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MALAVA PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN 2015 – 2019


Malava Community Forest Association P.O Box 172, Malava - 50103 Email: malavacfa@gmail.com

Disclaimer The preparation, printing and distribution of the document has been with the financial assistance of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (Award ID: 00058356). The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the Malava Forest Station Participatory Forest Management Plan Local Planning Team and Nature Kenya, and cannot under normal circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the GEF nor the UNDP. Page | i


MALAVA PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN 2015 - 2019

Prepared by Local Planning Team1

Produced with financial assistance by GEF/UNDP through Nature Kenya

©2015 Available at: Kenya Forest Service, Headquarters Head of Conservancy, Western Conservancy Ecosystem Conservator’s Office, Kakamega Malava Forest Station Malava Community Forest Association Nature Kenya

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List of members of Local planning in the appendix 5 Page | ii


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FOREWORD The Malava Forest Participatory Management Plan is the outcome of a planning process lasting almost 1 year from November 2014. The planning process was supported through the Nature Kenya which was financed by Global Environment Facility/United Nation Development Programme (GEF/UNDP). The plan was developed by institutional members of the Focal Area Team namely: the Kenya Forest Service, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Kenya Wildlife Service, National Environment Management Authority, Water Resource Management Authority and Ministry of Devolution and Planning. In addition to these institutional partners, there was consultation with the Community, Malava Community Forest Association (CFA) and many other organizations and individuals. At the outset, the challenge was to produce a participatory Forest Management Plan for Malava Forest Station which would meet the needs of all stakeholders in the forest, building on the proven traditional management system of the local people and provide a useful document for managing the forest and the neighbouring farmlands, some of which were formerly forest area. A plan which looked attractive but did not have the consensus of all stakeholders, or one might be rapidly consigned to bookshelves and libraries, would not meet this challenge, and it is hoped therefore that this plan will provide a useful document for many people in future years. The task has been not only to follow a process, but also to define and test the planning process itself, since this has been a new experience in Kenya where local community have been invited to manage the forest in collaboration with the government. The plan shows that community members can be good managers of the resource within their areas once empowered. It recognizes need to manage the forest jointly with neighbouring communities. In many ways, therefore, this plan conforms to the requirements of the Forests Act No.7, 2005 which requires that all stakeholders be involved in the management of forests. Through this plan, Kenya Forest Service will enter into the process of negotiating a forest management agreement with the Malava CFA, which will ensure that the local communities participate in conservation and benefit in terms of forest user rights. We anticipate that this partnership arrangement will contribute to improved forest management and local community livelihoods. To make this happen, we are calling upon other stakeholders to join hands with us to ensure that Malava Forest provides better forest products and services at all levels, local, national and international. Dr. Paul Matiku Executive Director, Nature Kenya.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Malava Community Forest Association would like to extend sincere gratitude to the Kenya Forest Service for creating an enabling environment for the development of this Participatory Forest Management Plan which will lead to the entering into a Forest Management Agreement between Malava CFA and Kenya Forest Service. The CFA would also like to recognize the efforts of the Local Planning Team (LPT) represented by the following institutions; County Government of Kakamega, Kenya Forest Service, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Kenya Wildlife Service, National Environment Management Authority, Water Resource Management Authority, Ministry of Devolution and Planning, and Nature Kenya. We would like to appreciate the financial support from GEF/UNDP through Nature Kenya for the development of this Plan. Sincere appreciations also go to all Malava CFA members and the executive committee for their invaluable contribution to the preparation of the Plan, especially in organizing community meetings and coordinating collection of information. We would also like to appreciate the contribution of the local opinion leaders, Ministry of Interior and Coordination, Forest Adjacent Communities (FACs) for providing us with relevant information that was required for the development of this Plan. Finally, the CFA would like to appreciate the contribution of the KFS Assistant Director, Head of Management Plans, Mr. J. K Macharia, for his selfless dedication to the entire process and guiding the LPT towards the development of this Participatory Forest Management Plan. Since it is not possible to thank each and every one individually, Malava CFA expresses gratitude to the many men and women who in one way or the other have contributed to the development of this Participatory Forest Management Plan. James Shihuma, Chairman, Malava Community Forest Association

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Malava forest which is in Malava (Kakamega North) Sub-county, Kakamega County plays a very important role in the livelihood of many people living adjacent and beyond. It provides a variety of wood and non-wood forest products as well as intangible ecosystem services to the people within Malava Sub-county and Western Kenya by extension. The development of this Participatory Forest Management Plan (PFMP) provides an official avenue for community participation in management and utilization of forest resources. It is a prerequisite for negotiating and signing a Forest Management Agreement between KFS and Malava CFA. Malava PFMP covering five years (2015-2019) was prepared through consultation with various stakeholders holding various forums. A Local Planning Team (LPT) constituted by representatives of key stakeholders with interest in Malava forest; namely KFS, Malava CFA, KWS, WARMA, NEMA, KEFRI, Kakamega County Government, NGOs and other relevant line ministries. The process was facilitated by Nature Kenya with funding from GEF/UNDP under the project “Strengthening the Protected Area Network within the Eastern Montane Forest Hotspots of Kenya’’. The forest is situated approximately 25 Km North of Kakamega town along Kakamega - Webuye road. It is positioned at between the Latitudes 0˚26’54’’N to 0˚29’44’’N; and Longitudes 34˚50’15’’E to 34˚52’25’’E. It covers an area of 718.8 ha including an excision area of 4.5 ha for Malava Girls High School. It’s part of the Kakamega Forest Ecosystem together with Kakamaga, Kibiri, Bunyala, and Kisere forests. Biodiversity of Malava forest is closely related to that of the larger Kakamega forest both in species richness and composition, even though it has relatively low species abundance due to its small size and past disturbance. Originally the forest was dominated by Olea capensis, Diospyros abyssinica, Maesopsis eminii and Prunus africana which are characteristic of a primary forest. These are still present although in only a small parts of the forest to the South West area adjacent to Malava Girls, to the East of the Malava-Webuye road. These sites have very high biodiversity and big trees; some well over 100 years, and is therefore a good research and picnic. The forest has high diversity animals. A variety of bird species and primates especially monkeys and baboons are the most conspicuous group of animals in the forest. Baboons are well known as pests in the farms adjacent to the forest and are a common scene along the Kakamega– Webuye highway, pulling sugarcane to chew from tractors while on transit to West Kenya and Butali sugar companies. Several snake species are also present. Key forest resources in Malava are the tree and other plants within. It has some of the oldest and largest trees of indigenous species in the region, some of which now have significant conservation importance having been overexploited elsewhere. Forest plantations are concentrated in compartments 1 and 3 with Cupressus lusitanica, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus saligna dominating the composition in that order. Compartment 2 is mainly the indigenous forest reserved for conservation. Other forest resources include honey, mushrooms, termites, Mondia whytei, herbal medicine, grass for livestock and water from streams among others.

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The forest management faces challenges due to inadequate resources to maintain the dilapidated infrastructure and insufficient facilities and staff carrying out the day today work. Most affected in the staff shortage are the forest guards and subordinate staff. The overall objective of the Malava PFMP is to enhance participation in the management of Malava Forest for the delivery of the desired socio-economic and environmental benefits to the people. This plan has seven management programmes in which each describes the objectives, strategies, activities and lead institutions. The activity time frame is also given to assist in planning and monitoring. The programmes are Resource Protection, Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation, Production, Community Participation and Intervention, Infrastructure Equipment and Human Resources Development, Partnership and Networking, and Research and Monitoring Programmes. In implementation of this plan stakeholders with interest in Malava forest will be involved, the key players being KFS and Malava CFA through collaborative approach. Funds for implementation will be mobilized by the Local Level Forest Management Committee based on programmes. Cross-cutting issues such as gender mainstreaming, reproductive health, nutrition and H.I.V/ AIDS, marginalized groups, Indigenous Knowledge will be taken into consideration. Malava PFMP has a Monitoring and Evaluation matrix that will assist in assessing its progress towards success. Monitoring will be continuously done through reports while evaluation will be done annually. The PFMP will be reviewed mid-term and at the end of the implementation period. User friendly monitoring tools will be developed to assist the community in Monitoring and Evaluation.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS APPROVAL ................................................................................................................................iii FOREWORD .............................................................................................................................. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................................. v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................. viii LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................................... xi LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................................... xii ACRONYMS AND ABREVIATIONS ........................................................................................... xiii CHAPTER 1.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ............................................................................ 1 1.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE PLAN ........................................................................................... 1 1.1.1 Name of the Management Plan.................................................................................... 1 1.1.2 Period/Term of the Management Plan......................................................................... 1 1.1.3 Legal Authority for Preparation of the Plan.................................................................. 1 1.1.4 Justification of the MPFMP……………….………………………………………………...…1 1.1.5 Purpose of the PFMP ............................................................................................ 1 1.1.6 Approach to Development of the Plan ......................................................................... 2 1.1.7 Funding for developing and implementing MPFMP .................................................... 4 1.1.8: Structure of Malava CFA ............................................................................................ 4 1.2 DESCRIPTION OF MALAVA FOREST................................................................................ 5 1.2.1 Geographical location of Malava Forest ...................................................................... 5 1.2.2 The legal and administrative status of Malava Forest. ................................................. 7 1.2.3 Physical and Physiological description of the Forest ................................................... 8 1.2.4 Biodiversity of Malava Forest ...................................................................................... 9 1.3 DESCRIPTION OF FOREST RESOURCES ........................................................................ 13 1.3.1 Stocking of the forest ................................................................................................ 13 1.3.2 Non-wood forest products ........................................................................................ 13 1.3.3 Forest infrastructure and equipment ......................................................................... 16 1.3.4 Human resources ...................................................................................................... 19 1.3.5 History of the forest................................................................................................... 20 1.4 THREATS AND CONSTRAINTS ....................................................................................... 21 1.4.1 Threats ..................................................................................................................... 21 1.4.2 Management Constraints .......................................................................................... 22 1.5 VALUES OF MALAVA FOREST ....................................................................................... 22 CHAPTER 2.0 SOCIO-ECONOMIC DESCRIPTION .................................................................... 24 2.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE ADJACENT COMMUNITIES ........................................................ 24 2.2 DESCRIPTION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ................................................................... 25 2.3 COOKING ENERGY CONSUMPTION ............................................................................. 28 2.4 COMMUNITY UTILIZATION OF FOREST PRODUCT ....................................................... 29 Page | viii


2.5 WATER AND SANITATION ............................................................................................. 30 2.6 WORKING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN KFS AND MALAVA COMMUNITY ........................ 31 2.7 TREE PLANTING IN MALAVA......................................................................................... 31 CHAPTER 3.0 STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS .................................................................................. 33 CHAPTER 4.0 MANAGEMENT VISION, OBJECTIVES AND CONSIDERATIONS ......................... 36 4.1 VISION FOR MALAVA FOREST ...................................................................................... 36 4.2 OVERALL OBJECTIVE .................................................................................................... 36 4.3 PLAN CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................................................... 36 4.3.1 Policies and legal framework.................................................................................... 36 4.3.2 Linkages with relevant existing planning documents ................................................ 43 4.3.3 Linkage with regional and international agreements and conventions ...................... 44 4.4 FOREST MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION ZONATION ................................................ 45 CHAPTER 5.0 MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES ......................................................................... 49 5.1 RESOURCE PROTECTION PROGRAMME ....................................................................... 49 5.1.1 Background .............................................................................................................. 49 5.1.2 Management Challenges .......................................................................................... 49 5.1.3 Programme Objectives ............................................................................................. 50 5.2 FOREST CONSERVATION AND REHABILITATION PROGRAMME ................................... 53 5.2.1 Background .............................................................................................................. 53 5.2.2 Management Challenges .......................................................................................... 53 5.2.3 Programme Objectives ............................................................................................. 54 5.3 PRODUCTION PROGRAMME ......................................................................................... 56 5.3.1 Background .............................................................................................................. 56 5.3.2 Management Challenges .......................................................................................... 56 5.3.3 Programme Objectives ............................................................................................. 56 5.4 COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND INTERVENTION PROGRAMME .............................. 57 5.4.1 Background .............................................................................................................. 57 5.4.2 Management Challenges .......................................................................................... 58 5.4.3 Programme Objectives ............................................................................................. 58 5.5 INFRASTRUCTURE, EQUIPMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM61 5.5.1 Background .............................................................................................................. 61 5.5.2 Management Challenges .......................................................................................... 61 5.5.3 Programme objectives.............................................................................................. 61 5.6 PARTNERSHIPS AND NETWORKING PROGRAMME ....................................................... 64 5.6.1 Background .............................................................................................................. 64 5.6.2 Management Challenges .......................................................................................... 64 Page | ix


5.6.3 Programme objectives.............................................................................................. 64 5.7 RESEARCH AND MONITORING PROGRAMME .............................................................. 65 5.7.1 Background .............................................................................................................. 65 5.7.2 Management Challenges .......................................................................................... 65 5.7.3 Programme objectives.............................................................................................. 66 CHAPTER 6.0 PLAN IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................... 69 6.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 69 6.2 CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES ............................................................................................... 69 6.2.1 Gender mainstreaming ............................................................................................. 69 6.2.2 Reproductive Health, Nutrition and HIV/AIDS ........................................................... 69 6.2.3 Marginalized groups................................................................................................. 70 6.2.4 Indigenous Knowledge ............................................................................................. 70 6.3 RESOURCE MOBILIZATION ........................................................................................... 70 6.4 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR PLAN IMPLEMENTATION ................................. 70 CHAPTER 7 PLAN MONITORING AND EVALUATION ............................................................... 72 7.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 72 7.2 MONITORING................................................................................................................ 72 7.3 MONITORING INDICATORS (BIOPHYSICAL AND COMMUNITY BASED INDICATORS) .. 72 7.4 DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS................................................................. 72 7.5 RESPONSIBILITIES ......................................................................................................... 72 7.6 MONITORING PLAN ...................................................................................................... 73 7.7 EVALUATION ................................................................................................................ 73 7.8 REVIEW......................................................................................................................... 73 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................... 77 APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................... 79 Appendix 1: List of Forest Tree Species of Malava............................................................... 79 Appendix 2: List of Malava Forest Mammals........................................................................ 80 Appendix 3: Reptiles of Malava Forest ................................................................................ 80 Appendix 4: List of Forest Bird Species of Malava ............................................................... 81 Appendix 5: List of participants in the Plan Development.................................................... 84 Appendix 6: Characteristics of well-being status as perceived by Malava community ........ 90 Appendix 7: Malava Forest Plantation Data Sheet updated September 2015 ....................... 91

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1a: Community Sensitization meeting at Malava Forest Station ................................ 3 Figure 1.1b: Malava LPT members during training on Socio-economic and Biodiversity survey ................................................................................................................................... 3 Figure 1.1c: LPT members identify and map forest resources ............................................... 4 Figure 1.2: Malava CFA structure .......................................................................................... 5 Figure 1.3: Location map of Malava Forest ............................................................................ 6 Figure 1.4: Map of Kakamega Forest Ecosystem showing position of Malava Forest .............. 7 Figure 1.5: Climate graph for Malava Forest ......................................................................... 8 Figure 1.6: Google map showing transects in Malava forest biodiversity survey ................. 10 Figure 1.7: Plate on Malava primary forest .......................................................................... 11 Figure.1.8: Plate on Olive baboon in Malava forest ............................................................. 12 Figure 1.9: Map of Malava Forest showing plantation areas................................................. 14 Figure 1.10: Beekeeping project by Malava CFA ................................................................ 15 Figure 1.11a: Malava forest station office block ................................................................... 18 Figure 1.11b: Plate on CFA receiving motorbike procured through GEF/UNDP project ..... 19 Figure 1.11c: Plate on Malava CFA Chairman receiving office furniture from Nature Kenya 19 Figure 1.11d: Plate on tree nursery at Malava Forest Station ............................................... 19 Figure 1.12: Plate on elders give out history of Malava forest .............................................. 21 Figure 2.1: Level of education of household heads .............................................................. 25 Figure 2.2: The material used for roofing houses in Malava ................................................. 25 Figure 2.3: Occupational characteristics of Malava community ........................................... 26 Figure 2.4: Having a plot for cultivation in the forest ........................................................... 26 Figure 2.5: Frequency of visiting the forest by forest adjacent community in Malava .......... 27 Figure 2.6: Frequency of visiting the forest by well-being categories ................................. 28 Figure 2.7: Likely benefits mentioned by people who have never visited Malava forest ..... 28 Figure 2.8: Consumption of a bag of charcoal bag: a) Overall and b) by family size............ 29 Figure 2.9: Number of head-loads of firewood consumed per week in Malava ................... 29 Figure 2.10: Source of water for domestic use by wellbeing category ................................. 30 Figure 2.11: Main types of human waste disposal by well-being categories in Malava ........ 31 Figure 2.12: Impact of good relationship between community and KFS in Malava ............... 31 Figure 4.1: Plate on community sketching Malava Forest resources .................................... 45 Figure 4.2a: Malava Forest Resources Sketch Map .............................................................. 47 Figure 4.2b: Zonation map of Malava Forest ........................................................................ 48 Figure 5.1: One of the giant Olea capensis trees in Malava forest ........................................ 50 Figure 5.2: Baboon with its young one crossing road in Malava forest ................................. 51 Figure 5.3: Disturbed site in Malava forest .......................................................................... 51 Figure 5.4: CFA Chairman addressing partners & CFA members at rehabilitated site ........ 54 Figure 5.5: Plate on enrichment planting in Malava Forest .................................................. 54 Figure 5.6: Malava Tree Nursery with seedlings for plantation establishment ..................... 56 Figure 5.7: Plate on on-farm tree farming in Malava ............................................................ 58 Figure 5.8: Plate on improved cook stove ........................................................................... 59 Figure 5.9: Plate on Malava CFA Office ............................................................................... 63 Figure 5.10: Malava forest ranger in joint patrol with community forest scouts .................... 63 Figure 5.11: Team carrying out biodiversity survey in Malava forest .................................. 68 Figure 5.12: KEMRI/KWS team conducting research on olive baboons in Malava Forest ..... 68 Figure 6.1: Institutional arrangements for Malava PFMP implementation ............................ 71

