Page 1

Cherangani Hills Forest

Strategic Ecosystem Management Plan 2015 - 2040

September

2015



Cherangani Hills Forest

Strategic Ecosystem Management Plan 2015 - 2040


CHERANGANI HILLS FOREST STRATEGIC ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT PLAN 2015 -2040 Published by: Kenya Forest Service Kiambu Road P. O. Box 30513 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya © 2015 Plan development supported by the GEF/UNDP funded and Nature Kenya coordinated “Strengthening Protected Areas Network within the Eastern Montane Forest Hotspot of Kenya Project” Key Implementers: Kenya Forest Service Kenya Forestry Research Institute Kenya Wildlife Service National Environmental Management Authority Elgeyo/Marakwet County Government West Pokot County Government Trans-Nzoia County Government Uasin Gishu County Government Nature Kenya Community Forest Associations Water Resource Users Associations Disclaimer The production, printing and distribution of this document to stakeholders has been with the financial assistance of the GEF and UNDP (Award ID: 00058356). The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the Local Planning Team that developed the Cherangani Forest Ecosystem Strategic Plan 2015-2040, and cannot under normal circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the GEF nor the UNDP.


Approval Page The Cherangani Forest Ecosystem Strategic Management Plan 2015 – 2040 is hereby approved for implementation and may be reviewed as need arises.


Message from the Implementing Partners The Cherangani Forest Ecosystem is a major water shed that supports the livelihoods of many communities locally and within the Lake Victoria and Lake Turkana basins. Its diversity of biological and edaphic resources gives it local, national and global importance. However, the increasing human population and their uncontrolled settlement in some fragile areas of the ecosystem have exerted enormous pressure on the finite resources, resulting in over their exploitation. The realignment of the forest boundaries has remained a contentious issue that is highly resisted by the neighbouring communities. The ecosystem strategic management plan is a roadmap at mitigating these challenges and threats that the Cherangani Ecosystem is facing. Developed jointly by a myriad of stakeholders at the various levels through an elaborate consultative process from June 2011 to December 2013 it is envisaged that a committed implementation process shall be followed by all those with a stake in the conservation and sustainable use of the forest ecosystem. In the plan five main forest management zones are identified; their specific management objectives stated and the management actions together with responsible institutions proposed. It is expected that the implementation of the plan will contribute to the restoration of the degraded areas, promote the exploitation of the important cultural and scenic sites while guiding the overall sustainable utilization of the resources in the ecosystem. The local communities in the Forest Ecosystem adjacent area are recognized as important stakeholders who will actively participate in its management and conservation.

________________________ ________________________ Dr. Paul Matiku Dr. Ben Chikamai Executive Director Director Nature Kenya Kenya Forestry Research Institute


Foreword The scope of this Strategic Management Plan covers all the protected forest units of the Cherangani Hills ecosystem as well as the surrounding buffer zones. The protected forest units transcend West Pokot, TransNzoia and Elgeyo-Marakwet counties and cover 12 forest blocks namely; Kapolet, Cheboyit, Chemurkoi, Embobut, Kaisungor, Kerrer, Kipkunur, Kiptaberr, Sogotio, Toropket, Kapkanyar, Lelan.

management to which operational plans will be anchored. Among challenges faced by the ecosystem are boundary encroachments, illegal settlements over grazing and illegal removal of forest produce. Various opportunities that could improve livelihoods also remain untapped.

The forest ecosystem plays a very important role in the provision of ecological, social and economic services to the local community and the country at large. In particular the Cherangani forests are important for water catchment, and sit astride the watershed between the Lake Victoria and Lake Turkana Basins. Streams to the west of the watershed feed the Nzoia river system, which flows into Lake Victoria while those to the east flow into the Kerio River system.

The strategic planning process for the Cherangani Forest Ecosystem was initiated under the theme ‘Strengthening Protected Areas Network within the Eastern Montane Forest Hotspot of Kenya’ and was supported by GEF/UNDP and coordinated by Nature Kenya. It is a 25-year management plan (2015-2040) for the Cherangani forest ecosystem, developed through a collaborative initiative between Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), Kenya Forest Service (KFS), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) and Community Forest Associations (CFAs).

This strategic plan is meant to provide the long-term guidance towards achieving the vision for the protected areas and will act as an integrative framework for the ecosystem

Essau Omollo. Deputy Director, Forest Conservation and Management Kenya Forest Service


Acknowledgement We wish to acknowledge all those who contributed to the discussions during visioning, thematic and zonation workshops. Special thanks to Nature Kenya through the Project Manager, Washington Ayiemba and Site Project Officer Mr. Julius Kimani for mobilizing stakeholders from the areas surrounding the ecosystem to the workshops. We also appreciate the valuable contributions from all the participants in the workshop who included government officers, community based organization members and local leaders. The Kenya Forest Service headquarters is acknowledged for allowing the KEFRI team to embark on this noble exercise and actively participating in the implementation. The Head of Conservancy, Mr. S. Mibei played a key role of opening

some workshops and gave valuable impetus and direction of the workshops, while the zonal manager Mr. Kerengo provided crucial information on the status of the forest and the linkage with other partners. The local planning team played a crucial role and will remain an important implementation arm of this strategic plan. Finally we wish to acknowledge GEF and UNDP for providing financial support to the process through the project on strengthening protected area network within the eastern montane forest. The Director KEFRI is specially thanked for allowing the KEFRI team, Messrs Joram Kagombe, James Kimondo and Stephen Kiama time to lead the process and write up the plan. To all who contributed in any way to the overall realization of this plan, a big thank you!


Executive Summary The Cherangani Forest Ecosystem, like other forests and woodlands in Kenya contributes significantly to the national economy. It provides multiple environmental, economic, social and cultural benefits that promote opportunities for poverty alleviation and economic development. It creates significant employment opportunities and livelihood prospects in the adjacent rural areas thereby stemming the rural urban migration. It serves as a water catchment that recharges rivers and dams, which supply water for domestic use and hydro electric power generation. Besides, the role of the ecosystem is cross cutting into ecotourism, wildlife conservation and the provision of consumptive goods and services such as fuelwood, timber and fodder among others.

major challenge to the institution of proper management of the forest areas.

The ecosystem traverses several counties and has a total area of 114,416.2 Ha. The main public forest blocks in the ecosystem are in Elgeyo/Marakwet County (74,250 Ha), West-Pokot County (34,380 Ha) and Trans Nzoia County (1,551.6 Ha). Of the forests in the ecosystem, approximately 60,500 Ha (52.9%) are closed canopy forest while the rest is comprised of formations of bamboo, scrub, and rock outcrops, grassland, moorland and approximately 4,000 Ha of cultivated areas and exotic tree species plantations.

The plan was developed in an extensively participatory way, with wide consultation among the stakeholders. A review of the existing information was carried out and a workshop of stakeholders was held to consultatively develop and agree on the vision, objective(s) and purpose of the ecosystem. The key thematic areas were also identified.

The western block of the forest, which totals approximately 20,000 Ha comprises of Kapkanyar, Kapolet and Kiptaberr Forest Reserves. The eastern block, which comprises of Lelan, Embotut, Kerrer, Kaisungor, Toropket, Chemurokoi, Kupkunurr, Cheboit, Sogotio and Kapchemutwa Forest Reserves are less well connected. Apart from a large south eastern block along the escarpment, these forests are fragmented and separated by extensive natural grasslands, scrub and farmlands especially in the central part of the ecosystem. This close proximity of the people to the forest reserves over an extensive distance along the boundaries poses a

The ecosystem ranges in altitude from 2,000 m to 3,365 m above sea level at Cheptoket peak. The mean annual rainfall ranges from 1,200 mm in the east to 1,500 mm in the west due to the influence of moist winds from Lake Victoria. The ecosystem is comprised of metamorphic rocks with moderately deep soils of good structure and high organic matter. The forests are important as water catchments and are situated between Lakes Victoria and Turkana basins. The streams from the watershed flowing to the west feed the Nzoia River and into Lake Victoria while those to the east flow into Kerio River and eventually Lake Turkana.

The vision of the stakeholders is to have the best managed forest ecosystem in Africa contributing towards improved livelihood for the adjacent communities and enhanced benefits to other stakeholders. With the purpose of having sustainable forest management and conservation practices established and in operation. This will be achieved by a combination of strategies and activities. The strategic forest management objectives of the ecosystem are: to conserve water catchment and enhance the unique biodiversity of the forest; to contribute towards meeting subsistence needs and improving the livelihoods of forest adjacent communities; and to improve and develop the condition and potential for utilization of the forest resource.


Approach to plan Implementation The ecosystem plan was prepared through a multi stakeholder’s consultative process where KEFRI assumed the lead role. The team of stakeholders (Local planning Team – LPT) provided technical support in terms of consolidating information generated by other stakeholders including PRA reports, vegetation resource assessments, resource mapping and facilitating consultative meeting. The process involved four critical stages; reconnaissance survey of the ecosystem, visioning workshop, thematic areas workshop, and the zonation workshop. Several important principles were considered during the preparation of this plan to ensure its acceptability by all the stakeholders: • all stakeholders participated at the various stages • women and youth were mainstreamed and the views taken into consideration • available scientific information was also incorporated in the preparation. Thematic Areas A total of nine thematic areas were identified during the visioning workshop and discussed during the thematic areas workshop. The areas were: partnership and networking; education and environmental awareness; infrastructure; income generating activities and livelihoods; forest protection; resource mobilization; research and monitoring; ecotourism; and participatory forest management. Also the threats to the ecosystem and the necessary mitigation measures were also highlighted. For each theme, brief background information was provided; the strategies and actions for addressing them were agreed and prioritized. Zonation of the Ecosystem The criteria for zonation were determined and the management options for each zone proposed. The zones are:

Conservation zone: these were mainly the hotspots with endangered and endemic fauna and flora. With the main objective being to enhance biodiversity conservation, the management options were to carry out fencing and intensify research. Plantation utilization zone: these are the fairly flat and accessible areas. The main objective is to utilize the zone to provide forest materials/products and services. This shall be achieved by engaging in participatory forest management (PFM), plantation establishment for livelihood improvement scheme (PELIS), bee keeping, and relocating forest plantations from the steep areas. Livelihood support zone: these are the sublocations adjacent to the forest boundary. The objective is to empower the communities to reduce their level of dependence on the forest resources for their livelihood. To achieve this, income generating activities (IGAs) shall be initiated while also creating awareness on the importance of forest conservation through exchange visits and encouraging farm forestry. Ecotourism and cultural sites: these are attractive sites with unique biodiversity or features of historical significance such as traditional rituals, sacred grooves and shrines. The objective is to enhance their preservation and utilization as IGAs, promote recreation, education and generally appreciation of the aesthetic values of the forest. To achieve this, existing sites shall be preserved and biodiversity conserved, create awareness and enhance their marketing while developing appropriate facilities. Rehabilitation zone: these are the areas that have been negatively affected by human activities including illegal settlement. The objective is to rehabilitate these areas and conserve them through protection to allow for natural regeneration, eviction of illegal settlers and promote re-afforestation.


