will go extinct, and with with them the forest will disappear as well. When the forest disappears patterns of rainfall will change, erosion will increase and forest products like traditional medicine will no longer be available. So the bushmeat crisis is a big problem for humans as well: the loss of wildlife and forest threatens the livelihoods and food security of the people who live next to the forest.
! ! D U O L T U O H G U A L
It’s great fun in the Forest. Many animals are very funny and joke around all day. Look at these ones; they are real COMEDIANS!
It’s great fun in the Forest. Many animals are very funny and joke around all day. Look at these ones; they are real clowns!
and hang in this picture lf se ur yo xt ates to Fill in a te Ask your classm . m oo sr as cl it up in your nniest lines? ho wrote the fu W e. m sa e th do
! E L G G I W E H DO T
for food. forest every day looking Gorillas travel through the ! row a in hts e place two nig They never sleep in the sam r group to find leaves
d you like a Silverback and lea by the an you move around >C rillas in one troop, led go re mo or 30 to 5 be can ere Th ” ? its and fru erback male gorilla) strong, experienced silv ast to rilla and beat your che lk like a Silverback go > Can you knuckle wa are? show how strong you
When male gorillas are about 12 years of age they develop silver coloring on their back. This is where the name Silverback comes from.
Can you make your body into... ... a Silverback Gorilla? Pretend you are a strong Silverback Gorilla, stand on both your feet and on your knuckles. 7
1. Not good at catching things!
Market day,my friend Nantale bumped into me.
I did go nto the forest
from my yard, I tried to see gorillas
there is something around her wrist
Tinka chased me
the snare injured me
Tinka wanted to catch me
What is she hiding
11. I knew this was not allowed
Tinka told me a baby gorilla is born
climbed a tree and then I saw them
He told me snares were placed in the forest
then I got caught in something
in a snare!
someone was there
Just in time to hide
I went to Mudpound
Tinka talking to Mudpound chief
I need to make it to the chiefs house
MP Chief tried to hide bushmeat in car
Nantale took his carkey!
18. I had to tell Tinka about it
50. I am now a junior ranger!
20. and he thought I placed them
5. very cute, big eyes, black fur.
I am not allowed to go into forest
But I wanted to see the baby gorilla
I rushed back home
a gorilla is injured!
Snares hurt and kill the great apes
I am innocent
he wanted to catch and arrest me
I fled into the forest
don’t hurt me please!
30. did Nantale place the snares
yes, she wanted to catch a porcupine
Nantale, cut me loose
Nantale had to tell Tinka about her snares
38. our chief orders us to hunt..
..he hides bushmeat in his house
I had to show Tinka
MP Chief had to remove all snares in forest
45. Tinka caught me, I’m innocent!
MP chief is caught with all bushmeat
Great Ape Superhero!
MP people were taught 48. how to rear goats for meat
R E W O P L R GI ! t s e r o f n i a R in the
t would expec
one ssion - Where a her love p r e h is at cemented Wildlife und a thrill th and ion, Emily fo Otali has lived ily m and intimidat E s. ie d u and e that she st e left school sh ce n si for the wildlif ks ar nal p panzees! gandaâ€™s natio PhD on chim a in worked in U ta at to ican woman is the first Afr
Emily Otali Emily, when did you think of becoming a scientist, what/who inspired you and how did you go about it? I knew I wanted to be a veterinary doctor when I was eight years old because I liked to watch our kittens play for hours and hours on end and worked well with the farm animals. I used to predict for my dad when the cows, sheep or pigs in our farm would give birth. And I was very good at it. However, today when I look back, I think the seeds of being a scientist were sown by my brother Dennis who introduced me to ecology. I chose science subjects for my A Levels and declined an Education course at the university, choosing to study Environmental Sciences. At the time I joined University it was very competitive, and was not admitted for veterinary medicine. But I have no regrets. Once I got to behavioral ecology, I knew a career as a vet was not what I wanted! The rest was hard work and good luck
Tell us about a day in the life of a scientist and field manager of the Kibale Chimpanzee Project? My days are varied. For example on the day I go to the field, I wake up at 5:30 am to get ready. I leave for the field at 6:30 am: it may take up to one hour to walk to where the chimps have slept; though sometimes it only takes 15 minutes. Once we get to the nest site (where the chimps slept); we sit and wait for them to wake up, then I start watching them and writing down their behavior. I do this all day until 6:30 pm when they go to sleep; then I begin my trek home, take a bath, eat dinner and sleep. It is an exciting and easy day for me! As field manager, I am the link between the assistants and the directors. When I stay at the camp, I meet the research assistants and take care of their needs. I communicate with the project directors to keep them informed about what is going on in the field. I represent the Kibale Chimpanzee Project on all meetings or functions in Uganda. At the end of the month I pay salaries of all the Kibale Chimpanzee Project staff as well as prepare monthly summary reports. I do a lot of paperwork related to data collection and entry. I also help new students of the project to settle in and ensure their stay with us is comfortable. Such days are usually unpredictable: some are good, others, not fun at all!