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1: Road in Malava forest and their conditions.......................................................... 17 Table 1.2: The current and proposed Human resource establishment in Malava F. Station .. 20 Table 1.3: Summary of the management constraints ............................................................ 22 Table 2.1: Population in Forest Adjacent Communities........................................................ 24 Table 2.2: Livestock owned by the respondents .................................................................. 27 Table 2.4: The wood and non-wood products accessed by the Malava forest community members ............................................................................................................................ 30 Table 3.1 Stakeholders indicating their roles and responsibilities ...................................... 33 Table 4.1 Criteria for zonation ............................................................................................. 46 Table 5.1: Management interventions on Resource Protection Programme ......................... 52 Table 5.2: Management interventions on Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation program 55 Table 5.3: Management interventions on production programme ....................................... 57 Table 5.4: Management Interventions on community participation and intervention ........... 59 Table 5.5: Management interventions on Infrastructure, Equipment and Human Resources Development Programme ................................................................................................... 61 Table 5.6: Management interventions on partnership and networking programme ............ 64 Table 5.7: Management interventions on research and monitoring programme.................. 66 Table 7.1 Malava PFMP Monitoring Matrix .......................................................................... 74

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ACRONYMS AND ABREVIATIONS BIOTA

Biodiversity Transect Analysis and Monitoring

M-PFMP

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan

CBD

Convention on Biological Diversity

CBO

Community Based Organization

CDF

Constituency Development Fund

CFA

Community Forest Station

EMCA

Environmental Management and Coordination Act

FAC

Forest Adjacent Community

GEF

Global Environment Facility

GoK

Government of Kenya

HIV

Human Immune Virus

IBA

Important Bird Area

IGA

Income Generating Activity

KEFRI

Kenya Forestry Research Institute

KERRA

Kenya Rural Roads Authority

KFS

Kenya Forest Service

KIFCON

Kenya Indigenous Forest Conservation

KWS

Kenya Wildlife Service

MoALF

Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries

NBE

Nature based Enterprise

NGOS

Non-Governmental Organizations

NMK

National Museums of Kenya

NWFP

Non Wood Forest Products

PELIS

Plantation Establishment and Livelihoods Improvement Scheme

PFM

Participatory Forest Management

PFMP

Participatory Forest Management Plan

SDGs

Sustainable Development Goals

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

WRMA

Water Resource Management Authority

WRUA

Water Resource Users Association

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CHAPTER 1.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE PLAN

1.1.1 Name of the Management Plan The name of the management plan shall be Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan (M-PFMP). 1.1.2 Period/Term of the Management Plan Upon approval of the plan and signing of the Forest Management Agreement, it shall be implemented for a period of Five (5) years (2015 – 2019). 1.1.3 Legal Authority for Preparation of the Plan Section 35 (1) of the Forests Act 2005 provides that every state, local authority and provisional forest shall be managed in accordance with a plan that complies with the requirement prescribed under the rules made under the Act. Being a state forest, Malava forest is required to comply with this clause. The Forests (Participation in Sustainable Forest Management) Rules, 2009 gives the guidelines for preparation of the plans. 1.1.4 Justification of the MPFMP Malava forest plays a significant role in the livelihoods of the majority of the community members adjacent to this forest and beyond hence their need to participate in its management and conservation. Section 46 of the Forests Act 2005 provides for registration of a community forest association under the Societies Act (Cap 108) and that it may apply to the Director of KFS for permission to participate in the management and conservation of a state owned forest. The Forests Act requires the application to be accompanied by a management plan or a draft management plan, hence the need to develop this MPFMP. 1.1.5 Purpose of the PFMP The Forest Management Plan is a requirement for Malava CFA to meet the conditions stipulated in Section 46 of the Forests Act 2005 for signing Forest Management Agreement with Kenya Forest Service (KFS). Besides, the plan will give guidelines for preparation and implementation of annual work plans and budgets for proper management of Malava forest in a participatory manner.

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1.1.6 Approach to Development of the Plan The process of developing the Malava PFMP was participatory and involved a number of key stakeholders. These include the forest adjacent community, through the Malava CFA, Kenya Forest Service, Kenya Wildlife Service, NEMA, Nature Kenya, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Water Resource Management Authority (WRMA), Ministry of Devolution and Planning and County Government of Kakamega. Members of the CFA were inducted through two trainings on the PFM processes in 2014. Community members were mobilized through barazas by the Interior and National Coordination Office on the need to have a management plan. Three village level sensitization meetings on preparation of PFMP were held the month of January 2015 at various locations in Malava. These were at Malava forest station in Matioli location, in Shitirira Village in Chimuche Location and the third at Bahai Centre of Township Location. Four day training for the local planning team and chief was conducted to engage in data collection on forest resources in April 2015. Socio-economic surveys were spearheaded by KEFRI assisted by community members as enumerators. Malava CFA and the Village elders were involved in mapping of well-being/wealth ranking of the forest adjacent community households. Biodiversity assessment of the forest was done by officers from KFS and KWS assisted by community scouts in May 2015. Both the biodiversity and socio-economic reports were presented to stakeholders in a feedback workshop on 29th May 2015. A small team from the LPT together with the secretariat convened a 3 day workshop in Kisumu to compile collected information and prepare zero draft in July 2015. In August 2015 the LPT went through the zero draft making, filling information gaps and prepared a first draft of the plan. The LPT held a meeting to share the draft with the key stakeholders, Malava CFA members and Forest adjacent community members for correction before proceeding further. Another LPT meeting was organized to incorporate inputs of stakeholders. The secretariat put u a firt draft which was shared again with stakeholders including the KFS management plans office at the headquarters in September 2015. With all comments incorporated, a final Malava PFMP draft was presented again to stakeholders for validation and final inputs on 1st October 2015. The draft was then sent for printin and approval by the Director of Kenya Forest Service. The whole process of developing this management plan was supported by Nature Kenya with funding from GEF/UNDP project. Some of the pictures taken during the plan development are presented in figures 1.1a, b and c.

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Figure 1.1a: Community Sensitization meeting at Malava Forest Station

Figure 1.1b: Malava LPT members during training on Socio-economic and Biodiversity survey

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Figure 1.1c: LPT members identify and map forest resources

1.1.7 Funding for developing and implementing MPFMP The preparation of the Malava Forest Participatory Management Plan was funded by GEF/UNDP through Nature Kenya under the project “Strengthening the Protected Area Network within the Eastern Montane Forest Hotspots of Kenya’’. The PFMP implementation will be funded by CFA, Kenya Forest Service, County Government of Kakamega, development partners and other stakeholders. The funding or support may be programme specific or may combine a number of them. 1.1.8: Structure of Malava CFA Malava CFA has a structure in the form shown in figure 1.2, which enable adequate members representation and ensures accountability in its functions.

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CFA EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

ADVISORY COMMITTEE CFA MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE

FOREST USER GROUPS AND COMMUNITY FOREST SCOUTS

CFA MEMBERS Figure 1.2: Malava CFA structure

1.2 DESCRIPTION OF MALAVA FOREST

1.2.1 Geographical location of Malava Forest Malava forest is in Central Kabras Division, Malava Sub-county (Kakamega North District), Kakamega County. The forest borders Butali sub-location to the North West, Mukavakava sub-location to the North East, Tande sub-location to the East, Musingu sub-location to the South East, Isanjiro sub-location to the South and Malanga sub-location to the South west. The forest is situated approximately 25 Km North of Kakamega town along Kakamega - Webuye road. It is positioned between the Latitudes 0˚26’54’’N and 0˚29’44’’N; and Longitudes 34˚50’15’’E and 34˚52’25’’E. The location map of the forest is in figure 1.3.

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Figure 1.3: Location map of Malava Forest

Source: KFS Survey section Malava forest is part of the Kakamega Forest Ecosystem together with Kakamaga, Kibiri, Bunyala and Kisere forests. Its position in the ecosystem map is as shown in figure 1.4.

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Figure 1.4: Map of Kakamega Forest Ecosystem showing position of Malava Forest

Source: BIOTA Atlas, 2010 1.2.2 The legal and administrative status of Malava Forest. Malava forest is a state forest managed by Kenya Forest Service having been gazetted under proclamation No.14 of 13th February 1933. It covers an area of 718.8 ha including an excision area of 4.5 ha for Malava Girls High School to the South West of the forest. It is divided into three administrative beats namely Makhwabuye, Shitirira and Fukoye for purposes of patrols by forest rangers. Page | 7 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


The administration center of the forest is Malava forest station which is situated about 200m to the left off the Malava-Webuye road at the edge of the forest. The Forest Station Manager is in charge of all operations, management and administrations of the forest. He reports to the Kakamega Ecosystem Conservator who in-turn reports to the Head of Western Conservancy. 1.2.3 Physical and Physiological description of the Forest The following are the physical and physiological characteristics of Malava forest. 1.2.3.1 Climate Malava forest area has two rainy seasons. It receives an average annual rainfall of about 2,000mm. The long rains normally come between the months of April to June while the short rains come between the months of September to November (see figure 1.5). This rainfall supports agricultural activities in the area almost throughout the year. The mean temperature is 20.40 C; with an average minimum of 140C while the mean maximum of 280C. February is usually the hottest month while July is the coldest.

Figure 1.5: Climate graph for Malava

Source: http://en.climate-data.org/location/922/ 1.2.3.2 Topography Malava forest is slightly more elevated than the surrounding area. The forest slope rises gently to the Eastwards with the highest part being just to the east of the Kakamega – Webuye road that passes through the forest. The lowest point is 1580m and the highest is 1660m above sea level.

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1.2.3.3 Geology The forest is characterized by the Nyanzian and Kavirondian rock formations which are volcanic of Precambrian age. The main rock formations include laterite, granite, rhyolite and meta–basalt overlaying the basement system. The basalts are partially intruded by diorite dykes to the North of the forest. 1.2.3.4 Soils The soils in Malava are medium brown to reddish brown loamy soil that that is slightly clayey and can moderately support agricultural activities. Closer to the forest the soils are dark brown loamy due to decomposing organic material derived from the forest vegetation. The soils have low PH (high acidity). 1.2.3.4 Hydrology The forest is generally on a higher altitude than the surrounding lands and is nearly dome shaped resulting in the area having a nearly radial drainage pattern. Several streams originate or pass through the forest to pour their water into River Nzoia on its way to Lake Victoria. Tande and Makwabuye streams exit forest to the West and join up to form Nambirima River. Several tributaries of Lusumu River originate just outside of the forest to the South West while Matiti (Lugusi) River exits to the North. 1.2.4 Biodiversity of Malava Forest Malava forest is one of the patches of Kakamega Forest Ecosystem. The Ecosystem whose origin is the Guinea – Congolian rain forest is home to many species that are related to the Central and West African flora and fauna. It has several endemic species of animals and plants that are of importance globally, i.e, threatened, endangered or endemic (Althof 2005). Biodiversity of Malava forest is closely related to that of the larger Kakamega forest both in species richness and composition. However, species abundance is relatively low in Malava as compared to the Kakamega forest. A biodiversity survey was carried out in the forest for the purpose of this PFMP. The transects used for data collection were in the positions indicated in the Figure 1.6.

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Figure 1.6: Google map showing transects in Malava forest biodiversity survey

1.2.4.1 The Flora of Malava Forest The flora of Malava forest is characteristic of mixed young regenerating forest and strands of plantation forest. The forest has high diversity of tree species. Originally the forest was dominated by Olea capensis, Diospyros abyssinica, Maesopsis eminii and Prunus africana which are a characteristic a primary forest. These are still present although in only a small parts of the forest to the South West area adjacent to Malava Girls, to the East of the Malava-Webuye road. These sites have very high biodiversity and big trees; some well over 100 years, and is therefore a good research and picnic sites. Their population, however, is not large enough to qualify as primary forests and therefore require conservation measures. In other sites the four dominant species are not abundant and have been replaced by Antiaris toxicaria, Croton megalocarpus and Funtumia africana which are classified as climax species in the early stages of succession, an indicator of past disturbances. The high abundance of fast growing species like Croton megalocarpus, Funtumia africana, Polyscias fulva and Trilepisium madagascariense in most parts of its natural forest is another evidence for the forest being a regenerating secondary forest following previous disturbance. Page | 10 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


Figure 1.7: Plate on Malava primary forest

The forest is home to threatened tree species, Elgon teak (Olea capensis) and Prunus africana which are species of special conservation concern as they are prone to over exploitation due to their high quality timber and medicinal value. Other key trees species in the area include: Croton megalocarpus, Bridelia mycrantha, Trichilia roka, Erythrina abyssinica, Prunus africana, Chrysophyllum albidum, Cordia africana, Spathodea nilotica, Markhamia lutea, Maesopsis eminii, Polyscias fulva, Acacia abyssinica, Vitex doniana, and Podocarpus spp. The list of tree species recorded and known in Malava Forest is in Appendix 1. The natural forest is concentrated in the Compartment 2 (Makhwabuye beat) which has the main primary forest and other secondary forest. Large part of this area is dominated by Bischofia javanica which was planted but reverted to natural forest due to high biodiversity. Currently forest plantation is mainly in compartment 1 (Shitirira beat) and 3 (Fukoye beat). 1.2.4.2 Description of the Fauna of Malava Forest Malava forest being part of the Kakamega Forest Ecosystem is endowed with high biodiversity of animals. It is therefore ideal for adventure because of the many baboons and monkeys which are always seen crossing the road. Mammals Malava forest has high diversity of primates, with monkeys and baboons being the most conspicuous group of mammals in the forest. The Blue Monkey (Cercopithecus Page | 11 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


mitis stuhlmanni), the Red-tailed Monkey (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), and the Black-and-white Colobus Monkey (Colobus guereza) are the most common. Olive baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis) are also present in the forest and are well known as pests in the farms adjacent to the forest and are a common scene along the Kakamega– Webuye highway, plucking and chewing sugarcane on transit to West Kenya and Butali sugar companies. Pottos (Perodicticus potto ibeanus), although probably fairly common and widespread, are nocturnal and much harder to detect. The other mammals that are not commonly observed but are present include the two species of duikers – Red Duiker and Blue Duiker, Squirrel, hare, mongoose, bushbuck, porcupine and wild pig. Appendix 2 shows the list of these animals with both local and common names.

Fig.1.8: Plate on Olive baboon in Malava forest

Reptiles The Malava Forest is said to harbor a unique assemblage of snake species many of them of West African origin due to its proximity to Kakamega forest. They include Green Mamba, Jameson´s Mamba, Forest Cobra, Prickly Bush Viper, Gaboon Viper, Rhinoceros Viper and Puff Adder. The forest also has multi-scaled Forest Lizard among other reptiles. Refer to appendix 3 for details. Birds The forest has a close association to the Equatorial Rainforest of Kakamega which is home to the globally endangered Chapin’s Flycatcher and Turner’s Eremomela but these have not been recorded in Malava forest. However, some regionally threatened species include: Brown-chested Alethe, Red-tailed Bristlebill, Whitetailed Ant Thrush, Equatorial Akalat, Grey-winged Robin, African Thrush, Yellowspotted Barbet, Black-and-white-casqued Hornbill, Least Honey-guide, Brownchested Illadopsis, Cassin’s Honeybird, Ross's Turaco, Senegal Coucal and Cardinal Wood-pecker. Refer to appendix 4 for a full list of birds of Malava forest. Page | 12 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


Most of the bird species are found in mixed indigenous tree species. Most of these bird species are crucial for the forest ecosystem as most tree species depend on them for pollination and seed dispersal, most notably the Black-and-white-casqued Hornbill (Bycanistes subcylindricus). It was noted that in disturbed habitats remnant fruiting trees generally attract frugivorous birds which are important seed-dispersal agents thus help to maintain ecological processes in these degraded habitats. Invertebrates Being that the conditions in this forest are similar to the adjacent Kakamega rainforest, the number of insect species is probably in the tens of thousands. Several species of insects including butterflies, moths, termites, dragonflies, etc have been observed but have not been studied and described. Goliath Beetle, one of the largest beetles in the world has also been observed in the forest. These invertebrates have various importance to the forest ecosystem and the surrounding farmlands in among others pollination and decomposition.

1.3 DESCRIPTION OF FOREST RESOURCES

1.3.1 Stocking of the forest Malava forest being part of the larger Kakamega forest Ecosystem was originally a natural forest mainly composed of high indigenous trees species like Olea capensis, Diospyros abyssinica, Maesopsis eminii and Prunus africana. However, deforestation and pressures on the forest land resulted in clearing of the natural vegetation on large parts of the forest and replanting with exotic commercial tree species, Cupressus lusitanica, Pinus patula, Eucalyptus saligna and Bischofia javanica. A comprehensive survey on stocking of the natural vegetation has not been done. The distribution of plantation forest is as shown in Figure 1.9 and the stocking is presented in Appendix 7. 1.3.2 Non-wood forest products The main non-wood forest products found in Malava forest include: Honey- Beekeeping in Malava has been practiced from time immemorial. The traditional beekeepers used simple hives often made from hollowed logs hives which they placed up on trees, become. They harvest using fire, a method that risks destroying the colony, lead to poor yield and low quality honey, besides being risk to starting wild forest fires. However, some of the beekeepers in Malava have adopted improved beehives Kenya top bar and langstroth hives (Figure 1.10) and use of technology in honey harvesting. Within the forest there is an apiary site in Makhwabuye beat. The demand for honey in the locality and other towns is ever high for food and medicinal purposes therefore beekeeping is of high potential for income generation. Mondia whytei-: This climber plant is common in all forests in Kakamega forest ecosystem. Its roots are consumed by chewing or powdered form in beverages for its medicinal value, as appetizers and aphrodisiac. To address the rising demand, Page | 13 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


the plant is being domesticated and planted by many community members in their farms.

Figure 1.9: Map of Malava Forest showing plantation areas

Mushrooms-: The community around Malava forest value mashrooms for their nutritional value. They grow naturally in parts of the forest, notably near Fukoye and Makwabuye beats, especially during the rainy season of March- April. People collect for food at home and sell the excess in the nearby Malava town. Commercial mushroom farming to satisfy the demand is also a potential area.

