National Park Magazine
N P M The Creation of the Parks -How the parks came to be -Spirits Sighting -Puzzles -Letters to the Editor -Who Helped Parks More? -East vs. West -Pictures of Parks -A Watery Grave
What’s Inside A Watery Grave 7 Sightings of Spirits 8 The History 10 Letters to Ty 14 Who Helped Parks More? 15 Crossword 16 John Muir 17 Pictures of Parks 18 Presidents’ Parks 22 Eastern Establishment 25
Letter from your NPM editor
The Thrill of it All! This monthâ€™s issue of National Park Magazine is about the thrills that you will experience when you visit our national parks. It touches on stories about people who went over Niagara Falls in barrels and people that have gotten lost and died in the parks. It also has exciting stories about how the first national parks came to be, the interesting publicity of the national parks in the beginning, and thrilling stories about the the pioneers who discovered these amazing places in the west and east that became out parks. You will read about many of the parks and where they are located in the crossword puzzle section of this magazine. All of our parks have exciting, thrilling stories of how they came to be national parks. You will also learn about key people and dates involved with the national parks and the conservation effort involved in preserving these lands, from the worldâ€™s very first national park, Yellowstone, through the most recent parks.
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A Watery Grave
he power of water is so strong
it can carve canyons. It is also strong enough to kill. Throughout the entire century people have dared to go over waterfalls. Niagara Falls is one of the most powerful waterfalls in the United States. Many people have gone over the falls in barrels. Many have not lived through the experience. A number of the people have crashed on the rocks at the bottom.
On October 1, 1995, Robert Overcracker rode his jet ski off of Niagara Falls. He claimed he was doing this to raise awareness for homelessness. He planned to open his parachute halfway down and glide the rest of the way to the bottom. However, neither his parachute nor his backup parachute opened up on the way down. He was crushed by the hundreds of pounds of pressure created by the falls. He also landed onto sharp rocks. His body was never seen again. Although he was not the first to go over the falls, he was one of the first doing it for a good cause. On October 24, 1901, Annie Taylor was the first recorded person to travel over Niagara Falls in a barrel. After she climbed into her barrel, it was then pumped to 30 psi to ensure she had enough air to last the trip. The air was pumped into the barrel with an
ordinary bike pump. Although Annie was badly bruised, she successfully made the trip and lived to tell about it. She thought that her adventurous trip would bring her fame and fortune. Sadly, her dream did not come true, she died in poverty. Throughout history there have been firsts for very dangerous ideas: landing on the moon, Flying the first flight, traveling to the New World, and speaking out to say that the earth was not flat. For these brave adventurers, going over Niagara Falls was a very dangerous task that they felt someone had to master. Because humansâ€™ curiosity made it necessary for someone to eventually go over the falls and if we failed the first time, someone else would try it until he or she eventually succeeded in harnessing nature in this dashing way. NatPar
Sightings of Spirits There are many parks in our park system that is haunted. Some are battlefields of unsettled spirits. In the warm summer nights of July there is one vast cemetery where mutilated dead bodies were once strewn everywhere. The site is Gettysburg National Park. There are hundreds of tales of ghosts roaming the grounds. On Chamberlain Road, a major road that goes into the town of Gettysburg, you can hear the sounds of moans from half-dead soldiers, the creeks of wagons carrying the soldiers to their bloody graves. The Battle of Gettysburg took place from July first to third 1n 1863. On those
nights, those very nights, July first through third, still almost 150 years later, if the night is calm and still you can hear the sounds of restless spirits. In Grand Canyon National Park, visitors can hear a woman weeping. Sometimes if it is a cloudy day, you may see a faint outline of a woman wearing a white dress. People say that she is weeping and calling over the edge of the canyon to her son and husband who fell into the canyon. There have been many deaths over the years of people falling into the vast canyons. Along the Blue Ridge Parkway, in November 1891, a four year old, Ottie Powell, was sent into the woods by his parents to collect firewood. Ottie was never seen again. When people hike the Appalachian Trail, they occasionally feel the presence of someone, but there is no one around. There is one spot is haunted by the ghost
of Ottie. If you sleep there, he will wake you up in the night and keep waking you up. Many hikers have experienced something tugging on their shirt, they turn around and nothing is there. There are many more parks that are haunted and can be frightening at times. If you like the outdoors and want to enjoy a creepy time visit one of the many haunted national parks.
