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ARM S & M ILITA RY T E C H N OL O GIE S

THE LAST LINE OF DEFENSE

w w w. n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e . r u

# 2 (37) 2 01 4 • special issue for DS A 2 0 1 4


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EDITOR’S PAGE < Dear reader, The International Defense Services Asia Exhibition (DSA) held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, has long gained a reputation not only in Southeast Asia, but also worldwide. The world’s leading manufacturers of sophisticated weapons attempt to exhibit at it. Russian companies, too, are among them. Products from the Russian defense industry are well known in Malaysia and other countries in the region. Russia supplied the region with MiG-29 and Su-30 fighters, Ka-28, Mi-171 and Mi-35 helicopters, antiship and surface-to-air missiles, including MANPADS, armored vehicles, warships and small arms. Today the mutually beneficial cooperation with countries in the region continues. In recent years, Indonesia and Vietnam have concluded some contracts to purchase Russian Su-30MK2 multipurpose fighters for their air forces. Currently, Russian shipyards build Gepard-3.9-class frigates and Project 06361 large diesel-electric submarines for the Vietnamese Navy. At DSA 2014 Russia displays its up-to-date military equipment. The High-Precision Weapons Holding demonstrates its defense products intended for the Land Forces and the Navy. For the first time ever, one can get acquainted with Russia’s ORSIS sniper rifles. May we wish the participants and guests of DSA 2014 interesting and fruitful meetings and talks at the Russian stand, which will strengthen cooperation in the military-technical sphere!

National Defense Editorial Board

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CONTENTS <

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EDITOR’S PAGE 1

ROSOBORONEXPORT INTEREST IN IGLA-S MANPADS IS GROWING

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IN THE SPOTLIGHT: FAST AND LIGHT

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HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS

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HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS JSC

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NUDELMAN PRECISION ENGINEERING DESIGN BUREAU

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THE HISTORY OF THE TULSKY ORUZHEINY ZAVOD JSC

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JSC RESEARCH & PRODUCTION CORPORATION «KONSTRUKTORSKOYE BYURO MASHYNOSTROYENIYA»

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ARMAMENT MONOLIT-B: TARGET RECONNAISSANCE AND DESIGNATION

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EXPERT OPINION SOUTHEAST ASIA: TROUBLED WATER

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PUBLISHER IGOR KOROTCHENKO EDITOR-IN-CHIEF VLADIMIR SHVARYOV DEPUTY EDITOR-IN-CHIEF ILYA KEDROV ART DIRECTOR YURI IVANOV EDITOR ALEXANDER MOZGOVOY DEPUTY DIRECTOR GENERAL YURI MAKAROV CORRESPONDENT VLADISLAV LISTOVSKY ENGLISH EDITING DIRECTOR YELENA YOLKINA PHOTO LEONID YAKUTIN, YURI IVANOV, VADIM SAVITSKY, ALEXANDER BELYAYEV, PRESS SERVICES OF RF DEFENSE ENTERPRISES, shipspotting.com, forums.airbase.ru MARKETING AND ADVERTISING DIRECTOR AURELIYA KONOVALOVA BACK OFFICE MANAGER TATYANA BUDEYEVA ESTABLISHER: NATIONAL DEFENSE PUBLISHING HOUSE Ltd. PHONE: +7 (495) 220-3538, +7 (495) 926-5161, FAX: +7 (495) 926-5162 FOR MAIL: PO Box 16, Moscow 123104, Russia, E-MAIL: portal-oborona@mail.ru www.nationaldefense.ru THE MAGAZINE IS REGISTERED BY THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SUPERVISION OF COMPLIANCE WITH LEGISLATION IN MASS MEDIA, COMMUNICATIONS AND PROTECTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE, CERTIFICATE #FS 77-22321 OF NOVEMBER 16, 2005. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. REPRODUCTION IN PART OR WHOLE IS ALLOWED ONLY WITH THE EXPLICIT AUTHORIZATION OF THE PUBLISHER. WRITTEN MATERIALS NOT ORDERED BY THE EDITORIAL STAFF ARE NEITHER REVIEWED NOR RETURNED TO THE AUTHORS © NATIONAL DEFENSE 2014

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> ROSOBORONEXPORT

INTEREST IN IGLA-S MANPADS IS GROWING

> Igla-S MANPAD

ussian arms exporter Rosoboronexport expects demand for the Igla-S MANPADS as well as launch modules and SAM systems, where Igla-S missiles are used, to remain strong. Moreover, the great expectations stem from cooperation with the countries in the Asia-Pacific region where simple, reliable and effective last-ditch air defense weapons are still in high demand. Unlike its predecessors, which are in service with many countries around the world, the Igla-S offers higher target hit accuracy, longer engagement range, greater number of fragments and a heavier (2.5 kg) warhead. It boasts a unique feature, which has not been implemented in

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any other MANPADS in the world: the remaining sustainer fuel is detonated together with warhead which greatly enhances the high-explosive and fragmentation effect on target. The Igla-S is capable of engaging targets at a range of 500 to 6,000 m and an altitude between 10 and 3,500 m, has high immunity to jamming and background clutter. The Igla-S missile uses a contact/proximity fuze with an automatically variable operation algorithm, which significantly increases the kill probability against pinpoint targets. To effectively operate at any time of day, the system includes a night sight, which is critical when using the MANPADS at night. To improve effectiveness and reduce

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the expenditure of missiles during operational employment, the appropriate automated fire control aids are provided in MANPADS units. According to leading experts, the Russian MANPADS is far more cost-effective than its competitors. To reduce the physical load on the gunner and increase the target kill probability, the Dzhighit pedestal launcher enabling simultaneous or sequential launch of two Igla-S missiles can also be used. The Dzhighit can be mounted on different chassis, including, for example, a small truck or a pickup van. Owing to their effectiveness, the Igla-S missiles can also be used not only as a lightweight portable mobile air defense weapon. To allow their firing from various platforms, Russian manufacturers have developed the Strelets launch module & control equipment set. It provides single, sequential or automated remote salvo launches of Igla-S missiles from ground-, sea- or air-based platforms. Moreover, the existing in-service mobile, stationary and shipborne SAM systems, anti-aircraft artillery systems and helicopters can be retrofitted with such modules. The costs of such upgrades will be low, but the capabilities of the weapons will be multiplied. In addition, new SAM systems can be developed on the basis of the Strelets launch module & control equipment sets. This approach has been applied by Russian developers to the Luchnik-E, a new SAM system being actively promoted by Rosoboronexport in the internation-

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> ROSOBORONEXPORT al market. A distinctive feature of the Luchnik-E is the capability to detect targets using designation data or independently and automatically track up to four targets simultaneously. For example, the Luchnik-E can detect a fighter type target at a range of at least 10 km. In this case, if necessary, the gunner can switch also to manual mode. Owing to the possibility for the integration into an existing air defense system through automated battery-level command posts, targets for engagement can be selected on the basis of external targeting data. Luchnik-E’s ammunition unit includes 16 missiles: eight of them are on the launcher, the other half in the stowage. Electronics and equipment of the launch vehicle can be mounted both stationary and on various mobile platforms: automotive and tracked chassis, sea and river vessels, railway platforms. Due to a high degree of automation, simple design and use of the

> Strelets launch module & control equipment set

SAM system, the requirements for the level of gunner training are reduced without loss in fire effectiveness and accuracy. Moreover, Igla-S MANPADS’ training aids can be used for initial training and skill maintaining of Luchnik-E gunners. In addition, a training device, built in each Luchnik-E’s launch vehicle,

can be used to improve gunner proficiency. The Igla-S MANPADS and weapons derived from it are indeed among the most effective last-ditch air defense systems. It is this defense that is a necessity for the air defense units of many countries in the AsiaPacific region.

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> ROSOBORONEXPORT

IN THE SPOTLIGHT: FAST AND LIGHT

> Mangust patrol boat

any states see the problem of reliably monitoring exclusive economic zones and defending national interests at sea as one of the top priorities. Its military, economic and political aspects are equally important. This is the reason why experts forecast steady demand in the global market for patrol boats making up the core of Coast Guards. Russian shipbuilding enterprises are traditional leaders in this segment, and Rosoboronexport, the sole state arms exporter, promotes their products to the international market. Among others, Rosoboronexport offers the Mangust, Sobol and Mirazh fast patrol boats intended to control the territorial waters for customs purposes, to protect natural and biological resources in the littoral, to carry out search-and-rescue operations, as well as to fight effectively against smuggling, terrorism and piracy at sea.