Table of Contents Approval Page.....................................................................................................................iii Message from the Implementing Partners..........................................................................iv Foreword............................................................................................................................. v Aknowledgement.................................................................................................................vi Executive Summary........................................................................................................ ‌vii List of Tables........................................................................................................................xi List of Figures......................................................................................................................xi List of Acronyms and Abbreviations..................................................................................xii PART ONE........................................................................................................................... 1 1.0 Description of Cherangani forest ecosystem........................................................... 1 1.1 Legal and administrative status................................................................................ 1 1.2 Geographical location.............................................................................................. 1 1.3 Biophysical Description............................................................................................ 3 1.3.1 Topography.................................................................................................... 3 1.3.2 Climate........................................................................................................... 4 1.3.3 Geology......................................................................................................... 4 1.3.4 Soils............................................................................................................... 4 1.3.5 Hydrology...................................................................................................... 4 1.3.6 List of Rivers.................................................................................................. 4 1.3.7 Flora............................................................................................................... 4 1.3.8. Fauna............................................................................................................. 5 1.4 Cherangani Forest Ecosystem management concerns........................................... 5 PART II................................................................................................................................. 7 2.0 Policy, Legal and Institutional frameworks............................................................... 7 2.1 Legal and policy frameworks................................................................................... 7 2.1.1 Forests Act, 2005........................................................................................... 7 2.1.2 Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) of 1999............ 7 2.1.3 Renewable Energy Act, 2006, Section 103................................................... 7 2.1.4 Agriculture Act, Cap 318............................................................................... 8 2.1.5 Grass Fires Act, Cap 327.............................................................................. 8 2.1.6 Tourist Industry Licensing Code, Cap 63...................................................... 8 2.1.7 Kenya’s Vision 2030....................................................................................... 8 2.1.8 Other International Conventions and Agreements........................................ 9 PART III.............................................................................................................................. 11 3.0 Vision, purpose and objectives of the plan............................................................ 11 3.1 The Approach to Plan Implementation................................................................... 11 3.1.1 Inclusion of all relevant stakeholders........................................................... 11 3.1.2 Gender and youth mainstreaming............................................................... 11 3.1.3 Integration of Sound science....................................................................... 11 3.1.4 Partnerships framework established among stakeholders.......................... 11 3.1.5 Transparency and accountability................................................................. 12 3.2 The planning process............................................................................................. 12 4.0 Zoning of Cherangani Forest ecosystem............................................................... 14


4.1 Natural forest vegetation and use.......................................................................... 14 4.2 Human settlement and population density............................................................. 14 4.3 Rehabilitation areas................................................................................................ 15 4.4 Cultural,Ecotourism andother sites for development............................................. 16 5.0 MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES............................................................................ 18 5.1 Forest Protection..................................................................................................... 18 5.2 Environmental Education and Awareness.............................................................. 19 5.3 Participatory Forest Management.......................................................................... 20 5.4 Eco-tourism............................................................................................................. 21 5.5 IGAs and Livelihoods............................................................................................. 23 5.6 Infrastructure Development.................................................................................... 24 5.7 Partnership and networking................................................................................... 25 5.8 Resource mobilization............................................................................................ 26 5.9 Threats to the ecosystem and mitigation measures............................................... 28 6.0 Governance............................................................................................................ 29 References........................................................................................................................ 30 Further Readings............................................................................................................... 30 Appendix 1: List of Participants during the Visioning Workshop...................................... 31 Appendix 2: List of Participants during the Thematic Workshop...................................... 32 Appendix 3: List of Participants during the Zonation Workshop....................................... 33 Appendix 4: List of Participants during the Feedback Workshop..................................... 34 Appendix 5 List of Stakeholders during Marakwet Kapsowar sensitization meeting....... 35 Appendix 6 List of Stakeholders during the Iten Sensitization meeting............................ 36 Appendix 7 List of Stakeholders during the Kapenguria meeting.................................... 37 Appendix 8: Stakeholder analyses.................................................................................... 39 Appendix 9 Profile of some stakeholders.......................................................................... 41


List of Tables Table 1: Forest blocks of Cherangani Ecosystem and their legal notices...................... 1 Table 2: Forest Stations of Cherangani Ecosystem per County and their hectarage..... 2 Table 3: Zones, their selection criteria and management objectives in Cherangani Ecosystem................................................................................... 23 Table 4: Strategies and actions to address forest protection issues with responsible institutions................................................................................... 26 Table 5: Strategies and actions to strengthen environmental education and awareness....................................................................................................... 27 Table 6: Strategies and actions to promote participatory forest management............ 29 Table 7: Strategies and activities to promote development of ecotourism in Cherangani..................................................................................................... 32 Table 8: Strategies and actions to enhance nature based enterprises and livelihoods.34 Table 9: Strategies and actions to promote improvement of infrastructure ................. 36 Table 10: Strategies and actions to promote partnership and networking..................... 37 Table 11: Strategies and actions to strengthen resource mobilisation for conservation system....................................................................................... 40 Table 12: Threats to Cherangani ecosystem and potential mitigating measures........... 42

List of Figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6:

Location of Cherangani Forest Ecosystem within Counties.............................. 3 Constellation of forest blocks in Cherangani forest Ecosystem........................ 4 Hydrology of Cherangani Forest Ecosystem.................................................... 6 Communication network within Cherangani Forest Ecosystem........................ 8 Zonation map of Cherangani Forest Ecosystem............................................. 20 Important cultural and potential sites for ecotourism within Cherangani Ecosystem................................................................................... 22


List of Acronyms and Abbreviations CBD CBO CCF CDTF CEF CFA CHEMUDEP CITES DDC DRSRS ELDOWAS FAC FFS GATT GEF GoK HEP IBAs IGAs IPR IUCN JICA KEBS KEFRI KFS KIFCON KTB KTDA KVDA KWAHO KWS LPT LVBDA LVNWSB MMUST MoAL&F MoL MoC&T NBEs NEMA

Convention of Biological Diversity Community Based Organization Consultative Conservation Forum Community Development Trust Fund Community Environment Facility Community Forest Association Cherangani Multipurpose Development Programme Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora District Development Committees Department of Remote Sensing and Resource Survey Eldoret Water and Sanitation Company Forest Adjacent Community Farmers Field School General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade Global Environment Facility Government of Kenya Hydro electricity power Important Bird Areas Income Generating Activities Institute of Primate Research International Union for Conservation of Nature Japan International Corporation Agency Kenya Bureau of Standard Kenya Forestry Research Institute Kenya Forest Service Kenya Indigenous Forest Conservation Kenya Tourism Board Kenya Tea Development Authority Kerio Valley Development Authority Kenya Water for Health Organisation Kenya Wildlife Service Local Planning Team Lake Victoria Basin Development Authority Lake Victoria North Water Service Board Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Ministry of Livestock Ministry of Commerce and Tourism Nature based Enterprises National Environment Management Authority


NGOs NK NMK NRM NTZDC PAs PELIS PES PFM SIDP UNCED UNDP UNFCCC WRMA WRUA

Non -Governmental Organizations Nature Kenya National Museums of Kenya Natural Resource Management Nyayo Tea Zone Development Authority Protected Areas Plantation Establishment and Livelihoods Improvement Scheme Payment for Ecosystem Services Participatory Forest Management Sengwer Indigenous Development programme United Nations “Conference on Environment and Development United Nations Development Programme United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Water Resource Management Authority Water Resource Users Association


Cherangani Hills Forest


Cherangani Hills Forest

PART 1 1.0 Description of Cherangani forest ecosystem 1.1 Legal and administrative status

The Cherangani hills ecosystem forest cuts across several Counties, namely TransNzoia (1,551.6 Ha), West Pokot (34,380 Ha) and Elgeyo-Marakwet (74,249.7 Ha) totaling 110,181,30 Ha. The hills ecosystem comprises of various forest blocks whose initial proclamations/gazettement were effected as indicated in Table 1. Table 1: Forest blocks of Cherangani Ecosystem and their legal notices County Forest block Proclamation/ Legal Notice No Trans- Kapolet 57/1941 Nzoia Elgeyo- Cheboyit 102/1941 Marakwet Chemurkoi 102/1941 Embobut 26/1954 Kaisungor 102/1941 Kererr 26/1954 Kipkunurr 102/1941 Kiptaberr 49/1967 Sogotio 102/1941 Toropket 102/1941 West Pokot Kapkanyar 49/1967 Lelan 128/1958

Cherangani Hills and all other forests established under proclamation were later declared Central Government forests vide Legal Notice No. 174 of 1964. The ecosystem is comprised of the following forest stations (Table 2) which serve as the administrative centres. The stations are administered by three Ecosystem Conservators based at Kitale, Iten and Kapenguria all

answerable to the Head of Conservancy based at Eldoret. In addition there is a zonal Manager based at Kapsowar who administers the forests in Marakwet Sub-county on behalf of the ecosystem conservator. Table 2: Forest Stations of Cherangani Ecosystem per County and their area County Forest Station Area (Ha) Trans-Nzoia Kapolet 1,551.6 Elgeyo- Cherangani 16,241.8 Marakwet Chesoi 11,933.5 Kapyego 10,000.0 Cheptongei 27,316.4 Elgeyo 6,410.8 Kessup 2,347.2 West Pokot Lelan 16,200.0 Kapenguria 8,645.0 Sekerr 9,535.0 Total 110,181.3

Politically, the ecosystem covers Trans-Nzoia, Kapenguria, Sigor, Marakwet East, Marakwet West, Eldoret East, Eldoret North, and Keiyo North constituencies.

1.2 Geographical location

Figure 1 shows the constellation of forest blocks that comprises Cherangani ecosystem as depicted in the 2004 report by KFWG and DRSRS. It is located within an area defined by 1o 16’ North 35o 26’ East. It is comprised of a series of forest reserves. The ecosystem is made up of 10 forest stations, totaling 110,181.3 Ha of gazetted area (Table 2). Of this, approximately 60,500 Ha is closed-canopy forest while the remainder is comprised of formations of bamboo, scrub, rock, grassland, moorland or heath, with about 4,000 Ha of cultivation and plantations.


Cherangani Hills Forest

Kapkanyar, Kapolet and Kiptaberr Forest Reserves together form a large western block of forest, totaling approximately 20,000 Ha. To the east, the Forest Reserves of Lelan, Embotut, Kerrer, Kaisungor, Toropket, Chemurokoi, Kupkunurr, Cheboit, Sogotio

and Kapchemutwa are less well connected. Apart from a large south-eastern block along the escarpment crest, the forests here are fragmented and separated by extensive natural grasslands, scrub and farmland especially in the central part.

! Figure 1: Location of Cherangani Forest Ecosystem within Counties


Cherangani Hills Forest

Figure 2: Constellation of forest blocks in Cherangani forest Ecosystem

1.3 Biophysical Description 1.3.1 Topography The Cherangani Forest Ecosystem can be described as an old fault-block formation of non-volcanic origin with an undulating upland plateau on the western edge of the Rift Valley. To the east, the Elgeyo Escarpment drops

abruptly to floor of the Kerio Valley, while westwards the land falls gently to the plains of Trans-Nzoia County. The ecosystem ranges in altitude from 2,000 m reaching 3,365 m above sea level (asl) at Cheptoket Peak in the north-central section. The hills are largely covered by a series of Forest Reserves.


Cherangani Hills Forest

1.3.2 Climate The annual rainfall in the ecosystem varies from approximately 1,200 mm in the east to at least 1,500 mm in the wetter west, is influenced by the moist prevailing winds from Lake Victoria. On the other hand, the average annual rainfall varies from 800 mm in the northern part to be more than 1,400 mm in the central part. The main rainy season is from April to August and dry season from December to February.

Within the ecosystems, these rivers originate as small streams that gradually combine to form the rivers (Figure 3). They eventually drain into either Lake Victoria through River Nzoia or to Lake Turkana through Kerio River to the east.

1.3.3 Geology The hills are composed of metamorphic rocks, with conspicuous quartzite ridges and occasional veins of marble. The whole area is occupied by Precambrian rocks of the basement systems, and consists of gneisses and schists. 1.3.4 Soils The Cherangani hills area has mainly moderately deep soils of good structure and high organic matter content and variable acidity (mainly Cambisols). The north-western and northern parts of the area have deep to shallow soils which are in general, liable to sheet erosion. The mountain and hills have shallow to very shallow soils and are often stony and rocky. 1.3.5 Hydrology The Cherangani forests are important for water catchment, and sit astride the watershed between the Lake Victoria and Lake Turkana basins. Streams to the west of the watershed feed the Nzoia river system, which flows into Lake Victoria; streams to the east flow into the Kerio river system. 1.3.6 List of Rivers Cherangani Forest ecosystem is a source of several rivers and these include: Nzoia, Moron, Kapolet, Saiwa, Embobut, Siga and Weiwei.