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William Henry Jacksonâ€™s photograph Castle Geyser and Crested Pool, Upper Geyser Basin, 1871
The National Parks System: Our Heritage
he United States of America’s National Park System holds the true beauty,
history and ingenuity of the entire country. From the cascading waterfalls of California’s Yosemite to the swampy marshes of Florida’s Everglades to an urban open grassy mall in the District of Columbia, it is easy to see how the country’s parks are as spectacular and as diverse as its citizens. It is important to learn and know the history of our country’s national parks because of all that they represent. The National Park System is an organization that began with the dream of a few individuals who saw that special places in our country needed to be protected and recognized. The dream began with one park in the west and has exploded into almost 400 national parks, national monuments, recreation areas, memorials, historic sites and battlefields that span all fifty states and its territories. The national parks are great to read about and even better to visit. Continued on next page NatPar
Paintings and photos like these inspired Congress to pass laws that would create national parks like the Grand Canyon. An Arizona Sunset Near the Grand Canyon, 1898 by Thomas Moran (left) William Henry Jackson: Tower Falls, Yellowstone National Park, c.1892. Albumen print (right)
The Early History of National Parks Yellowstone, the United Statesâ€™ first national park, was started by Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden and William Jackson. Hayden went on a geological survey at Yellowstone along with Jackson, a photographer. Before they went, the geysers were just myths, no one knew if they really existed or were tall tales. When Hayden and Jackson, along with their group of scientists and topographers, came back and showed paintings and photos of the geysers to the American public, everyone liked them so much they wanted the site to be an official park. They showed the paintings and photographs to congress, congress then appropriated funds to buy one of the paintings for $10,000, this meant that the congress liked the sight of the geysers so much they might turn it into a park. Hayden suggested that the government turn Yellowstone into a national park because these beautiful lands needed to be protected from development. He convinced Congress by saying that there was no value in it, it was not flat enough to farm on and it was volcanic so there would not be any use for mines. He also claimed that people were already marking claims for property there and if they did not act quick enough it would be the next Niagara Falls. Niagara Falls was very commercial; there were many vendors that made the falls seem a lot less powerful than they really were. If there were not laws protect12
ing the Yellowstone then it may have also became very commercial. Some might say that when the District of Columbia was established on July 16, 1790, which included the White House, the National Capital Parks and the National Mall, those were the first national parks instead of Yellowstone. Even though parts of Washington D.C. could be credited with being the first national park, rather than Yellowstone. Yellowstone (Wyoming), the first national park, was designated and signed into law on March 1, 1872 by President Ulysses S. Grant and the United States Congress. All national parks are signed into law before they become a part of the National Park Service. Sequoia National Park (California) was the second national park in the United States. Sequoia was established on September 25, 1890. The first national park east of the Mississippi River was Acadia National Park (Maine). Acadia became a national park on July 8, 1916. Although many national parks had been created before Acadia, it was important because it was the first park established east of the Mississippi River. The first park east of the Mississippi River was important because it united the entire country in protecting our natural open spaces and monuments.
How Parks Become Parks A park gets to be a park when a bill is created by a legislator, gets argued, voted
on and passed by both the senate and the house and the president signs it. Parks can only be created by acts of the U.S. Congress. If the government owns the land, the president is allowed to create a national monument. The secretary of the interior is permitted to make national historic sites. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the most bills creating the most parks. Roosevelt created national parks and monuments such as the Lincoln Memorial and many Civil War battlefields. Because the National Park Service is a government run program, most of the money used to maintain and buy land for parks comes from tax dollars. Money also comes from donations. The Conservation Fund is partnered with the National Park Service to raise money and awareness about the parks and the need to conserve. The National Park Service is a government run program dedicated to the conservation land, plants and animals; the National Park Service also dedicates monuments, battlefields and cemeteries to honor our countryâ€™s past, present and future. The United States was a pioneer in creating national parks. The United States inspired other countries to create their own national parks. Now, most countries around the world set aside land in beautiful and unique places to protect it from development and to protect the animals that live on it.