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Thanks to advanced combat, technical and operational qualities, these boats are in service with a number of Russian power agencies. The boats have high sailing speed, excellent manoeuvrability and seaworthiness allowing them to intercept practically any maritime intruder. Such characteristics are attained by introducing innovative technical and design solutions, such as special hull configuration, and high-power engines. Of the three above mentioned vessels, the Mangust patrol boat has the smallest displacement of only 28.7 tons. Thanks to partially submerged propellers with the Arneson drives it develops a speed of 48 knots. The boat's hull is divided into six compartments keeping it afloat even after getting a shot hole. The Mangust is armed with a 14.5-mm large-calibre machine gun installed on a pedestal mount. Depending on

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customer requests and combat employment specifics, the boat can be additionally armed with the AGS-17 automatic grenade launchers or 7.62-mm machine guns. The Sobol is a larger boat armed with a 14.5-mm naval machine gun or the AK-306 rapid-fire artillery mount. It is equipped with modern radar and optical fire control systems enabling target detection and automatic tracking by day and night. The Sobol boat is equipped with an air-conditioning system providing comfortable working conditions for its crew in hot climate. It develops a speed of up to 47 knots at a displacement of 57 tonnes. The Mirazh patrol boat is most of all prepared to guard exclusive economic zones. Its sailing qualities are substantially improved thanks to unique design solutions adopted. The 120-tonnes boat cruises at a speed of over 48 knots â&#x20AC;&#x201C; which is a

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ROSOBORONEXPORT < record in its class â&#x20AC;&#x201C; thanks to automatically controlled bottom interceptors. The Mirazh can carry out a low-speed patrolling even in a strong gale at Sea State 7. Another distinctive feature of the boat is its integrated bridge navigation system providing the commander with all necessary information on the surrounding situation. The boat control, employment of technical facilities and weapons delivery are greatly facilitated thanks to the high degree of automation. The Mirazh is ade> Mirazh patrol boat quately well armed compared with other patrol threats. On customer request its boats. Its main armament is the weapons system can be supplementShturm missile system with six ed with the DP-64 hand-held antiAtaka laser beam-riding missiles saboteur grenade launcher. capable of engaging maritime tarGeneral speaking, gets at a range of over 5.5 km. The Rosoboronexport always acts in boat is also armed with the AK-306 interests of customers by preparing artillery mount and two 14.5-mm for them cost-effective offers for machine guns. There are possibilities arms supply. It also proposes conto use eight sets of the Igla manstruction of shore facilities for ship portable air-defence missile systems basing, repairs and maintenance to protect the boat against air

during the entire life cycle, storage and preparation of weapons and munitions, personnel training with the use of advanced simulators. Year by year the quality of after-sale servicing is improving, and spare parts exports growing. Therefore, there is no doubt that Russian patrol boats will be sought for operations in complex climatic conditions of maritime countries.

> Sobol patrol boat

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HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS <

HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS JSC Based on materials contributed by the press service of the High-Precision Weapons Holding

he High-Precision Weapons JSC was set up in 2009 to consolidate the research and technological capabilities of a group of specialized defense enterprises in order to develop advanced weapons, military and special equipment (WMSE) in the field of tactical-level precision-guided weapon systems on the basis of innovation and technological modernization of existing production facilities. The company is part of the Rostec State Corporation. The core areas of activities of these enterprises are the development, production, modernization, repair and sale of WMSE in the following areas: • tactical missile systems, shortrange and very short-range air defense missile (including portable) and missile-gun systems for the Army, the Air Force and the Navy; • antitank missile and assault weapon systems; • guided artillery weapon systems; • armament systems for armored vehicles, fighting compartments for light armored vehicles; • small arms and close-in weapons. The High-Precision Weapons JSC activities are focused on meeting the following long-term objectives: • supply the RF Armed Forces with hi-tech weapons in accordance with the SAP and SDO guidelines; • increase exports, including through the expansion of sales markets and the range of export defense products, after-sales services and upgrade efforts on previously supplied equipment; • achieve parity with the world’s leaders on the market for tactical precision-guided weapons and ensure the effective functioning of the enterprises; • preserve and improve scientific, industrial and human capacity, maintain social stability at enterprises. The established business structure is capable of implementing the full cycle, from concept to production of finished precision-guided weapons for the Army and partially for the Air Force and the Navy with

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> Alexander DENISOV – Director General of the High-Precision Weapons JSC

due regard to their current requirements. In 2011, Rostec formed an investment program for its holding that included investment projects, which are being implemented now, as well as promising projects through 2020. Most of them are innovative projects. The holding invests heavily both in modernization and expansion of production facilities and the development of its scientific and technological capabilities.

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The ongoing investment is targeted at laying the strong groundwork, as well as developing modern, efficient production of innovative hi-tech products related to precision-guided weapons. Most of the projects being implemented by the holding company are part of the Federal target-oriented Russian defense industry development program for 2011-2020. The holding’s production program is aimed at meeting two major

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> HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS

challenges: equipping the RF Armed Forces with modern weapons & military equipment and increasing exports. Among the priority types of weapons supplied to meet the national defense, security and lawenforcement needs are the Pantsir-S AD missile-gun system, fighting compartments for light armored vehicles with missile weapons, rounds with the Arkan antitank guided missile, the Iskander-E theater missile system, the Krasnopol-M2 and Kitolov-2M guided artillery systems, the Palma and Kashtan shipborne air defense missile-gun systems, and the Khrizantema-S self-propelled antitank missile system. The second multi-faceted direction of the holdingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s activities is work with foreign partners, primarily the provision of after-sales service, upgrade of the previously delivered equipment, and delivery of final defense products manufactured by the holdingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s enterprises under contracts secured by Rosoboronexport. Currently, the Pantsir-S1 air defense missile-gun system, developed by the Tula-based KBP Instrument Design Bureau, and the

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HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS < Palma shipborne air defense missilegun system, developed by JSC Nudelman KBtochmash Design Bureau, are in large-scale production and successfully exported. The Pantsir-S1 system is capable of assuredly destroying enemy cruise missiles, UAVs, aircraft and ground targets within 20 km and at altitudes of up to 15 km using missile and cannon armament. Furthermore, this weapon is much less expensive in use than long- and medium-range systems. According to experts, the system is effective both as an independent battlefield air defense weapon capable of providing protection against enemy air attacks, including on the march, and as part of an integrated air defense system protecting strategic facilities, such as nuclear power plants, government and military control facilities. The 2011-2013 results demonstrated ever-growing interest in the Pantsir-S1 from customers. The Palma shipborne air defense missile-gun system from the Nudelman KBtochmash Design Bureau was intended to equip ships

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of various types and counter precision-guided weapons, aircraft and UAVs. It differs from its predecessors in high hit precision, kill probability and ECM immunity. It should be noted that the cost of missiles used in Palma, like in Pantsir-S1 is relatively low. The weapon is already supplied to foreign customers as part of Russian-built combatant ships. Interest in it is evergrowing. The possibility of installing Palma on domestically-built ships is being studied with potential partners from the Southeast Asian countries. There is still interest from foreign customers in antitank guided missile (ATGM) systems like Metis-M1, Konkurs-M, and Kornet-E/EM. Their deliveries number in the thousands of units. The Kornet-E has become the most popular domestic ATGM system delivered abroad. Today it is operational with the armies of 16 countries. The Kornet-EM versatile missile system, its advanced version, has a range of 8 km and offers a unique capability of destroying both

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ground and some low-flying air targets like unmanned aerial vehicles and attack helicopters. Since 2010, the performance indicators of the enterprises affiliated to the High-Precision Weapons JSC have shown steady positive dynamics – both in the area of resolving technical problems and in the financial and economic sphere. The High-Precision Weapons JSC is among Rostec’s top five largest holdings by revenue.

HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS JSC 7 Kiyevskaya St., entr.7, Moscow 121059, Russia, (7th floor of business center «Legion») Phone: +7 (495) 981-9277 Fax: +7 (495) 981-9278. E-mail: npovk @yandex.ru www. npovk.ru

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> HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS

NUDELMAN PRECISION ENGINEERING DESIGN BUREAU 1. Aircraft weapons

• Large-caliber aircraft guns of the World War II and postwar period: NS-37, NS-23, NS-45, N-37, NR-23, NR-30, R-23 and others. For many years the guns were main aviation arms of Soviet aircraft. • One of the first in the USSR air-to-surface unguided missiles S-5, S-8, S-25 and their modifications that were used as effective and sustainable weapon in local wars. • Unique guided missile system of modular design known as S25 system that includes missiles S25L, S-25LD and their modifications. 2. Antitank and tank arms

he Nudelman Precision Engineering Design Bureau (KBtochmash), part of the High-Precision Weapons Holding, is traditionally one of the leading Russian companies developing defense technologies and systems for the armed forces and services including land forces, navy, air forces and others. Our enterprise specializes in the development of

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high-precision forward line weapons. Exclusive engineering school and highly skilled specialists design unique defense equipment and technologies. KBtochmash was founded in 1934 and since that time it has designed and developed following famous gun, missile and missile/gun systems:

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• The country first radio controlled antitank missile system Falanga and its modifications for naval and helicopter mounts. • The world first tank guided weapon system Kobra marked the beginning of unique missile systems as well as its modifications – guided systems Zenit and Agona. 3. Air defense systems

• The country first self-propelled SAM system at close-in defensive line Strela-I and its modifications.

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HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS <

• The country first crawler selfpropelled SAM system at close-in defensive line Strela-10 and its modifications Strela-10M, Strela-10M2 and Strela-10M3 (Kitoboy). 4. Support weapon

Automatic grenade launcher system AGS-17 Plamya and its modifications for naval (AGS-17M) and helicopter (AG-17A) mounts. AGS-17 Plamya is the combatproven weapon of choice for today’s armed forces. Main development principles of high-precision forward line weapons that permit to design arms of highest dependability at lowest cost of ownership: • unification of all products; • modular and block design; • complexation of the systems depends on their physical modes; • high updating capability, maximum operational flexibility for future growth; • capacity of quantity-production; • easy training and operation. Our enterprise gives much attention to science intensive civil production, thus since the 1960s our specialists have conducted research of the laser technology. It was our enterprise that developed the first serial welding set SU-1. The set was

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exhibited in Leipzig fair and was the only workable specimen. Multipurpose serial high power laser processing stations UL-2 and UL-20 were demonstrated in Montreal, Budapest, Bucharest, Rome and London expos. As well as first in the country serial laser photo coagulator OK-I successfully used in ophthalmic surgery and quite a number of other unique products. In 1963 KBtochmash and leading Soviet institutes including Sternberg Astronomical Institute (a division of the Moscow State University) conducted fundamental scientific investigation of laser optical location of the Moon. For that purposes they developed unique powerful (power up to 80 J) ruby laser processing station. Consequently, the capacity of laser ranging at space distances was demonstrated. Other significant sphere of science intensive civil production is the development of pacemakers. KBtochmash developed and clinically adopted implantable pacemakers EKS-445 and EKS-500 that are not inferior to foreign analogs. Scientific and technical solutions applied in EKS-445 were appreciated highly at Brussels Innova/Eureka (international trade fair for invention, research and new technologies) and awarded to the Gold medal

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with mention. Our enterprise developed and clinically adopted 25 models of pacemakers. More than 25 years KBtochmash has developed security products including different types of radiometal locators. Quite a number of governmental institutions and private companies have been equipped by the products. Thus for its history our enterprise developed and put into the service with the Armed Forces more than 100 models of defense and civil products of what most part hasn’t analogs not only in Russia but also in the world.