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Figure 1.10: Beekeeping project by Malava CFA

Termites-: The Luhya community is known for their preference to termites as delicacy. The people living close to Malava forest value to forest for this purpose due to numerous anthills within. The insects are most common during the short rainy season of August upto November. People collect to eat at home and others sell in town. Herbal medicine-: The Malava communities use many of the tree and other shrub and herbs species for medicinal purposes. Some of the most common species are describe here: •

Croton megalocarpus (Omusine) –It takes 10 to 25 years to mature, may occur in mixed farming systems, woodlots, boundaries and, agro forestry systems. The seed contains up to 32% oils, which have been used favorably as medicine. Bark is used as a remedy for worms and whooping cough. Prunus africana (Mwisia)–It is a valuable timber and medicinal tree has more recently come under heavy pressure for wild harvest for timber and bark extraction, as there is a fast growing market for the bark. Leaves and twigs contain the same medicinal properties as the bark; so it can be harvested sustainably while coppicing the tree in agroforestry systems. The active ingredients in Prunus africana are effective treatment for prostate cancer (enlarged prostate gland), ailments that affect about 60% of men over the age of 50. Traditional healers also use the bark in treatment of stomach ache and wound dressing, infusion of leaves is used to improve appetite, treatment of both bacterial and non-bacterial chronic prostesis and genital infection. Trichilia emetica (Munyama) is used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such as abdominal pains, dermatitis, haemorrhoids, jaundice and chest pain. This species also known as Natal Mahogany is used for its emetic, diuretic and purgative properties and for induction of labour. The extensive traditional Page | 15

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•

use of this species has encouraged scientists to explore several biological activities including anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, antischistosomal, antiplasmodial, anticonvulsant, antitrypanosomal, anti-oxidant, antitussive, antimutagenic and hepatoprotective properties. Several limonoids have been isolated from the stem bark. Zanthoxylum gilletii (Shikhuma) - The species is used for medicine especially the bark. The bark of stem and roots is commonly used as an analgesic, especially to treat burns, rheumatism, headache, stomach-ache, toothache and pain after childbirth. The bark is also taken against colic and fever and is considered to have aphrodisiac properties. Bark decoctions are taken against urogenital problems including kidney complaints and gonorrhoea, as a vermifuge and as an enema against severe diarrhoea. The bark is applied externally to treat cough, colds, skin complaints and smallpox. It is also used as fish poison and arrow poison. The leaves are used to treat heart pains and snake bites.

Grass for livestock-: Some of the Forest Adjacent Communities depend on the forest for grass for their livestock. Some graze their sheep and cattle in the designated grazing areas eg. Makwabuye beat, while others cut and carry the grass from Fukoye and Harambee areas. The communities are allowed to graze in open unplanted areas and under mature plantations. Sand and marrum harvesting-: These natural resources occur in parts of the forest and the community can access to use in building and also sell to generate income. Sand can be accessed along some streams and rivers e.g in Fukoye, while marrum is usually excavated in parts of Fukoye and Muhoni area. Besides, a good soil for brick making is also accessed in Fukoye area. Water-: The forest provides water catchment for various streams emanating and passing through it. These provide water for industries, domestic, irrigation and livestock consumption. There are livestock watering points at Makhwabuye along Tande and Makwabuye streams. There are also various springs for water collection and Lugusi spring in Harambee has high potential for water bottling. Other minor forest products in Malava include soil for smearing mud walls, Clay for pottery, palm leaves, fruit from trees, grass for thatching, forest soils, tree seeds. 1.3.3 Forest infrastructure and equipment The infrastructure and equipment in Malava forest are as follows; Roads-: the roads in Malava forest are fairly accessible although some area not regularly maintained. The access roads that are under the jurisdiction of the County government passing through the forest are usually well marrumed and therefore accessible throughout the year. However, forest roads those are exclusively under KFS usually in poor state due to non-maintenance. The roads in Malava forest and their conditions are hereby listed in the Table 1.1

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Table 1.1: Road in Malava forest and their conditions

Road Malava – Makwabuye Malava- Fukoye Tande- Fukoye Muhoni- Harambee Duka moja- forest station Malava girls – forest station

Length (Km) 2.5 5 2 2 0.2 2.5

Condition

Authority

well marrumed well marrumed Poor/ needs culvert Poor Poor

County government County government KFS KFS KFS

Proposed; along forest boundary

KFS, County government

Firefighting equipment-: Historically, incidences of fire outbreaks have been relatively low and the few that occur occasionally happen during the dry spell (December to February). More often than not, the outbreaks are associated with those grazing in the forest and those collecting honey from trees in the forest (not using modern methods of honey harvesting). The forest station, however, does not have fire towers or firefighting equipment. During fire incidences, the members of community are mobilized to assist fight the fire. Forest scouts and forest rangers are responsible for surveillance are raising alarm in cases of outbreaks. Vehicles and Machinery-: the forest station has no vehicle but only one serviceable motorbike used by forest rangers for patrols. The CFA has one motorbike donated by Nature Kenya through GEF/UNDP Project in 2012. These are inadequate for the transport requirement in the station. Buildings-: the station has inadequate housing for both offices and staff. It has only one office block with 4 rooms and two residential houses for forest rangers. The building are old and in need of renovation (Figure 1.11a). The forester, assistant, some forest rangers and subordinate staff are not housed in the station due to inadequate housing units. Electricity-: the forest station is within the main electricity grid that serves Malava town, market centers and the surrounding schools. The station however has not been connected. Communication-: Malava forest station is well served with the main mobile service providers’ network although some parts of the forest do not receive good network coverage. There is no infrastructure for radio communication hence forest rangers use mobile/ cell phones for communication. There is need to avail radio gadgets for forest rangers to use especially during patrols. Water-: There is no connection to the main water supply. The station’s tree nursery uses a portable water pump used to pump water from a nearby stream and store in a 10,000 litres tank at the station.

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Figure 1.11a: Malava forest station office block

. Equipment and Office furniture-: Furniture in the station office and require replacement. There is no computer due to lack of electricity. The CFA has one computer with accessories, office desk, chairs, cabinet at a rented office due to lack of electricity in the station (Figures 1.11b and 1.11c). Health facility-: The forest has no health facility within the forest station. The staff members and their families go to Malava Sub-county hospital. The station needs good sets of toilet faculties for both office and residents. Tree nursery-: There are two tree nurseries in Malava forest station managed by KFS and Malava CFA (Figure 1.12d). The tree nurseries need to be expanded to produce more seedlings and act as training and demonstration sites.

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Figure 1.11b: Plate on Malava CFA receiving motorbike procured through GEF/UNDP project

Figure 1.11c: Plate on Malava CFA Chairman receiving office furniture from Nature Kenya officer

Figure 1.11d: Plate on tree nursery at Malava Forest Station

1.3.4 Human resources The current staff establishment is as shown in Table 1.2. The Forest Station Manager and Kenya Forest Service rangers are trained in their area of operation that is forest protection and management. The support staffs have also undergone basic training on issues relating to their duties. However, refresher courses are highly recommended. The Community forest scouts have received training sponsored by GEF/UNDP and CDTF-CEF II funded projects but there is need to train eleven more Page | 19 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


and provide them with uniforms, gumboots and raincoats. More advanced training in forest patrol is also needed. Table 1.2: The current and proposed Human resource establishment in Malava Forest Station

Designation Forest station manager

Current number 1

Proposed number 1

Assistant Forest Manager

1

1

KFS forest rangers

4

10

Support staff

5

10

Clerical officer

0

1

Driver Store man

0 0

1 1

Community Scouts

7

18

There is need to increase the current staff numbers as indicated in the Table 1.2 above; most of the current staff requires further training in various aspects. There is need to put emphasis on advancement in knowledge and skills by identifying the individual skills required for continuous improvement and to provide opportunities for the staff to strengthen the skills required. There is need to improve the conditions at their work place by providing the best tools, equipment and devices that enhance their efficiency and productivity. The welfare and living conditions of the staff should also be improved. 1.3.5 History of the forest The area was inhabited by the Kabras people, a sub-tribe of the Luhya community of Western Kenya who settled there in the 1700s. They utilized the forest resources for food, building materials and medicine with little restrictions save for individual integrity and village elders. The forest ecosystem was a habitat to enormous number of both plants and animals, including; wild pigs (Luhya: tsimbitsi), Buffaloes (Luhya: tsimbogo), Baboons (Luhya: Tsinguche), Leopards (Luhya: Ingwe), Black mambas (Luhya: naluru), Quail birds (Luhya: isindu) etc., and many indigenous plant species like Elgon teak-Olea capensis. In 1914 a white missionary called Johnson (later nicknamed ‘Shikanga’ by natives) settled in the area from Kaimosi. In his tour of the forest he was mesmerized by the unique clear view through the forest floor below the thick canopy. The locals referred to this as ‘Mwalava’, a Luhya word loosely translated as ‘clean/ clear surface’. Johnson Shikanga adopted that name for the forest, pronouncing it Malava. He initiated road projects that transverse the forest. Page | 20 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


The forest resource was free for all until 1932 when it was delineated by the colonial government who put up becons around the forest and restricted access by the locals. The forest was gazetted and declared government property in full support of Chief Mulupi Shitanda, but this did not go well with the majority of the locals leading to some sneaking in to remove building poles at night. Serious forest destruction by human activities such as the mass logging occurred between 1941 and 1948 when indigenous trees such as elgon teak, fukoye, Trichilia metica (munyama), Diospyros abbysinica (lusui) e.t.c. were cut and removed for various purposes.

Figure 1.12: Plate on elders give out history of Malava forest

At about 1949 the government embarked in reforestation programme with labour from people ferried mainly from Central Kenya and lived in forest villages. They established plantations of mainly Bischofia javonica. However, the programme was interrupted due to MAU MAU movement as most of the labourers were taken back between 1952 and 1953. Some however remained as squatters and settled in the place named ‘Wakamau’ adjacent to the forest to the East of the station. There was a major forest fire in 1957 that destroyed sections of Makhwabuye, Malanga and Fukoye. Later the forest suffered excision in the early 1980s for construction of Malava Girls Secondary School and loss of quite significant number of initially found biota. 1.4 THREATS AND CONSTRAINTS

1.4.1 Threats Malava forest faces several threats to conservation and production efforts. These include overgrazing and livestock destruction of planted trees, encroachment and alteration of forest boundaries, illegal activities like charcoal burning, removal of Page | 21 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


fire wood and trees for timber, population pressure leading to human- wildlife conflicts. 1.4.2 Management Constraints Some of the management constraints being witnessed in Malava forest include: • Inadequate personnel and training. There is need to recruit a driver, a clerical officer and a storekeeper as well as additional community forest scouts. This would help to address the problem of understaffing and role overlap. In addition regular staff retraining would sharpen their skills and improve on service delivery and enhance customer satisfaction. • Lack of necessary and appropriate building and equipment: the forest station lacks adequate building and amenities to make the staff comfortable and efficient at work. There is in no electric power to the station and the road network is in a dilapidated state. There is no piped water system and there is heavy reliance on rain water and water from streams/rivers. • Other constraints: the station lacks proper means of transport as there is no vehicle. Sources of funding for income generating activities are limited leading to over exploitation of forest resources by the neighbouring communities. Table 1.3: Summary of the management constraints

Major constraints Inadequate staff Inadequate of utility services e.g housing, vehicles, water supply, communication and electricity. Inadequate rangers’ outpost Insufficient office space and furniture

Minor constraints Inadequate incentives to community scouts Inadequate training in forest management Technologies such as lack of computer technology and Radio sets Lack of fire towers and firefighting equipment

1.5 VALUES OF MALAVA FOREST

The forest adjucent community attaches a number of values on the forest. These are economic, cultural, social, religious/spiritual and moral. Forest plantations are the main source for revenue generation for KFS and source of timber for the community and round wood industrial development. The forest is source of energy for the community. Noting that the majority of the sorrounding community are poor, they primarily depend on fuel-wood from the forest for heating, cooking and sometimes lighting. Some others collect extra fuelwood for sale,hence the community view the forest as an important source of those products. Grazing of animals. The forest has glades and mature plantation areas where grazing of livestock is allowed. These are upto 40ha have been zoned for communities to graze their animals and include area in Fukoye beat. Page | 22 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


The forest is also valued highly for its water catchment impotance. It is part of the Lake Victoria basin as several streams orginate within or just close to the forest and these provide the water for livestock, domestic use and irrigation by noth the local community and beyond. Malava forest is habitat to high number of plants and animals. These have various importance, some of which have not been exhaustively studied hence not known. The forest is therefore valued for ecotourism and scientific researches. The forest has a research area of about 3ha established by ICRAF for progeny (provenance) trials which is now managed by KEFRI. Leisure walks within the forest is common as people take break from hustles of life to refresh in the forest. The forest is used for spiritual purposes as people go to the forest to meditate and connect to the super natural being in the peaceful atmosphere. Besides the local Kabras people use it for various cultural rites.

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CHAPTER 2.0 SOCIO-ECONOMIC DESCRIPTION This section describes the social, economic and cultural characteristics of the community adjacent and dependent on Malava forest. Amongst the community socio-economic attributes captured include: household and family sizes, education levels, employment status and types, average daily household expenditure, average monthly income, main sources of income amongst other socio-economic aspects of the community members. Dependence on the forest by the community was also assessed together with other benefits associated with forest resources. All these were assessed in relation to Malava forest. 2.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE ADJACENT COMMUNITIES

The Luhya is the main ethnic group in Malava with the Kabras subtribe being dominant in the area. The other sub-tribes in the area the Maragoli, Tachoni, Bukusu and Isukha. The forest adjacent areas have high population with a total of 17,594 people and density of 572 in the six sub locations surrounding the forests. See table 2.1. Table 2.1: Population in Forest Adjacent Communities

Households (No) Butali 3,647 756 Mukavakava 3,230 578 Tande 3,928 836 Musingu 2,530 490 Isanjiro 1,954 519 Malanga 2,305 487 Total 17,594 3,666 Source: Kenya National bureau of statistics 2009 census Sub-Location

Population (No)

Density (No/Km2) 397 451 423 460 736 966 572

Most of the people (over 50%) in Malava have an average land size of between 1-3 acres, however majority of the very rich have up to more than 8ac. Eighty one percent (81%) are married while the rest are widowed (11%), divorced/separated (1%) or single (7%). The literacy level is high with 74% of population having at least standard 5 level of education (Figure 2.1).

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Figure 2.1: Level of education of household heads

The Malava community categorized themselves in the four well-being categories (very rich, rich, poor and very poor) based on the criteria shown in appendix 6. The poor were sixty percent (60%), very poor (22%), rich (12%) and very rich (6%). This implies that most of the community members are poor. The dominant roofing material is corrugated iron sheet, grass-thatched houses were most common for over 18% of the very poor and 12% of the poor (Figure 2.2).

Figure 2.2: The material used for roofing houses in Malava

2.2 DESCRIPTION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

In terms of occupation and livelihood characteristics (Figure 2.3), most community members are subsistence farmers (75%); others are registered wage earners (10%), casual workers (5%) and traders (4%). This is shown in Figure 2.3.

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Figure 2.3: Occupational characteristics of Malava community

About 61% of land in Malava is not registered under the name of the occupant and most of this land 84% is inherited family land thus it is usually divided amongst mainly sons of the household head. The main cash crop in Malava is sugarcane in 69% of the households whereas others are horticultural crops. The main subsistence crops are maize and sweet potatoes. Other crops also used as subsistence include beans, cassava, millet, yams, wheat, arrow roots and bananas. Among all well-being categories, over 60% of the farms do not satisfy the family food demand for the whole year. Most of the families supplement the deficit by buying from the market (66%), market/leasing land (18%) and cultivating in the forest (10%).This implies that the forest through PELIS plays an important role in food security to this community. The produce from the plot in forest were used for domestic use and for sale. For those not having a plot to cultivate in the forest (Figure 2.4), it was noted that the very rich hardly had a plot to cultivate while the poor and the very poor had the larger shares. The main reasons given for not having a plot to cultivate in the forest were lack of a plot, lack of money to rent that plot, lack of information and long distance to the forest. In order to ensure the community participation in forest management, deliberate efforts to involve them may be encouraged through CFA.

Figure 2.4: Having a plot for cultivation in the forest

The average number of various domestic animals in Malava is summarized in Table 2.2. The main reason for keeping cattle is milk production, income to the farmer and Page | 26 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


manure. Other reasons for keeping animals are for meat, cultural significance such as marriage and ploughing. These animals are mainly grazed on-farm only (56%), in the forest (17%), and along road reserves (9%). Over 61% of respondents had space for growing fodder for their animals. This area was between 1-12ac while others plant on the terraces. The area allocated to fodder in most cases is small because of competition for land for other uses particularly subsistence farming and cash crops such as sugarcane. Fodder supply from the farms does not satisfy the demand throughout the year except for 18% of the respondents. The season with serious deficit was the dry season thus a need to store some fodder/silage in wet season for use during this period. Beekeeping in Malava has low adoption as reflected by the number of people having beehives. Table 2.2: Livestock owned by the respondents

Livestock Cattle Goat Sheep Donkey Poultry Bees Other

N 121 110 112 108 123 109 108

Maximum 22 24 6 0 100 6 5

Mean 3.2 0.7 0.3 0 8.6 0.2 0.2

Std. Deviation 4.1 3.0 1.0 0 11.2 1.0 0.8

Current utilization of wood and non-wood forest products Most of respondents (92%) in Malava live within 2km from the forest. About 62% visit that forest weekly for various reasons (Figure 2.5). The very poor and the poor visit the forest more frequently than any other category suggesting that they depend on the forest more than other categories (Figure 2.6). Thus any forest intervention introduced in that area should take their interest into consideration.

Figure 2.5: Frequency of visiting the forest by forest adjacent community in Malava

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Figure 2.6: Frequency of visiting the forest by well-being categories

51% of those who had visited the forest indicated that the forest cover status had increased while (43%) indicated that it had decreased. However, 46% indicated that the increase in forest cover was due to protection while others indicated that the forest cover had decreased due to encroachment, human settlement (44%) and poaching (10%). The people who had never visited the forest (64%) indicated that the benefits which they may derive from the forest include water catchment, forest products, PELIS and ecotourism (Figure 2.7).

Figure 2.7: Likely benefits mentioned by people who have never visited Malava forest

2.3 COOKING ENERGY CONSUMPTION

The main types of cooking fuel are firewood (74%) and charcoal (15%). Most of the fuel wood used is produced on-farm (72%) whereas 28% comes from the forest. One bag of charcoal is used for 1-2 weeks by 63% of the respondents. Family size does not seem to have an effect in the time taken to consume a bag of charcoal Page | 28 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


(Figure 2.8). The species preferred for firewood and charcoal are Eucalyptus spp, Grevillea robusta and indigenous species.

a)

b)

Figure 2.8: Consumption of a bag of charcoal bag: a) Overall and b) by family size.