Figure 3: Hydrology of Cherangani Forest Ecosystem

1.3.7 Flora The forests are of several different types. The lower western parts of Kiptaberr-Kapkanyar are dominated by Aningeria-StrombosiaDrypetes forest, with a large area of mixed Podocarpus latifolius forest on the higher slopes. The southern slopes hold Juniperus– Nuxia–Podocarpus falcatus forest, with heavily disturbed Podocarpus falcatus forest on the eastern slopes. Valleys in the upper peaks area shelter sizeable remnants


Cherangani Hills Forest

of Juniperus–Maytenus undata–Rapanea– Hagenia forest. Tree ferns Cyathea manniana occur in stream valleys, and there are patches of bamboo Arundinaria alpina, though no bamboo zone as such. In clearings, Acacia abyssinica occurs among scrubby grassland with a diversity of flowering plants. At higher altitudes, the forest is interspersed with a mixture of heath vegetation and swamps, the latter with Lobelia aberdarica and Senecio johnstonii. Much of this heath land may be maintained by burning and grazing. Relict Juniperus and Hagenia trees occur here and there. In the east especially, there is a mosaic of vegetation types with little obvious altitudinal zonation, possibly as a result of the hills’ varied topography and the long history of interchanging practices of cultivation, grazing and bush fires, and the establishment of plantations of Cupressus lusitanica, Pinus patula and a few Eucalyptus species. 1.3.8. Fauna The Cherangani ecosystem is home to large and small wildlife animals. There are the elephants, buffaloes and leopards on the higher sides of the hills. However, these are threatened by the increasing encroachment on the forest with the secure place currently being the Mount Elgon national park and the other parks within the ecosystem. Saiwa Swamp National Park, which is part of the Cherangani ecosystem, has a mixture of smaller animals, including black and white Colobus monkeys, otters, genet cats, mongooses, bushbucks and De Brazzas monkeys as well as the sitatunga antelope. The ungulate Tragelaphus eurycerus has been recorded here in the past, but its current status is unknown. The butterfly Capys juliae is endemic to the Cherangani Hills. The avifauna of the Cherangani is characteristic of the highland forests of Kenya west of the Rift Valley, comprising both central highland species and western species. Ecological surveys have recorded over 73 forest-dependent species, none of which is presently globally threatened. Regionally threatened species include Gypaetus barbatus (one of the last breeding populations in Kenya, nesting on the high peaks), Stephanoaetus coronatus

(widespread in small numbers), Glaucidium tephronotum (recently recorded in Kapkanyar), Campephaga quiscalina (uncommon and local; recent records from Kapkanyar) and Indicator conirostris (uncommon).

1.4 Cherangani Forest Ecosystem management concerns

There are a number of serious conservation problems associated with the ecosystem in its current state. These include encroachment, degazettement for settlement, poaching of trees for timber, posts and poles and charcoal burning, livestock grazing, and treefelling by honey gatherers (for honey, or for manufacturing bee hives). Occasional fires, possibly started by honey gatherers, also occur. In 1986, fire destroyed hundreds of hectares in Kapkanyar forest. Most of the lower slopes of Kapolet forest have been converted to farmland in the last 20 years, and similar threats face most of the forest blocks. Grazing is a major concern, especially in Kapkanyar, which borders land occupied by the pastoralist communities from Pokot. Hundreds of cattle are left to roam in the forest for the entire dry season period, causing enormous damage. As the population outside the forest increases, the available pastureland diminishes and subsequently the pressure on the forest rises. Currently, there are allegations that the small-scale farmers graze their cattle in pastureland outside the forest, while the large herds found in the forests apparently belong to wealthy individuals who are influential locally. Embobut forest has a long-standing squatter problem, with approximately 5,000 people living within the forest boundaries. These hills have tremendous potential for ecotourism for those visiting the western and northwestern part of Kenya. They are scenically beautiful, with undulating forested slopes, cascading rivers and open grasslands filled with wild flowers. Ecotourism could help provide local employment and alternative sources of revenue for those living around the forest with improved road network (Figure 3). Education and awareness creation among the local people, especially with respect to bee keeping (management and harvesting


Cherangani Hills Forest

of honey), is important and it can assist to prevent forest fires and tree losses caused by honey gatherers. Honey collection, if properly controlled and managed, can be a sustainable

use of the forest and indeed provide substantial incentives for habitat conservation among the forest adjacent communities.

Figure 4: Communication network within Cherangani Forest Ecosystem


Cherangani Hills Forest

PART II 2.0 Policy, Legal and Institutional frameworks 2.1 Legal and policy frameworks

These consist of the laws and policies that facilitate and guide the implementation and functioning of the Cherangani Forest Ecosystem plan and other aspects relating to various functions and values attributed to the ecosystem. They include: 2.1.1 Forests Act, 2005 There are various sections of this Act that provide for guidelines and opportunites for participatory forest management and conservation. These provisions allow for the Director KFS with the approval of the board to enter into agreement with any person for joint management of any forest. Such person(s) so enjoined may be directed to use or refrain from using such forest or any part thereof in a particular manner in order to ensure the conservation of biodiversity. The Act also allows a member of a forest adjacent community together with other members or persons resident in the same area, to register a community forest association under the Societies Act, which may apply to the Director for permission to participate in the conservation and management of a state forest or local authority forest in accordance with the provisions of this Act. Where there is no management plan in respect of the area, or where the association proposes that there be a new management plan, the application shall be accompanied by a draft management plan. 2.1.2 Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) of 1999 This Act has various sections concerned with protection and conservation of Forests and watersheds. The Act permits the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) to enact regulations and such regulations, guidelines, procedures and measures shall control the harvesting of forests and any

natural resources so as to protect water catchment areas, prevent soil erosion and regulate human settlement within or around the forest. The Act also empowers NEMA to promote the conservation of energy and planting of trees and woodlots, especially through research in appropriate renewable sources of energy, taking measures to encourage the planting of trees and woodlots by individual land users, institutions and by community groups among others. Other relevant sections include: Section 50 on the Conservation of Biological Diversity; Section 72 on Water and Pollution prohibition and the EMCA, Water Quality Regulations 2006: Regulation 4 that deals with the Prevention of Water pollution; and Regulation 6 on the Protection of lakes, rivers, streams, springs, wells and other water sources. 2.1.3 Renewable Energy Act, 2006, Section 103 This Act mainly promotes the development and use of renewable energy technologies, including but not limited to biomass, biodiesel, bioethanol, charcoal, fuelwood, solar, wind, tidal waves, hydropower, biogas and municipal waste. The promotion of such may be through: formulating a national strategy for coordinating research in renewable energy; providing an enabling framework for the efficient and sustainable production, distribution and marketing of energy from biomass, solar, wind, small hydros, municipal waste, geothermal and charcoal; promoting the use of fast maturing trees for energy production including biofuels and the establishment of commercial woodlots including peri-urban plantations harnessing opportunities offered under clean development mechanism (CDM) and other mechanisms including, but not limited to, carbon credit trading to promote the


Cherangani Hills Forest

development and exploitation of renewable energy sources among others. 2.1.4 Agriculture Act, Cap 318 This Act provides for the management of agriculture systems and practices. Under Section 48 which provides for the enactment of rules and regulations, the Agriculture (farm forestry) rules, 2009 were enacted. The objective and purpose of these Rules is to promote the establishment and sustainable management of farm forestry for the purposes of maintaining an on farm tree cover of at least 10 percent in any agricultural land holding; conserving water, soil and biodiversity; protecting riverbanks, shorelines, riparian and wetland areas; sustainable production of wood, charcoal and non wood products; providing fruits and fodder; and carbon sequestration and other environmental services. The rules require that every person who owns or occupies agricultural land shall establish and maintain a minimum of 10 percent of the land under farm forestry which may include trees on soil conservation structures or rangeland and cropland in any suitable configurations provided that the species of trees or varieties planted shall not have adverse effects on water sources, crops, livestock, soil fertility and the neighbourhood and should not be of invasive nature, and that no agricultural landowner or occupier shall grow or maintain any eucalyptus tree species in wetlands and riparian areas. 2.1.5 Grass Fires Act, Cap 327 Section 3 of this Act prohibits the burning of vegetation without authority. Subsection 1 states that: No person shall set fire to any vegetation which is not his property unless he has lawful authority so to do. Subsection 2 further states that: No person shall willfully or negligently kindle any fire which by spreading, may damage or destroy the property of any other person. 2.1.6 Tourist Industry Licensing Code, Cap 63 Section 3 of this Act covers issues relating to licenses required for certain tourist enterprises. Subsection 1 states that: No person shall on

or after the appointed day carry on, or assist in carrying on, any regulated tourist enterprise other than under and in accordance with the terms of a license issued to him and for the time being in force. Enterprise activities referred to in subsection include negotiating, soliciting, canvassing or accepting business for that enterprise and engaging in correspondence with a person who may become a customer of that enterprise, or with the agent of such a person, concerning business of that enterprise. 2.1.7 Kenya’s Vision 2030 Economic Pillar: Tourism Goals for 2030 The Vision for the tourism sector is to “become a top ten long-haul tourist destination in the world that offers a high-value, diverse and distinctive visitor experience”. To achieve this objective, there will be a critical focus on the quality and the diversity of tourism products in the country through partnership between the Government, the private sector and other stakeholders. Social pillar: The vision for environment The vision for the environmental sector is “a people living in a clean, secure and sustainable environment”. The vision is inspired by the principle of sustainable development and by the need for equity in access to the benefits of a clean environment. To realize this vision, the focus will be on four strategic thrusts, among them conservation. Conservation The country will intensify conservation of strategic natural resources (forests, water towers, wildlife sanctuaries and marine ecosystems) in a sustainable manner without compromising economic growth. Kenya intends to have achieved 4 percent forest cover by 2012 and 10 per cent forest cover by 2030. In addition, specific measures will be adopted to promote bio-prospecting activities e.g. research and development of commercial products such as drugs, cosmetics and detergents. The overall goal in forest conservation by 2012 is to increase current forest cover by 50 per cent. This will include significantly improving the contribution of forest services


Cherangani Hills Forest

to the economy and providing a base for the growth of the forestry sector. Regarding wildlife conservation, the goal is to fully protect all wildlife ecosystems. This will sustain the anticipated high growth rate of the tourism sector. The country will also develop an environmentally friendly mining policy.

(CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is an international legally binding treaty. The Convention has three main goals:

Under environmental planning and governance, the goals in this thrust aim to integrate planning approaches and improve overall governance of the environment. Specific goals include:

3. fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources

• Increase coverage of spatial data from the current 30 per cent to 50 per cent for land use and 30 percent to 70 percent for land cover; • Enforce all environmental regulations and standards; and • Attract at least 5 Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) projects per year in the next five years. 2.1.8 Other International Conventions and Agreements 2.1.8.1 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is an international agreement between governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The text of the convention was agreed upon in 1973, and CITES entered into force on 1st July 1975. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 33,000 species of animals and plants. In order to ensure that the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was not violated, the Secretariat of GATT was consulted during the drafting process. 2.1.8.2 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) The Convention on Biological Diversity

1. conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity); 2. sustainable use of its components; and

In other words, its objective is to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. It is often seen as the key document regarding sustainable development. The Convention was opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993. 2.1.8.3 Rio Declaration on Environment The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, often shortened to Rio Declaration, was a short document produced at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit. The Rio Declaration consisted of 27 principles intended to guide future sustainable development around the world. A few of the relevant principles include: Principle 4: Environmental Protection in the Development Process In order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it. Principle 10: Public Participation Environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level. At the national level, each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities, including information on hazardous materials and activities in their communities, and the opportunity to participate in decisionmaking processes. States shall facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely available.