JOIN STOCK COMPANY NUDELMAN PRECISION ENGINEERING DESIGN BUREAU FEDERAL SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION CENTER 8 Vvedenskogo Str., Moscow 117342, Russia Phone: +7 (495) 333-0165 mail@kbtochmash.ru ves@kbtochmash.ru www.kbtochmash.com

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> HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS PALMA NAVAL AUTOMATIC AIR DEFENSE GUN SYSTEM AT CLOSE-IN DEFENSIVE LINE

rovides protection of ships against aerial threats (antiship missiles flying at low and ultra low altitudes, cruise missiles, aircraft, helicopters, guided glide bombs), as well as light-armored surface and coastal targets at close-in defensive line.

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• gun system includes two automatic rapid fire sixbarrel guns AO-18КD; • specially designed rounds with hard-core tracer bullets made from TNI alloy providing; for the assured initiation of the antiship missile warhead; • original multichannel automatic all-weather day/night optronic control system of high precision; • high jamming immunity achieved due to the use of protected narrow-beam optronic channels to acquire and track the target, measure its range and guide the missile onto it; • combat operations in centralized target designation mode and in autonomous automatic scanning mode by use of automatic optronic control system; • automatic and semiautomatic target designation modes; • modular-block structure of the system. QUALITIES

• high firing capacity;

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• high effectiveness of combat application including high-speed and low-flying targets; • complete automation of combat processes; • quick response capability (from target detection to fire opening); • day/night and practically all-weather capability of combat processes; • concealed fire preparation and high survivability; • radar and optical countermeasure equipments immunity; • high firing rate and capability of quick shifting from one target to another; • high updating potential. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Armament:.................................................two AO-18KD guns caliber, mm ..............................................................30 rate of fire, shorts per minute ..................................10,000 ammunition ..........................................HVAP-T; HEF-I, F-T muzzle velocity, m/s .........................................1,100; 940 Engagement zones, km: in range.............................................................0.2-4.0 in altitude ............................................................0-3.0 Reaction time, s .......................................................3.0-5.0 Ammunition load, pcs...................................................1,500

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HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS <

PALMA NAVAL AIR DEFENSE MISSILE AND GUN SYSTEM AT CLOSE-IN DEFENSIVE LINE rovides practically guaranteed destruction of all types of aerial threats including antiship missiles flying at low and ultra low altitudes, as well as light-armored surface and coastal targets.

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• combined armament consisting of specially developed high-speed precision-guided laser beam riding missiles SOSNA-R and two rapid fire guns AO-18КD. This combination provides for a layered air defense against the adversary’s air attack weapons in the area of responsibility of the system; • SAM’s payload is of optimal configuration. The weapon’s effectiveness has been raised by increasing the weight of its separated warheads and by using a contact sensing-proximity laser fuze producing a continuous circular beam and featuring the adaptive initiation time; • specially designed rounds with hard-core tracer bullets made from TNI alloy providing for the assured initiation of the antiship missile warhead; • original multichannel automatic all-weather day/night optronic control system of high precision; • combined missile control system: – radio command system comes into operation at a boost stage; – beam riding mode is activated when the rocket motor is separated and the missile is gathered into the sight-line; • high jamming immunity achieved due to the use of protected narrow-beam optronic channels to acquire and track the target, measure its range and guide the missile onto it; • combat operations in centralized target designation mode and in autonomous automatic scanning mode by use of automatic optronic control system; • automatic and semiautomatic target designation modes. QUALITIES

• high firing capacity together with short flight time and high shooting velocity of gun system; • high effectiveness of combat application including high-speed and low-flying targets; • complete automation of combat processes; • quick response capability (from target detection to fire opening);

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• day/night and practically all-weather capability of combat processes; • concealed preparation of fire and high survivability; • radar and optical countermeasure equipments immunity. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Armament Missile: ..........................................................SAM SOSNA-R missile weight, kg ......................................................30 missile weight in container, kg ......................................42 maximum velocity, m/s...............................................875 Gun:.........................................................two AO-18KD guns caliber, mm ..............................................................30 firing rate, shorts per minute ...................................10,000 ammunition ..........................................HVAP-T; HEF-I, F-T muzzle velocity, m/s .........................................1,100; 940 Engagement zones, km: in range missile ..........................................................up to 10.0 gun ................................................................up to 4.0 in altitude missile ............................................................up to 5.0 gun ................................................................up to 3.0 Reaction time, s ......................................................3.0- 5.0 Ammunition load, pcs: SAM .........................................................................8 projectiles ...........................................................1,000 Weight with ammunition load, kg.....................................7,200

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> HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS PAPV PORTABLE LASER AUTOMATIC DEVICE OF OPTRONIC COUNTERMEASURE glass, eye-glasses and diffusion reflecting objects; • power laser suppresses detected optronic systems and generates optical radiation in visible and near IR spectral regions; • autonomous power from the power supply unit consisting of a capacity accumulator and a device converting the voltage of 27 V into the voltages for accumulators charging and all electronic systems of the device powering. QUALITIES

• power laser suppress effectively day and night channels of detected optronic system; • high jamming immunity, selectivity and accuracy of detecting system; • light and audible signalling devices indicate hidden optronic devicestargets detecting; • in case of accurate guidance on the detected optronic system power laser is activated by automatic command; • instantaneous, noiseless and invisible exposure of the power radiation pulse on detected optronic system and its suppression; • ability to operate from hidden positions; • short deployment time; • nonlethal countermeasure means of detection.

APV device is intended to create laser radiated pulse light interference for the optical and optronic equipments effecting counter observation and targeting. In the mode of setting laser radiated interferences, the device creates a flare spot in the field of vision (suppression) of the detected optronic countermeasure devices, damaging in separate cases their sight reticules and sensitive elements of receiving devices.

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• integration into the device of sighting channel, laser system for detection of optoelectronic devices, power laser and power supply unit with storage battery; • the device operation in the semiautomatic mode: operator aims the device to the point of possible arrangement of hidden optronic devices with the aid of sighting channel, next laser detection system makes search by probe laser beam scanning of area; • complexation of the low-power probing laser generating radiation in the invisible spectrum part, receiving channel for the reflected signal from the optronic device and detected target audible signalling device in the laser detection system; • high accuracy of the detection system provided by two photo receivers – wide and narrow fields of vision in its receiving channel; • special algorithms for processing of reflected signals exclude responses to the signals reflected from

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PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Power radiation pulse energy, J: wave length 0.53 µm ..................................................0.2 wave length 1.06 µm ..................................................1.5 Repetition frequency pulse of power radiation, Hz .....................................................0.1 Pulse power of probe radiation on wave length 0.86 µm, W ..........2 Repetition frequency pulse of probe radiation, Hz...................................................6,000 Action range, m ....................................................300-1,500 Weight of device, kg ........................................................56 Crew, men ......................................................................2

Being one of the pioneers in laser devices creation sphere, the Nudelman Precision Engineering Design Bureau (KBtochmash) continues its developing and works up detecting devices and means of optronic countermeasure for duel situation, as well as fighting against snipers.

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AUTOMATIC OPTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF SMALL AND MIDDLE CALIBER GUNS FOR NAVY nsures detection, tracking, high-precision providing of full angles guidance and gun armament drive control. The system can be integrated into 30, 57, 76 and 100mm guns put into the service with the navy.

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• gyrostabilized platform, on which following devices are placed: – television channel; – thermal imaging channel; – laser rangefinder; • digital computer; • control and display panel; • automatic target acquisition and tracking unit; • analog control unit; • phase-code converter unit; • power supply unit. QUALITIES

• high-accuracy guidance; • high jamming immunity; • capability of combat operations in day/night and all-weather conditions; • high automation level of combat operations; • capability of autonomous automated target sector search; • concealed combat operations. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Operating modes ..................................................automatic, semiautomatic, inertial Target detection..............................................external target designation, autonomous automated target sector search Range of guidance angles, deg: azimuth ................................................................±178 elevation .................................................from -20 to +82 Maximum angular velocity and acceleration, deg/s / deg/s ² ...................................50/150

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Field of vision, deg: television system.......................................2.0x3.0/6.5x9.0 thermal imaging system...............................2.2x2.7/6.7x9.0 Angular resolution, mrad: television system (apparent range, matrix of 752 x 582 pixels) .........................................0.07 thermal imaging system ..............................................0.2 Acquisition range (meteorological optical range = 15 km, RH = 80%), km aircraft/helicopters/cruise missiles.................16-30 / 10-14 / 8-12 Accuracy (mean-square error) of: stabilization, mrad ...................................................0.07 determination of position / range, mrad / m .................0.2/5.0 laser rangefinder guidance (1.064 µm, pulse energy 0.1 J, 10 Hz), mrad....................................0.1 Middle time of automated sector search 60x16°, s ..................3.0

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> HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS SOSNA AIR DEFENSE MISSILE SYSTEM he system is intended to protect against all types of air threats including high-precision weapons, e.g. cruise missiles and guided aircraft missiles in the area of the system responsibility: in range – up to 10 km, in altitude – up to 5 km.

