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An Introduction to Learning Rounds •

Lesson Observation in groups

Descriptive Voice

Curriculum for Excellence

Improvement across a school or schools

Collegiate approach to Learning and Teaching

Creating capacity for Leadership of Learning

Professional Development


Privacy of practice produces isolation; isolation is the enemy of improvement

Richard Elmore


Section1 What is Learning Rounds? The process


Learning Rounds

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The process: •

Identifying a focus Learning and Teaching focus - will generate key questions to act as a focus to the observation.

Observation of Learning and Teaching in school. Visit to school investigates this focus through observation. The team gather evidence that is descriptive and specific.

Post Observation Discussion - 2 stages. Team members describe what they saw. They analyse the evidence - arranging it and identifying patterns.

Next Steps Creation. In the context of available resources, the group generate and discuss a range of ideas on what should be done next at a system wide level.


Observers’ Learning • Going beyond normal boundaries; getting close to practice in different contexts • Not passive observers but a dialogue after observations • Emphasis on central importance of Learning and Teaching to school improvement • Emphasis on observers’ learning • Focus on ‘Next Steps’ • Approach to school improvement that can be duplicated across a system


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Heart By-pass Death Rate Drops 25% When Surgeons Share KnowHow

23 practicing surgeons and their staff observed one another in the operating room and shared their know-how. “We didn’t invent anything new; we got better at doing things we already do”, said one. 74 patients who were expected to die did not. In New England Research conducted at Dartmouth Medical School Lebanon, N.H. March, 1996


OUTCOMES • Comprehensive overview for all involved • Enhanced insight into L&T across schools and authorities • Shared agenda for next steps at system level • Collegiate approach to change


Section 2 Developing a descriptive and co-joint learning approach


THE COACHING SPECTRUM Non – directive – “Pull” Helping someone solve their own problem Listening to understand Reflecting Paraphrasing Summarising Asking questions that raise awareness Making suggestions Giving feedback Offering guidance Giving advice Instructing Telling

Directive – “Push” Solving someone’s problem for them Microsoft PowerPoint - Coaching presentation Phil


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9 1

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5 4

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6 2 3

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10


Judgment vs. Descriptive Feedback The lesson was good overall. I think you handled the children well but I thought your questions were rather narrow and largely biased towards the boys.

At the beginning of the lesson you asked 11 questions about the characteristics of living things. 9 of the questions were closed questions and 10 of the questions were answered by boys.

Based on‘Coaching & Reflecting Pocketbook’ Peter Hook, Ian McPhail & Andy Vass


Selection of Comments from Sheet 12

In a small number of classes, not all children were “on task� Critical skills used in some classes In most classes pupils worked collaboratively In some classes, higher order skills activities In most classes ICT was used In a few classes the team saw differentiation by task and resource In more than half the team saw AifL strategies Few higher order questions were asked of pupils In more than half the classes the pace was slow Across classes there was a wide range of learning experiences Few pupil generated questions In more that half the classes pupils were motivated and engaged Across classes the team saw a wide range of teaching styles In half the classes, there were challenging tasks for most pupils In most classes we saw lower order recall and understanding questions In some classes, there were opportunities for personalisation and choice In most classes pupil/teacher interactions were positive and focussed on learning


Section 3 Observation around Learning and Teaching and next steps


CREATIVITY

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Evaluation:

appraise, defend, predict

Synthesis:

compose, design, develop

Analysis:

compare, contrast, categorise

Application:

demonstrate, illustrate, solve

Comprehension:

describe, explain

Knowledge:

memorise, name, recognise, recall


Question and Answer Placemat Activity If we as a group are asked to go into a school to observe the teachers’ quality of question and answer with pupils what would we expect to see if things are going well?


The Light-up Shoes A few four-year olds were sitting together. Three of the children were wearing trainers that would light up when they stepped down on them. Teacher: Wow! Look at your shoes! That is so cool. They light up when you step down. Child 1: Yes, they do this. [Jumps up and down several times] Teacher: How does that happen? How does it light up? Child 1: Because they are new. Teacher: Um, mine are new too but they don’t light up. Child 2: No, because they light up when you step down on them. [Steps down hard several times] Teacher: [Steps down hard several times] That’s funny. Mine don’t light up when I step down.


Child 3:

No, no, no, you have to have these holes [points to the

holes] Teacher:

[Pointing to the holes in her own shoe]

But I have

holes and mine still don’t light up, and Josh has holes in his trainers too and his do not light up either.

I wonder why?

Child 4:

I think you need batteries.

Child 1:

Yeah, you need batteries to make them work.