Cherangani Hills Forest

Effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be provided.

concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic activities to interfere with the climate system.”

Principle 22: Indigenous Peoples have a Vital Role Indigenous people and their communities and other local communities have a vital role in environmental management and development because of their knowledge and traditional practices. States should recognize and duly support their identity, culture and interests and enable their effective participation in the achievement of sustainable development.

The G77 wanted strong uniform emission cuts across the developed world of 15%. However, countries, such as the US, made suggestions to reduce their responsibility to reduce emissions. These suggestions included:

2.1.8.4 Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at fighting global warming. The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving “stabilization of greenhouse gas

• Having net current emissions as the basis for responsibility, i.e. ignoring historical emissions; and

• The inclusion of carbon sinks (e.g., by including forests, that absorb CO2 from the atmosphere);

• carbon storage in forests and soils (carbon sinks), which contribute highly to carbon sequestration


Cherangani Hills Forest

PART III 3.0 Vision, purpose and objectives of the plan Vision

“The best managed forest ecosystem in Africa contributing towards improved livelihood for the adjacent communities and enhanced benefits to other stakeholders”

Purpose

“Sustainable forest management and conservation practices established and in operation”

Strategic Objectives

The strategic objectives for Cherangani Forest Ecosystem are broadly defined by the national objectives for forest management and conservation of indigenous forest in Kenya, as expressed in the draft National Forest Policy. Since the national policy objectives are by definition broad, they have been further refined in this plan to fit the unique local context of Cherangani Forest Ecosystem. In order of priority, the strategic forest management objectives are: 1. To conserve water catchments and enhance the unique biodiversity of the forest. 2. To contribute towards meeting subsistence needs and improving the livelihoods of forest-adjacent communities. 3. To improve and develop the condition and potential for utilization of the forest.

3.1 The Approach to Plan Implementation

The strategic management plan for Cherangani forest ecosystem has deliberately taken consideration of several important principles during the plan formulation, and which will continue to guide the process of its implementation. 3.1.1 Inclusion of all relevant stakeholders Cherangani forest ecosystem is a meeting

point of diverse and multiple interest groups. All relevant stakeholders, primary, secondary and tertiary, and who were identified consultatively have played key roles during the planning process and whose valuable contribution will guide the production of the plan. 3.1.2 Gender and youth mainstreaming In Cherangani forest ecosystem, women are often the most subsistence users of the forest, in terms of obtaining firewood, cultivation of agricultural crops through PELIS and collection of wild indigenous fruits. Youths in the surrounding communities are mostly unemployed, thereby eking their livelihood from forest. The planning process deliberately sought their involvement to stem the various illegal activities that contribute to forest degradation and deforestation. Due to the diversity of the stakeholders and their different interests the planning process used consensus building to accommodate the various views and opinions. 3.1.3 Integration of Sound science It was recognized that the long term realization of Cherangani forest ecosystem vision would be firmly grounded on information based on sound science. The planning process made reference to relevant government documents and scientific data. The management programmes that are to be implemented envisaged the need for continuous research, education, monitoring and information sharing among the stakeholders. 3.1.4 Partnerships framework established among stakeholders Experiences with Cherangani forest ecosystem to date suggest that partnership arrangements among different government agencies and other groups in civil society


Cherangani Hills Forest

can be an effective way to create joint responsibility and “ownership” of actions. We recognized therefore the need to strengthen the forest level management committee as a tool for coordinating partnerships. No single body or organization has the sole right to plan, implement and benefit from actions, and best results will come through collaborative efforts. 3.1.5 Transparency and accountability Good communication, common vision, and accountability for actions can come only through the use of open and transparent working practices. Civil society today demands more accountability, and the advance of communications technology has made it much easier to adopt this style of working practice: both within the government agencies concerned, and between the government agencies and other stakeholder groups in society.

3.2 The planning process

As part of the “Protected Areas Project“, development of a 25 years strategic management plan for Cherangani Forest Ecosystem among Kakamega and Nandi ecosystems was recognized as a key output that was to be prepared through a multistakeholders consultative process where KEFRI assumed the lead role. The KEFRI team worked with stakeholders drawn from across section of interest groups and institutions working in the ecosystem. The team provided technical support in terms of consolidating information generated by other stakeholders including PRAs, vegetation resource assessments, resource mapping and facilitating consultative meetings. The process involved four critical stages in the development and preparation of the plan. These included a reconnaissance survey, visioning workshop, thematic workshop and zonation workshop all held with the involvement of the stakeholders in ecosystem. The reconnaissance survey was necessary due to a long delay, which occurred between development of the proposal and the funding. This led to changes on the ground conditions necessitating a revision of the approach in developing the plans. During

the survey, discussions were held with KFS personnel to establish the prevailing situation in the ecosystem. This was done to avoid duplication of activities and thus establish a cost effective strategy in development of the plans. The specific objectives of the reconnaissance field survey were: (i) assess status of any development towards the ecosystem management plan against planned activities (ii) establish availability of documents and data related to development of ecosystem forest management plan; and (iii) visit individual areas to familiarize with field conditions and the pertaining management issues and challenges. To create a consensus, visioning workshop was held with the aim developing a common vision for the ecosystem among the key partners and stakeholders. The objectives of the workshop was (a) create understanding on status of development of ecosystem management plan (b) develop a common vision for the ecosystem for the next 25 years (c) identify challenges/obstacles to realizing the vision; and (d) develop general strategies to overcome the obstacles in order to realize the vision. The workshop was held in January 2012 with a total of 32 participants drawn from Government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community-based organizations (CBOs), community forest associations (CFAs) and local leaders of the various organizations from the locations within Cherangani forest ecosystem (Appendix 1). Following this, a thematic workshop was held in June 2012 where 37 participants drawn from organizations that had representatives during the first workshop (but mainly targeting the same individuals) attended (Appendix 2). The thematic areas identified were discussed in group discussions and presented to the plenary. A total of 9 thematic areas previously noted during the visioning workshop were covered. During the group discussions, brief background information concerning each theme were prepared, the strategies and actions for addressing them were agreed and prioritized. The following were the themes reviewed during group discussions: - Partnership and networking


Cherangani Hills Forest

- Education and environmental awareness - Infrastructure - Threats to the ecosystem and mitigation measures - IGA and livelihoods - Forest protection - Resource mobilization - Research and monitoring - Ecotourism - Participatory Forest Management Other themes that were not identified but were felt to be important included: Water catchment management – riverbank protection; Rehabilitation of degraded areas; Tree planting outside the forest to achieve 10% forest cover; and the livestock stocking capacity and farm capacity The following were the issues for review during group discussion under each theme:

1. Background information Activities taking place in the ecosystem Strengths, weaknesses and opportunities Stakeholders involved Variation of activity within the ecosystem 2. Issues Review issues raised and whether strategies proposed will address the issues 3. Objective 4. Strategies & Actions For each strategy, identify a number of action points and responsible institution Review whether strategies proposed will achieve the objective 5. Provide as indicative time frame 6. Responsible person 7. Timeframe The expected outputs from group-work were a write up on each theme.


Cherangani Hills Forest

4.0 Zoning of Cherangani Forest ecosystem The Forest Ecosystem was delineated into zones representing the various management objectives. The success of the process was wholly dependent on the extent of information gathering carried out by the local planning team (LPT) against the gaps identified during the previous workshops. This process was to culminate in the production of a zero draft strategic management plan for CFE. To ensure that the stakeholders still own the plan, a stakeholders’ workshop (Appendix 4) was held and the zero draft plan presented. Finally, the zero draft plan was presented to the grass-root members of the communities to sensitize them of its contents (Appendices 5 – 7). During the zonation workshop, the criteria for zonation were determined and the management options for each zone proposed. In designing forest management zones for Cherangani Forest Ecosystem (Figure 4), the following general considerations were made.

4.1 Natural forest vegetation and use

Cherangani forest can generally be considered as indigenous forest. These forest zones are characterized by natural forest which is difficult to access with low historical human disturbance and accorded high protection status. The area forms a good representation of local forest types and is very ideal for research work and acts as a sink or refuge for species undisturbed by human activity. While there is presently no defined area for community utilization, and whereas they let their livestock roam freely and collect fire wood from anywhere, the management plan envisages delineating a belt or strip of forest adjacent to settlement areas as utilization zone and marking some sites as seasonal grazing areas, especially the natural glades. These shall subsequently allow the natural forests to be accorded proper protection from

human activities including collection of dead wood for firewood.

4.2 Human settlement and population density

Assessment of the human settlements in the areas surrounding the Cherangani forest blocks reveals an increased densification of settlements and intensification of land use activities driven by rapid population growth and increasing incidences of poverty. The communities are highly dependent on the natural resources available within their vicinity and thus cause the greatest sustained forest disturbance. Moreover, agriculture and livestock keeping are the most important economic activity. Therefore, efforts towards identifying the critical neighbouring zone are important in addressing the needs of the people. A strip comprised of a two kilometres buffer around the main forest located on private land and owned by local community shall form this zone. However, the buffer may be extended depending on the needs as may be deemed necessary for appropriate implementation of the management plan. Ideally, this is the area targeted for sustainable livelihood support programs in order to reduce pressure on the forest and to protect biodiversity. This is an important zone that will lead to reduction of illegal exploitation of the forest resources, improve the relationship between communities and KWS/KFS, and ultimately protect biodiversity. Since the zone is on private land, the management will extend their limited mandate to creating awareness of the importance of the forests and biodiversity conservation. Within these zones, KWS and KFS will work collaboratively with institutions mandated to prepare physical development plans and participate in activities to support the communities.


Cherangani Hills Forest

Figure 5: Zonation map of Cherangani Forest Ecosystem

4.3 Rehabilitation areas

Perhaps due to the trend described above, human settlements and land use continue to bear pressure on Cherangani forest, with high

incidences of degradation. Some areas are still recovering, requiring some rehabilitation efforts while in others, concerted efforts are required to ensure removal of illegally settled


Cherangani Hills Forest

people from the forest areas and undertaking rehabilitation works.

4.4 Cultural, Ecotourism and other sites for development harnessing forest based potential There are cultural sites that are still relevant to the community (Figure 5). Moreover, the forest

is endowed with scenic sites and panoramic landscape with great potential for ecotourism. Some forest resources, including murram, water source among others can be harnessed or developed to contribute towards improvement of livelihood. Eventually, based on criteria shown in Table 3, five zones were defined which would guide the management in realization of the strategic objectives.