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QUALITIES

• high effectiveness of combat application including high-speed and low-flying targets and helicopters during pop-up maneuvers; • high automation of combat processes; • day/night and practically all-weather capability of combat processes; • concealed fire preparation and high survivability; • unlimited minimum flight altitude of hitting target; • radar and optical countermeasure equipments immunity; • capacity to firing on the move.

• mount of missile armament with a launcher in one combat vehicle, air search and target tracking equipments, missile flight control units that are combined by integrated optronic combat control system; • missile armament consists of 12 high-speed highprecision maintenance-free missiles SOSNA-R deployed in a launcher. Light weight of the missiles allows disposing a transport/loading vehicle from the system; • optimal configuration of surface-to-air guided missile (SAM) payload allows improving impact effect due to increased weight of spread warheads and application of impact/non-impact laser fuse with continuous circular beam pattern and adaptive burst time; • special multichannel automatic high-precision practically all-weather and day/night optronic control system; • combined missile control system: – radio command system in start zone; – remote orientation in laser beam after engine division and missile targeting to the line-of-sight; • optronic combat control system with sector scan and in the automate target designation mode provide autonomous target detection capability.

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Armament ............................................SAM SOSNA R, 12 pcs. Missile weight at launch, kg ..............................................30 Missile weight in TL container, kg .......................................42 Caliber before/ after SAM detachment, mm ..........................................130/72 Maximum velocity, m/s....................................................875 Guidance system....................................................combined Engagement zone, km: in range .........................................................up to 10.0 in altitude ........................................................up to 5.0 Day/night use.........................................................available Time: reaction, s ........................................................5.0- 8.0 reloading, min ........................................................10.0 Operating mode.....................autonomous and centralized control

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SOSNA-R AA LASER GUIDED MISSILE

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istraction of fixed, rotary wing aircraft, precision weapons, cruise missiles, remotely controlled vehicles and light-armored ground equipments.

COMPOSITION AND MAIN STRUCTURE PRINCIPLES

• two-staged missile with droppable booster; • combined guidance system: – by radio commands at the boost phase; – by laser beam at the march phase; • impact/non-impact fuse with continuous pattern and adaptive burst time; • warhead: – rod-fragmentation for target distraction by missed intercept; – AP- fragmentation for target distraction by direct hit; • installing in transporting launching container; • absence of preventive maintenance checks and services during operational service and storage. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Engagement zones, km: in range/in altitude ....................................up to 10.0/up to 5.0 Velocity, m/s: maximum/average.....................................................875/565 Missile caliber, mm: before/after booster drop .............................................132/72 Missile length in flight/ in TL container, mm .............................................2,317/2,400 Missile weight, kg: starting / in TL container.............................................30.6/42

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THE HISTORY OF THE TULSKY ORUZHEINY ZAVOD JSC

ulsky Oruzheiny Zavod (TOZ) is the oldest arms plant in Russia. The enterprise is famous for the glorious past and present deeds. The plant is ranked high among the famous and important

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firearms manufacturers in the world. Under the Tzar’s decree of 1595 «the governmental firearms suburb» was established. It served as a residence for firearms masters who supplied the treasury with the firearms.

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During the reign of Peter I, Russia entered to the Age of Great Reforms, the necessity to be independent led to developing the domestic industry and arranging the firearms production. By the beginning of the 18th century, Tula gained the reputation as a town of ironworks plants which was rich of skillful gunsmiths. On the 15th of February 1712 the Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russian Empire Peter I decreed to establish the Tula Arms Plant. From the beginning, the plant supplied the Russian army with a full range of fire and cold arms that made the plant a reliable supplier of the Russian arsenal. It was the first time when the standardization, gauges and templates were introduced in Russia, also the possibility to change the spare parts and units led to the mass production of arms. The army was equipped well with the flint guns, infantry, dragoon and cavalry pistols. Thanks to the Tula-made firearms Russian soldiers gained many glorious victories at wars like the Patriotic War of 1812. It was produced about 500,000 of firearms to equip the Russian soldiers. Such arming merits were rewarded honorably. The plant was entitled as Imperial Tula Arms Plant. The date of December, 15 of 1834 was remarkable for an outstanding step in reequipment of energy supply sources. The first steam machine was installed. The 60s of the 19th century was the time to replace the muzzle loading firearms with breech loading ones. To produce new samples of firearms, the plant was reequipped in 1870-1874. TOZ was formed into a large enterprise, which was competitive to the similar West European enterprises. The gunsmiths mastered the mass production of Berdan rifle. Since 1873 it became the most produced rifle. Until 1891 the rifle was in service of the Russian Army. The Russo-Turkish War of 18771878 showed the necessity to arm

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HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS < the soldiers with magazine rifles. The designing of the famous «trilineage rifle of 1891» made the great success for S.I. Mosin. The rifle was in service in the army for many years and it was modified several times (in 1930, 1938, and 1944). It was produced several millions of rifles. In 1902 the power-driven production line of hammer and nonhammer hunting carbines was organized. In 1905 the Maxim machine gun as an excellent example of small arms was produced at TOZ. Such outstanding gunsmiths as P.P. Tretyakov and I.A. Pastuhov took a great part in the new machine guns production. At the same time, the production of Nagant revolvers was settled. During 1895-1945 it was produced more than hundreds of thousands revolvers. During the Civil War, the two thirds of the produced firearms in Russia were made by Tula gunsmiths. In 1921, the Order of the Red Banner of Labour was awarded to the Tula Arms Plant for the selfless work in supplying the Red Army with firearms. During the 1920s, it was designed and produced such firearms as hunting shotguns of «R» model and grooved carbine NK-8,2 by Kochetov, small bored rifles TOZ-1 and TOZ-2, single shot with laminose sight carbines TOZ-7, TOZ-8 and TOZ-10, intended for the sport shooting. With the aim to unite all designers of the plant, the planning and designed office was created in 1927. The result of that union was the air machine guns PV-1 and ShKAS. In 1939 F.V. Tokarev created and set up the mass production of the self-loading rifle SVT-38, it was equal to M1 Garand, one of the best self-loading rifles during WWII. Also TT pistol was designed and produced by TOZ. From 1927 to 1938 new step of textile machinery construction was made – the first spinning machines were designed and produced in the country. In 1932-1939 there were universal, horizontal and vertical milling machines to be produced by TOZ. At the same time, it was developed such new arms as the paired air machine gun DA-2, the heavy machine gun DS-39 by

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V.A. Degtayrev, the ShKAS by B.G. Shpitalny and I.A. Komaritsky, the ShVAK by B.G. Shpitalny and S.V. Vladimirov. During WWII, TOZ was evacuated into Ural. The Tula gunsmiths had to put the arms production at short time. Meanwhile in Tula, on the basis of production site of TOZ, the mortars and firearms had been repaired. TOZ received the Order of the Patriotic War of the 1st degree for supplying the Soviet Army and the Navy with the arms during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). After the war time the different models of sport and hunting firearms were designed, the production of an electrical sewing machine Tula was arranged, as well as the industrial firing devices and refrigerator compressors. In 1961-1982 the enterprise was ordered to produce the world famous Kalashnikov assault rifle (six types of the assault rifle were mastered), antitank guided missiles as part of Malutka, Fagot and Konkurs complexes, the under barrel grenade launcher Koster. In 1962 the plant was decorated with the Lenin Order for the industrial achievements and in connection with its 250th anniversary. For three hundred years TOZ has been serving for the Fatherland and it is regarded as a centre of military and civilian technologies. Today the enterprise produces the military goods like the high-precision antitank guided missiles, noiseless and submarine assault rifles and pistols, under barreled grenade launchers in additional to the civilian goods: side by side, single barrel semiautomatic and pump shotguns with muzzle sets; hunting carbines and industrial firing devices. Simultaneously the future of the plant builds itself. In close collaboration with KBP, the leading designer of military equipment in Russia, the range of promising items, which surpass the domestic and foreign goods in combat and working characteristics, is mastered. The development and production of new sport and hunting firearms and industrial firing devices take place. Nowadays there’s a stable course of the current goods range upgrading and advancing the technical level due to the purchase and installation of modern efficient equipment, implementation of new tech-

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nologies, creating of specialized working areas. The complex information system of enterprise control has been done successfully. The company policy of training stuff system takes place with the aid of the professional education institutions; such policy allows solving the company’s problems. A lot of attention is attracted to the output production quality. TOZ JSC has received the quality management for the military and civilian goods. In addition, the plant has received the ecological conformance certificate of control system of environmental protection, which helps to develop new market outlets. TOZ JSC is a partner for many home companies; also the enterprise cooperates with more than 30 countries like Germany, the USA, India, Egypt, Ukraine, Armenia, Byelorussia and others. Time to time TOZ presents the best goods at special firearm shows in Russia (INTERPOLITEX, Moscow; Hunting and Fishing in Russia, Moscow; ROST, Izhevsk) as well as foreign shows (Shot Show, the USA; IWA, Germany; MILIPOL, France). TOZ has won the prizes of GRAND PRIX VI of International exhibition in Izhevsk ROST-2004, the laureate diploma of 100 best Russian Goods Event, and honor title of The Best Exporter of Tula Region. At any time, the gunsmiths work hard to forge the firearms, and they will make a great contribution to the defense power of our Fatherland.

Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod JSC 1a Sovetskaya Str., Tula 300002, Russia Fax: +7 (4872) 56-16-47 Phone: +7 (4872) 32-17-01 E-mail: mail@tulatoz.ru www.tulatoz.ru

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> HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS 9mm Small-Size Assault Rifle AM (index SR3) • the assault rifle dimensions are the same as a submachine gun has but the firing range and hitting effect of the assault rifle are considerably better. The advantage of the assault rifle SR-3 is a detachable double-column sector magazine with the cartridges located in a chess-board order and interchangeable with magazines of the AS and VSS firearms. The 9mm armor-piercing cartridge SP6 and 9mm sniper cartridge SP5 are used for shooting. he 9mm small-size assault rifle is intended to engage the enemy manpower wearing bulletproof jackets, as well as the non-armored vehicles at a distance of 200 m. The automatic reloading is based on the work of powder gases. The design features of the assault rifle are: • the magazine quick «ejection» mechanism; • the metal folding buttstock reduces the overall dimensions and allows delivering aimed fire with folded or non-folded stock;

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Caliber, mm ....................................................................9 Bullet muzzle velocity, m/s ...............................................295 Magazine capacity, cartridges .......................................10; 20 Length of assault rifle, mm: with unfolded stock...................................................396 with folded stock......................................................640 Weight of assault rifle with an empty 10-round magazine, kg ....................................................2.1 Rate of fire, rpm............................................................840

Kalashnikov 5.45mm Short Submachine Gun with Folding Stock (index 6P26) is capable of delivering both automatic and singleshot fire. The folding stock is very handy, the fire may be delivered from various positions. The assault rifle dimensions are considerably smaller with a folded stock. The magazine is detachable of sector type double-column with the location of cartridges in a chess-board order. The operating temperature range is from -50 to +50 °C. he Kalashnikov 5.45mm short assault rifle with a folding stock is an exceptionally effective individual weapon for shooting in the conditions of limited space. The small size and high hitting capability make it possible to use the assault rifle in every extreme situation. The conventional (with a steel core), tracer and high-penetrating bullets are used for firing. The energy of powder gases is used to reload the assault rifle. The firing and trigger mechanism of a hammer type

Caliber, mm ................................................................5,45 Rate of fire, rpm ......................................................650-700 Bullet muzzle velocity, m/s ...............................................735 Sighting range, m ..........................................................500 Magazine capacity, cartridges ............................................30 Length of submachine gun, mm: with folded stock......................................................490 with stock ..............................................................730 Mass with loaded magazine, kg..........................................3.2

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9mm Special Assault Rifle AS (index 6P30)

he 9mm assault rifle AS is intended for noiseless and flameless shooting. The automatic reloading is based on the work of powder gases. The assault rifle is intended to engage the enemy manpower protected with bulletproof jackets and the non-armoured vehicles. The design features of the assault rifle are: • high characteristics in the accuracy of fire and closely-grouped fire are achieved due to original design of the assault rifle barrel; • the high hitting is guarantied due to the subsonic velocity of a bullet; • making single and automatic shots; • the folding metal buttstock and the quick detachable silencer make it possible to reduce assault rifle dimensions; • mounting seats for optical and night sights; • absolute harmless handling is guarantied with safeties.

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The advantage of the assault rifle is a detachable double-column sector-type magazine with the cartridges located in a chess-board order and interchangeable with VSS and SR-3 magazines. It fires the 9mm armor-piercing cartridge SP6 or 7N12 and 9mm sniping cartridge SP5. Caliber, mm ....................................................................9 Bullet muzzle velocity, m/s .........................................285-295 Magazine capacity, cartridges ............................................20 Sighting range, m: with open and optical sights.................................up to 400 with a night sight device .....................................up to 300 Length of assault rifle, mm: with unfolded stock...................................................878 with folded stock......................................................615 Weight with an empty magazine and without sights, kg...................................not more than 2.6

7.62mm Special Self-Loading Pistol PSS (index 6P28) he PSS is an individual weapon for the secret attack and defense, also it is intended for noiseless and flameless shooting. It shoots СP4 cartridges at a range of up to 50 m. The reloading is carried out automatically with the aim of the blowback bolt recoil energy. The pistol has the firing and trigger mechanism that allows firing with the full-cocking or self-cocking. The safety system prevents accidental shots even if the trigger has been accidentally pulled or the pistol has been dropped. The reliable work of the pistol is guaranteed in any climate conditions. The operating temperature range is from -50 to +50 °C.

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Caliber, mm ................................................................7.62 Bullet muzzle velocity, m/s ...............................................200 Magazine capacity, cartridges .............................................6 Overall dimensions, mm ........................................30x140x165 Weight with an empty magazine, kg ....................................0.7

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Antitank Guided Missile 9M113M of the Konkurs-M System

he missile is intended to engage modern vehicles equipped with the dynamic armor, fortified fire emplacements, both moving or stationary surface and afloat targets, low-flying helicopters at any time and weather conditions. The operating temperature range is from -50 to +50 째C. The missile may be launched from a combat vehicle or remote launcher. The control of the missile is semiautomatic, the commands are transmitted over the wire communication line. Caliber, mm .................................................................135 Wing span, mm .............................................................468 Average flight speed, m/s ................................................206

Rotational rate, rps ........................................................5-7 Firing range, m: at day/night ...............................................75-4,000/75-3,500 War head type..........................................Tandem, cumulative Armor penetration with probability not less than 0.5, mm ....750-800 Full distance shooting from water edge.......................................................Ensured Active armor penetration ............................................Ensured Missile 9M113M weight without container, not more than, kg...17.0 Missile 9M113M weight with container, not more than, kg .........................................................27.4 Packing weight with a missile 9M113M ..................................................49.8 Container dimensions, mm .................................1,263x188x230 Packing dimensions, mm ...................................1,379x312x353

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9mm Special Sniper Rifle VSS (Index 6P29-1) The automatic reloading is effected by the energy of powder gases. The firing and trigger mechanism of a striker type allows delivering both single-shot and automatic fire. The sniper rifle features: • the original design of the barrel allows achieving high characteristics in the accuracy of fire and closely-grouped fire; • the subsonic speed of a bullet and its high hitting effect; • a silencer ensures noiseless and flameless shooting; • a quick assembling into three parts makes it comfortable to carry the rifle secretly (in a special bag or case); • the presence of safeties makes the rifle harmless in handling and prevents making any shots even if the trigger is accidentally pulled or the rifle is dropped or hit when the barrel bore is not locked. The advantage of the sniper rifle is the presence of a detachable doublecolumn sector-type magazine with the cartridges located in a chess-board order and interchangeable with AS and SR-3 magazines. The 9mm armor-piercing cartridge SP6, 7N12 and 9mm sniper cartridge SP5 or 7N9 are used for the shooting.

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he special sniper rifle is intended for noiseless and flameless shooting.

The rifle is equipped with an optical sight, also it is possible to install a night sight device.

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Caliber, mm .......................9 Bullet muzzle velocity, m/s..............280-290 Magazine capacity, cartridges ........................10 Sighting range, m: with open and optical sight ..................................up to 400 with night sight device........................................up to 300 Length of rifle, mm ........................................................894 Weight with an empty magazine and without sights, kg...................................not more than 2.7

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JSC RESEARCH & PRODUCTION CORPORATION «KONSTRUKTORSKOYE BYURO MASHYNOSTROYENIYA»

mooth-bore Artillery Special Design Bureau of People’s Commissariat of Armament (nowadays, JSC Research & Production Corporation «Konstruktorskoye Byuro Mashynostroyeniya») was established in 1942 for upgrading existing and designing new mortars and mines. The enterprise personnel united mortar design groups from Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) (SKB of plant No. 7 and NII-13), Kiev (Arsenal plant) and Moscow (NITI-40). The enterprise was stationed in Kolomna, Moscow region. Boris I. Shavyrin was appointed the head of the enterprise and filled this position till 1965. Later this position was filled by Sergei P. Nepobedimy (1965-1989), Nikolai I. Gushchin (1989-2002), Valery V. Grishin (2003-2005). Since 2005 the

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head of the enterprise is Valery M. Kashin. In the initial period (1942-1945), a large scope of work was carried out by the team to simplify mortar design. That made it possible to get a large number of enterprises with average and low technological level involved in large-scale production. As a result, during war years the soviet industry managed to produce 352 thousand of mortars, more than 80 percent of which were based on the design documentation developed by Special Design Bureau’s engineers (82-, 107and 120mm caliber mortars). 160-, 240- and 420mm caliber mortars, 82mm caliber (B-10) and 107mm caliber (B-11) recoilless guns were designed in the Special Design Bureau in postwar years (1945-1956). MBU-200, MBU-600 and BMB-2 bomb throwers were designed for the benefit of the Navy.