Majority of the population use firewood at the rate of 1-2 head-loads per week but there are those use more 5 head-loads per week (Figure 2.9).

Figure 2.9: Number of head-loads of firewood consumed per week in Malava

The majority of community members are aware of the energy saving devices (62%); however, only 38% have used an energy saving jiko in their homes. Among those who have used these jikos; 53% (rich), 50% (very rich), 39% (poor) and 28% (very poor) suggesting that the very rich and rich can easily adopt new technology compared to other categories. The challenges of not using energy saving jikos were noted as lack of information on jikos (36%), inefficiency of jikos (32%), its ineffectiveness (22%), high price (5%) and hard to light (5%). 2.4 COMMUNITY UTILIZATION OF FOREST PRODUCT

The community members living around Malava forest depend a lot on a variety of resources from the forest, both wood and non-wood products for food and income Page | 29 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


generation. The list of forest products commonly used by the Malava community is in Table 2.4. Table 2.4: The wood and non-wood products accessed by the Malava forest community members

Wood-products Firewood Timber Withes Farm hand-tools Building poles

Non-wood products Honey Mushrooms White ants (‘kumbe kumbe’) Herbal medicine Grass for animals and thatching Fish

Services Water Carbon-sequestration Eco-tourism Scenic/aesthetic value Soil conservation Habitat for birds, reptiles and primates

2.5 WATER AND SANITATION

The main sources of water are spring and borehole (Figure 2.10). The other sources are stream, well, rain and piped water. For human waste disposal, pit latrines were the most common type used; the use of septic tank and main sewer was rare. Use of the bush as a means of human waste disposal was recorded among the poor and very poor categories (Figure 2.11). This calls for a deliberate effort to improve sanitation (of building latrines) among the poor and very poor by the relevant department in Kakamega County.

Figure 2.10: Source of water for domestic use by wellbeing category

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Figure 2.11: Main types of human waste disposal by well-being categories in Malava

2.6 WORKING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN KFS AND MALAVA COMMUNITY

82% of the community indicated that there is a good working relationship between KFS and the community in Malava. The impact of this relationship is reflected on the activities community undertook to promote environmental conservation such as raising tree seedlings and plantation establishment (37%), assisting in fighting forest fires and community policing by reporting those who participate in illegal activities in the forest (25%) as shown in Figure 2.12.

Figure 2.12: Impact of good relationship between community and KFS in Malava

2.7 TREE PLANTING IN MALAVA

About 53% of respondents had planted trees in the forest within the last five years and the tree species they planted included Markhamia lutea, Cupressus lusitanica, Page | 31 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019


Bischofia javanica, Zanthoxylum gillettii (Eshikhuma), Eucalyptus, Cordia africana and Syzygium guineense (Emisemwa). The most common trees on farms in Malava are Eucalyptus spp, Markhamia lutea, Cupressus lusitanica, Grevillea robusta and Persea americana (Avocado). The dominant fruits trees on farms are avocado, guava, pawpaw, mangoes and constitute 46% of the total fruit trees. The most common indigenous trees planted were Markhamia lutea and Croton megalocarpus among others. The most widespread exotic species in the area were Eucalyptus spp, Grevillea robusta and Cupressus lusitanica. However, naturally regenerating species are Markhamia lutea, Psidium guajava and Croton megalocarpus. The main reasons for planting trees included firewood, charcoal and income (42%). Fifty seven (57%) indicated that trees on their farms met their demand for various products while 43% of the respondents, trees on their farms did not satisfy their demand for various forest products hence got products from outside the farm. Eighty nine percent (89%) of respondents have plans to plant more trees in their farms, the tree species they intend to plant were Eucalyptus spp, Grevillea robusta, Cupressus lusitanica and Pinus patula among others.

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CHAPTER 3.0 STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS Stakeholders play various important roles in the management and utilization of resources in Malava forest. The important stakeholders range from local groups, government institutions, Non-governmental organizations, research institutions, private companies and the county governments. The integration and good working relationship of different stakeholders would ensure: • Resource ownership • Promotion of environmental accountability • Collective decision making • Sustained long-term resource management on sustainable basis • Strengthened social security, respected traditional user-rights and access Table 3.1 Stakeholders indicating their roles and responsibilities

Stakeholder Kenya Forest Service

Category Primary

Malava CFA

Primary

Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS)

Primary

County government of Kakamega

Primary

Roles and responsibilities Forest management Policy formulation, Enforcement of the Forest Act 2005 Awareness and sensitization Financing operations and resource mobilization Licensing of access and use of forests Monitoring and Evaluation Ecotourism development in the forest Forest Protection (through community scouts) Conflicts resolution Raising seedling and tree planting Community mobilization Resource mobilization Sensitization and awareness Manage IGAs (ecotourism etc) Protection of wildlife Human-wildlife conflicts resolution Enforcement of Wildlife Conservation and Management Act 2013 Wildlife enterprise licensing Roads improvement and maintenance Cess collection Infrastructure in intervention

Remarks Key implementer of the PFMP with Community

Key implementer of the PFMP in partnership with KFS. CFA to sign FMA with KFS

Key stakeholder

Key stakeholder

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Stakeholder

Category

NGOs (e.g Nature Kenya)

Primary

Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (under County Government)

Secondary

Min. of Interior and National Coordination (Deputy County Commissioner, Asst.County Commissioner, Chiefs, Asst.Chief National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) Research Institutions (KEFRI, KALRO,KIRDI, NMK, Universities)

Secondary

Secondary

Secondary

WRMA and WRUAs Secondary

Financial institutions

Secondary

Roles and responsibilities zones Forest extension services Soil and water conservation Waste management Financing IGAs Participation in development process. Advocacy on constitutional rights to clean and healthy environment. Funds mobilization to support IGAs for conservation Resources mobilization. Promote modern and appropriate crop and livestock production practices within the Malava Promotion of on-farm forestry Soil and water conservation Mobilization and sensitization Maintenance of law and order Conflict resolution and management

Enforcement of EMCA 1999 Awareness creation on Regulation of environmental laws To carry out research on factors/issues and problems that affect the physical, biological, chemical, social and economic environment Capacity building/ training Conservation of water catchments Enforcement of water Act 2002 Education (awareness creation) Provide credit facilities and banking services Exercise Corporate Social

Remarks

Engage relevant NGOs

Key stakeholder

To collaborate with KFS, KWS, Malava CFA and other stakeholders in promoting security of forest resources

Resuch findings to be effectively dessiminated and adopted

Advice on proper management of water resources

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Stakeholder

Category

Sugar milling Companies (Mumias, West Kenya and Butali)

Secondary

Roles and responsibilities Remarks Responsibility by supporting forest conservation Infrastucture development Supporting Conservation activities Provide employement and market to sugurcane- a livelihood to forest adjucent communities. Exercise Corporate Social Responsibility by supporting forest conservation

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CHAPTER 4.0 MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

VISION,

OBJECTIVES

AND

This Participatory Forest Management Plan for Malava forest offers opportunity for the Forest Adjacent community and other stakeholders to get involved in planning, management and utilization of the forest with the aim of improving livelihoods, ecosystem health and conserving for the future. The plan will ensure: • Conservation goals are attained with minimum conflicts between the managing institutions, the communities and the other stakeholders involved. • Inclusion of the forest adjacent communities through the CFA and the other stakeholders in decision making. • Livelihood improvement. • Resource distribution • Sustainable forest management 4.1 VISION FOR MALAVA FOREST

To be the best co–managed, developed and sustainably utilized forest in the region 4.2 OVERALL OBJECTIVE

To enhance participation in the management of Malava Forest for the delivery of the desired socio-economic and environmental benefits to the people Specific objectives 1. Contribute to poverty reduction, employment creation and improvement of livelihoods through sustainable use, conservation and management of forests and tree resources. 2. Promote the participation of all stakeholders in forest management and conservation of water catchment areas. 3. Promote forestry extension to increase forest products from farms and institutions for income and easing pressure on forests. 4. Promote forest research, training and education to ensure a vibrant forest sector. 4.3 PLAN CONSIDERATIONS

4.3.1 Policies and legal framework Sustainable conservation and management of Malava forest will depend on the accurate situation analysis, the enabling policy and legislative framework and the management measures put in place to redress challenges facing the forest. The government’s commitment to conserve and sustainably manage natural resource is clear and has been demonstrated through promotion of awareness creation and enactment of various laws and implementation of relevant policies. Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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4.3.1.1 The Constitution of Kenya, 2010 Section 67 of the Constitution gives every person the right to clean and safe environment which is to be protected for the benefit both the present and the future generation. This constitution enshrines a number of rights that every citizen enjoys, one of which, in Section 42, is to have the environment protected for the benefit of present and future generations through legislative and other measures. Under Section 69, the Constitution also obligates the State in respect of the environment to: a) ensure sustainable exploitation, utilization, management and conservation of the environment and natural resources, and ensure the equitable sharing of accruing benefits; b) work to achieve and maintain a tree cover of at least ten per cent of the land area of Kenya; c) protect and enhance intellectual property in, and indigenous knowledge of, biodiversity and the genetic resources of the communities; d) encourage public participation in the management, protection and conservation of the environment; e) protect genetic resources and biological diversity; f) establish systems of environmental impact assessment, environmental audit and monitoring of the environment; g) eliminate processes and activities that are likely to endanger the environment; and h) Utilise the environment and natural resources for the benefit of the people of Kenya. It also gives every person a duty to cooperate with State organs and other persons to protect and conserve the environment and ensure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources. 4.3.1.2 Forests Act, 2005 The Forests Act, 2005 is the guiding legislation in forestry sector. There is also a draft forest policy that has guided forestry in Kenya. The Forests Act, 2005 requires that all forests be managed through approved management plans and participation of stakeholders. Communities living adjacent to the Malava Forest have a provision to enter into a management agreement with the Kenya Forest Service. The Forests Act, 2005 provides for stakeholder participation in forest management. It recognizes Community Forest Associations (CFAs) as major stakeholders in the management and conservation of forests and provides for their participation through joint management agreements, as well as representation in Forest Conservation Committees. Joint management arrangements will be developed to ensure communities benefit, while protecting the forest estate for purposes of water, soil and bio-diversity conservation, carbon sequestration and sustainable production of wood and non-wood forest products. Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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There are various sections of this Act that provide for guidelines and opportunites for participatory forest management and conservation. These provisions allow for the Director KFS with the approval of the Board to enter into an agreement with any person for joint management of any forest which may enjoin such person to use or refrain from using such forest or any part thereof in a particular manner in order to ensure the conservation of biodiversity. The Act also allows a member of a forest community together with other members or persons resident in the same area, to register a community forest association under the Societies Act, which may apply to the Director for Permission to participate in the conservation and management of a state forest or local authority forest in accordance with the provisions of this Act. Where there is no management plan in respect of the area, or where the association proposes that there be a new management plan, the application shall be accompanied by a draft management plan. The Forests Act, 2005 is the guiding legislation in forestry sector. It is however under review to align itself to the Constitution of Kenya 2010. 4.3.1.3 Sessional Paper No 1 of 2007 on Forest Policy The objectives of the Draft forest policy are to:(a) Contribute to poverty reduction, employment creation and improvement of livelihoods through sustainable use, conservation and management of forests and trees; (b) Contribute to sustainable land use through soil, water and biodiversity conservation, and tree planting through the sustainable management of forests and trees; (c) Promote the participation of the private sector, communities and other stakeholders in forest management to conserve water catchment areas, create employment, reduce poverty and ensure the sustainability of the forest sector; (d) Promote farm forestry to produce timber, wood fuel and other forest products; (e) Promote forest extension to enable farmers and other forest stakeholders to benefit from forest management approaches and technologies; and (f) Promote forest research, training and education to ensure a vibrant forest sector. 4.3.1.4 Sessional Paper No. 6 of 1999 on Environment and Development Every person in Kenya is entitled to a clean and healthy environment and has a duty to safeguard and enhance the environment. As envisioned in the paper, Kenya should strive to move along the path of sustainable development which aims at meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of the resource base to meet those of future generations. The overall goal is hence to integrate environmental concerns into the national planning and management processes and provide guidelines for environmentally sustainable development. The draft environmental policy is geared towards sound environmental management for sustainable development. This is envisaged in the principle of Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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prudent use, which requires that the present day usage should not “compromise the needs of the future generations”. The policy envisages the use of the “polluter pays principle”, where one is expected to make good any damage made to the environment. The policy aims at integrating environmental aspects into national development plans. The broad objectives of the national environmental policy include: • Optimal use of natural land and water resources in improving the quality of human environment; • Sustainable use of natural resources to meet the needs of the present generations while preserving their ability to meet the needs of future generations; • Integration of environmental conservation and economic activities into the process of sustainable development; and • Meet national goals and international obligations by conserving bio-diversity, arresting desertification, mitigating effects of disasters, protecting the ozone layer and maintaining an ecological balance on earth. 4.3.1.5 The National Land Policy The National Land Policy adopted by the cabinet as Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2009, acknowledges environmental problems faced by Kenya. These include degradation of natural resources such as forests, wildlife, water, marine and coastal resources as well as soil erosion and the pollution of air, water and land. In its section 129 the policy provides for ecosystem protection, urban environment management, environmental assessment and audits to be undertaken to conserve and manage the environment. 4.3.1.6 Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA), 1999 Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act No. 8 of 1999, provide a legal and institutional framework for the management of the environmental related matters. It is the framework law on environment. The main objectives of the Act are to: • Provide guidelines for the establishment of an appropriate legal and institutional framework for the management of the environment in Kenya; • Provide a framework legislation for over 70 statutes in Kenya that contain environmental provisions; and • Provide guidelines for environmental impact assessment, environmental audit and monitoring, environmental quality standards and environmental protection orders. • Enforce compliance with the provisions of the act. Under EMCA there are various regulations as follows: a) The Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2003 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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The regulation provides the basic procedures for carrying out Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Environmental Audits (EAs). b) Environmental Management and Coordination (Water Quality) Regulations, 2006 Regulation 8 of these regulations provides for compliance with water quality standards. c) Environmental Management Regulations, 2006

and

Coordination

(Waste

Management)

Part II, 4 (1) of the Regulations states that no person shall dispose of any waste on a public highway, street, road, recreational area or in any public place except in a designated receptacle. 4.3.1.7 Water Policy (Sessional Paper No. 1 of 1999) The main objective of the water policy is the supply and the distribution of water resources throughout Kenya. It recognizes that increased human activity in the catchment areas has reduced forest cover and hence is a threat to water resources. 4.3.1.8 Water Act, 2002 The Water Act 2002 lays out a mechanism for development of a national water resources management strategy, for the protection, management, use, development, conservation and control of water resources. The national strategy shall encompass a mechanism for determination of important water catchments as a link to the forest sector. The strategy devolves the authority over the conservation of such catchment to local stakeholders who manage the catchments in collaboration with the water management authority, also established under the Act. The strength of this Act is in its endeavor to promote participatory forest management in water catchment areas through Water Resource Users Association (WRUAs). This is achieved through the devolution of roles and responsibilities to the stakeholders. In furtherance to the Water Act 2002, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation and Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA) in collaboration with other stakeholders prepared a set of regulations which were gazetted in September 2007 to give guidelines on water permit acquisition and adherence to specified conditions and enforcement of user fee charges. 4.3.1.9 County Governments Act 2012 The Act empowers county governments to protect the environment and natural resources with a view to establishing a durable and sustainable system of development. In addition, the county governments are responsible for development planning and control including the county spatial plans.

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4.3.1.10 Land Act, 2012 The Act in section 19 provides for conservation of land based natural resources. This is executed through the National Land Commission. 4.3.1.11 Physical Planning Act (1996) The Act provides for the preparation and implementation of physical development plans and for connected purposes. Section 5(1) (f) requires local authorities to ensure the proper execution of physical development control and preservation orders. It creates harmonious coexistence as it provides for: • Planning for conservation • Human settlements • Planning for public utilities • Planning for public purposes • Planning for transportation 4.3.1.12 Agriculture Act, CAP 318 (1955) This is an Act of Parliament that promotes and maintains a stable agriculture, providing for the conservation of the soil and its fertility and stimulates the development of agricultural land in accordance with the accepted practices of good land management and good husbandry. 4.3.1.13 The Agriculture (Farm Forestry) Rules, 2009 The objective and purpose of these Rules is to promote the establishment and sustainable management of farm forestry for the purposes of maintaining a compulsory farm tree cover of at least 10 percent of any agricultural land holding; conserving water, soil and biodiversity; protecting riverbanks, shorelines, riparian and wetland areas; sustainable production of wood, charcoal and non-wood products; providing fruits and fodder; and carbon sequestration and other environmental services. The rules require that every person who owns or occupies agricultural land shall establish and maintain a minimum of 10 percent of the land under farm forestry which may include trees on soil conservation structures or rangeland and cropland in any suitable configurations provided that the species of trees or varieties planted shall not have adverse effects on water sources, crops, livestock, soil fertility and the neighborhood and should not be of invasive nature, and that no agricultural landowner or occupier shall grow or maintain any Eucalyptus species in wetlands and riparian areas. 4.3.1.14 Wildlife Conservation and Management Act, 2013 This act provides for the protection, conservation, sustainable use and management of wildlife in Kenya and for connected purposes. The Act applies to all wildlife resources on public, community and private land as well as territorial waters. Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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The implementation of the Act is guided by the following principles; • Wildlife conservation and management devolution wherever possible and appropriate to those owners and managers of land where wildlife occurs; • Effective public participation in Conservation and Management of wildlife; • Ecosystem approach is encouraged in the conservation and management of wildlife wherever possible; • Wildlife conservation and management shall be encouraged and recognized as a form of land use on public, community and private land; • Benefits of wildlife conservation shall be derived by the land use in order to offset costs and to ensure the value and management of wildlife do not decline; • Wildlife conservation and management shall be exercised in accordance with the principles of sustainable utilization to meet the benefits of present and future generations; • Benefits accruing from wildlife conservation and management shall be enjoyed and equitably shared by the people of Kenya. • Compensation for damages to crops as well as persons injured or killed by wild animals is favorable as compared to the previous act. 4.3.1.15 The Tourism Industry Licensing Act (Cap 381) Section 3 of this Act covers issues relating to license required for certain tourist enterprises. Subsection 1 states that: No person shall on or after the appointed day carry on, or assist in carrying on, any regulated tourist enterprise otherwise than under and in accordance with the terms of a license issued to him and for the time being in force. Subsection 3 refers to carrying on an enterprise activity in subsection (1) of this section includes negotiating, soliciting, canvassing or accepting business for that enterprise and engaging in correspondence with a person who may become a customer of that enterprise, or with the agent of such a person, concerning business of that enterprise. 4.3.1.16 Grass Fires Act, Cap 327 Section 3 of this Act prohibits the burning of vegetation without authority in the forest. Subsection 1 states that: No person shall set fire to any vegetation which is not his property unless he has lawful authority to do so. Subsection 2 further states that: No person shall willfully or negligently kindle any fire which by spreading, may damage or destroy the property of any other person. 4.3.1.17 Energy Act, 2006 This Act in Section 103:(Renewable energy) mainly promotes the development and use of renewable energy technologies, including but not limited to biomass, biodiesel, bioethanol, charcoal, fuel wood, solar, wind, tidal waves, hydropower, biogas and municipal waste