Figure 6: Important cultural and potential sites for ecotourism within Cherangani Ecosystem


- Affected by Human activities Rehabilitate/ conserve - Protect to allow natural regeneration Zones1 - degraded bamboo - reclaim, rehabilitate and conserve to take place - Embobut illegal settlement. - eviction and resettlement - assisted regeneration/planting

Eco-tourism & - Must be attractive or have special - enhance IGAS Preserve existing sites cultural sites features. - enhance recreation - conserve biodiversity - Must Have unique biodiversity - education - awareness, publicity, marketing - Historical significant - aesthetic value - species re-introduction - Traditional ritual sites, sacred - rehabilitation grooves, shrines - fencing to reduce human/wildlife conflict - develop facilities (bandas, nature trails, camp sites) - promote traditional/cultural activities

Livelihood Sublocations adjacent the forest - to empower FACs economically - initiate IGAs (high yielding dairy animals, support boundary - to reduce pressure on forest bee keeping) dependency - awareness creation on importance of forest conservation - capacity building e.g. thro’ exchange visits, educational tours - encourage farm forestry - encourage use of alternative energy source

PFM PELIS Bee keeping all plantations in sloppy areas be harvested and allowed to regenerate naturally

Fencing, Research

Management Option

provide building materials and - woodfuel to FACs - provide good scenery esp. - indigenous sp. e.g. Podo, Prunus - Provide home to wild animals

Objective

- Areas generally under natural forests. Enhance biodiversity conservation - Biodiversity hot spots - Endangered species - Endemic species

Criteria

Plantation/ - Fairly flat & accessible - utilization - Not sensitive habitat for both plants and animals - - Plantation backlog areas are Elgeyo and, Kessup stations -

Conservation

Zone

Table 3: Zones, their selection criteria and management objectives in Cherangani Ecosystem


Cherangani Hills Forest

5.0 MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES The management programmes were derived from the visioning and thematic workshop and are expected to achieve the objective of the plan. Each programme provides a brief background, underlying issues, objectives, strategies, activities and responsible organization/party. The plan covers the following nine programmes and highlights the threats to the ecosystem and the mitigation measures to address them. 1. Forest protection 2. Education and environmental awareness 3. Participatory Forest Management 4. Ecotourism 5. Income Generating Activities and livelihoods 6. Research and monitoring 7. Partnership and networking 8. Resource mobilization 9. Infrastructure

5.1 Forest Protection

In the 1990’s the encroachment of the ecosystem increased due to the ever increasing population pressure. Furthermore, uncoordinated resettlement programmes also led to the encroachment and excision of forest

blocks while the high poverty levels also led to unsustainable utilization of forest resources. However, it is believed that boundaries between the forests and the communities are known though largely ignored by the neighbouring community. Issues to be considered include - Securing of boundaries and boundary realignment - Forest fires - Illegal activities in the forest e.g. charcoal burning, logging - Uncontrolled grazing and overstocking throughout the forest - Human wildlife conflicts - Illegal settlements - Invasive species - Expansion of grazing areas through burning - Inadequate personnel and equipment to protect the ecosystem adequately Objective: To enhance forest protection for sustained conservation of the Ecosystem. Table 4 highlights the strategies and proposed activities to realise the stated objective.

Table 4: Strategies and actions to address forest protection issues with responsible institutions Strategy

Action

Responsible

Enhance Sensitisation and awareness of the KFS, CFAs, Civil Community forest adjacent community on Society involvement importance of the forest in forest Involve community scouts in forest KFS, CFAs protection protection Sensitisation of the forest adjacent MoAL&F, Community, KFS community on destocking and improvement of livestock breeds Enforcement Increase personnel KFS, Development partners of relevant policies and Increase equipment KFS, Development partners regulations Harmonization of relevant policies and NEMA, KWS, KFS, MoAL&F, regulations MoEW&NR

Priority 1 1 2 2 2 3


Cherangani Hills Forest

Strategy

Action

Responsible

Priority

Enhance Establish commercial community CFAs, KFS, KEFRI 1 IGAs to managed nurseries reduce Promote bee keeping CFAs, MoAL&F 1 pressure on Promote butterfly farming CFAs, MoAL&F 1 the forest Introduce sericulture MoAL&F 1 Commercial woodlots CFAs, KFS 1 Improved livestock breeds MoAL&F 1 Pasture establishment on farms CFAs, MoAL&F 1 Facilitate exchange visits to model sites CFAs, MoAL&F 1 Securing Undertake consultative boundary KFS, CFAs 1 forest re-alignment boundaries Promote establishment of live fencing KFS, CFAs 1 and rehabilita- Undertake re-afforestation of degraded KFS, CFAs 1 ting degraded sites sites Remove illegal settlers from forests KFS 1 Â a A priority of 1 indicates high preference to be implemented immediately while a 3 indicate low priority and therefore a n activity can be done later during the implementation of the plan

5.2 Environmental Education and Awareness

It is clear that people in Cherangani ecosystem have a substantial level of education, based on the educational infrastructure in place. There are 691 primary schools, 109 secondary schools, and 3 tertiary colleges. Moreover, there are conservation organizations which are implementing conservation programmes / projects and creating awareness. There are 90 CBOs, 5 NGOs, 9 CFAs, 7 WRUAs and a number of government agencies involved. The various natural resources legislations that guide the management of the ecosystem include the Forests Act 2005, Water Act 2002, EMCA 1999 among others. However there is still low awareness on conservation and several activities are proposed to address the problem (Table 5). Issues undermining conservation efforts are: - Inadequate awareness on related policies and legislations - Lack of commitment and interference among CFAs and local leaders

- Inadequate technical capacity by implementers - Inadequate advocacy strategies - Low capacity to mobilize resources - Inadequate skills in project planning and implementation - Resistance to positive change among community members - Low exposure on conservation issues - Erosion of indigenous knowledge and / or good cultural practices Objective: To strengthen the capacity of the stakeholders in environmental education and awareness.


Cherangani Hills Forest

Table 5: Strategies and actions to strengthen environmental education and awareness Strategy

Action

To enhance Hold training workshop/seminars commitment Public barazas and awareness on Hold sport activities environmental Engaging media issues and Publications conservation Participation in local, national & international events related to environmental conservation To enhance Conduct exchange visits the capacity of Support institutions development stakeholders Support institutions development Provide incentives to farmers Providing educational opportunities to stakeholders To disseminate Develop harmonized environmental environmental extension packages education To construct resource centers messages

5.3 Participatory Forest Management

The Kenya Forest Service has embraced participatory forest management as the mechanism of involvement of communities in forest management and preparing all management plans to ensure that the stakeholders accept the plan and participate actively in its implementation. However, for effective participation in the process, the stakeholders should not only have the interest of the forest, but should also be conversant with the process involved. Table 6 highlights the mechanism of actively involving the members of the community. Issues affecting the adoption of the Participatory Forest Management include - Weak community structures – CFAs, WRUAs (inadequate capacity, lack of incentives/ benefits for communities, high cost of developing PFMP) - low capacity in resource mobilization by user groups

Responsible

WRMA, KFS, NK, NEMA CFAs/WRUA’s County governments, line ministries CFAs, Nature Kenya, KFS Nature Kenya, CHEMUDEP Nature Kenya Lead agencies & stakeholders

Priority 1 1

2 1 2

Nature Kenya, KFS, WRMA Nature Kenya, KFS, WRMA Nature Kenya, KFS, WRMA KFS, Nature Kenya Nature Kenya

2 2 2 2 3

KFS, Nature Kenya, KEFRI, WRMA, Civil Societies KFS, Nature Kenya, KEFRI, WRMA, Civil Societies

3 3

- Poor advocacy strategy/skills by community groups - Interest in environment conservation is weak with main focus on benefit sharing - No shared vision - Low level of participation - Low capacity to implement PFM - PFM at formation stages in most forest stations - Lack of enforceable community rules and regulations due to weak governance - Non adherence to intellectual property rights - Lack of respect for rights of indigenous people - Equity in benefit sharing among and within stakeholders Objective: To strengthen the community structures to be effective in PFM


Cherangani Hills Forest

Table 6: Strategies and actions to promote participatory forest management Strategy Action

Responsible

Priority

To improve Training in PFM process Civil society, KFS governance in Sensitise the stakeholders to elect Civil society, KFS PFM leaders who have skills and knowledge Exchange visits/bench mark with Civil society successive groups Develop strategic plans for CFAs Civil society KFS, KEFRI alongside PFMPs and sign FMAs Sensitization on policies and legislation Civil society CFAs and relevant lead agencies Develop advocacy strategies Civil society , KFS, CFAs Training on or diversification of IGAs To have a stakeholders forum KFS, KEFRI, CFAs, County governments To strengthen Improve the knowledge and skills of Civil society stakeholders the stakeholders capacity To enhance Establish clear mechanisms of sharing Civil society, KFS,KEFRI equitable net benefits accrued among access and stakeholders cost and Undertake Cost benefit analysis KEFRI, Civil society benefit-sharing Sensitize the community on their rights Civil society , CFAs from the and roles ecosystem Sensitise/ Create awareness on PFM Civil society, KFS Create Undertake Capacity building for the Civil society awareness stakeholders among stakeholders on the rules governing PFM Strengthen the Develop and implement Code of CFAs, CSOs ethics and conduct for CFAs governance of To empower marginalized stakeholders KFS, Civil society, PFM structures To promote transparency and CFAs, Civil society accountability

5.4 Eco-tourism

Eco-tourism is utilization of the environment sustainably while deriving/accruing benefits. Most of the ecotourism in Cherangani is at its initial stage i.e. exploratory. For example, most of the visitors are researchers interested in diverse issues in the ecosystem. Unfortunately

1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1

1

2 2

2 2

2 2 1

there is not much documentation on who is visiting the area. The ecosystem however has diverse attraction sites such as Mtelo campsites, hills like Koghogh, Seger, Marbus, Koisagat, Kipteber (legendary mountain), Kapsiliot, Kipkunur, Kamologon, Koisungur, Sangurur, Iten, Kamariny, Kerio Valley, Muiyen;


Cherangani Hills Forest

waterfalls (Muiyen, Torok, Embobut, Kapterit, Emsoo), Chebara dam; water furrows, caves (Kipkoboi about 2km long, Kiplachoi); Game reserves (Rimoi); Rock art-like Katkog at Koibarak location; viewpoints e.g. Kaibos, Kabichbich, Kapkono, Kipkuloti; and water sports e.g. damming Nzoia river at Kabolet area. Table 7 highlights the necessary activities to promote ecotourism in the ecosystem.

- Inadequate visitor security - Lack of tour guides - Lack of awareness on available ecotourism/research/education potential of Cherangani - Poor state of infrastructure such as roads, tracks, campsites - Uncoordinated ecotourism activities

Major impediments or issues to the exploitation of the ecosystem potential are; - Un-exploited ecotourism potential - Lack of ecotourism facilities

Objective: To harness the ecotourism potential for economic benefits to the communities and other stakeholders within the Cherangani ecosystem

Table 7: Strategies and activities to promote development of ecotourism in Cherangani Strategy Action Responsible Priority To develop Carry out Feasibility study KFS, KWS, North Rift 1 ecotourism Tourism Association potential Link the Cherangani with western State department of Tourism, 2 tourism circuit North Rift Tourism Association Develop the ecotourism plan KFS, KWS, County governments 1 Market the ecotourism plan State Department of Tourism, 1 North Rift Tourism Association Develop Map out eco-tourism circuit of KFS, State Department of 2 eco-tourism Cherangani Tourism, KWS, CFAs, County facilities government, North Rift Tourism Association Partner with investors to develop State Department of Tourism, 2 the ecotourism facilities KFS, KWS, CFAs, North Rift Tourism Association KEN-Invest Marketing of Sensitize the schools to establish Schools, wildlife clubs of Kenya, 1 eco-tourism environmental and wildlife clubs NEMA Promote the ecosystem as an educational tourist destination Establish and promote conservation Min of Sports, Culture and the 1 through organized events like Arts, NEMA, AK, Civil Society marathon Develop promotional/marketing Min of Commerce and Tourism, 1 materials/tools e.g. guide book, KFS, CFAs, KWS, County govt., web sites, maps, brochures Civil Society Develop tourism information centres Min of Commerce and Tourism, 3 KFS, CFAs, KWS, County govt., Civil Society Enhance visitor Provide security to tourists Min of Commerce and Tourism, 1 security Inspector General of Police, KFS, KWS


Cherangani Hills Forest

Strategy Action Establish security response teams Train community tour guides Sensitize local people on community participation on the various visitor activities (e.g. security of flying paraglider) Establish cost Establish mechanisms for cost benefit sharing benefit sharing mechanism from ecotourism Develop an MoU on benefit sharing activities