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Starting from 1956, the enterprise focused its activity on the design and development of missile weapons. New direction required that the collective should develop the most advanced technologies. Scientific and technical potential, ability to creatively apprehend and implement the latest achievements in fundamental and applied science in specific developments made it possible for enterprise to become a prime contractor in engineering missile systems of different purposes. The name «Konstruktorskoye Byuro Mashynostroyeniya» (KBM) was given to the enterprise in 1964. KBM became one of the first designers of the Antitank Missile Systems (ATMS) in the country. The following systems were put into service in different years: SHMEL (1960) – first in this class to be put into service with the Soviet Army, MALUTKA (1963) and MALUTKA-P (1969) – one of the most wide-spread ATMS in the world, the first ATMS in the world with the supersonic SHTURM-V missile for installation on Mi-24 (1976) and Ka-29 (1980) helicopters, SHTURM-S (1978) being a self-propelled variant. KHRIZANTEMA-S ATMS (2005) and multi-purpose ATAKA missile for modernized SHTURM systems for Mi-28N (2008) and Ka-52 (2010) helicopters, selfpropelled SHTURM-SM systems (2012) and project 10412 boats (2010). KBM is the only enterprise in the Russian Federation to design mobile high-precision tactical, theatre ballistic and man portable air-defence missile systems. Such systems as

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HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS < TOCHKA (1975), TOCHKA-U (1989), OKA (1980), ISKANDER-M in different versions (20052012) were designed here. KBM is the designer of active protection systems for armoured vehicles and other hardware. This direction is represented by ARENA Active Protection System (2010). One of the most outstanding KMB’s achievements is the creation of several generations of MAN-Portable AirDefence missile Systems (MANPADS). The following systems were designed and put into service: STRELA-2 (1968), STRELA-2M (1970), STRELA-3 (1974), IGLA-1 (1981), IGLA (1983) and IGLA-S (2002). For the first time in the world the following solutions were found during their designing: firing against an approaching target, protection from thermal decoys, usage of detonating propellant, salvo launches. STRELETS set of control equipment and launching modules was designed for firing this missile from Mi-28N (2008) and Ka-52 (2011) helicopters, GIBKA autonomous self-defence module for ships (2007), LUCHNIK self-propelled close range air-defence missile system (2012). For progress in creation of various types of weapons the enterprise was awarded with the Order of Lenin

(1976) and the Order of the Red Banner of Labour (1966). three employees were awarded with a title of Socialistic Labour Hero, four employees – a title of Lenin Prize laureate, 64 employees – USSR State Prize laureates, 533 employees were awarded with USSR orders and medals. Only during the last eight years 15 employees of the enterprise became laureates of the RF Government Prize, six employees were awarded with the RF State Prize in the field of science and engineering, one employee - with the RF State Prize in the field of science and technology, 53 employees awarded with the RF state awards.

Altogether KBM put into service over 60 weapon systems for the 70-year period of work. Besides departments responsible for product design, the enterprise structure includes well equipped production facilities and a test range. This enables the successful implementation of traditional formula of activity «design-productiontesting» with a subsequent conversion to serial production of products. Since 2004 the enterprise pursues an active policy of technical reequipment. In 2012 the enterprise was reorganized to Joint Stock Company Research and Production Corporation «Konstruktorskoye Byuro Mashynostroyeniya». In 2013 the enterprise became part of the High-Precision Weapons Holding.

JSC Research & Production Corporation «Konstruktorskoye Byuro Mashynostroyeniya» 42 Okskiy Avenue, Kolomna 140402, Moscow region, Russia Fax: +7 (496) 613-3064, 615-5004 Phone: +7 (496) 616-3277 E-mail:kbm-kbm@mail.ru

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> HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS ISKANDER-E Tactical Ballistic Missile System • high-priority targets of civilian infrastructure; • production facilities. The system includes: • Iskander-E system missile having a solid-propellant single-stage motor with a nose cone which is not detached in-flight; • transporter erector launcher (TEL); • transporter and launcher vehicle (TLV); • maintenance and repair vehicle; • command and staff vehicle; • information preparation station; • depot equipment set. Maximum firing range – 280 km.

he 9K720-E missile system is designed to deliver fire power on small-size and area targets in the enemy tactical depth in all types of Army combat operations in any season and round the clock, at latitudes up to 70°, in anti-missile defence and air defence environment. The system is used within lifetime of its components in any weather in the air temperature range from minus 50 to plus 50 °С and can fulfil combat missions after short-time (not longer than 6 hours) stay of its components at a temperature of 60 °С with subsequent taking operating temperature afterwards. The system ensures hidden preparation and delivery of missile strikes against targets at altitudes up to 3,000 m ASL with the start position at a height up to 3,000 m. No geodesic and meteorological support and special preparation of start positions is required for system combat use. Main targets for Iskander missile system are as follows: • troops in concentration areas; • troops of surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems and theirs command points on the firing site; • missile and artillery batteries in concentration areas; • jets and helicopters in the parking areas; • troops control (warning) centres (posts); • fragments of seaports and railway stations;

ISKANDER-E SYSTEM MAIN SPECIFICATIONS Guaranteed firing range, km: minimum..................................................................50 maximum................................................................280 Missile launch weight, kg..............................................3,800 Number of missiles on combat vehicles (TEL, TLV), pcs ...............2 Time to launch the fist missile, min.: from the highest readiness level ......................................4 from the march ..........................................................16 Interval between launches, min. ...........................................1 Missile position during preparation for launch.......................................march position (horizontal) Transportability ..............................................by rail, sea, air Operational temperature range, °C .............................-50 to +50

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HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS <

KHRIZANTEMA-S Self-Propelled Antitank System he Khrizantema-S self-propelled antitank system is designed to engage current and future tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, other lightly armoured targets, engineering structures, pillboxes, low-level and low-speed aircraft and helicopters, manpower in shelters and at the open sites. At present, the Khrizantema-S self-propelled antitank system is the only antitank missile system in the world to ensure firing against the target which cannot be visually observed and simultaneous fire against two targets from one launching unit using two guidance systems (automatic radar guidance and semiautomatic laser beam-riding systems). The system ensures effective engagement of wide variety of targets around-the-clock, including any weather conditions (snow, rain, fog, battlefield obscurants) in intensive active countermeasures environment and background clutter. The system is completely autonomous, does not require specially prepared firing positions and has builtin equipment to test its guidance system. The combat vehicle (CV) ensures high manoeuvrability, cross-country and amphibious capabilities. The navigation equipment incorporated in the combat vehicle ensures its independent arrival at the specified firing site and orienting in the assigned firing sector. The system can be prepared for firing both on the move (if the time is short) and from a prepared firing position. The system can be used in the mountains at the altitude up to 3,000 m above the sea level and at maximum wind velocity up to 20 m/s. The system combat equipment includes: • 9P157-2 combat vehicle (CV); • 9P157-3 platoon commander vehicle;

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• 9P157-4 battery commander vehicle; • 9М123 antitank guided missile with tandem HEAT warhead; • 9М123F guided missile with high-explosive (HE) warhead. The 9M123 antitank guided missile defeats all current and future tanks equipped with ERA. The 9M123 guided missile defeats lightly armoured and unarmoured vehicles, engineering structures, pillboxes, low-level and low-speed air targets, small vessels and boats. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Firing range, m: minimum ................................................................400 maximum .............................................................6,000 Combat employment conditions ........................Round-the-clock, in fair and adverse weather, including dust and smoke obscurants Guidance system .......Automatic radar guidance and semiautomatic day-and-night laser beam-rider guidance Simultaneous firing in two channels ..............................Ensured Simultaneous firing on one target from two combat vehicles...........................................Ensured Firing on low-flying slow air target................................Ensured Number of missiles in ammunition stowage, pcs ......................15 Resistance to background clutter and active countermeasures ............................................High Warhead types.................................................Tandem HEAT, HE (Fuel Air Explosive – FAE) Defeating current and future tanks................................Ensured Missile flight speed, m/s ........................................Supersonic Combat employment height above sea level, m ...................3,000 Launcher loading and reloading .................................Automatic

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> HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS IGLA-S Man-Portable Air Defence Missile Systems he Igla-S man-portable air defence missile system (MANPADS) with a homing missile is designed to defeat visually observed jet, turbo-prop and propeller-driven aircraft, helicopters, as well as small-size targets such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and cruise missiles in head-on and tail-chase engagements in natural (background) clutter and IR countermeasures environment in any weather (except for heavy rain and mist) round the clock. The system includes: • combat equipment: 9M342 manportable missile (in launching tube with a battery and coolant unit (BCU) attached, 9P522 launching mechanism (LM) easily attachable to the missile and 1PN97M MOWGLI night sight); • maintenance facilities; • training aids. The Igla-S MANPADS is designed for autonomous launch by gunner from the shoulder. The following launching units were designed to expand the opportunities of combat use and enhance combat efficiency: • Dzhighit support launching unit (SLU) with target designation receiver and display system and a night sight for single and salvo launches of missiles; • Strelets set of equipment and launching modules (SEM) for launches of missiles from the different carriers. A number of SEM-based systems were created with the MANPADS missiles: • Mi-28N and Ka-52 helicopters self-defence suite; • Gibka and Gibka-R naval air defence systems to be installed on ships like Astrakhan small artillery ship, Grad Sviyazh small missile boat, Vice-admiral Kulakov large anti-submarine ship and Mistral landing helicopter-carrying ship-dock; • modernized ZSU-23-4M4 (Shilka-M4); • modernized ZSU-23; • Luchnik-E mobile VSHRADMS and some air defence systems of foreign origin (Singapore, Turkey); • light launcher for LandCruser vehicles as part of carrier equipment set (CES). • MANPADS missile adaptation set for a light carrier.