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4.3.2 Linkages with relevant existing planning documents This plan has been developed in consideration of other existing planning documents. 4.3.2.1 Links to Kenya Forest Service strategic plan 2009 to 2014 and Draft Strategic Plan The Kenya Forest Service strategic plan 2009 to 2014 details the direction of forest conservation in Kenya. The plan is implemented through ecosystem based plans that are implemented through the participatory forest management plans. This management plan will contribute towards the strategic plan of KFS while still meeting the needs of the Forest Adjacent Communities (FAC). This management plan will also relate to the draft strategic plan 2015-2019 once it becomes effective. 4.3.2.2 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In September 2000, the United Nations general Assembly adopted the Millennium Declaration on core development issues including development and poverty reduction. Among the eight MDGs, goal number seven seeks to ensure Environmental Sustainability and forests conservation is key to addressing this. These goals are envisaged to be attained by the year 2015 that responds to the world’s main development challenges. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a proposed set of targets relating to future international development. The 17 goals by a UN General Assembly’s Open Working Group are to replace the MDGs on expiry at the end of 2015. This plan will relate directly to both Goal 13 ‘Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts’, and goal 15 ‘Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss’. 4.3.2.3 Kenya’s Vision 2030 Vision 2030 is the country’s new development blueprint covering the period 20082030. It is based on 3 key pillars; Economic Pillar, Social Pillar, and Political Pillar. The economic, social and political pillars of Kenya Vision 2030 are anchored on the following foundations: macroeconomic stability; continuity in governance reforms; enhanced equity and wealth creation opportunities for the poor; infrastructure; energy; science, technology and innovation (STI); land reform; human resources development; security and public sector reforms. 4.3.2.4 National Environment Action Plan (NEAP) 2009 – 2013 and Draft County Environment Action Plan (CEAP) 2015-2019 The NEAP highlights priority themes and activities for the country towards achieving sustainable development. Key highlights in the themes are Human settlements, Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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human and environmental health, human settlement and environmental pollution, infrastructure, and energy supply. Challenges include: averting land degradation; controlling air and water pollution; preventing loss of biodiversity; maintenance of aesthetic values; radiation emissions; enforcement of legislation; and solid and liquid waste management. Proposed interventions in CEAP include: integration of environmental concerns into projects, programmes and activities; enforce regulations; promote cleaner production technologies; rehabilitation of degraded areas; control and mitigation of radiation emissions; encourage public private partnership; encourage use of appropriate building technologies and materials; and improvement of sanitary accommodation and hygiene promotion. 4.3.3 Linkage with regional and international agreements and conventions 4.3.3.1 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 33,000 species of animals and plants. 4.3.3.2 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) The Convention has three main goals: 1. conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity); 2. sustainable use of its components; and 3. fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources 4.3.3.3 Rio Declaration on Environment The Rio Declaration consisted of 27 principles intended to guide future sustainable development around the world. Some of the relevant principles include; Environmental Protection in the Development Process, Public Participation and Indigenous Peoples. 4.3.3.4 Lake Victoria Basin Commission The East African Community established the Lake Victoria Basin Commission in 2001 as a mechanism for coordinating the various interventions on the Lake and its Basin and serving as a centre for promotion of investments and information sharing among the various stakeholders. The commission envisages a broad partnership of the local communities around the Lake, the East African Community and its Partner States as well as the development partners. The commission’s activities are focusing on the harmonization of policies and laws on the management of the environment in the Lake and its catchment area, continuation of the environmental management of the Lake, including control and eradication of the water hyacinth, management and Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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conservation of aquatic resources including fisheries, economic activities in the development of fishing, industry, agriculture and tourism and development of infrastructure, including revamping the transport system on and around the Lake. The Commission further places emphasis on poverty eradication and the participation of the local communities. It is expected to make a significant contribution towards reduction of poverty by uplifting the living standards of the people of the Lake region. This is to be achieved through economic growth, investments and sustainable development practices that are cognizant of the environment. 4.4 FOREST MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION ZONATION

The Table 4.1 gives the zones and the zonation criteria that apply to Malava forest. The zones identified in the forest are; Productive zone (plantation areas), production zone this consists of total protection and conservation areas and intervention zone. Figure 4.1 is part of the LPT sketching the zones using the agreed criteria.

Figure 4.1: Plate on community sketching Malava Forest resources

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Table 4.1 Criteria for zonation

Zone

Criteria

Management objective

Management options

Responsible body

Productive zone

Areas designated for commercial forest production

Commercial Production of wood for timber, poles and fuel wood

• Commercial production and extraction of wood and NTFP • PFM • PELIS • Plantation management research

KFS, KEFRI, CFA, NK

To conserve unique biodiversity and water sources

• Nature based enterprises • Research and education • Ecotourism

KFS, KWS, CFA Research institutions

Rehabilitate degraded areas and support community livelihood Enrichment planting

• Rehabilitation • Utilization of NTFP

KFS, KWS, CFA, Research institutions, NGOs

Promote tree planting and IGAs to reduce pressure to the forest

• On-farm tree planting • Nature based enterprises • Efficient fuelwood use • Conservation education • community participation

KFS, NGOs, Community, KEFRI, Govt line Ministries, private sector

• Standing plantation • Unstocked areas • Areas under PELIS Protection zone

a) Total protection • Water catchments and natural forest areas along river banks • Rich in biodiversity areas • Primary forest areas b)Conservation area

• Degraded NF areas • Low biodiversity • Natural forest not designated for total protection Intervention Community zone farmlands of up to a maximum of 5 Km from the forest boundary

The community identified and mapped forest resources in Malava Forest as shown in Figure 4.2a, while the Forest zonation as done by the BIOTA research team is in Figure 4.2b.

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Figure 4.2a: Malava Forest Resources Sketch Map

Source: Sketched by LPT members during training on forest survey

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Legend

Intervention zone

Protection zone Conservation zone

Forest boundary Road

Plantation zone River Figure 4.1b: Zonation map of Malava Forest

Source: Biota Atlas, 2010

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CHAPTER 5.0 MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES In each management programme this plan describes the objectives, strategies, activities and lead institutions. The activity time frame is also given to assist in planning and monitoring. 5.1 RESOURCE PROTECTION PROGRAMME

5.1.1 Background Malava forest which is part of the Kakamega Forest Ecosystem, Eastern-most Guineo-Congolian Equatorial Rain forest is endowed with rich biodiversity. It hosts high number of plants and animals, some of which have global conservation importance (endangered, endemic, rare or threatened). The forest has some of the largest trees in the region they are now only in small patches, an indicator of past disturbance. It is also an important water catchment for streams feeding River Nzoia. Being quite a small forest surrounded by high population of mostly poor households, the forest is at risk of further degradation unless stringent objective strategies are put in place and implemented. Forest resource protection deals with ensuring forest resources are not destroyed by human, animals, fires, pests and diseases. Forest rangers under the leadership of the station manager are responsible for forest protection. However, it is difficult to patrol the expansive forest but with the community participating in protection; this task will become more manageable. 5.1.2 Management Challenges The key drivers to the existing protection challenges include: • High population and poverty among the forest adjacent communities who majorly depend on the forest for livelihood. • Climate change • inadequate awareness on the importance of forest conservation and protection • lack of comprehensive database (species, degraded and vulnerable areas) on the status of the forest • Absence of programmes to save threatened, endangered, vulnerable or almost extinct diversity species i.e inadequate community involvement among others. These drivers lead to conservation challenges such as encroachment, overgrazing, illegal logging, forest fires, game poaching pest and diseases. KFS also has challenges towards forest protection due to underfunding, inadequate staff and equipment, insufficient capacity building of staff and research programmes.

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5.1.3 Programme Objectives The objectives are as follows: Objective 1: To enhance protection of key biodiversity hotspots, water catchment areas and resources of Malava forest. Objective 2: To build capacity of the community in wildlife and forest protection and management.

Figure 5.1: One of the giant Olea capensis trees in Malava forest

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Figure 5.2: Baboon with its young one crossing road in Malava forest

Figure 5.3: Disturbed site in Malava forest

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Table 5.1: Management interventions on Resource Protection Programme

Management objective

Activities/Actions

Indicators

1. To enhance  Identify, map and restrict No. of threatened protection of access to areas with species identified key biodiversity threatened, endangered hotspots, water and vulnerable species. catchments and  Delineating and putting  Km of fence done resources of up a perimeter fence Malava forest. around Primary forest areas and other biodiversity hotspots.  Enhance organized  Patrol schedules patrols and surveillance  Patrol reports by forest rangers and community forest scouts against illegal activities, fires, pests and diseases  Creation of fire breaks Length in KM of and purchase of fire breaks firefighting equipment. created.  Community Firefighting involvement in equipment firefighting. acquired  Surveillance of pests  reports and and diseases in the results on pests forest and diseases Engaging community scouts in forest protection to provide intelligence, surveillance and joint patrols  Enforcement of Forests Act 2005 especially sections on relates forest protection

KFS, KWS, CFA, 2015-2019 NMK & Research institutions KFS, CFA, 2016-2019 NGOs, County Government

2015-2019

KFS & CFA,County government

2015-2019

CFA, KFS, Research institutions.

2015-2019

 no of scouts engaged

KFS & CFA,County government, NGOs

2015-2019

 No. of Reports  No. of arrests made  Case files prosecuted  No of NBEs initiated

KFS & CFA,County government, NGOs

2015-2019

KFS & CFA,County government, NGOs

2015-2019

 Organize trainings for  No. of trainings, community scouts to no. of scouts enhance their capacity for

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Time frame

KFS, CFA

 Initiate non consumptive IGAs/ NBEs for forest user groups utilizing the protested forest  Putting up a perimeter  Km of fence (electric) fence around done Malava forest

2. To build capacity of the community in

Responsible agency

County 2016-2019 government, NGOs, KFS, Private sector, CFA KFS, KWS, CFA 2015-2018

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Management objective

Activities/Actions

Indicators

wildlife and wildlife conservation and trained forest protection protection. and  Initiate arrangements for  Payment roll management. remuneration of community scouts for purposes of motivating them towards wildlife protection  Facilitating the  Level of incomes. establishment of community sanctuaries which can be used as a source of income from tourists and for educating of the local community members Create awareness on Number of biodiversity awareness conservation and meetings importance of natural forests  Create awareness for the  No. sensitizations community to understand meetings & the Wildlife and Forest barazas, list of legislation and policies attendance, attitude change

Responsible agency

Time frame

CFA, KFS

2015-2019

County Government, KFS, Private sector, NGOs

2016-2018

CFA, KFS, NGOs

2015-2019

KFS, KWS, CFA 2015-2017

5.2 FOREST CONSERVATION AND REHABILITATION PROGRAMME

5.2.1 Background This programme intends to address the degraded forest areas for purpose of rehabilitation and livelihood improvement. Successful restorations of these areas once identified require concerted efforts and input of all relevant stakeholders. In addition, there will be need to introduce diverse Nature Based Enterprises (NBEs) to address livelihood needs of the community. In order to implement this programme the community will be organized and resources mobilized for this purpose. Restoration will be done through enrichmet planting with desired high value tree species, vetiver grass and building gabions on eroded river banks. Tree nurseries will be promoted to produce the required seedlings. 5.2.2 Management Challenges Some of the management challenges within the conservation programmes include: overdependence on the forest by the communities living adjacent to the forest, inadequate awareness on conservation, lack of funds to conduct rehabilitation and Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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policy conflict among government departments and small land holdings prevalent among communities surrounding the forest may curtail promotion of farm tree planting. The forest adjacent community members depend on forest resources for their daily livelihoods. This plan therefore aspires to promote sustainable utilization of these resources. 5.2.3 Programme Objectives Objective 1: To conserve, rehabilitate and restore forest ecosystem to ensure improved and effective ecological performance. Objective 2: To promote sustainable utilization of the natural forest to improve livelihoods

Figure 5.4: CFA Chairman addressing UNDP, KFS, NK & CFA members at rehabilitated site

Figure 5.5: Plate on enrichment planting in Malava Forest Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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Table 5.2: Management interventions on Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation programme

Management objective

Activities/Action

1.To conserve,  Identify and map rehabilitate and degraded forest areas restore forest for the purpose of ecosystem to planning rehabilitation ensure improved and • Conducting community effective awareness campaigns ecological on need to conserve and performance rehabilitate degraded forests and catchment areas and appropriate soil protection. • Supporting community tree nurseries to raise indigenous tree seedlings for rehabilitation  Rehabilitate degraded sections of forest and water catchment areas through enrichment planting, gabions construction, planting on river banks etc  Plant and conserve riparian vegetation along river course.

Indicators  Report and Map showing identified degraded areas

KFS, CFA, WRMA, NEMA, WRUAs, MoALF • No. of campaigns/ County Government, barazas KFS, WRMA, conducted WRUAs & CFA

Time frame 2015-2017

2015-2019

• No tree nurseries • No seedlings raised

County Government, KFS, WRMA, WRUAs & CFA

2015-2019

 No. of hectares rehabilitated.

KFS, County Government, CFA, private sector & NGOs

2016-2018

County Government, WRMA, WRUAs & CFA KFS, WRMA

2016-2017

 Lengths in kilometers

 Creating awareness on  Volume of appropriate species site water flowing matching to avoid planting water unfriendly tree species along water courses. 2. To promote  Promote Ecotourism  No. of tour sustainable development in Malava guides trained utilization of the forest  Eco-tourism natural forest to facilities improve developed livelihoods  Promote payment of  Earnings from environmental services. environmental services.  Promote sustainable  No. of permits harvesting of herbal issued to medicine herbalist  Sustainable soil, water  No. of permits and sand harvesting issued to extractors Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Responsible agency

2015-2019

County 2016-2019 Government, KFS, KWS, CFA, private sector & NGOs KFS, private 2016-2019 sector, CFA & NGOs CFA, KFS & 2015-2019 Herbalist KFS, MoALF, private sector,

2015-2019

Page | 55


5.3 PRODUCTION PROGRAMME

This programme is implemented in areas meant for plantation development. Plantations provide wood for industrial development and support community livelihood which in turn relieve pressure on the natural forests. 5.3.1 Background Being close to a fast growing town, Malava forest is facing high demand for wood and wood products. There is scarcity of land for food production and livestock grazing thus putting a lot of pressure to the forest. Through the Plantation Establishment for Livelihood Support (PELIS) Programme, KFS has found a way to engage the community in plantation establishment while they produce food on forest land. This way the planted seedling are tended to for longer period hence increased survival. 5.3.2 Management Challenges The key challenges in plantation development in Malava forest include illegal logging, low survival/ establishment, destruction of young plantations by wildlife and livestock, pests and diseases and encroachment. 5.3.3 Programme Objectives Objective: To produce round wood for timber, poles and fuelwood for industrial growth and revenue generation to improve livelihoods and protect the environment.

Figure 5.6: Malava Tree Nursery with seedlings for plantation establishment

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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Table 5.3: Management interventions on production programme

Management objective

Activities/Action

To produce  Improve the round wood for productivity of the tree timber, poles seedlings in Malava and fuelwood for industrial growth and revenue  Implement PELIS generation to program and improve guidelines livelihoods and protect the environment

 Plant in all unstocked plantation areas  Replant areas of low survival  Control damage to plantation by wildlife and domestic animals

Indicators  No. of nurseries established by CFA members  No. of tree seedlings raised  No. of Ha allocated for PELIS  Established PELIS area boundaries  Survival count report  Increase in food produced  No. of hectares planted  Survival count report  Damage assessment reports

 Protect plantations from  Km of fire breaks fires, poachers, cleared  Pest and diseases diseases and pests reports  Patrol reports  No of arrests and prosecutions

Responsible Time agency frame KFS, CFA, NGOs

2015-2019

KFS, CFA, County government

2015-2019

KFS,CFA

2016

KFS,CFA

2016-2019

KFS, CFA, KWS, County Government, Interior & coordination KFS, CFA, KEFRI, Interior & coordination, County Government

2015-2019

2015-2019

5.4 COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND INTERVENTION PROGRAMME

5.4.1 Background To practice sustainable conservation and utilization of Malava forest require active participation of stakeholders, and majorly the forest adjucent community. These are the people who mostly depend on this forest and their actions or non-actions have direct influence of the conservation outcome. The community members will be involved in tree planting activities in the forest and other activities as well as engaging them in nature based activities that are sustainable. Outside the forest, conservation measures must focus on easing the current pressure exerted on the forest and hence must be able to provide ways of sustainable use and alternatives. The measures must also have an inbuilt component of training and Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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capacity building to support community institutions in forestry programmes and community Participatory Forest Management (PFM) Poverty is a challenge to conservation of Malava forest resources and one of the intervention measures is to support livelihood activities. Within the intervention zone Nature Based Enterprises (NBEs) will reduce pressure on the forest. The livelihoods of the local communities are expected to improve through NBEs. Some of the NBEs include bee keeping, fish farming, woodlots establishment for commercial, ecotourism and production of energy saving devices. 5.4.2 Management Challenges Some of the key challenges include: 

Lack of information and awareness among some community members on how to participate in forest conservation and protection is hampering their participation. Human-wildlife conflict in Malava is another major challenge. Malava forest has a high population of primates which mostly invade the forest adjacent farms. Limited knowledge and skills in on-farm forestry and other NBEs among community members has also affected their participation in effective protection and conservation of the forest.