5.5 IGAs and Livelihoods

Cherangani ecosystem forest adjacent communities have very few IGAs which include traditional bee keeping, charcoal burning in the farms, livestock rearing, poultry, fish farming, herbal medicine Harvesting, sand Harvesting, excavation and brick making. However there is need to upscale the opportunities and diversify on livelihood options since some of the activities impact negatively to the ecosystem (Table 8). There is untapped potential for hydroelectric power (HEP) generation and wind power generation within the ecosystem (e.g. Tabach, Kipteber, Kapsitotwa, Kapsait, Koisugur)

Responsible KFS, KWS, Min of Commerce and Tourism Min of Commerce and Tourism, KTB, KWS Min of Commerce and Tourism, KTB, KWS, KFS

Priority 1 1 1

KFS, Min of Commerce and 2 Tourism, KWS, CFAs, County govt. Civil Society Min of Commerce and Tourism, 2 CFAs, KFS, County Government, Development Partners, KWS, Civil Society

The Issues that affect exploitation of the various potential IGAs include - Limited knowledge on the potential nature-based enterprises - Lack of credit schemes - Unexploited micro HEP generation potential - Inadequate diversification of alternative livelihoods - High dependence on forest for community livelihoods - Low technological levels and uptake Objective: To enhance nature based enterprises for improved community livelihood

Table 8: Strategies and actions to enhance nature based enterprises and livelihoods Strategy

Action

Responsible

To develop and enhance nature-based enterprises for improved community livelihoods

Identification of existing/potential Civil Society, CFAs, MoAL&F nature based enterprises KWS, KFS, NMK Capacity build the communities and Civil Society, NGOs, MoAL&F other stakeholder on the identified NBE Establish linkages with the potential Civil Society, KVDA, Community development partners for optimum exploitation of NBE

Priority 1 1 2


Cherangani Hills Forest

Strategy

Action

Promote value addition and Marketing e.g. honey processing Use of improved technologies e.g. charcoal briquetting Diversification Carry out a feasibility study to and promotion identify emerging potential of livelihood livelihood options options e.g. Promote emerging NBEs eg use of emerging butterfly farming, sericulture, energy enterprises and saving technologies, quail, guinea technologies fowl, rabbit farming Improve access Identify existing and potential to financial financial service providers services e.g. Negotiate with financial institution village banking on low interest credit schemes for credit Sensitize communities to establish schemes SACCOs Develop Carry out cost benefit/gross margin business plans analysis on potential enterprises for the IGAs

5.6 Infrastructure Development

The existing road network in Cherangani ecosystem covers about 1,580 km and is mostly impassable during wet season. Of this, only a small section of about 195 km has bitumen surface, 680 km have proper murram surface, while the rest is only passable during dry season. The 1990s witnessed neglect of road maintenance because of inadequate funding which led to impairment of road transport system. Equally, communication network is poor, with most of the area not yet covered by existing mobile service providers. Forest stations are not equipped with communication equipment. With regard to offices and housing of personnel, the region has inadequate infrastructure. In most forest stations, the existing offices and houses are inadequate, very old and in poor conditions. In the ecosystem only the Cherangani and Elgeyo (Kapkako) CFAs have offices. The Cherangani office is housed in the Community resource centre which was constructed through support of Nature Kenya. Most of the six urban centers in the ecosystem are connected to

Responsible

KVDA, Civil Society, CBOs

Priority 2

KEFRI, CFAs, NEMA, CBOs, Civil Society Civil Society

1

CFAs

1

Civil Society

2

Civil Society

2

Min of Industrialization and Enterprise Development. Min. of Sports, Culture and the Arts, CFAs, Community, CBOs, NGOs Civil Society, Min of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, KFS, KVDA, NGOs

3

1

1

the main electricity grid. However, only about 5% of households in the region are currently connected. Again, only a few schools are also connected. With regard to machinery and equipment, most forest stations in Cherangani ecosystem are inadequately serviced. These stations rely on the equipment and machineries which are located at Eldoret Road Unit which is quite far and inadequate. Several activities are proposed to improve the infrastructure in the ecosystem (Table 9). Issues concerning the infrastructure in the ecosystem - Poor road network - Poor communication network - Lack of communication gadgets - Inadequate equipment and machinery - Inadequate funds - Inadequate housing and in poor condition - Inadequate offices and in poor condition Objective: To enhance provision of adequate infrastructure for efficient ecosystem management


Cherangani Hills Forest

Table 9: Strategies and actions to promote improvement of infrastructure in Cherangani ecosystem Strategy Action Enhance road Lobby for funds to be allocated for network within roads maintenance by KeRRA, KFS the ecosystem (Roads Unit), County Government Procure at least two road graders for the whole ecosystem Improve existing roads and open new ones Enhance Establish a radio communication mobility and system for KFS officers and communication community scouts network Procure at least a vehicle for every station Procure at least a motorbike for every forest beat Provision of Build offices for KFS and CFAs adequate and Build houses to accommodate equipped KFS Staff offices and Equip the offices housing facilities

5.7 Partnership and networking

There has been a substantial level of partnership and networking towards the conservation of Cherangani ecosystem. Local organizations like CBOs and CFAs as well as government agencies have in the past partnered with organizations that have worked on the ground including Nature Kenya, Moi University (School of Environmental Studies), Kenya Commercial Bank, Green Belt Movement, Maendeleo ya Wanawake Organization, International Organization for Migration, Green Zones, Vi Agroforestry, World Vision, Kerio Valley Development Authority (KVDA), KEFRI. Another likely partner is the Lake Victoria Water Services Board. The region has representation in North Rift Forest Conservancy Committee and some CFAs are also members of networks like NACOFA. There was a proposal to establish North Rift CFAs Forum under the auspices of Miti Mingi Maisha Bora (MMMB) Programme and Kenya Forests Working Group (KFWG) but was never realized. A CFA Umbrella Forum was started in 2007 and covered the three counties comprising Cherangani ecosystem. However,

Responsible CFAs, Local leaders, CSOs

Priority 2

County Government, CFAs, 3 Local leaders, CSOs CFAs, Local leaders, KFS, CSOs 3 Civil Society, KFS, CFAs

1

Civil Society, KFS

2

Civil Society, KFS

1

KFS, GoK, Civil Society KFS, GoK, Civil Society

1 1

Civil Society, KFS, CFAs

1

very little known is known of the forum and it remains inactive. Moreover, sensitization of its existence was never done after its formation. There are a number of institutions that have interest in the conservation of Cherangani ecosystem and are willing to contribute positively. However, there is need to have a clear structure and protocol guiding their engagement as well as clarity on roles and responsibilities (Table 10). Issues impeding the growth and strength of potential partnership and network: - Unclear networking - Lack of sensitization and clear networking/partnership plan - Unclear roles and responsibilities of partners - Poor coordination of partnership Objective: To enhance partnership and networking in environmental conservation and management


Cherangani Hills Forest

Table 10: Strategies and actions to promote partnership and networking in Cherangani ecosystem Strategy Action Put in place a Review or redraw the name and strong constitution of the Cherangani coordinating stakeholder Forum forum Undertake sensitization and recruitment of members of the stakeholder Forum Conduct elections of leaders of the stakeholder Forum Training of elected leaders Prepare a Identify and develop a database of partnership/ potential partners networking plan Identify partnership opportunities that target local adjacent communities Mobilization of partners and networks Develop a partnership agreement among the stakeholders Establish and Define partnerships/networking strengthen protocol partnership Review roles and responsibilities structure of stakeholders

5.8 Resource mobilization

There are inadequate resources to address the conservation work being carried out in the ecosystem. There is also inadequate resource mobilization capacity among the stakeholders to access adequate funds to cater for all the activities envisaged in the ecosystem. Several institutions have embarked on the conservation efforts such as KFS, WRMA, KVDA, VI-Agroforestry, KARI, NK and KEFRI among others. A number of projects such as NRM and KAPP-SLM funded by World Bank, and CDTF support to CBO Consortium through European Union, Nature Kenya support to Protected Areas through GEF. However, majority of these initiatives are at the initial stages. The support is inadequate and there is need to enhance it. The ecosystem is also generally undervalued thus causing low level of investment.

Responsible CFAs, WRUAs, Civil society organizations

Priority 1

CFAs, WRUAs, Civil society

1

CFAs, WRUAs, NK, Civil society CFAs, WRUAs, KFS, NEMA, WRMA, Civil society CFAs, WRUAs, KFS, WRMA, CFAs, Civil Society CFAs, WRUAs, Local leaders, County Govt.

1

Local leaders, County government, Civil Society KFS, CFAs, KEFRI, NGOs

2

KFS, CFA

1

KFS, CFAs, NGOs, Civil Society

1

2 2 2

1

The development of the strategic management plan will enhance stakeholder identification and provide a tool for consolidating funds towards a common goal of conservation. To ensure proper mobilization, efforts should be geared towards accessing resources from the government, development partners, private enterprises and community own resources (Table 11). The Issues affecting mobilization of resources include: - Low social cohesion and integration among the communities - Inadequate financial resource - Inadequate human skills in resource mobilization - Inadequate resource mobilization strategies Objective: To strengthen resource mobilization strategies


Cherangani Hills Forest

Table 11: Strategies and actions to strengthen resource mobilisation for conservation of Cherangani ecosystem Strategy Action To enhance Build capacity on proposal writing resource mobilization capacity Develop operational plans in Cherangani Carry out community resource matrix (prioritization) Undertake community sensitization on resource mobilization Undertake study tours/ exchange visits to success stories To solicit for Lobby for increased allocation of increased funds towards conservation allocation of Strengthen stakeholders fora GoK and in conservation devolved fund (CDF, County) Streamline contribution of to conservation conservation to the GDP of Cherangani ecosystem. To enhance Organizing field days and farmers’ partnership and field schools collaboration Promotional Events such as Road with private shows, marathons sector and World Wetland day, World other Environment day, World Food day, development Tree Planting Season Launch, partners in International Day of Forest, conservation of International Day for Biodiversity Cherangani Establish Information Resource ecosystem Centres for Cherangani Ecosystem

Responsible Priority Civil Society, Development 1 partners, Relevant govt. institutions CFAs, Civil Society Development 1 partners CFAs, Civil Society, Relevant 1 govt. institutions, Civil Society, CFAs, Relevant 1 govt. institutions, Civil Society, County govts, 1 Lead Agencies CFAs, FCCs, NGOs 2 Civil Society, GoK and Development partners, community KFS, KNBS, KEFRI, WRMA, MoE&P, Community

1

MoAL&F, CBOs, CFAs, NGOs

1

Civil Society, MoSC&A, NEMA, CFAs, WRUA, CBOs WRMA, NEMA, MoAL&F, GoK Institution, CFAs, community, NGOs

1

Civil Society, CFAs, KFS, Other NGOs, KWS

1

1

1


Cherangani Hills Forest

5.9 Threats to the ecosystem and mitigation measures Table 12: Threats to Cherangani ecosystem and potential mitigating measures Threat

Mitigation measure/Action

Population increase Promote awareness and adoption of family planning methods Efficient utilization of natural resource Unemployment Initiate livelihood improvement programmes (IGAs) Promote off farm livelihood interventions Support initiatives geared towards self employment eg support technical/ vocational colleges to provide specific skills (scholarships) Contracting community members/ hiring of casuals to undertake forest operations Negative politics Promote participatory conflict resolution mechanisms Encourage advocacy on good governance and leadership Resettlement of Develop consultative resettlement plan people staying in the Mobilize political support for resettlement forest Insecurity Strengthen inter communities peace committees Hold peace barazas Support community policing Retrogressive Encourage adoption of appropriate technologies cultural practices Promote education and create awareness and beliefs HIV/AIDS Awareness creation through main streaming in conservation activities Invasive species Undertake regular surveillance of the ecosystem for any invasive and obnoxious species Inform and involve relevant research institutions for action Drug and substance Undertake education and awareness creation abuse Climate change Promote mitigation and coping mechanism to climate change