Thomas Moran’s painting, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, 1872, made Congress interested in turning Yellowstone into the first national park.
Parks During The Great Depression In the United States during the 1930’s, the Great Depression made more than 20% of people in the United States unemployed. The country quickly lost money and became in debt. To make jobs, the government hired hundreds of people to build national parks. When President Franklin Delano Roosevelt came into office he wanted to protect wildlife while helping the country. As a result many people gained jobs and many new national parks were created. Lodges played a large role in the attraction and publicity of national parks. It was thought that lodges would attract many people to the national parks. The lodges are upscale hotels that are owned by the National Park Service. Every national park in the country has a lodge associated with it. The first national park lodge was at Yellowstone. Old Faithful Inn was built in three parts, the original part was constructed in 1903, the east wing was built in 1913, and the west wing was built in 1927. The architect was Robert Reamer. Wildlife plays an important part in the world today. There have been many parks that have been created to protect wildlife. One reason Everglades National Park (Florida) was created to protect the hunters from killing alligators then taking their skin. Other national parks were created to protect land. Grand Canyon National Park
Thomas Moran’s next painting, The Chasm of the Colorado 1873-74 also contributed to Congress’ interest in national parks.
(Arizona) was created so people would not throw garbage or waste into the canyons. Most of the national parks were created to protect the land that was symbolic of our country and freedom. In the vast, open air of the national parks you feel free. If the land was covered in trash it would not have the same effect on people. The future of national parks can be very unpredictable. There will be many more national parks created every year. Throughout times people have found new, interesting places, with new exploration and new territories, there is sure to be many more parks in the future. Each
park will be different. Some parks will be mountainous ranges or volcanoes, or just about any place you can imagine. A national park can be a very interesting place to visit with your family, friends, or by yourself. Many parks have hiking trails, climbing faces, swimming and camping. National parks can help you grow as an adventurer but only if you help them grow by visiting them. Visiting our national parks will make all Americans and our guests be proud of our beautiful, free country. No matter what your interests are, there is a park for you. Our parks are just as diverse as the people in the United States.
July 1877 Pictures of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories under the direction of Ferdinand Vanderveer Hayden [1829-1887]. Photograph taken by William Henry Jackson  at La Veta Pass, Colorado. From the archives of the Gray Herbarium NatPar
S R E T T E L O TY T Advice About the Great Outdoors
Ty, I am planning on visiting Denali National Park in Alaska. I have heard that it is very bear-infested and that many people have been killed by bears there. What are ways to keep from getting killed while hiking? - Jack Dear Jack, it is simple not to be shredded to pieces by bears. First of all, there is a test you must take to go hiking in Denali National Park. To pass the test you must purchase or rest a special container to keep all of your food and trash in. If you are camping there in the summer, it is recommended to have a 20 degree sleeping bag. T here are to main types of bears in Denali, black and grizzly. If a black bear is following you, make lots of noise and flail your arms. Black bears are very shy creatures, so if you make noise they will be scared away. If a grizzly bear is coming toward you, get into a ball and play dead. T he grizzly bear will not be interested in you. If you mix the two up your life will be in serious threat. Have fun, be safe and thanks for writing. - Ty 14
Who Helped Our National Parks more?
n the 1930’s, the United States of America fell into a deep depression. When President Herbert Hoover did not do anything to help the depression get better, he was not re-elected. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected instead. Roosevelt had made many parks to help create jobs for people. Many people believe that because Roosevelt made the parks he should get all the credit for the creation of those parks. People could argue that a lot of that credit could go to Hoover. It was Hoover that drove our country into such a mess that it was necessary to have someone step in and create all those parks, for the jobs. It is apparent that it was Roosevelt’s idea to make many parks; he was forced to do something because of the damage that Hoover created in America’s economy. Franklin Roosevelt established four parks during his presidency. He created Great Smokey Mountains, Olympic, King’s Canyon and Isle Royale national parks. He also expanded Grand Teton. He also established many national monuments as a part of the National Park Service such as Joshua Tree, Capitol Reef, Dry Tortugas, and the Channel Island, which later became a national park. During the Great Depression, almost 25% of people in the United States were unemployed. When Roosevelt made those parks and monuments, he also created many jobs. His relative, Theodore Roosevelt also a president of the United states, also worked to establish national parks. Five national parks were established thanks to Teddy Roosevelt’s efforts. Top Right-President Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bottom Left- President Herbert Hoover
Can You Name the Locations of our National Parks?