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HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS <

> Strelets SEM on Mi-28N helicopter

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Altitude of engaged targets, m....................................10-3,500 Slant range of engaged targets, m ...........................up to 6,000 Speed of engaged targets, m/s: head-on ..........................................................up to 400 tail-on ............................................................up to 320 Combat equipment weight, kg: in combat position.................................not greater than 19 in combat position with the night sight .......not greater than 21 in carrying position with the night sight and SPTA-Individual Kit ..........................not greater than 23 Time to transfer combat equipment from carrying position to combat position , s .................................not greater than 13 Reaction time, s..........................................not greater than 5 Operational temperature range, 째C ............................-44 to +50

> Dzhighit SLU

> Luchnik-E VSHORADS

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> HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS 9M120-1 (9M120-1F) Guided Missile

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he 9M120-1 guided missile is a modernized serial 9M120 ATAKA missile.

The main difference between 9M120-1 missile and 9M120 is that the 9M120-1 missile is completed with the guidance unit featuring two guidance channels: • direction-finding channel with radio commands; • laser beam-riding. Guidance channel in missile is chosen automaticaly. Two-channel guidance ensures using the 9M120-1 missile both as part of regular land-based (SHTURMSME) and airborne (SHTURM-V) systems (Mi-24, Mi-28, Ka-29) and new systems equipped with laser beam-riding guidance channel (Tank Support Fighting Vehicle, modernized BMP-2 IFV, Ka-52 combat helicopter, patrol boats). The 9M120-1 missile dimensions and aerodynamic performance is fully identical to the 9M120 missile. The 9M120-1 missile is completed with HEAT warhead. The 9M120-1F missile is completed with high explosive warhead with fuel-air explosive. The 9M120-1PRAKT. guided practical missile with inert warhead is designed for training firing. The 9M1201PRAKT. missile appearance is similar to the 9M120-1F but has appropriate marking. The 9M120-1 missile is designed to destroy modern and future tanks including those fitted with explosive

reactive aermor and other armoured ground and abovesea targets. The 9M120-1F guided missile with fuel-air explosive is designed to destroy weapon emplacements and enemy manpower in shelters, buildings and structures prepared for defence, lightly armoured and unarmoured vehicles, above-sea and low-level low-speed air threats. Maximum range of guided missile flight is 6,000 m. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Maximum range of guided missile flight, m ........................6,000 Calibre, mm .................................................................130 Length in launching tube-container, mm ............................1,830 Weight with the tube-container, kg ......................................49 Warhead type ....................................tandem shaped-charge; high-explosive with fuel-air explosive Guidance system................................................two-channel: – direction-finding with radio commands; – laser beam-riding Maximum time required for guided missile launch (from the moment of pushing LAUNCH button till the moment of missile move), s.......1 Altitude range of guided missile combat use, m ..........................................from 0 to 4,000 ASL Temperature range of guided missile combat use, °C ...........................................-50 to +50 Weight of guided missile in package, kg ...............................80

> 9M120-1 missile

> 9M120-1F missile

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HIGH-PRECISION WEAPONS <

ARENA-E Active Protection System for Armoured Vehicles he ARENA-E active protection system (APS) is designed for installation on armoured vehicles to protect them from all types of antitank rocket grenades, antitank guided missiles (ATGM) and artillery HEAT rounds. APS ensures the armoured vehicle protection in all combat employment conditions round the clock, in any season and weather, in the ambient temperature range from minus 40 to plus 55 °С. The system ensures 360 degrees’ vehicle protection from antitank threats at stops, on the move and with the turret rotating. APS operates in automatic mode and does not require the crew’s attention to any additional functions. The information about potential threats is displayed on the APS panel screen. APS has a modular design which enables its add-on mounting on various types of tanks and other armoured vehicles with the minimum components updating. APS includes the following: radar guidance system (RGS), protective round (PR) (8-12 pcs.), panel, temperature sensor (2 pcs.), set of cables, set of mounting parts. The system is switched on from the panel by the crew commander. All further operations are carried out

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automatically. During combat operation RGS ensures search, detection and tracking the antitank threats attacking the vehicle. By the results of data processing the interception task is solved and commands are given to activate the specified PR. The PR combat element explodes to form a flow of destructive splinters hitting the antitank threat. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Operation mode....................................................Automatic, day and night, all weather Target detection and tracking ........................................Radar Target velocity range, m/s .......................................0 to 1,000 Protection ratio ..............................................not less than 2 Readiness for repeated engagement, s............not greater than 0.4 APS continuous operation time, h..........................................8 Power consumption, KW..............................not greater than 1.0 APS weight, kg .............................................................900 Volume of equipment inside vehicle turret, dm3 ...................................not greater than 12.0 Overhaul life, h..........................................not less than 1,000 Storageability time, year ..................................not less than 15

> Modernized T-72 tank with ARENA-E APS

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> ARMAMENT

MONOLIT-B: TARGET RECONNAISSANCE AND DESIGNATION he TYPHOON Joint Stock Company is one of the Russian defense industry leaders in the development and production of sophisticated radar systems for equipping ships of various types, as well as the developer and supplier of the Monolit-B surface and air reconnaissance system. The Monolit-B system is designed to provide designation data for coastal missile systems equipped with antiship missiles. It consists of two identically equipped posts, each mounted on a crosscountry truck chassis. The Monolit-B combines the capabilities of both reconnaissance and designation aids integrated directly in the antiship missile weapon control loop. The system receives the surface situation data from different sensors (including its own passive

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and active radar channels), remote external sources (ships, observation posts, aerial observation posts, etc.), provides its processing, target identification and delivers the designation data to missile systems and higher echelons of command and control. Monolit-Bâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s information system is capable of integrating ships and missile systems, equipped with similar data processing and radio communication aids, in a single tactical group. The use of two identically equipped combat vehicles with active and passive surveillance radar sensors makes it possible to handle the designation tasks in radio silence mode by using passive radars through the triangulation method, with two combat vehicles spaced about 30 km apart. In this case, high-speed automated exchange of information concerning

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the long-range surface situation and command-signaling information is ensured between the vehicles via a protected radio relay link. To get a more accurate designation generated by the passive channel, a low-energy active radar channel, offering high covertness due to the use of lowpower radar signals with high timebandwidth product, is employed. The TYPHOON JSC has developed and implemented a support and services system. It provides customer personnel training and assistance in establishing the appropriate infrastructure. Taken together, the above capabilities of the Monolit-B system give reason to talk about a qualitatively new level of the missile weapon control loop, which dramatically distinguishes it from the previous similar systems.

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> EXPERT OPINION > Chinese Type 052D destroyer Kunming during sea trials

SOUTHEAST ASIA: TROUBLED WATER Alexander MOZGOVOY ast year, the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) was supplemented by 14 surface combatants: two Type 052C destroyers (Chinese counterparts of the American Aegis class ships), three Type 054A frigates, nine Type 056 corvettes and four replenishment ships. One nuclear and four nonnuclear submarines joined the Chinese Navy. According to the German naval guide Weyers Flotten Taschebuch 2013/2015 and the US naval journal Proceedings, the number of the newest Type 022 missile boats in the PLA Navy has reached 100. This year, the pace of naval shipbuilding in China will surely be

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faster, because Chinese defense spending in 2014 will total US$ 148 billion (compared with US$ 139.2 billion in 2013). Of course, the US military appropriations are significantly higher – US$ 574 billion. However, due to cheaper labor, rigid administrative planning and control, the efficiency of the «Chinese» dollar is higher than that of the US one. In any case, according to IHS Jane's experts, in 2015 China will spend more funds for military purposes than the UK, Germany and France combined, whereas by 2024 China's defense budget will exceed the combined defense expenditure of Western Europe as a whole. China is especially active in naval shipbuilding. This year the guided missile destroyer Kunming –

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the lead ship of Type 052D and the seventh ship equipped with a Chinese clone of the US Navy’s Aegis combat system – was commissioned. It is planned to build a total of 12 Type 052D ships. Without waiting for their commissioning, this year the PLA Navy will lay down the lead destroyer of Type 055, similar in performance to the US Zumwalt-class super destroyer. Keel-laying of a lead new-generation frigate of Type 057 is also expected this year. The construction of the Type 052 corvettes (classified as frigates in the PLAN) intended for littoral operations will continue. Their number, according to various sources, will be brought to 32-50. In 2014 and 2015, the construction of two Type 001A conventionally-pow-

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EXPERT OPINION < ered aircraft carriers under the Project 48 program will begin at shipyards in Dalian and Shanghai. The PLA Chief Procurement Department has already signed a corresponding contract with the China Shipbuilding Industry State Corporation. The total deal is valued at US$ 9 billion, excluding the cost of weapons, aircraft and helicopters. According to the US DoD’s 2013 report and the 2013 report to the US Congress on military development in China, by 2020 China may lead the world in the construction of submarines, surface ships and boats unless the United States bolsters its naval shipbuilding program. This statement is inaccurate. China is already overtaking the USA in the number of combatant ships being built, launched and commissioned. Generally, the PLA Navy has long been ahead of the US Navy by number of ship pennants. It comprises 697 combatant ships and boats, including 67 submarines, among them 11 nuclear-powered ones, one aircraft carrier, 26 destroyers, 45 frigates, 10 corvettes, 122 missile boats, 231 patrol boats, three landing platform docks, 92 landing ships and 107 minesweepers. That's not counting a large number of patrol and auxiliary vessels, trials and experimental vessels, landing craft, etc. However, offshore and coastal fighting units, often obsolete, still make up the bulk of the Chinese Navy. Their «weight» is big enough and that is why Beijing focuses on restructuring its fleet. The buildup of China’s naval capabilities is casing concern of its neighbors, and not only the neighbors. This concern is growing due to Beijing's territorial claims to a number of islands in the South China Sea and China's deployment of naval bases in the Indian Ocean. Washington, in turn, is concerned that the PLA Navy is slowly but surely «squeezing» the US Navy out of the western Pacific Ocean. That is why the United States is trying to build an anti-Chinese wall at sea, by opposing it to the Great Wall of China and advancing it into the Pacific and Indian oceans. Its mainstay should be formed by the US Navy. However, due to budgetary constraints, the ship strength of the US Navy is shrinking every year like the shagreen skin. This is especially true for combatant ships. If

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> China and its neighboring states

you factor out 14 nuclear strategic submarines (SSBN) as a «last hour» weapon, it will turn out that the US Navy’s strength includes 55 nuclear attack submarines (SSN) and guided missile submarines (SSGN), 10 Nimitz-class nuclear aircraft carriers, 22 Ticonderoga-class missile cruisers, 62 Arleigh Burke-class missile destroyers, 13 Oliver Hazard Perryclass frigates, four littoral combatant ships and 13 Avenger-class minesweepers. In other words, the US Navy comprises a total of 179 combatant ships. At first glance, this is a great figure. However, a careful analysis suggests that the ship strength is obviously insufficient. Of 22 Ticonderoga-class cruisers, 11 will be outcommissioned this year to save money. Furthermore, it should not be forgotten that the service life of most ships of this class has passed 25 years and soon they will have to be decommissioned.