 

5.4.3 Programme Objectives 1. 2. 3.

To ensure the community participate in the conservation and management of Malava Forest To promote farm forestry, energy saving devices and nature-based enterprises To undertake measures to reduce Human – Wildlife conflicts in Malava Forest

Figure 5.7: Plate on on-farm tree farming in Malava Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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Figure 5.8: Plate on improved cook stove

Table 5.4: Management Interventions on community participation and intervention programme

Management objective 1. To promote community participation in conservation and management of Malava forest

Activities/Action











Indicators

 Forest Negotiating and Management signing Forest Agreement Management signed Agreement with KFS  No. of the Strengthening meetings, no. of community institutions especially the CFA and participants Minutes of user groups meetings  Well-kept records Identification and  Baseline Supporting the information implementation of  No. of IGAs IGAs implemented  No. of user groups benefiting Value addition for IGA  Increase of the products and linking volume sold & with markets incomes  New markets accessed Exercising of CSR by  No. of the NBEs

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Responsible agency

Time frame

KFS, CFA

2015

KFS, County government, CFA & NGOs

2015-2019

KFS, County Government, CFA, NGOs

2015-2019

KFS, County Government, CFA, private sector and NGOs

2016-2019

KFS & CFA

2015-2019 Page | 59


Management objective

Activities/Action



KFS and other institutions to support community NBEs Organizing and funding of community forest user groups, training, workshops, seminars and exchange visits

Indicators

Responsible agency

Time frame

KFS, County government, NGOs and MALAVA CFA

2015-2018

KFS, County government, NGOs & CFA KFS, County Government & CFA

2016-2017

 No. tree nurseries  No seedlings raised for sale

KFS, CFA, NGOs, County government

2015-2019

 Ha of farmlands panted  No farmers planting trees

KFS, County Government, CFA, NGOs, Private institutions KFS,CFA

2015-2019

CFA, County Government of Kakamega, KFS, NGOs and private sector KWS, County government, KWS, CFA, Min of Interior and coordination KWS, County government, KWS, CFA, Min of Interior and coordination

2015-2019

supported

 Number of

workshops/semi nars organized, No. of the trained persons  Number of exchange visits  Develop strategic plan  strategic plan for the CFA document

2.To promote farm forestry, energy saving devices and nature-based enterprises

 Develop mechanisms for benefit sharing and democracy amongst CFA members  Promote tree nursery enterprises for seedlings production by individuals and groups  Promote on farm tree planting including carbon credit programmes

 Benefit sharing mechanism in place

 Promote on farm  No. of movement charcoal production permits issued and adoption of energy saving devises  Promote other NBEs for  No. of NBEs livelihoods initiated improvement to forest adjacent dwellers

3.To undertake  Community  Attendance lists Measures to sensitization on how to  No of game reduce Human – report, handle, and cofarms Wildlife conflicts exist with wildlife  No of reports in Malava Forest received  Provision of assistance/  No of complaints compensation to received and wildlife destruction addressed

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

2015-2016

2015-2019

2015-2019

2015-2019

Page | 60


Management objective

Activities/Action

Indicators

 Create awareness for  No. sensitizations the community to meetings & understand the Wildlife barazas, and Forest legislation  Attendance list and policies

Responsible agency

Time frame

KFS, KWS, CFA

2015-2019

5.5 INFRASTRUCTURE, EQUIPMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

5.5.1 Background This programme covers the various infrastructure, equipment and human resources development in in Malava forest. 5.5.2 Management Challenges The key management challenges in Malava forest include: • Poor roads especially during rainy season, some of them lacking connecting bridges. • Inadequate staff strength especially the forest rangers and subordinates. • The forest station no vehicle for use hence depend on the 1 motorbike available and the one donated to the CFA by Nature Kenya. • Inadequate staff housing, office equipment and other basic facilities. • Poor network coverage in some section of the forest. • Occasional fire outbreak incidences in during the dry period of December to February. 5.5.3 Programme objective Objective: To strengthen and maintain infrastructure, equipment, human resource and local community institutions for effective management and conservation of Malava Forest. Table 5.5: Management interventions on Infrastructure, Equipment and Human Resources Development Programme

Management strategies

Activities/Action

Assessment of  Undertake inventory of infrastructure resources ,equipment and (infrastructure and staffing needs equipment and for the forest personnel)  Assess the training needs of the staff Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Indicators

Responsible agency

Time frame

 Inventory reports

KFS & CFA

2015

 Assessment report

KFS

2015 Page | 61


Management strategies

Ensure adequate infrastructure

Ensure adequate staff for effective forest management

Activities/Action

Indicators

Responsible agency

Time frame

KFS and CFA

2015-2019

KFS, County Government, KERRA KFS AND CFA, Water service boards KFS

2015-2019

KFS and CFA, KPLC KFS AND CFA

2015-2016

KFS

2015-2016

KFS, AND CFA and NGOs

2015-2016

 Number of the current staff against the size of the forest.  Staff present

KFS

2015

KFS

2015-2019

 Number of trainings/semin ars  Provision of housing

KFS, CFA, NGOs, CG

2015-2019

KFS, County government, Private sector & NGOs KFS

2015-2019

KFS,CFAs, County government, Private sector & NGOs

2016-2019

 Maintain proper record  Kept records status of equipment and stores  Roads maintatnance:  kilometers grading, fixing culverts maintained and opening drainages  Water supply to station  Availability of and tree nursery water  Aquire vehicle for use in station  connecting station with electricity  Erect fire tower at the forest high point.  put up fire danger rating boards  Acuare equipment computers, GPS, radio sets and digital cameras  Determine optimal staffing levels

 Deploy addition staff repcuired  Conduct regular trainings and seminars for staff Improve welfare  Provide Social of the staff amenities to the staff at the station  Ensure staff needs and views are taken into consideration and action taken  Provide adequate equipment for for work

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

 log-book  work ticket  electricity conencted  fire tower constructed  Number of fire rates erected  Inventory of eqipment

 Level of satisfaction by staff  Equipment availed

2015-2016

2016-2017

2017

2015-2019

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Figure 5.9: Plate on Malava CFA Office

Figure 5.10: Malava forest ranger in joint patrol with community forest scouts

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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5.6 PARTNERSHIPS AND NETWORKING PROGRAMME

5.6.1 Background There are various partners in Malava forest as described in the stakeholder analysis, undertaking issues relating to forest protection, conservation and management. The partners include those in public, private sector, non governmental organization, community members and development partners. To implement the management plan, a coordinated partnership arrangement is crucial. 5.6.2 Management Challenges Challenges in Partnership arrangements include; • • • •

Conflict among stakeholders, Lack of institutional framework to support partnership Minimal collaboration and focus in approach and lack of commitment, Inadequate funding to support meetings, seminars and other forums inadequate participation and poor communication.

5.6.3 Programme objective Objective: To develop synergy among stakeholders for efficient implementation of the plan Table 5.6: Management interventions on partnership and networking programme

Management strategies Building institutional arrangement for partnership

Strengthening partnerships

Activities/Action



Identify potential partners

 Develop working modalities e.g. MOU, management agreement  Joint planning and implementation

Indicators

Responsible agency

Time frame

Number of partners identified  Signed MoUs & Management agreements

KFS & CFA

2015

KFS, CFA & Other stakeholders

2015-2017



KFS, CFA & Other stakeholders

2015-2019

KFS, CFA & Other stakeholders KFS, CFA & Other stakeholders KFS & CFA

2015-2019



Number of meetings

 Form a stakeholder  Number of forum for Malava forums held Forest station  CFA to formalize  Partnership partnership with other agreement stakeholders signed  Negotiate forest  Signed management Management agreement between agreement CFA and KFS Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

2015-2017

2015

Page | 64


Management strategies

Activities/Action

Indicators

 Develop an elaborate cost benefit sharing scheme

 Costs and benefits sharing mechanism developed  Organize and conduct  Number of learning exchange exchange visits visits  Enhance networking  Number of skills among partners trainings conducted

Responsible agency

Time frame

KFS & CFA

2015

KFS, CFA & Other stakeholders KFS, CFA & Other stakeholders

2015-2019

2015-2019

5.7 RESEARCH AND MONITORING PROGRAMME

5.7.1 Background This programme will mainly entail information and data collection and dissemination on flora and fauna species of interest in Malava Forest and monitoring of their trends and distribution in the forest. Research forms a crucial programme in the plan and is aimed at filling the knowledge gaps that will ensure effective management. In Malava Forest, research and monitoring has been conducted through institutions and projects such as the BIOTA, research institutions like KEFRI, KWS, ICRAF, other learning institutions and universities. Current status Following are some of the monitoring and research activities recently carried out in the forest:

• • • • • •

Forest inventory (indigenous and exotic trees) Monitoring of degraded and rehabilitated sites Socio-economic study of forest adjacent communities. KEFRI trials Biodiversity surveys. KEMRI/KWS baboon monitoring

5.7.2 Management Challenges

• Low facilitation and funding • Lack of prioritization of research areas • Poor coordination and feedback on research findings

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5.7.3 Programme objective Objective: To obtain relevant and timely information on the status of Malava forest and threats to guide decisions for the management of the forest. The strategies proposed are; promote research and environmental education and conservation within the forest, disseminate research findings and develop monitoring systems. Table 5.7: Management interventions on research and monitoring programme

Management strategies

Activities/Action

Indicators

Undertake applied research

 Conduct detailed

Number of flora KFS, KEFRI, & fauna recorded KWS, NGOs, NMK, Universities Studies KFS, CFA, conducted to NMK, KWS identify status of species

2015-2016

Studies conducted

NMK, KFS, KWS & CFA

2015-2016

Status of water quality

WRMA, WRUAs Public health NEMA, KWS KEFRI, KFS, CFA, NMK, KALRO, KWS

2015-2016

Levels of income

KFS, CFA and stakeholders KWS

2015-2016

Number of meetings

KFS, NMK, KEFRI, CFA & NGOs KWS

2016-2017

Number of publications/me dia programmes

KFS, CFA, Media & NGOs KWS

2018

survey on flora and fauna in the forest  Identify and classify wildlife according to their conservation status (endemism, threat category, etc)  Conduct studies to inform on improved/participator y forest management practices  Conduct studies on water resources (Quality and quantity)

 Conduct studies on soil conditions to determine the forest health  Develop innovative incentive mechanisms (Carbon Credits, Alternative sources of fuelwood) Disseminate  Organize informative research findings public meetings to and innovations disseminate research findings and innovations  Publish findings in journals and through popular media (brochures, leaflets, posters, radio programmes, Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Status of forest health

Responsible agency

Time frame

2015-2016

2015-2016

Page | 66


Management strategies

Promote Forest Monitoring

Activities/Action newsletters)  Electronic posting/circulation of results on websites of relevant institutions  Synthesize findings for use for public education and within learning institutions  Develop indicators for monitoring forest condition

 Develop monitoring protocols  Involve community members in monitoring activities  Make monitoring a regular activity to closely check any changes in the forest ecosystem  Document and widely disseminate forest condition trends

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Indicators

Responsible agency

Time frame

Results posted

KFS, KWS CFA, Private sector

2018

Number of publications distributed

CFA, Schools, WCK ,KWS

2018

Forest condition indicators developed

NMK, KFS, KEFRI, CFA, NGOs KWS

2016

Monitoring protocols in place Number of trained CFA members Monitoring data collected

NMK, KFS, KEFRI, CFA, NGOs KWS NMK, CFA KWS

2017

NMK, KFS, KEFRI,KWS CFA, NGOs

2017-2019

Number of dissemination meetings

NMK, KWS KFS, KEFRI, CFA, NGOs KWS

2019

2017

Page | 67


Figure 5.11: Team carrying out biodiversity survey in Malava forest

Figure 5.12: KEMRI/KWS team conducting research on olive baboons in Malava Forest Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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CHAPTER 6.0 PLAN IMPLEMENTATION 6.1 INTRODUCTION

Planning is an essential part of the management process. The management plan is the main instrument that specifies how management is to be conducted in the future. In forestry, Participatory Forest management plans (PFMP) are often instruments not just for planning but also for operational management. These plans don’t just document the way to reach management goals in the future (strategic), but also describe how to manage the forest in the present (tactical). This chapter provides an over view of crosscutting issues which include: gender mainstreaming, reproductive health, nutrition and H.I.V/ AIDS, marginalized groups; indigenous knowledge and institutional arrangements for plan implementation that takes into account a collaborative approach of lead institutions (KFS and Malava CFA), Government agencies, County Government, Non-Governmental Organizations and private companies. 6.2 CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES

The cross-cutting issues in Malava PFMP implementation are: gender mainstreaming, reproductive health, nutrition and H.I.V/ AIDS, marginalized groups, Indigenous Knowledge. 6.2.1 Gender mainstreaming Taking action on gender involves Identification of the people involved in PFMP. The first step is to adopt democratic elections mirroring the number of constitutional aspects e.g. women, men and youth representatives in the Malava CFA. The PFMP should put into account different outcomes and impacts it will have on gender and different age sets of stakeholders who might be involved during its implementation. Gender mainstreaming ensures adequate representation of the stakeholders. Planning analyses strength, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT) applicable during the plan implementation. Other considerations include timing of the PFMPactivities which can limit participation due to differing gender roles. 6.2.2 Reproductive Health, Nutrition and HIV/AIDS The Malava PFMP adopts Health, Nutrition & HIV/AIDS programs to provide health education and palliative care to ensure that individuals and communities have the knowledge and resources to lead healthy lives. The focus of these efforts will be on communities where malnutrition is high and the need for family planning, reproductive health and HIV/AIDS awareness and education is evident. The following areas of health skills, maternal and child health and nutrition, family planning, adolescent reproductive health and HIV/AIDS are emphasized. In particular, emphasis of the service will be to at-risk populations, such as orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIVs). Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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The primary objectives of the Health, Nutrition & HIV/AIDS programs will be to: • Reduced prevalence of malnutrition • Reduced levels of morbidity • Improved infant and young child feeding and care practices for women and children • Prevent and manage diseases, including HIV/AIDS • Promote sound nutrition and healthy lifestyles 6.2.3 Marginalized groups The physically challenged and the vulnerable people need to be included in all activities of the Malava CFA as now it is their right in the Constitution of Kenya 2010. 6.2.4 Indigenous Knowledge Indigenous people with a historical continuity of resource-use practices often possess a broad knowledge base of the behavior of complex ecological systems in their own localities. This knowledge has accumulated through a long series of observations transmitted from generation to generation. Indigenous people have depended for long periods on local environments for the provisions of a variety of resources; they have developed a stake in conserving and enhancing biodiversity. They are aware of a large variety of uses of local biodiversity including medicinal uses which have been incorporated in the modern medical industry. The PFMP will enhance indigenous conservation measures such as;  

Total protection of riparian areas and forests for cultural uses and medicinal purposes. Protection of important tree species such as Olea capensis, Prunus africana, Maesopsis eminii, Ficus thoningii and Ficus sur for their contribution to ecosystem balance.

6.3 RESOURCE MOBILIZATION

Resource mobilization will be primarily the responsibility of Malava CFA and KFS, with assistance from stakeholders such as County government, NGOs and private sector among others. Annual work plans prepared for the PFMP implementation will be accompanied with budget to guide funding requests.

6.4 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR PLAN IMPLEMENTATION

The key institutions for implementing the PFMP are KFS and Malava CFA. Other key stakeholders include: County Government of Kakamega, KWS, NEMA, MMUST, WRMA, KEFRI, Key government Ministries e.g. Agriculture, Environment and Mineral Resources, National Museums of Kenya, relevant NGOs, financial Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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institutions, sugarcane companies, Research Institutions and organizations, International organizations e.g. Birdlife International amongst many others. The successful implementation of this plan will require a collaborative approach to be initiated and coordinated by the Lead institutions and other stakeholders as shown in Figure 6.1. Head of Conservancy (Western)

County Government of Kakamega

Ecosystem Conservator, KFS (Kakamega County)

Forest Conservation Committee (FCC)

Forest Station Manager (Malava Forest Station)

Local Level Forest Management Committee

Donors/ Development Agencies

Malava CFA

Line Government Agencies Water, KWS, NEMA,

NonGovernmental Organizations

(NGOs)

Agriculture, Figure 6.1: Institutional arrangements for Malava PFMP implementation

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CHAPTER 7 PLAN MONITORING AND EVALUATION 7.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter highlights the monitoring and evaluation methodology that will be applicable for Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan. The Malava PFMP sets the basis and manner in which the community represented by the Malava CFA will be able to sustainably utilize forest resources available in the forest. The plan is basically a guide for any agreement that is to be made between KFS and the community that is highly dependent on the forest. The plan will assist the stakeholders to make sound management decisions. The forest is an important asset for the community and the nation as a whole. Thus, it should be understood that forest resource management and cultural resource management are interdependent processes. Cultural resources refers to a wide variety of values attached to the forest and uses including but not limited to tree preservation, public access, recreation, aesthetic and spiritual values and education. The plan is to provide ways for the management units to fulfil their mission of stewardship in the Malava Forest which is an important water catchment for Lake Victoria, in harmony with other stakeholders. 7.2 MONITORING

There is need to prepare a monitoring tool with verifiable indicators, a time schedule which will guide the monitoring process. Monitoring will be done regularly by relevant parties including research and learning institutions. Resource mobilization will be vital for the monitoring process to facilitate the implementation of this plan. 7.3 MONITORING INDICATORS (BIOPHYSICAL AND COMMUNITY BASED INDICATORS)

Monitoring indicators measure the PFMP’s impact, outcomes, outputs and inputs that will be monitored during implementation. Thus they assist to assess progress towards management objectives and help to identify problems during implementation of the PFMP. 7.4 DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

During the plan implementation impact-indicators will be identified to provide a basis upon which the plan performance can be measured. Performance indicators will be based on the various actions proposed in the forest management programmes which are aimed at achieving the objectives of the programmes. 7.5 RESPONSIBILITIES

KFS and Malava CFA are key actors in the management of the Forest. The implementation of this plan will be on the basis of provisions in a signed Forest Management Agreement (FMA) and monitoring and evaluation modalities Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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determined by the parties to the agreement. Other relevant stakeholders will assist in various ways in the implementation and monitoring of the plan progress. 7.6 MONITORING PLAN

Table 7.1 is the monitoring plan matrix that presents the programmes, indicators of success, means of verification, the organizations responsible and the assumptions. Evaluation will be based on assessment of the achievement of the monitoring indicators.