Cherangani Hills Forest

6.0 Governance Stakeholders’ analysis

Based on stakeholders analysis carried out, three categories were identified namely primary, secondary and tertiary (Appendix 8). Primary stakeholders are the main actors in this process and are expected to play the greatest and direct roles during the implementation of the management programmes. This is based either on their legal mandate or their direct livelihood dependence. They include KFS, KWS, CFAs, among others. Secondary stakeholders are also key actors but essentially play an indirect role in the process. Tertiary stakeholders are those perceived to be potentially affected either positively or negatively by the activities. Profiles of some of these stakeholders are captured in Annex 9. Moreover, allocations of responsibilities captured in the management programmes are in tandem with this profiling. The stakeholders involved in the ecosystem were examined and their roles identified. Broadly they were put into the following categories Government agencies KEFRI, KFS, KWS, NEMA, County Planner, MoT, Water Resources Management Authority (WARMA)

Non-governmental Organizations KWAHO, Vi-Agroforestry, SWERN, Cherangani multipurpose development project (CHEMUDEP), Sengwer Indigenous Development Programme (SIDP), Community Based Organizations (CBOs) PEACE, Cherangani Hills CBO Consortium, Kenya Environmental Tree Network KETNET CBO, Kerot CBO, Kamoi 5K CBO CONSORTIUM Community Forest Associations (CFAs) CFAs in West Pokot County: Kabichbich Kapkanyar CFA and Chehifowaca CFA CFAs in Keiyo-Marakwet County: Kapkako CFA, Kimgaa CFA, Kibcofa CFA, Cherangani CFA, Kapyego CFA, Chesoi CFA CFAs in Trans-Nzoia County: Kapolet CFA Other Stakeholders Other important stakeholders that were identified include Nyayo Tea Zones, Eldoret Water Sewerage Services, Lake Victoria North Water Services Board, Kenya Tea Development Agency, Rift Valley Water Services Board, Local Authorities, Ministry of Planning, Ministry of Livestock, Farmers, Saw Millers/ Private sector, Sand harvesters, Research and Learning Institutions, Fishermen, Honey gatherers/Herbalists, Pastoralists, International communities, and politicians.


Cherangani Hills Forest

References Further Readings Harding, B. and Devisscher, T. (2009). Ecosystems, Kenya; In Review of Economic Impacts of Climate change in Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi Ecosystems. from http://fs.wa4. lucklaboratories.com/knowledge-base/files/758/4e25a62e6948c2D-DFIDKenya_ Ecosystems_Final.pdf Imo, M. (2012). Forest degradation in Kenya: Impacts of Social, Economics and political Transition. In Adoyo JW and Wangai CI (eds). Kenya Political, Social and Environmental Issues. Nova Sciences Publishers, Inc. New York. p1-38. Kungu, J.B. and Kagombe, J.K. (2011). It is time to pay more for water: offering incentives for conservation seems the way to stop watershed degradation. Miti 2011 April – June Issue 5-7. UNEP (2009). Kenya: Atlas of Our Changing Environment. Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)


Cherangani Hills Forest

Appendices Appendix 1: List of Participants during the Visioning Workshop No. Name 1

David K. Ruto

Organization

Gender

2

Salina Chesire

Kimgaa CFA

F

3

Paul C. Chelimo

Beliomo CFA

M

4

Richard Kipseret

KETNET

M

5

William Kipruto

Kimgaa/Kipkako PAC

M

6

Samuel Kenyatta

PAC/CFA Pokot S.

M

7

Samuel P. Lonyang

Kamka CFA

M

8

Jackson Atongoreng

Kerot CBO

M

9

Solomon Cherongos

Chemudep Org. PAC

M

10

Patrick J.A. Yano

Cherangani Hills CBO Consortium

M

11

Charles Rumot

Kasetut CBO

M

12

Patricia Rotich

Chesito CBO

F

13

Hellen Chesama

Kapkanyar CFA

F

14

Charles Kiberen

PAC Member

M

15

Carrington Kibet

PAC Member

M

16

James Cheruiypt

PAC Member

M

17

Kiprotich Kimetta

Chamgei FM

M

18

Isaac Kimitei

NEMA/Trans Nzoia

M

19

Jacquiline Omondi

KWS

F

20

Thomas Kirui

Embotut CBO

M

21

Paul C Kaino

Chebororwa/Sekemei CFA

M

22

Dennis Kereng

KFS

M

23

Moses Marta

Kenya News Agency

M

24

Kibos S. J

NEMA

F

25

Samuel Chemweno

Kipkunur CFA

M

26

Cllr. Paul Chepkurui

Marakwet C.C.

M

27

John K. Kiptum

NK

M

28

Julius Kimani

NK

M

29

Richard Kering

NEMA/W. Pokot

M

30

Gilbert K. Chebet

Embobut CFA

M

31

Alfred N. Tulel

NK

M

32

Irene J. Kilimo

Embobut PAC

F

Kapkao CFA

M


Cherangani Hills Forest

Appendix 2: List of Participants during the Thematic Workshop No. Name 1

Richard Kipseret

Institution/organization

Gender

2

Moses Matendechere

WRMA

M

3

Masimba Jacob

Min. of Agriculture Livestock & Fisheries

M

4

Charles Kiberen

SIDAP

M

5

Jackson Atongoreng

Kerot CBO

M

6

Paul Kipkorir

EEG CF

M

7

James Cheruiyot

CFA

M

8

Paul K. Kipkorir

Cherangani CFA

M

9

Patricia Rotich

Chesito CFA

F

10

Samwel Lonyang

CFA W. Pokot

M

11

Michael Chebet

Kipkunur CFA

M

12

Solomon Cherongos

CHEMUDEP LNGO

M

13

Hellen Chesang

Cherangani/Kapkanyar CFA

F

14

Jacquiline Omondi

KWS

F

15

Samwel Kenyatta

PAC/Kabichbich/Kapkanyar/Lelan CFA

M

16

Alex Kangongo

DDO

M

17

John C. K. Kipkoriren

Embobut CFA

M

18

Edward K. Mengich

KEFRI Londiani

M

19

Patrick Yano

Cherangani Hills CBOs Consortium, PEACE-Chair

M

20

Kibos S. J

NEMA

M

21

Julius Kimani

NK

M

22

William Kipruto

Kimgaa CFA

M

23

Richard Kering

NEMA

M

24

Dennis Kerengo

KFS

M

25

David Kuto

Kapkako CFA

M

26

Erick Abungu

KFS

M

27

Isaac Kimitei

NEMA

M

28

John Kiptum

NK

M

29

Emmanuel Losiaripo

WRUA

M

30

Richard Kipseret

KETNET

M

31

Carrington Kibet

M

32

Pius K. Rotich

SWERN

M

33

Paul C. Kaino

Chebororwa ATC

M

34

Mary J. Kuto

SWERN

F

35

Ishmael Chelenga

MoT

M

36

Solomon Mibey

Head of Conservancy North Rift

M

37

Alfred Nyaswabu

Zonal Manager Marakwet

M

KETNET

M


Cherangani Hills Forest

Appendix 3: List of Participants during the Zonation Workshop No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Name Michael Chebet William Kipruto Francis K. Kimeto Samwel Kenyaatta Jackson Atongoreng Wilson Limareng Paul C. Chelimo Paul K. Limo David Kuto Paul K. Kipkorir Jusper Omwenga Salina Chesire Charles Rumot Martin Yano Paul C. Kaino Emmanuel M. Loriaripo James C. Chebet Samwel P. Lonyang Kibet Carrington Alfred Nyaswabu Barnaba C. Kosgei Samuel Chemweno Hellen Chesang Christine Maiyo David K. Tanui Wycliffe Obiayo Solomon Cherongos John C. K. Kipkore David Kiprotich Margaret Lagat Pius K. Rotich Patrick J. A. Yano Julius Kimani Alfred Tulel David K. Omotto Eunice N Pyatich Kibos S. J. Julia C. Mwanga Leonard Ofula John K. Kiptum

Organization KIBCOFA CFA Kimgaa CFA Min. of Agriculture Lelan CFA KEROT CBO Chesito CBO Beliomo KFS Elgeyo Forest Station Kapkako Cherangani CFA NEMA TransNzoia Kimgaa CFA Kasetut CBO KET Network Cherangani hills CBO Consortium Renger WRUA Kipteber CFA Kapenguria CFA Cherangani CFA KFS Marakwet WRMA Eldoret Kipkunur Forest and Water CFA Cherangani-Kapkanyar CFA Kapenguria CFA KVDA KFS West Pokot CHEMUDEP org. Embobut CFA CHEHIFO-WACA SWERN SWERN Chairman Peace Committee Nature Kenya Nature Kenya KFS Trans Nzoia Kapenguria CFA NEMA Elgeyo-Marakwet DPC Mnagei zone NEMA West Pokot Nature Kenya

Gender M M M M M M M M M M F F M M M M M M M M M M F F M M M M M F F M M M M F M F M M


Cherangani Hills Forest

Appendix 4: List of Participants during the Feedback Workshop No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Name Organization Richard Kipseret KETNET Moses Matendechere WRMA Masimba Jacob Min. of Agric Charles Kiberen SIDAP Jackson Atongoreng Kerot CBO Paul Kipkorir EEG CF James Cheruiyot CFA Paul K. Kipkoin Cherengani CFA Patricia Rotich Chesito CFA Samwel Lonyang CFA W. Pokot Michael Chebet Kipkunur CFA Solomon Cherongos CHEMUDEP LNGO Hellen Chesang Cherengany/Kapkanyar CFA Jacquiline Omondi KWS Samwel Kenyatta PAC/Kabichbich/Kapkanyar/Lelan CFA Alex Kangongo DDO John C. K. Kipkoriren Embobut CFA Edward K. Mengich KEFRI Londiani Patrick Yano Cherengani Hills CBOs Consortium, PEACE-Chair Kibos S. J NEMA Julius Kimani NK William Kipruto Kimgaa CFA Richard Kering NEMA Dennis Kerengo KFS David Kuto Kapkako CFA Erick Abungu KFS Isaac Kimitei NEMA John Kiptum NK Emmanuel Losiaripo WRUA Carrington Kibet Pius K. Rotich SWERN Nicholas Kaino Chebororwa ATC Mary J. Kuto SWERN Ishmael Chelenga MoT Solomon Mibey HoC North Rift Alfred Nyaswabu Zonal Manager Marakwet Paul Kaino CBO Consortium Charles Suter Env Planner KVDA Paul Chelimo Beliomo CFA Gilbert Chebet Embombut

Gender M M M M M M M M F M M M F F M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M F M M M M M M M


Cherangani Hills Forest

Appendix 5 List of Stakeholders during Marakwet Kapsowar sensitization meeting No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Name Organization Paul C. Chelimo KIBCOFA CFA Martin Cheserek Moiben WRUA Thomas C. Chebet Maron John C.K. Kipkore Kaptirbai IP Ambrose C. Too Marakwet Council of Elders Chemweno Samwel KIBCOFA CFA Margaret Kiprop Lelan Irine J. Kilimo Embobut/kaptirbai IP Albina Too Kapkochur/Lelan Francis Kiplagat KIBCOFA CFA Moses K. Kisang Snr chief Patrick J. Yano Marakwet West Peace -Chair Paul Kosgei Assit. Chief Talai -Kapsowar Richard Kipkorir Kapyego CFA Gilbert Chebet Kapyego CFA Moses B. Tanui Min. of Agric. Kapcherop Francis Oduor KWAHO Joseph Kosgei Arror WRUA Paul K. Bowen Marakwet Council Of Elders James C. Chebet CFA Daniel Chemweno WRUA Hellen Jeruto Youth rep. Sarah Kaino Chesoi CFA Jacksaline Mweno Cherangani CFA Kibet Carrington Cherangani CFA Paul C. Kaino Chengani hills CBO consortium Peris J. Cheboi Assistant chief Anadeta Tilak KNUT Julius Suter Chesoi CFA Michael Chebet KIBCOFA CFA Susana Akui Cherangani CFA John K. Chesergon Cherangani CFA Julius K. Kipkorio Kenya red cross Fanice Cheboi youth G.K. Chemweno Marakwet Council Of Elders Nicholas Yano Kapyego CFA Edward K. Cheptarus Kapyego CFA Richard Kipruto KIBCOFA CFA William Kiptuiyei chief David Chepkiyeny Officer Luka Chelanga vision self help group David Yator Constituency office Marakwet west Herman Waliaula KFS Marakwet (DFO) Alfred Nyaswabu KFS –Marakwet (zonal manager) Alfred Tulel Nature Kenya John Kiptum Nature Kenya