Across 2. Great Smoky Mountains 4. Glacier 6. Black Canyon of the Gunnison 9. Biscayne, Dry Tortugas, Everglades 11. Mammoth Cave 12. Isle Royale 16. Mount Rainier, Olympic, North Cascades 18. Big Bend 20. Yellowstone (In 3 States) 21. Denali, Gates of the Arctic, Glacier Bay 22. Acadia 24. Great Sand Dunes 25. Hot Springs 26. Great Basin
Down 1. Voyageurs 3. Carlsbad Caverns 5. Grand Canyon 7. Cuyahoga Valley 8. Grand Teton 10. Crater Lake 13. Channel Islands 14. Theodore Roosevelt 15. Arches 17. Haleakala 19. Shenandoah 23. Badlands
Check next monthâ€™s issue for the answers to this puzzle.
16 May 2010
John Muir, Our Parks Pioneer â€œNo temple made with hands can compare with Yosemite.... it is the grandest of all special temples of Nature.â€?
f you admire our national parks, then you are sure to admire their hero, John Muir. John Muir was a Scottishborn American naturalist. He was born on April 21, 1838 in Dunbar, Scotland, and died on December 24, 1914 (age 76) in Los Angeles, California. Muir was credited for ideas and saving the land for many of the national parks such as Yosemite and Sequoia. He also founded the Sierra Club, one of the most important clubs in the United States. The Sierra Club visits many national parks and helps raise money and preserve the parks. Muir had many other jobs other than a naturalist; he was also a writer, engineer, and botanist. In 1899 Muir wrote a strongly worded bill to Congress asking them to pass Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks into being national parks. John Muir wrote books about the beauty of nature and how it can affect people in powerful ways. One of the most famous hiking trails in the United States, John Muir Trail, was named after him. It is a 211 mile trail that is in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Top: John Muir admiring Yosemite Falls; bottom left, President Roosevelt and John Muir in Yosemite; John Muir Wilderness covers more than 584,000 acres in the Sierra National Forest in California. NatPar
Pictures of Parks
here are three major people who were involved with using art in the development, publicity and funding of National Parks. At one point many people did not believe that the places and incredible landforms of current national parks existed; many people thought they were just myths. When these artists took a picture of a place and showed it to people or congress, they then believed that that place existed. It was important to have photographs of the parks because in paintings or drawings it was easy to over exaggerate the places, whereas in photography you get exactly what you would see. 18
William Henry Jackson William Henry Jackson was born on April 7, 1843 and died on June 30, 1942. He was a photographer and a painter. Jackson worked with the Union-Pacific railroad to take pictures of the scenery along the trainâ€™s route to use in their advertising. He then worked with the Hayden Geological Survey, which went to Yellowstone to do surveys of the land and document it. When they got back they brought the pictures and paintings to congress and suggested they turn it into the first national park in the world. Congress agreed. Monument Valley by William Henry Jackson
Timothy O’Sullivan Timothy O’Sullivan was born in 1840 and died January 14,1882. When he was younger he took many pictures of the Civil War. After that, he took pictures of “unseen” places; those places soon became national parks. One of his many jobs was to work with Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel and photograph the West so it would attract pioneers and settlers as a part of manifest destiny. He later worked in Washington D.C. as a full time photographer for the treasury department and the U.S. Geological Survey.
White House Ruins by Timothy O’Sulicvan
Ansel Adamss Ansel Adams was born February 20, 1904 and died April 22, 1984 (age 82). Adams took black and white pictures of nature. Many of his most famous works were taken in Yosemite National Park. His first solo art exhibit was in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C., 1931. The show included 60 black and white prints all taken in the High Sierras. This showed politicians how interesting places were in the West and they then wanted to create them into national parks and set aside this wilderness for future generations of Americans.