7.7 EVALUATION

Evaluation of the progress of the plan will be very important to address emerging issues as far as the plan implementation is concerned. The purpose of evaluation is to broadly establish the impact of plan’s interventions on the lives of the Malava Forest Community members and on the status of the forest as an ecosystem. In evaluation it will be important to assess the plan rationale/ appropriateness with respect to the needs of the community so as to establish the extent to which it relates to the identified community needs, to check the soundness of the plan design, assess the extent to which key pre-conditions for plan success (assumptions) were assessed and accounted for in advance and determine the suitability of the objectives and activities in responding to community-defined development priorities. 7.8 REVIEW

The PFMP will be reviewed mid-term and at the end of the implementation period. Monitoring will be continuously done through reports while evaluation will be done annually. User friendly monitoring tools will be developed to assist the community in Monitoring and Evaluation.

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Table 7.1 Malava PFMP Monitoring Matrix

Programmes

Verifiable Indicators

Resource Protection Programme Objective 1: To enhance protection of key biodiversity hotspots, water catchment and resources of Malava forest. Objective 2: To build capacity of the community in wildlife and forest protection and management Conservation Programme

and

Rehabilitation

Objective 1: To conserve, rehabilitate and restore forest ecosystem to ensure improved and effective ecological performance. Objective 2: To sustainable utilization natural forest to livelihoods

Means of Assumptions verification  State/ quality of the natural forest  KFS, KWS and  The Plan is  Quality of water in streams CFA records successfully  Area protected for natural  Photographs implemented regeneration.  Monitoring and  Good working  Endangered and endemic species evaluation reports relationship adequately protected between  Length of perimeter fence put up stakeholders  Availability of Financial, material and human resources  Community participation and  Surveys  There will be full involvement in forest protection and  Consultative cooperation by all management increased stakeholders meetings  Reforestation efforts and forest  Measurement of involved  Availability cover increased forest cover of  Area rehabilitated  Photographs Financial, material  No of NBEs initiated and human resources

promote of the improve

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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Time frame 2015-2019

2015-2019


Programmes

Verifiable Indicators

Productive Programme

 Area established with plantations  Quality of plantations  Survival counts  Income generated from sales of forest resources  Quantity of crops harvested

Objective: To produce wood for timber, poles and fuelwood for industrial growth and revenue generation to improve livelihood and protect the environment Community Participation and  Access of the Malava forest intervention Programme community members to forest resources Objective1: To ensure the  Community members benefit from forest resources and products community participate in the  Economic status of Malava forest conservation and management of community members Malava Forest  Income generated by forest resource user groups Objective2: To promote farm  Number and types of products in the forestry, energy saving devices market and nature-based enterprises  Number and type of technologies adopted Objective3: To undertake  Number of people employed measures to reduce Human –  Total income generated from the Wildlife conflicts in Malava Forest community utilization of forest resources

Means of Assumptions verification  Surveys,  The Plan is  KFS records successfully  Resource implemented inventory  Availability of  Forest funds for plantation management development agreements.  Surveys  There is full  KFS, KWS and collaboration from Malava CFA all stakeholders records and  Availability of reports funds for initiating  Community income generating feedback projects meetings

Infrastructure, Equipment and  Number and type of infrastructure  KFS, KWS, CFA  The Plan Human Resources Development developed and WRMA successfully Programme  Number and type of equipment records implemented bought  Availability Objective: To strengthen and  Number of additional staff  Monitoring and Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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Time frame 2015-2019

2015-2019

is 2015-2019

of


Programmes

Verifiable Indicators

maintain infrastructure, equipment, human resource and local community institutions for effective management and conservation of Malava Forest Partnerships and Networking Programme

 Number of people trained  Number of community scouts  Resources available for forest management

Means of Assumptions verification evaluation reports funds

 Signed MoUs  Potential partners identified.  Memorandum of understanding and agreements

management agreements Objective: To develop synergy developed among stakeholders for efficient  Stakeholder forum for Malava Forest implementation of the plan. station conducted.  An elaborate benefit sharing scheme/mechanism to ensure fairness and equity in distribution of costs and benefits is developed.  Joint meeting between CFAs and other stakeholders conducted.  Number of exchange visits conducted. Research and Monitoring  Number and type of research and Programme surveys undertaken  Technologies innovated and Objective: To obtain relevant and adopted timely information on the status of  State/ quality of the forest Malava forest and threats to guide ecosystem decisions for the management of  New knowledge on the forest and its the forest. components

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Time frame

&  There will be full 2015-2019 cooperation by all stakeholders involved.

 Partnership agreement signed  Number of meetings held /exchange visits  Number of forums organized

 Research reports  The Plan is 2015-2019 and successfully  Monitoring evaluation reports completed stakeholders  All will fully collaborate  Availability of funds

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REFERENCES Althof, A.J. (2005): Human Impact on Flora and vegetation of Kakamega Forest, Kenya – Structure, Distribution, and Disturbance of Plant Communities in an East African Rainforest. PhD thesis, University of Koblenz, Germany, Dalitz, H. 2007: Regeneration of Tropical upland trees- Spatio-temporal dynamics of feed-back processes. In BIOTA East Interim Report 2006, BIOTA East Africa, Bonn, germany, 21-35. Environmental Management and Co-Ordination Act Chapter 8 of 1999: Section 44 (Protection of hill tops, hill sides, mountain areas and forests); Section 48 (Protection of forests); Section 49. (Conservation of energy and planting of trees or woodlots); Section 50 (Conservation of biological diversity); Section 72 (Water and pollution prohibition); Water Quality Regulations, 2006 and Waste Management Regulations, 2006 Holstein et al. (2010) A Short Guide to Kakamega Forest. BIOTA East Africa Kakamega Forest Ecosystem Management Plan, 2010-2020 (November 2010 edition) by KFE Managers, KFE Stakeholders, KWS Biodiversity Planning Department, KFS Planning Department Maundu P and Tegnas B. (Eds), 2005: Useful Trees and Shrubs of Kenya: Technical Handbook No 35; World Agroforestry Centre. Mitchell, N. (2004): The exploitation and disturbance history of Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya. Bielefelder Okologische Beitrage 20, BIOTA East Report No. 1, ed. By B. Bleher & H. Dalitz. Wagner, P. and W. Bohme (2007): Herpetofauna Kakamensis – The amphibians and reptiles of Kakamega forest, western Kenya. Bonner Zoologische Beitrage 55 (2), 123-150. Wagner, P., J. Kohler, A. Schmitz & W. Bohme (2008): The bio geographical assignment of a west Kenyan rain forest remnant: further evidence from analysis of its reptile fauna. Journal of Biogeography 35 (8), 1, 349-1,361. Agriculture Act (Cap. 318): The Agriculture (Farm Forestry) Rules, 2009 Energy Act, 2006: Section 103 (Renewable Energy) Grass Fires Act (Cap 327): Section 3 (Burning of Vegetation without Authority) Forests Act 2005: Sections 35, 36 and 45 Kenya Forest Service (2010) Briefs on Kakamega Forest Zone. The Forests (participation in Sustainable Forest management) Rules, 2009 Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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Tourist Industry Licensing (Cap 381): Section 3 (License required for certain tourist enterprises) and The Tourism Industry Licensing Regulations Water Act (Cap 372): Section 14 (Catchment Areas) and Section 17 (Protection Areas) Wildlife (Conservation and Management) Act (Cap 376): Section 15 (Protection Areas) http://www.wikipedia.org http://www.KenyaLaw.org (Laws of Kenya) http://en.climate-data.org/location/922/ Convention_on_Biological_Diversity.htm Kyoto_Protocol.htm,CITES.htm, Rio_Declaration_on_Environment_and_Development.htm,

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APPENDICES Appendix 1: List of Forest Tree Species of Malava Scientific Name

English/ Trade Name

Local Name

Acacia lahai Acanthus eminens Albizia gummifera Aningeria altissima Antiaris toxicaria Bischofia javanica Blighia unijugata Bridelia micrantha Carisa edulis Celtis Africana Chrysophylium albidium Compretum molle Cordia africana Cordia millennii Crabia brownii Craterspermum schweinfurthii Croton macrostachyus Croton megalocarpus Chrysophyllum viritifolia Cupressus lusitanica Diospyros abysinica Dombeya goetzenii Dovyalis macrocalyx Entada abyssinica Erithryna abysinica Ficus capensis Ficus exasperate Ficus sur Ficus vallis chodea Funtumia africana Funtumia latifolia Grevilia robusta Harugana madagascarensis Kigelia Africana Khaya anthotheca Maesopsis eminii Manikara butugi Markhamia lutea Nuxia congesta Olea Africana Olea capensis Persia americana Phoenix reclinata Polyscious fulva Prunus africana Psidium guajava Sepium eliptica Solunnum mauritania Spathodea nilotica Syzigium guineensis

Red thorn Bear’s breech peacock flower Anegre Upas tree Bishop wood Mwikuni

Omunyenya Mukunga Muberi Omukkangu, Muruba Omulundu Sofia Shiarambatsa Munyrenyende Shikata Mwenya Omululu Omulaha Mukomari Mukomari Omukhonje Mukukuni mutswitswi Omusine Mululu Omukwanji Lusui, Omwirima Omukusa Shinamuteria Omusembe Omurembe Omukhuyu Omucherekha Omukhuyu Omukhuyu Mutondo Omutondo Omukuluveria Omuvanga murave Kaya Omutere Lutali Omusiola Lutari Omtamayi Omutukuyu Ovakato Lishindu Omutore Mwisia Omupera Omutsese

Stinkwood

Scarlet cordial Scarlet Cordial

Croton Croton Common cypress African ebony Dombeya

Red hot poker tree Ficus tree Ficus tree Ficus tree Rubber tree

Sausage tree

Wild olive Elgon olive/ teak Avocado Date palm Parasol tree Red stink wood Guava

Nandi flame

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Omutsirisia Omusioma Page | 79


Scientific Name Teclea nobilis Trelipsium madagascarensis Tremma orientalis Trichilia ematica Vangueria apiculata Vernonia auriculifolia Vitex keniensis Zanthoxylum gilletii

English/ Trade Name

Charcoal tree Trichilia Bitter leaf Meru oak Fagara

Local Name Mulamalama/ shivanyara mbako Mbalakhaya Musakala Omunyama Mukomoli Masavakhwa Mufutu Shikhuma

Appendix 2: List of Malava Forest Mammals Scientific Name

English Name

Local Name

Atherurus africanus Cephalophus spp Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti Cercopithecus mitis stuhdlmanni Colobus guereza Herpestes spp Hystricomorph hystricidae Lepus microtis Orycteropus afer Papio cynocephalus Paraxerus Perodicticus potto Ibeanus Sus scrofa

Porcupine Duikers Red tail monkey Blue monkey Black-and-white Colubus monkey Mongoose African hare Bush squirrel Aardvark Anubis olive baboon Eastern potto Bushbacks Wild pigs

Esechese Tsisishi Wechuli Esaa/ Eshima Indivisi Lisimba Shituyi Shimuna Omwaka Inguche Endabamwezi Imbongo Tsimbitsi

Appendix 3: Reptiles of Malava Forest Scientific name

Common name

Local Name

Adolfus africanus Atheris hispida Bitis arietans Bitis gabonica Dentroaspis jamesoni kaimosea Naja melanoleuca Pseudohaje goldii Testudinidae

Multi-scaled Forest Lizard Prickly Bush Viper Puff udder Gabon Viper Jameson’s Mamba Forest Cobra Gold’s Cobra Tortoise

Lihumbuku Khanamadolo Shilikoma Imbiligong’o Ikhalashima Linii Linii Likhutu

Source: Wagner, P. and W. Bohme (2007):

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Appendix 4: List of Forest Bird Species of Malava

Scientific Name Aldea melanocephala Alethe poliocephalus carrthersi Amblyospiza albifrons melanota Andropadus .g. ugandae Andropadus gracilirostis Andropadus latirostris Apalis p. pulchra Aquila r. rapax Bathmocercus rufus vulpinus Bleda syndactyla woosnami Bostrychia h. brevirostris Bradornis m. microrhynchus Bradornis pallid musinus Bradypterus c. cinnamomeus Buteo oriophilus Bycanistes subquadratus Camaroptera brachyuran Camaropterachloronota toroensis Campephaga petiti Campephaga quiscalina martini Cassypha niveicapilla melanota Centropus s. senegalensis Chlorocichla falvicollis pallidigula Chlorocichla laetissima Chrysococcyx klaas Cinnyricinclus leucogaster verraeuxi Cisticola c pictipensis Cisticola chubby Colius striatus Cossypha cyanocapter bartteloti Cossypha h. heuglini Cuculus .s. solitaries. Cuculus s. solitaries Dendrpicos funscescens Dicrurus ludwigii sharpie Dryocichloides poliopterus Dyaphorophyia c. castanea Elminia longicauda Euplectes gierowii ansorgei Euplectes macroura Euplectes macrourus Eupletes capensis Falcon naumanni Guttera pucherani

English Name Black-headed Heron Brown-chested Alethe Grosbeak Weaver Little greenbul Slender-billed Greenbul Yellow whiskered greenbul Black Collared Apalis Tawny Eagle Black-faced Rufous Warbler Red-tailed Bristlebill Hadada Ibis African Grey Flycatcher Pale Flycatcher Cinanmon Bracken Warbler Mountain Buzzard Black and white casqued hornbill Grey backed camaroptera Olive-green Camaroptera Petit's Cuckoo-shrike Purple-throated Cuckoo-shrike Snowy-headed Robinchat Senegal Coucal Yellow-throated Leaf-love Joyful Greenbul Klaas Cuckoo

Local Name Namukhonolelo

Violet-backed Starling

Litakaya

Singing cisticola Chubb's Cisticola Speckled mousebird Blue-shouldered Robinchat White-browed Robinchat Red chested cuckoo Red-chested Cuckoo Cardinal Woodpecker Square-tailed Drongo Grey winged robin chat Chestnut Wattle-eye African blue flycatcher Black Bishop Yellow mantle widowbird Yellow-mantled Widowbird Yellow bishop Lesser Kestrel Crested guineafowl

Khatiatiasi Khatiatiasi Esefwe Imbilivinza Imbilikinza Mukosi afwe

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Litekeya Ling’aang’a

Shilitsa Ling’aang’a

Ikhong’onda

Esikhokhochole Limila Limila

Likhanga Page | 81


Scientific Name Gymnobucco bonapartei cinereiceps Hippolais pallida elaeica Hirundo abyssinica unitatis Hirundo senegalensis Indicator indicator Ispidina picta Lagonosticta r ubricata hildebrandti Laniarius luehderi Laniarius aethiopicus Lanius .c. humeralis Lanius mackinnoni Linurgus olivaceas Lonchura scutata Lophaetus occipitalis Lybius bidentatus aequatorialis Malaconotus bocagei jacksoni Malaenornis fisheri Melaenornis edolioides Melaenornis f. fischeri Merops .m. muelleri Merops aplaster Merops oreobates Merops pusillus Milvus migrans parasitus Motacilla aguimp vidua Muscicapa adusta Musophaga rossae Nectarinia k. kilimensis Nectarinia olivacea changamwesis Nectarinia rubescens kakamegae Nectarinia venusta Nectarinia verticalis viridisplendens Neocossyphus poensis praepectoralis Nigrita canicapilla Nigrita canicapilla schistacea Numida meleagris Passer griseus Phyllastrephus lypochloris Phylloscopus budongoensis Phylloscopus trochilus Platysteira cyanea Ploceus baglafecht Ploceus baglafetch

English Name

Local Name

Grey-throated Barbet Olivaceous Warbler Lesser Striped Swallow Mosque swallow Greater Honey-guide African pigmy kingfisher

Iminywi Iminywi Namulovi

African Firefinch

Shihindichili

Luhder’s bushshrike Tropical Boubou Common fiscal Mackinon's Fiscal Oriole finch Bronze mannikin Long crested eagle Double-toothed Barbet Grey-green Bush-shrike White eyed slaty flycatcher Northern Black Flycatcher White-eyed Slaty Flycatcher Blue headed bee – eater Eurasian bee – eater Cinamon-chested Bee-eater Little bee- eater Black Kite African Pied Wagtail African dusky flycatcher Ross's Turaco Bronze Sunbird Olive Sunbird Green-throated Sunbird Variable Sunbird

Esikhupi

Green-headed Sunbird

Wachacha Wefweko Shihindichili Navungosia

Esikhokhochole

Lihungu Shinjwinjwinji

Mutsuni Mutsuni

Mutsuni

White-tailed Ant-Thrush Grey headed negrofinch Grey-headed Negrofinch Helmeted guineafowl Grey-headed Sparrow Toro olive Greenbul Uganda Woodland Warbler Willow Warbler Common wattle eye Baglafecht Weaver Baglafecht weaver

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Likhanga

Litekeya Page | 82


Scientific Name Ploceus bicolor Ploceus cucullatus Ploceus insignis Ploceus melanogaster stephanophorus Ploceus nigricollis Ploceus superciliosus Poeoptera stuhlmanni Pogoniulus bilineatus Pogoniulus bilineatus Prinia bairdii melanops Prinia leucopogon Prinia subflava melanorhyncha Prodotiscus i. insignis Psalidoprocne Psalidoprocne holomelas massaicus Pycnonotus barbatus Scopus u. umbretta Serinius mozambicus Serinus citrinelloides Serinus s. striolatus Sheppardia a. aequatorialis Spermatophaga ruficapilla Streptopelia .c. somalica Strptopelia semitorquata Tchagra australis emini Tchagra s. senegala Terpsiphone viridis Trachylaemus elgonensis Trachylaemus purpuratus elgonensis Treron. c. gibberifrons Turdus olivaceus abyssinicus Turdus pelios Turtur afer Uraeginthus bengalus Vidua macroura Vidua macroura Zosterops senegalensis

English Name Dark backed weaver Village weaver Brown-capped Weaver

Local Name Litekeya Lisoko Litekeya

Black-billed Weaver Black-necked weaver Compact Weaver Stuhlman's Starling Yellow rumped tinkerbird Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird Banded Prinia White-chinned Prinia Tawny-flanked Prinia Cassin's Honeybird White-headed Saw-wing

Litekeya Litekeya

Iminywi

Black Sawing Swallow

Iminywi

Common bulbul Hamerkop Yellow fronted canary African citril Streaky Seed-eater Equatorial Akalat Red headed bluebill Ring-necked dove Red-eyed Dove Brown-crowned Tchagra Black Crowned Tchagra African Paradise Flycatcher Yellow billed barbet