Kids, you need batteries. [Thinks

for a while] But I did not see batteries when I put my toes in. Child 4:

I think they are under the toes.

Child 2:

I cant feel the batteries under my toes.

EPPE


QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncom pressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

It was June in a three-year-old room. It was circle time. The teacher had written on a flip chart the words “Things I Like To Do On My Summer Holiday” and listed every child’s name down the side of the paper.

She started the lesson by telling the class that summer was coming and school would soon be over. They would be on holiday. She wanted to know what they liked to do on their summer holidays.


Teacher: [To the first child on her right] Tyler, what do you like to do in the summer? Tyler: Bake. Teacher: No, you can bake anytime, but what do you like to do in the summer? Tyler: Bake Teacher: No, baking is something you do inside. In the summer it is warm and sunny. What do you like to do in the summer when it is warm and sunny? Tyler: Bake. Teacher: Tyler, can you think of anything else you would like to do this summer? Tyler: No, my mum said she is going to take time off work and we are going to bake together any day I want. Teacher: Ok. [She writes “bake” on the chart next to Tyler’s name] [Talking to the next child in the circle] Josh, and what do you like to do in the summer? Josh: Bake. Teacher: Can you think of anything else? Josh: No. Teacher: [Reluctantly writes “bake” next to Josh’s name] Brian, what do you like to do in the summer?


Brian: Go to the beach. Teacher: [With a big smile] Yes, that’s right. In the summer we like to go to the beach and swim in the water. Nicole: [From across the circle] I don’t like to swim because last year I went to the beach and I got stung by a jelly fish. Andrew: Me too and it really hurt and I had to go to the lifeguard and he gave my daddy medicine to rub on it and it really hurt and it bit me. Dani: Jelly fish can’t bite you they don’t have teeth they just have long arms I saw them on the beach and they were all dead and they can’t bite. Nicole: Uh huh they bite and they sting and I hate them and I am never going to the beach cause they bite and sting like a bee. Matthew: I like jelly fish. They have them in the “quarium”. Teacher: Children, we are not talking about jelly fish now, we are talking about what we like to do on our summer holiday. Julie, can you tell me what you like to do in the summer? (‘shared sustained conversations’ in REPEY)


3 ways to change pupil performance

What do pupils need to know, and be able to do?

content What do teachers need to know and be able to do?

How engaged are pupils in their own learning? How will they learn?

Capacity

teacher

pupil

parents

What parents need to know and be able to do to support their child’s learning


Hotel advice to guests:

Please reuse your towels… • out of respect of the environment • for the sake of future generations • because the majority of guests do so


Goal of Teachers: Developing appropriate questioning techniques Current Action

Intended Reality

AifL training around question and answer, higher and lower order questions, and teacher-pupil interaction.

Higher order and lower order questions on a rough balance of 50:50 Teachers frameworking questions from lower order to higher order Pupils asking questions Pupils being intellectually challenged by questions- all pupils dealing with higher order questions.

Reality - What is actually happening?

In the majority of classes we visited in schools the questioning used was: ・ lower order ・ teacher initiated ・ and with few pupil initiated questions.

Next Steps - What are the interventions we need to make across school or department?


Statement Sort Activity In the majority of classes we visited in the questioning used was: lower order teacher initiated and with few pupil initiated questions. Your task is to arrange 9 of the statements in a priority order in the following pattern

X

X X

X X X

X X

X


1. Current Action or Focus of Observation

AifL training around question and answer, higher and lower order questions, and teacher-pupil interaction.

2. Intended Reality

Lots of higher order and lower order questions on a rough balance of 50:50 Teachers frame-working questions from lower order to higher order Pupils asking questions Pupils being intellectually challenged by questions- all pupils dealing with higher order questions.

3. Reality

4. Next Steps

- What is actually happening?

- What are the interventions we need to make across the school [the system level]?

In the majority of classes we visited in schools the questioning used was:

Future AifL training to highlight best practice from around the school in higher order question techniques especially in areas where there were large demands in content coverage

・ lower order ・ teacher initiated ・ and with few pupil initiated questions.

Focused training on higher order and lower order questioning Issue of questioning prompt sheet based on Bloom’s Taxonomy and showing how to framework questions Lesson observation in trios around questioning during study leave. Trios to observe each other and meet as group to determine next steps they all take. This might be followed by further trio observation as regards changes in practice as a result of the work.


Use the data generated in your Learning Rounds Visit or Visits to ask: What are the priorities? What are our next steps?

Learning Rounds Part 2  

PPT presentationproviding a structure for introducing LR in schools