Gender M M M M M M F F F M M M M M M M M M M M M F F F M M F M M M F M M F M M M M M M M M M M M M


Cherangani Hills Forest

Appendix 6 List of Stakeholders during the Iten Sensitization meeting No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Name Organization Daniel Kirui Kimgaa CFA Barnabas K. Kipchumba Kimgaa CFA Salina Chesire Kimgaa CFA Anne Suter Maendeleo Ya Wanawake Edwin Ronoh Iten Integrated CBO Joseph Lessan Kapkako CFA Joseph K. Kimaiyo Kapkako CFA Anne Chesergon Kimgaa CFA William Kipruto Kimgaa CFA Barnaba Kipserem Kapkako CFA Joseph Chemweno Kapkako CFA Hillary Kibet Kimgaa CFA Jackson Kiplagat Kimgaa CFA Alfred Kwambai Kimgaa CFA Christopher Chebii Kapkako CFA John Kiptoo Kimgaa CFA Joseph Kimoi Council of Elders Mercy Kimosop Kapkako CFA James Kigen Kimgaa CFA John Kigen Kosgei Min. Agriculture, Livestock & Fisheries Kipruto K. Festus Mark K. Kandie Kapkako CFA Ronald Cheruiyot Youth rep. Reuben Kangogo Kimgaa CFA Andrew Kemboi Church rep. Rodgers Suter Kimgaa CFA Charles K. Chebasa Kimgaa CFA Joseph Cheboi Kimgaa CFA Christine Rotich Kapkako CFA Cheptarus K. W. Kapkako CFA Christopher Abuonj District Water Officer Iten Lucy Yator Kapkako CFA Cosmas Ego Kimgaa CFA Ernest K. Kirui Kimgaa CFA Fred K. Lagat Kapkako CFA Emily Murgor Kimgaa CFA Thomas K. Chepkinyeng Crescent Integrated Joseph Kimeto Kapkako CFA Paul K. Limo KFS Dennis Kerengo KFS David Lemiso Kimgaa CFA John Rono KEIDEP Jonathan Chesesio KCDTF Richard Mutai Kimgaa CFA Alfred Tulel Nature Kenya John Kiptum Nature Kenya

Gender M M F F M M M F M M M M M M M M M F M M M M M M M M M M F M M F M M M F M M M M M M M M M M


Cherangani Hills Forest

Appendix 7 List of Stakeholders during the Kapenguria meeting No

Name

Organization

Gender

2

Akoma C. Tecla

Kinonyi group

F

3

Patricia Rotich

Chesito CBO

F

4

Jackson Atongoreng

KEROT CBO

M

5

Charles K. Kiberen

Kapolet CFA

M

6

William Kipkwen

Kapolet CFA

M

7

Samwel Kenyatta

Lelan CFA

M

8

Emmanuel Losiaripo

Renger-Kapkanyar WRUA

M

9

Kyenze Peter

KFS West Pokot

M

10

Benjamin Pyatich

Cherangani-Kapkanyar CFA

M

11

Solomon Kura Rumot

Lelan CFA

M

12

Julius Kolichei

Kamonmon group

M

13

Arupe Achokor

Kapkanyar CFA

F

14

Simon Chelemu

Kapkanyar CFA

M

15

Michael Kimtai

CHEMUDEP org.

M

16

Joseph L. Kiplimo

Snr. Assist Chief Kaibos

M

17

Samwel K. Chesuswo

Kapolet CFA

M

18

Amos Rono Chesuswo

Kaikai coop kenya

M

19

David Kiprotich

Cherangani-Kapkanyar CFA

M

20

Benson K. Krop

Cherangani IP Elder

M

21

Chemaywa Monicah

Lelan CFA

F

22

Sandra Chechumba

Kalya FM

F

23

Irene Lopot

Lelan youth

F

24

Sylvia Nyongesa

Kalya FM

F

25

Wilson P. Chepkilim

Kamatira CFA

M

26

Wilson P. Ripo

Kamatira CFA

M

27

Vivian Cheruto

Kapkanyar youth group

F

28

Monicah Chemtai

Lelan CFA

F

29

Rael Cherop Kibet

Kapenguria CFA

F

30

Eunice Pyatich

Kapenguria CFA

F

31

Catherine Chemjor

Kapolet CFA

F

32

Reuben Serengole

Lelan CFA

M

33

William K. Ruto

Renger WRUA

M

34

Queen Nelima

Kalya FM

F

35

Christine Maiyo

Kapenguria CFA

F

36

Kpteitich Kiplagat G.

Kapsikam CBO

M

37

Samwel P. Lonyang

Kapenguria CFA

M

1

Naomi Komol

NEMA

F


Cherangani Hills Forest

No

Name

Organization

Gender

39

Joseph Kolima

Chesupet Traditional Dancers

M

40

Toton Kapchila

Lelan CFA

M

41

Jacob Kemoi Youth rep.

M

42

Muhalia Damaris

Kapenguria CFA

F

43

Michael K. Tikol

Snr Chief Kaisagat Location

M

44

Bruno A. Magay

Kap. WRUA

M

45

Julius Siangole

Kapenguria CFA

M

46

Philip Lomongin

Kinetat CBO

M

47

Solomon Cherongos

Chemudep org. PAC

M

48

Philip Tabot

Kapsikam CBO

M

49

Moshongui Samwel

Lelan CFA

M

50

John K. Kiptum

Nature Kenya

M

51

Alfred N. Tulel

Nature Kenya

M

52

Jacklyne Syombua

Nature Kenya

F

53

Evelyn Koskei

Min. of Agriculture Kapenguria

F

38

Sylvia Chebet

Kapenguria CFA

F


Cherangani Hills Forest

Appendix 8: Stakeholder analyses There are a number of ways of undertaking a stakeholder analysis. However, workshops, focus groups and interviews are the three common approaches. Whatever approach is used, there are three essential steps in stakeholder analysis: 1) identifying the key stakeholders and their interests (positive or negative) in the project; 2) assessing the influence of, importance of, and level of impact upon each stakeholder; and 3) identifying how best to engage stakeholders. To fill out the first column in the table below, list all the known stakeholders. Then describe the stake or mandate of each stakeholder in the second column using a score of 1 to 10 where 1 means low stake and 10 very high stakes. The mandate refers to the nature and limits of each stakeholder’s stake in the resource and the basis of that stake. For each stakeholder, describe their potential role in INSTITUTION KFS

the management of the ecosystem and thus their level of importance in column 3 using scores of 1 to 10. Then note in column 4 if the stakeholder has low or high level of influence among other players in the implementation of the management plan. Add the score of the second to the fourth column and get the mean – which should range between 1 and 10. In the last column those stakeholders with scores of 7 and above were considered primary and are therefore the key stakeholders, i.e., these who are central to the initiative at hand. Their participation is critical. Those with scores of 4 to 6 were considered secondary, as they have indirect interest in the outcome of the management of the ecosystem. Finally, those with scores of 1 to 3 were considered tertiary stakeholders. They were indirectly affected by the outcome of the management of the ecosystem, though they may not have had an interest.

Interest/ Importance Influence Mandate

Mean Score

Ranking

8

10 10 9 P

KWS

5

7

NEMA

5

10 10 8 P

KERFI

7

8 10 8 P

WRMA

4

7

8 6 S

MoAL&F

7

8

8 8 P

MoC&T

6

8

8 7 P

County/National government

7

9

10

9

P

Nyayo Tea Zone (NTZDC)

2

5

1

3

T

KVDA

4

8

8 7 P

LVBDA

1

3

1 2 T

Min. of Energy & Petroleum

3

5

4

KTDA

6

7

5 6 S

NK

8

10 10 9 P

World Vision

6

7

8

Vi-Agroforestry

6

7

6 6 S

8 7 P

4

7

S

P


Cherangani Hills Forest

INSTITUTION

KWAHO

Interest/ Importance Influence Mandate

Mean Score

Ranking

1

2 2 2 T

SWERN

2

3 2 2 T

CHEMUDEP

3

5 2 3 T

SIDP

3

4 2 3 T

Media

5

8 10 8 P

ELDOWAS

1

2 2 2 T

LVNWSB

3

5 6 5 S

Min. of Devolution & Planning

4

5

7

5

S

Private sector/Saw millers

2

4

4

3

T

Research/Learning Inst.

2

3

5

3

T

Donor Partners

8

10

10

9

P

Pastoralists/herbalists/ farmer

7

6

8

7

P


Cherangani Hills Forest

Appendix 9 Profile of some stakeholders Stakeholder Resource/ Interest Need activity KWS Forest Well protected forest

Level of Mitigation satisfaction2 measures

Conservation of 2 wild animals. Conservation of 2 indigenous vegetation for ecosystem. sustainability Scientific research 2 Ecotourism development

Increase strength (joint operations) Minimize charcoal burning

KFS Forest Protection of Increase biodiversity 4 Increase number the forest of forest rangers have functional CFA Well Increase volume of 4.5 Planting conserved water and revenue indigenous trees forest Establishing High revenue plantations Rehabilitation of Increase cover degraded area Seedling High number of production seedlings

1

Tree planting

4.5

Planting of trees

1

Increase funding

Formation of PFM 3 Develop CFA management plan and agreements Livelihood Well protected 2 Increase income, improvement forest empowerment, awareness creation Well Well maintained 2 Erecting beams conserved forest boundaries planting of trees forest along forest boundaries, establishment of Nyayo Tea Zones Community grazing

Less restriction High production of 4 milk and meat

firewood Less restriction Get enough firewood, income beekeeping Less restriction

2

Reduce grazing fees Reduce the fees

High production of 2 Allow apiaries in honey, Increased the forest income and food satisfaction


Cherangani Hills Forest

Stakeholder Resource/ Interest Need activity

Level of Mitigation satisfaction2 measures

herbalists Less restriction Obtain medicinal 3 plants in large quantities

Protection of medicinal plants

Reduce no of forest guards

Charcoal Less restriction Income 3 burners

hunting No restriction

Obtain meat and 3 skins

Wood Less restriction Harvest enough logging for timber, high income timber

Sand Less restriction Income increment harvesting

Cultural No restriction sites

Reduce the strength of KWS

2

Reduce restriction

2

Reduce restriction

Large quantities to 2 satisfy cultural sites

Reduce the fees no restriction

Water No restriction Supply enough 3 Free collection collection water Community No restriction Know the forest 4 No restriction touring more Collection Less restriction Obtain large 3 No restriction of forest amounts for use Protection of the vegetation plants roofing materials

1 2

Kapkanyar, Kiptaberr, Kapsowar, Chemurkoi, Kisungur encroachment areas Level of satisfaction as perceived by the participants on a scale of 1 to 5 with 1 being the lowest and 5 the highest satisfaction level.


Millions discover their favorite reads on issuu every month.

Give your content the digital home it deserves. Get it to any device in seconds.