BridalVeil Falls by Ansel Adams NatPar
Present Presidentsâ€™ Parks
The Great Sand Dunes National Park
Great Basin National Park was created in 1987 during President Ronald Reaganâ€™s presidential term. It was the first national park in the United States created in 15 years. Great Basin is located in central-eastern Nevada. The Great Basin is important because it is one of the largest watersheds in the world. It is important to protect it because water in that area flows into the Pacific Ocean. If there is trash, the water will collect trash, flow into the ocean, and harm animals. This is an example of how national parks help take care of the environment and shows one reason the government funds the National Park Service. 22
The Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve was created as an act of Congress in September 2004. President Bill Clinton signed this bill into law. This is an important place to preserve because it has the tallest sand dunes in North America. There are many streams that flow near the dunes causing constant erosion to the dunes. The heavy constant wind causes steady renewal of the dunes. Every few minutes you see a surge in the water due to a dam-like pile of sand in the water. These natural monuments are located in the eastern most area of Colorado. The dunes were originally formed from deposits of the Rio Grande River. The wind is still blowing new particles of sand
from this river and the dunes are still growing. Over 70 types of rare animals live in this park. One of the main reasons this was turned into a national park was to protect the aquifer that runs under the dunes and in the nearby Baca Ranch. This large aquifer sustains the life of the plants and animals in the park. The aquifer may have been drained for large developments in the area if not adequately protected. The Nature Conservancy along with the government stepped in and bought the ranch lands and saved this fragile ecosystem and the beautiful dunes for all to enjoy. In November of 2004, George W. Bush signed the bill that made The Lewis and Clark National Park. This was the 59th
The Great Falls of the Passaic River
Great Basin National Park
national park congress made into law. This park is unique because it is a project between two states, Oregon and Washington and the federal government. It is also unique because it is not one big park but many smaller parks that are stops along Lewis and Clark’s route heading west, looking for the Pacific Ocean. In March of 2009, President Barack Obama singed into law the creation of the most recent national park, The Great Falls of the Passaic River in northern New Jersey. It has one of the country’s largest waterfalls. These waterfalls were part of the industrial development of New Jersey at our country’s birth. The waterfalls are sometimes called “The Cradle of American Industry.” The Great Falls of the Passaic River
Eastern Establishments Acadia National Park(Maine) is the first national park east of the Mississippi River. It was established in February 26, 1919. Charles Elliot, a landscape architect, is credited with the idea for Acadia becoming a national park. It obtained federal status when President Woodrow Wilson was in office. Before Acadia was a national park, it was a national monument. It became a national monument on July 8, 1916. From 1915 to 1933, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. funded, organized, designed and oversaw the construction of Acadia National Park. Acadia National Park contains more than 120 miles of historic hiking trails. A lot of them were made by local "village improvement societies" in the late 1800s and early 1900s. You can still see much of the historic features such as stonework, are still visible. For a thrill, hike the Precipice Trail. It is on a cliff that overlooks the ocean. Watch out for rogue waves that have been known to knock people into the water and take them out to sea never to be seen again. Acadi has a number of ghost stories people tell. Here are a few. Soames Sound The site around Jesuit Springs is supposedly haunted by the eight Jesuit missionaries who were killed there in 1613, by English artillery. Their white shapes are seen at night, boats disappear (last reported: 16' skiff of the Colby family, 1975), and a man in brown robes carrying a cross has been seen in a ghostly boat nearby. (Source: Schulte, Ghosts..Coast of Maine, p. 107.)
Wreck Island - four miles SW of Friendship Harbor Lights, and the forms of people outlined in light, are seen at Wreck Island at night. They are the eleven passengers of the Winnebec which went down in a December 1768 storm. They may have drowned before washing ashore, or been killed by some fishermen for their belongings. It is said that the fishermen each experienced the sensation of being strangled, shortly after the 1768 disaster, and many of them said their attackers were people in drenched clothing, surrounded by white light. (Source: Schulte, Ghosts..Coast of Maine, p. 57.) NatPar
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We take an inside look at how the parks were formed and at engaging disasters that happened in the parks. Read tales of explorers, camping t...