What lies ahead for African women in science? There are more and more African woman joining the field of science; and lots more contributing to conservation efforts. It is an open field with no segregation at all. The little girls out there only need to be interested in the profession and pursue it with zeal.
Do you feel you are treated differently from male colleagues? Not at all! I feel equal to them. I have never felt like I was being treated differently by my male colleagues. Sometimes I do not even notice that I might be the only female in a meeting. But then I have always been a tomboy and always felt like ‘one of the boys’.
What is your fondest memory of observing the chimps in Uganda? So many! But I will tell you one: - My first sight of a wild chimpanzee. The chimps in the project have names. My first encounter was with Ipassa - then the juvenile daughter of Lope. The field assistants had told me not to make eye contact with the chimps, but it was irresistible, I kept stealing glances at her several times and then, once, she caught me and our eyes locked! I connected with something in her… it was like looking into the eyes of another human; like I could see into her soul, her dreams, her hopes, her fears! That moment - the trees around, the time, what I was wearing - is imprinted in my memory forever!
You are part of the Anti Snaring Movement in that region; what do you do exactly and why is this such an important part of your work? Since 1997, The Kibale Chimpanzee Project has worked with the Ugandan Wildlife Authority (UWA) to reduce the risk of snares to the park’s chimpanzees by conducting daily snare removal patrols throughout the forest. This effort has four main goals: (1) to conduct regular patrols to remove snares within the park and apprehend poachers, (2) to collect data on the occurrence and location of snares and other illegal activities within the park (e.g. charcoal production, encroachment, and tree cutting), (3) to assist in the training of UWA rangers, and (4) to educate local communities to help curtail poaching. Snare removal and conservation education are very important components of our work because as scientists, we are the middlemen between the local and global communities and the animals in the wild. It is our responsibility to the animals to preach for their cause; and our duty to inform the human society about the effects of their behavior to the animals in the wild.
Em i ly
was born in 1971 in Dar-es-Salaam, a coastal city in Tanzania, to Ugandan parents from Eastern Uganda. She went to primary school in Kampala, Uganda’s capital and attended secondary school near her ancestral home. She went on to study Environmental Sciences for her undergraduate degree; Environment and Natural Resources for her Masters and later pursued a PhD, all at Uganda’s Makerere University in Kampala. She was privileged to be mentored by the very best in the field of primatology and animal behaviour. Emily attended courses on animal behavior all over the world and she has starred in television documentary on mongooses! Emily has been working as a field manager at the Kibale Chimpanzee Project in Uganda for the last 12 years studying infant social development in the chimpanzees and doing many other things as well. Away from all things wild, she is a proud mother to three-year old Elizabeth whose first word was “baboon”!
Gorillas get caught in snares as well! 11
How often do you come across snared chimps and what happens to these chimps? It used to be so frequent, but since the inception of the snare removal project it is now less common. And mind you, that is only in the habituated community that we are doing our work on! Now, we have an injury may be once a year; sometimes, none at all. Once we see a chimp with a snare, we will inform Uganda Wildlife Authority and The Jane Goodall Institute (JGI) in Uganda. JGI have always sent a Vet Doctor to come and review the case; decide if the chimp can be darted and the snare removed. So-far, three chimps in our community have been saved by a JGI Vet. Sometimes, the chimps struggle and remove the snare themselves. Other times, we have not been able to see the chimp in time to save his/her limbs and we only see them after they have lost the limb. We have lost three of our healthy chimps to what we suspected as snare injuries because sometimes the snares are too big and heavy for the chimp to carry or drag around. There are no observations of the non habituated groups of chimpanzees; it is very hard for us to see or help them!
snares that injure the chimps. But I am the first to understand why they do what they do. And then, there are a lot of chimpanzee-behaviours that make me understand humans or try to! Like females leaving their community to join other communities (marriage?); domestic violence where males beat females (I wonder what makes them do that)!
Thank you Emily, one last question: What would Chimpanzees say to humans if they could speak? “Please don’t destroy our home! Give us the chance to have our children, raise them and watch them have their own children, grand children and great grand children.