Likholove Namulovi Inyambere Inyambere

Ironde

Lihusi

Esikhupi Esichoki

Yellow-billed Barbet African green pegion Olive Thrush African thrush Blue-spotted Wood Dove Red-checked cordon-bleu Pin tail whydah Pin-tailed Whyda Yellow white eye

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Ininga

Shitukha Ruhindichili Luvinzo Inyebele

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Appendix 5: List of participants in the Plan Development

Appendix 5a: List of the Local Planning Team Name

Organization/ Institution

Elly O. Tinda Martin Mamati Wandabwa Samuel Maina Vashit Kivondo James O Maua Mr. Alfred Mulamba Anastacia Mwaura Stella Kamwasir Duncan Osale Lizunela Duncan Makau J. M Joel Siele Leonard Muhanga Jennifer Adero James Shihuma Stanley Chiveti

KFS- HoC Western Office KFS- Kakamega County KFS-Malava Forest Station KFS-Malava Forest Station KEFRI-Kakamega County Government of Kakamega KWS-Kakamega NEMA, Kakamega NEMA, Kakamega Geology and Mining, Kakamega MoALF-Malava Nature Kenya Nature Kenya Nature Kenya Malava CFA Malava CFA

Appendix 5b: Enumerators at village level Village

Enumerator’s name

Bushiri

Philiph Makanga Minish Ambani Petronilla Wafula Elisha Kwatenje Isaiah Ndeche Ainea Peter Saba Eunice Kekongo Jacob Musotsi Florence Lunani Samuel Kekongo Sussy Mwando Elizabeth Burudi Vincent Imbusi Obaye Kanusu

Makhwabuye A Malanga market Isanjiro Makhwabuye (Butali) Fukoye Cereal Board Muhoni Harambee Mukavakava Shitirira Musingu Area Shitirira Forest Area

Appendix 5c: List of participants during village sensitization meeting at Malava Forest Station on 23rd January 2015 Name

Organization/ Institution

Name

Organization/ Institution

Jennifer Adero Samuel C. Maina Vashit Kivondo James Maua Joel Siele Jackson Maua

Nature Kenya KFS KFS KEFRI, Kakamega Nature Kenya Nature Kenya

Beniah Barasa Mizigo Isaiah Leonard Muhanga James Sichuna Banaya Shikati Benard Simiyu

KFS KFS Nature Kenya Malava CFA Ngau Chief Malava CFA

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Name

Organization/ Institution

Name

Organization/ Institution

Joseph Khamala

Ministry Of Agriculture Malava CFA Community Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA

Zakaria Murunga Margreta Mutevesi Naomi Nasimiyu Emma Paul Janipher Murwa Janet Murua Pamela Jumba David Lumbasi Meshack Nyamu Ngaira Museve Peter Chikomai Peter Mugu Tom Chithari Hellen Nanzala Saul Ungaya Edward Makokha Nathan Ikhuluma Aggrey Mutoka R.O. Ochundu Martin Wanyabwa Jackline Kamadi Esther Weweya Florence Lunani James Muyekho Patrick Muchende Clusenaka Yuka Peter Mila Joel Musungu Timothy Shiundu Ernest Mutwa Francis Audoi Daniel Koikoi Shiundu Kamau George Kagunza Simon Makumu Barasa Likunda Wiliam Tuvaka Peter Nyangweso Daniel Shibwecha Teresina Mutala Ayuma Museve Zypora Makokha Margret Shemo Lydia Reuben Carolyne Wafula Lucheli Mwathu Solom Isiye Isabela Wekesa Teresa Kwale Samwel Malach Caleb Marunda Charles Ohute

Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA KFS KFS KFS KFS KFS KFS KFS Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA

Jacob Cheto Mary Shimwenyi Regina Malanga Pheminah Andoli John Keya Kekokho Chumila Joseph Kibasa Isaac Malumasi Jethro Sasala Micah Amutara Noel Mukhwana Stanley Chiveti Loice Ayuma Marisela Naliaka Dancan Keya Elizabeth Kwecho Jared Sajita Mark Mwando Obaye Kanuso Mukachelwa Wanyani Jacob Yura Annah Khavele Jane Makaa Wellix Kwendo Fedha Mmbasu Isaac Munangu Eunice Kekongo John Lunani Koikoi Muchanda Silas Shigondi Susy Mwando Margret Lihanda Mary Nechesa Brenda Keya Peter Makaa Wiliam Mulaya Yohana Muramba Jomo Lanani Geoffrey Magana Muchende Kanusu Benson Shiliakana Ezinas Were Gurneys Rapando Loice Chikamai Lydia Joshua Saupa Tadayo Knight Chrisandos Grace Weku Vincent Moi Carolyne Masitsa Rose Sawanga

Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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Appendix 5d: List of participants during village sensitization meeting at Shitirira on 27th January 2015 Name

Organization/ Institution

Name

Organization/ Institution

Jenniffer Adero Stanley Obiret James Shihuma Jared Sajita Felistas Vukaya Jackson Magake James Maua Joel Siele Ernest Mmasava Samuel Maina Vashit Birondo Fanuel Karakacha Timothy Mukalu

Nature Kenya Malava CFA Malava CFA Nature Kenya Malava CFA Nature Kenya KEFRI, Kakamega Nature Kenya Administration KFS KFS Adminstration Community Secretary Administration NGAO Administration KFS KFS KFS KFS Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Administration Malava CFA Malava CFA KFS Community Community Snr/Chf Musindu Malava CFA KFS KFS Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Ass/Chief Malava CFA Malava CFA

Angelina Shingola Loice Muchende Everline Bushuru Rodah Imbusi Diana Achiiza Alex Musonye Elizabeth Burundi Bukaya Machiya Haron Kamwani Samuel Masai Patrick Barasa Anense Machegi Nyaca Namutali Peter Mila Ernest Shikuku Sammy David Yohana Maramba Isaac Munangu Benard Mwonyonyo Benjamin Wachiya Evans Iadrino Paul Chekeni George Kagunza Isaack Paul Makanga Philip Kwecho Kanese Joshua Recha David Nyongesa Seth Zablon Musa Muchende Silas Shikongi Joel John Mukalo Tabitha Muchako Esther Wekeva Carolyne Masitsa Peninah Khakali Juliana Khakasa Fridah Timothy Anne Joshua Philice Musa Knight Muchuma Esther Damara Phoebe Ndene Violet Job Ruth Soita Agnes Paulo Christine Fulan

Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA

Thomas Makuva Benaya Shikati Nechesa Makanga R.O. Ochanda Alice Anyona Martin Wandabwa Elly Tinda Solomon Mai Fred Situma Mucan Amutala Duncan Keya Loice Ayuma Lazarus Murukwa Caleb Makunda Benard Simiyu Samuel Ambali Misigo Isaiah Mary Shimwenyi Samuel Ndecha Daniel Simiyu Simon Imbusi Charles Okara Isaya Makokha Eunice Kokongo Marsela Naliaka Margret Kakai Charles Anaboa Isaya Ndeche Rebuwa Mugite Joseph Kibasi Fredrick Imbusi Haron Bokayo Reuben Kwalanda Musa Wangati Joyce Mwanzi

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Name

Organization/ Institution

Name

Organization/ Institution

Everline Moi Fiona Samuel Fredrick Songa Obaya Karugu Agnes Muchende Norah Muchende Ibene Vufasi Irene Mutwai Erwin Shibwechwe Eunice Zaddok Doreen Kageha Susy K. Mwando Jacob Yuka Jackson Mbakaya Anjelina Achiza Ezekiel Muma Anthony Masai Esther Tisa

Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA

Lucheli Mwalati Paul Mmasi Benson Shiliakana Cheke Recha John Makamu Isaac Shotone Shisambula John Kongoni Mulupi Ngala Kanusu Koikoi Muchende Ezekiel Mulama Ebby Barasa Ruth Burudi Henry Chisutia Kinyatta Alini Rususi Wiliam Mulama

Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA

Appendix 5e: List of participants during village sensitization meeting at Bahai FaithMakhwaviye on 28th January 2015 Name

Organization/ Institution

Name

Organization/ Institution

Jenifer Adero Jethro S. Sasala Joseph Kibasa Loice Nyuma Jimmy Mwanga Anne Khasiala Elisha M. Khwatenje Leonard Mavuka James Maua Bonface J. Washisito Makau J.M Nelhesa Makamwa

Nature Kenya Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA KEFRI, Kakamega Ass/Chief MoALF Local Administration Local Administration Local Administration Nature Kenya Administrator K.F.S Administrator Malava CFA Malava CFA Nature Kenya Malava CFA Malava Forest Lodge Malava CFA K.F.S

Titus Shamaka

Friends Of Malava Forest Malava Forest Lodge Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA

Philip Makanga Samuel S. Kasaka Jackson Magak Ruth Shitanda Samuel Maina Kongoni Mulupi Micah Amutala Stanley Chiveli Leonard Muhanga Felistus Vukanga Andrew Chiboli Fredrick Imbus Coporal Misingo

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Peter Luchel Isaya Ndeche Duncan Keya Mohamed Acheri George Chilal Julius Beti Paul Mananga Caleb Makunda Maureen Masumbai Esther Busiaga Dorcas Mboya Sarah Mosith Grace Mathias Monicah Ambogo Grace Shem Phoebe Khakai Charles Mwehika Solomon Samuel Mtuha Samuel Amba Zebedayo Shitoshe Titus Musamba Joseph Musambegi David Matenna Jumba Matekwa

Page | 87


Name

Organization/ Institution

Name

Organization/ Institution

Yohana Mwamba William Muhumu Mulama Sami Sara John Barasa David Adakha Peter Mwompe Kennedy Luvale David Ambani Kefa Mukalo Seth Zabrano Eliwa Ambani John Nualanga James Shihura Daniel Simiyu Ruth Shitsukana Elyzabeth Kulacho Hudson Atega Florence Lunani Elias Barasa Bernard Simiyu Fred Situma Silas Litosi Shem Shitukho John Muliem Philip Sembeya

Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Village Elder Malava CFA Snr/Chief Malava CFA Malava CFA Bahai Community Malava CFA KFS Malava CFA Malava CFA KWS Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA

Saulo Kovola John Mutali Joyce Shikomera Regina Malanga John Mutalakhani Nathan Ikhuluru Martin Wandabwa Ernest Masava Benaya Chukati Joel Siele Kongoni Mulupi Vashit Kivondo Elly Tinda R.O Odhiambo Isaya Makoha Charles Okakosi Eunice Kekonyo Marisala Nadhiaka Solomon Isiyu Susy M Mwando John Munsa John Shisammbula Amos Mwenosi Grace Weku Magret Mutwesi

Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA KFS KFS Administrator Administrator Nature Kenya Administrator KFS KFS KFS KFS KFS Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA

Appendix 5f: List of participants during LPT training at Malava Town Hall on 4/3/2015 Name

Organization/ Institution

Name

Organization/ Institution

Joel Siele Ernest Masava

Nature Kenya Local Administration Local Administration KFS, Malava Forest Station Co G, Kakamega KFS, Kakamega KWS, Kakamega Nature Kenya KEFRI, Kakamega Nature Kenya NEMA, Kakamega Nature Kenya KFS, Malava Forest Station KEFRI, Kakamega KEFRI, Kakamega Nature Kenya

Kekongo S. Chumila Jethro Sasala Elisha Kwatenje Philiph Makanga Vincent Imbusi Obaye Kanusu Jacob Musotsi Aineah Saba Elizabeth Burudi Stanley Chiveti Florence Lunani Marisala Naliaka James Shikhuma Elly Tinda Eunice Kekongo Solomon Isiye Misigo Isaiah

Malava CFA

Nechesa Makanga Vashit Kivondo Alfred Mulamba Martin Wandabwa Anastasia Mwaura Jennifer Adero James Maua Jackson Magak Wilson Sigilai Jared Sajita Samuel Maina Kingiri Faith RodgersAnguenyi Leonard Muhanga

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Sussy K. Mwando

Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA Malava CFA KFS, Kakamega Malava CFA Malava CFA KFS, Malava Forest Station Malava CFA Page | 88


Name

Organization/ Institution

Name

Organization/ Institution

Charles Okaka

KFS, Malava Forest Station Malava CFA County Kakamega

Nathani Muchiji Isaya Weveka

KFS, Kakamega Local Administration NEMA, Kakamega

Ambani Minish Ambia Sharon

Sifuna Elizabeth

Appendix 5g: List of participants during Malava PFMP Stakaeholders validation workshop held on 01/10/2015 at Malava (K) Hotel Name

Organization/ Institution

Name

Organization/ Institution

Stella Kamwasir Anastacia M.Sikoyo James Shihuma Marisela Nalia Stanley Chiveti Micah Amutala Robert Mango Solomon Isiye Watoi Dancan Keya Elisha M.Khwaenja Elizabeth V.Burudi Felistas Vukaya Benard Simiyu Ernest T. Mmasava Nechesa Makanga Ruth K. Shitanda James Maua Thomas s. Maikava Fanuel Karacha Kekongo S.Chumila Samuel A.Oloo Edwin Ngero Samuel S.Kataka Daniel Simiyu John Shisambula John Luvani Philip Makanga Jacob Musotsi Isiya Ndeche George Kovola James Kutoto Julius Beti Aincah P. Saba

NEMA KWS CFA - Malava CFA - Malava CFA - Malava CFA - Malava CFA - Malava Community scout C.A.F C.A.F C.A.F C.A.F M.D.O ADMIN ADMIN ADMIN KEFRI ADMIN ADMIN Enumerator Water ADMIN ADMIN SNR/A/Chief V.E MDHONI C.F.A C.F.A C.F.A ADMIN ADMIN ADMIN Community

B.K. Wanyama Ben Musungu Vincent I. Imbusi Obaye Kanuso Samuel Ndiche Susy K.Mwando Unice Kekenoso Florence Kinani Petronilla Wafula Musa Wangatia James Ambeyi Jeniffer Adero Voshit Kirondo

Livestock Fisheries C.F.A C.F.A L.Guru C.F.A C.F.A C.F.A C.F.A Village elder Planning Nature Kenya Malava forest station WRMA Community NGAO NGAO NGAO NGAO Agriculture NGAO Nature Kenya KFS KFS CFA KFS KEFRI Nature Kenya AGRI NEMA Nature Kenya

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

Dr. Kebe Saul Mary Simwenyi Benaya Chikati Kongoni Mulupi Kaleb Makunda Reuben Kwalanda Makau J.M Daniel Chimuche Joel Siele Ekuwam Julius E. Kisanga Benard John Nabwera Elly O. Tinda Mwikoma Japheth Leonard Muhanga James Aduda Benard Amakwa Jared Sajita

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Appendix 6: Characteristics of well-being status as perceived by Malava community

Wealth Indicators

Very Rich OMUYINDA/ WAMAKUNJI (A)

Rich OMUYINDA (B)

Poor MUTAKHA (C)

Very Poor OMUMANANI (D)

House Land Family Vehicle Lighting

Permanent >10 ac One wife 3 cars (New) Electricity, solar and gas

Permanent >5 to 10 ac more than one wife 1car electricity, gas and solar

Mud wall plus iron sheet roof <5 ac One wife (but unstable) Bicycle Paraffin

Children

2-3

6-18

5-6

Hospital Cattle

Attends high cost Dairy cows: zero grazing, Locals (>20)

Dispensary 3-10 cows (local)

Dispensary and herbs Less than 3 cows

Grass thatched < 1 ac No wife ( in general) None Firewood but also doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t cook; no food None: May have children but normally does not stay with them Does not go to hospital No livestock

Schools Insurance Business Water Toilet Legal issues Daily expenditure (Ksh)

Academy or high cost schools life and property Big >10m Piped and borehole Flash & pit latrine (stone wall) Advocate 10,000

Public Insurance only for property Owns local shop =1m Spring Outside pit latrine iron sheet Advocate. 5,000

Public None Small Ksh 48000per year Spring pit latrine- grass No advocate 500

None/Child labor No insurance None Spring unknown(none) No advocate 100

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

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Appendix 7: Malava Forest Station Plantation Data Sheet updated September 2015 SUB-COMP MALAVA 1O MALAVA 1S MALAVA 1R MALAVA 1Q MALAVA 3C MALAVA 3D MALAVA 3E MALAVA 3A MALAVA 3G MALAVA 3H MALAVA 3F MALAVA 1H MALAVA 1I MALAVA 1L MALAVA 1M(b) MALAVA 1MŠ MALAVA 1O(a) MALAVA 1N MALAVA 1P(a) MALAVA 1R(a) MALAVA 1T MALAVA 3B MALAVA 1M MALAVA 1A MALAVA 2A MALAVA 1M(a) MALAVA 1P MALAVA 2B

SPECIES Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Cupressuslusitanica Eucalyptus saligna Pinuspatula Pinuspatula Pinuspatula Pinuspatula Pinuspatula Unstocked

PLT YR 1990 1998 2000 2001 2001 2001 2001 2002 2005 2005 2008 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2002 1971 1997 1998 2000 2001 -

DENSITY 250 325 325 350 100 75 100 300 250 75 300 1200 1250 1280 1300 1300 1285

-

DBH(CM) 336.7 278.4 226 233 229.4 173 94.2 181.5 92.6 92.6 84.4 -

65 150 75 220 75 75

-

HEIGHT(M) 23.5 22.2 13.2 20 15 15 15 19 5.2 5.2 5 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2

265.5 304.2 170 176 278.6 219.3

-

Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan, 2015-2019

18 22.8 15 15 13.2 20 -

AREA(HA) 13.5 8.4 12 10 24.4 10.4 18.3 8.4 11.6 4.3 10 3.6 3.5 18 3.1 19.7 25 6.6 8.8 15.5 6.7 4.6 9.3 0.8 1.2 3.7 4 2.5

AGE 25 17 15 14 14 14 14 13 10 10 7 2 2 2 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 13 44 18 17 15 15 -

REMARKS

Writeoff recommended Density very low/Writeoff Writeoff recommended

Density very low/Writeoff

replanted after poor establishment in 2001 Established under pelis Established under pelis Established under pelis Writeoff recommended Over mature and deteriorating Density very low/Writeoff Density very low/Writeoff Density very low/Writeoff Recently clearfelled/Unstocked

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Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan 2015 - 2019  
Malava Participatory Forest Management Plan 2015 - 2019  
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