Has your work affected your view of humans? A lot!!! In many different ways! I am frustrated by the lack of understanding from the people who continuously set the
! T I E C A LET ’S F SA D
Like people, Gorillas and Chimpanzees use many facial expressions to communicate with each other and express feelings. These expressions are not always similar to people’s expressions! For instance: a smiling face of a Chimpanzee might mean that a Chimpanzee is scared. But a smiling face in humans means that they are happy!
Here are some expressions of a Chimpanzee family. Which one is similar to how you express yourself?
dom inan t
D N A H A L L I R O G drawing of an this life sized er ov nd ha compare? Place your . How do they nd ha lla ri go adult e gorillas hand -like hands: Th an m hu e v ha nd, with five Gorillas to a human ha l ca ti en id t ve fingerlooks almos b. They also ha um th a g in a gorilla fingers, includ Additionally, s. aw cl to d se e humans and nails as oppo prints just lik er ng fi ue iq has un ! other primates
A big difference between human hands and other primates lies in their usage. Human hands are designed for the purpose of grasping and manipulating, while the other primates( including chimps, gorillas and bonobo’s) use their hands to walk on, as well. This is called; ‘knuckle walking’: they walk on the flat soles of their feet and the knuckles of their hands with fingers curved under.
TIP: If you like to get your hands dirty; make a similar print of your hand out of mud and press it gently onto paper or on a surface. Ready! Now compare your handprint with the gorillas thoroughly!
Another difference between man’s hands and the hands of Great Apes are the lines that run across the palms. While humans’ main palm lines are more curvy, the three to five palm lines on Great Apes main palm run in a straight, horizontal line all the way across the palm. These lines are often also connected to each other.
Though all primates (this includes humans) have opposable thumbs, the human thumb is the longest and therefore human hands are capable of grasping with detailed precision. Even so, chimpanzees and gorillas can do a lot with their thumbs. They can grab branches, peel fruits, and carry their babies. Chimpanzees can even make tools out of sticks!
s e i t i v Acti MES
HOW TO DRAW
TIME TO CHIMP… AROUND!
CONNECT THE DOTS
1. Appoint a Game master.
Let’s learn how to draw a Gorilla doing some Knuckle walking!
2. To play, The Game master will choose one player
Step 1 D raw the gorillas head first- his body and back-
3. Then the Game master will choose the player
Step 2 Draw his strong front arms and his nose Step 3 Draw the back legs and his feet Step 4 F inish of by drawing the hands, ears, his eyes,
who is the Guesser, the Guesser must leave the room. who is the Chimpanzee.
4. The other players have to do whatever the
Chimpanzee does. If they (the chimp) scratch their head, the rest of the players have to scratch their heads. If they (the chimp) stand on one foot, they all stand on one foot.
nose and mouth.
5. The Guesser is allowed back in the room and he
must figure out who is the Chimpanzee!
6. The Chimpanzee should try not to get caught
changing the action. If the Chimpanzee gets caught, then she/he becomes the next Guesser.
Let’s get dirty! You can create beautiful Great Ape Artwork from Clay/ mud. Any clay suitable for making pots should be suitable for making a Great Ape sculpture. Possible sources may be riverbeds, deserted termite or anthill mounds (often this is fine material dug from deep underground.) If necessary crush the clay into dust before adding water. 1. Collect moist clay, suitable for making pots. 2. Form the clay into ‘stick’ shapes. 3. Form a flat base – by rolling out some ‘sticks’. 4. Shape a Great Ape face sculpture with the sticks on the flat base 5. Increase depth by adding further ‘sticks’. 6. Smooth off sculpture with a stick and water. 7. Leave sculpture to dry for at least 3 days. 8. Harden sculpture by firing in a kiln, if possible.
AJANI’S WORD SEARCH Here are several words that describe Ajani’s Great Ape Adventures! See if you can find them in the search below. You might find them horizontal, vertical, backwards or even diagonal! Circle the words as you find them and check each one of that you’ve found.
gorilla chimpanzee bonobo greatape forest conservation tree nature ranger
superhero nationalpark habitat animal wildlife protect africa endangered
WHA T IS I
Connect the dots and discover who is looking at you! Start at number 1 all connect all the way to the number 53!
MAKE THIS FUN
M K Always wanted to know what itâ€™s like to be a Chimpanzee? 1. Carefully cut out around the mask. 2. Cut out eye holes. You may need to make adjustments depending on your size and eye spacing. 3. M ake two small holes (where each dot is indicated) where you can attach rope or some elastic or bamboo string. Tie off at inside of mask. 4. Cover your face: Hello Chimpanzee!