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Missile systems have been removed from all the Oliver Hazard Perryclass frigates remaining in service and they actually operate as offshore patrol vessels (OPV), i.e. as noncombatant ships. They will be sold or transferred to other navies during this and next year. Avenger-class minesweepers, too, have reached a decent age, but their replacement is not even foreseen. The Arleigh Burke-class missile destroyers are now the US Navy’s main combatant ships. These are very good ships capable of performing a wide range of missions. It is planned to bring their number to 75. But by the time that happens, all Ticonderoga-class cruisers will be decommissioned. In other words, the total number of multimission surface combatants in the US Navy will shrink by nine units. The advantages of the littoral combatant ships, which have been

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> EXPERT OPINION

> Basic US Navy P-8A Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft at Kadena Air Base

given so much of hype and hoopla, are debatable. The USS Freedom (LCS 1) joined the US Navy in 2008, but she is still not qualified operational. Last year's promotional tour to Singapore for this ship got embarrassed. In July, the Freedom lost way off the coast of Singapore and ended up in repair. In October, the water flooded the bilge part of the hull for almost one meter through a crack in a pipeline, and entered the hydraulic system a few days later. The ship required repair again. The same can be said about the trimaran USS Indepedence (LCS 2), which still cannot be «tuned» due to

problems with corrosion and electrical equipment. However, numerous breakdowns aren’t the point. Anything is possible on the lead ships, let alone the monstrous cost of the LCS (the construction of the USS Freedom costs US$ 637 million and of the Independence – US$ 704 million). The concept itself of a high-speed littoral ship with modular armament has failed. A countermine module is scheduled to be adopted this year. But high speed is contraindicative with mine countermeasures ships. It is unknown when the ASW module will be finalized and its effectiveness

is questionable. An antiship weapons module has turned out to be an obvious fraud at all. To counter surface ships and more specifically boats, it is suggested to equip the LCS with the Griffin missiles. The latter are suitable because they are fired from the RAM ship selfdefense missile system’s launchers, which are installed on the littoral combat ships. But the Griffin missile engages targets at a range of a mere 3.5 km and the weight of the missile warhead is 5.9 kg. That is, it can only destroy small boats within «arm reach». The LCS ships have turned out to be emperors wearing no clothes armed with cardboard swords. When the littoral combat ship meets face to face with, say, a Chinese Type 022 missile boat armed with eight YJ-83 antiship missiles having a range of up to 95 km and a 165-kg warhead, one can safely take bets at 99.9-0.1 odds that the PLA Navy ship will win. Recently, the US Administration has decided to limit the number of LCS in the Navy to 32 instead of initially planned 52. This is attributed

> US Navy littoral combat ships will fail to withstand a duel with Chinese Type 022 missile boats,

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EXPERT OPINION < to budget cuts. But in fact, cuts in the littoral combat ship program are seemingly caused by belated understanding of their futility. Common sense seems to tell us that further reductions in the LCS construction are likely on the horizon. Bath Iron Works (BIW) is outfitting the new-generation destroyer Zumwalt (DDG 1000). According to US Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel, who visited the BIW facilities on November 21 last year, this ship will play an important role in the Asia-Pacific region. This is an obvious exaggeration. Zumwalt and two other ships of this class, intended mainly for attacks on shore targets, have yet to prove their effectiveness. Anyway, they will not have a significant effect on the balance of power in the Asia-Pacific region. China is completing the development of the DF-21D antiship ballistic missile with a range of 810 nm (1,500 km) to attack large surface ships and now has begun developing the DF-26 missile with a range against sea targets up to 3,000 km and a hypersonic warhead. In addition, according to the Naval Forces magazine, the Zumwalt destroyer worth US$ 5 billion could easily become a victim of a US$ 2,500 worth mine. The US Navy is replacing the Los Angeles-class nuclear-powered

> USAF B-1B Lancer bombers are expected to be used as the platforms for LRASM antiship missiles.

attack submarines (40 boats are currently in service) for the Virginiaclass SSNs. By the time the rotation ends, the US Navy will operate 36 attack submarines (taking into account three Seawolf-class submarines). That is their number will decrease by 15 units. For now, this

doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t involve replacing four missile nuclear submarines converted from the Ohio-class SSBNs. Meanwhile, they are far from being new ships. It helps to remember that more than half of in-service ships make long passages to their stations and

> each of which carries eight YJ-83 antiship missiles.

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> EXPERT OPINION

> Warheads of the DF-21D antiship ballistic missiles will strike at large surface ships something like this.

back, need repair and their crews need rest. And despite the fact that Washington proclaimed a shift in focus of its military activities from the Atlantic to the Pacific, the real presence of US Navy warships in the Western Pacific will increase slightly. The global ballistic missile defense (BMD) system with its emphasis on the sea-based element will definitely play a low-down trick with the US. China and Russia will have to create a counterthreat to the United States. Deploying Chinese and Russian nuclear and nonnuclear attack submarines armed with cruise and tactical ballistic ship-to-ground missiles off the West and East coasts of the USA can be one of the effective measures. These

missiles will be capable of penetrating any US BMD from a «gunshot» distance. And to enhance antisubmarine defense of the waters surrounding the United States, the US Navy will have to withdraw its ships from remote areas of the oceans, which are few in number there. The US wants to compensate for ship shortage by enhancing its air forces. In December last year, the deployment of advanced US Navy P-8A Poseidon baseline maritime patrol aircraft commenced at Kadena Air Base on the Japanese island of Okinawa. They are designed not only to detect and destroy submarines, but also to attack surface ships with Harpoon antiship missiles. The USAF B-1B

> Vietnamese Navy’s Gepard-3.9-class frigates

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Lancer supersonic strategic bombers are undergoing tests as the platforms for new LRASM (LongRange Anti-Ship Missile), capable of engaging surface targets at ranges up to 900 km. However, the opposing side possesses aviation and air defense weapons capable of countering the P-8A and B-1B. In other words, the Southeast and South Asian countries will have to rely mainly on their own to ensure security in the region. No wonder that the past decade has seen an unprecedented arms boom in Southeast Asia and South Asia. One can even talk about an arms race in the region. And the naval force development is among priority issues. Vietnam undertakes drastic measures to modernize its naval forces. Its Navy has been supplemented by two Gepard-3.9-class frigates and several Project 12418 Molniya missile boats over the past few years. These ships have significant striking power. They are armed with the Uran-E antiship missile systems (the multipurpose frigates and Molniya boats carry eight and 16 Kh-35E missiles each, respectively). These missiles engage targets at a range of up to 130 km. The Kh-35E missiles can be replaced with the latest version – Kh-35UE Super-Uran – with a range of up to 260 km and a combined guidance system comprising an inertial system, a satellite navigation unit and an active/passive radar seeker, which provides high target accuracy and ECM immunity. Both the frigates and missile boats have caught the fancy of Vietnamese sailors. Now a second pair of Gepard-3.9 frigates is under construction at the Zelenodolsk Shipyard in Russia, and Vietnam is carrying out licensed assembly of Project 12418 boats. Damen Shipyards Group will soon lay down the Project SIGMA 9814 corvette for the Vietnamese Navy at its shipyard in Vlissingen (Netherlands). The ship’s length is 98 m and beam is 14 m. The corvette will be armed with the Exocet MM40 Block 3 antiship missile system, MICA VL short-range SAM

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EXPERT OPINION < system, 76mm Oto Melara Super Rapid universal gun, two 30mm Oto Melara MARLIN-WS guns and a Ka-28 ASW helicopter. The second ship of this type will be built in Vietnam. The Vietnamese Navy operates four Project 10412 Svetlyak patrol boats. They are armed with automatic 76- and 30mm guns designed to fire at sea, air and shore targets. That is, they are small but effective gunboats capable of both patrolling coastal waters and countering enemy attacks. Vietnam is building a series of Svetlyak Type TT 400 TR patrol ships, whose armament mix is similar to that of Project 10412 ships. The flag-raising ceremony on board the diesel-electric submarine Hanoi, the lead boat of Project 06361 Kilo, was held in January of this year at Cam Ranh Naval Base, and in March the second submarine Ho Chi Minh City arrived in Cam Ranh. Six submarines of this type built at Admiralty Shipyards in St. Petersburg will give the Vietnamese Navy a completely new capability. These low-noise submarines carry powerful armaments: torpedoes, mines, and Club-S cruise missiles designed to engage surface and shore targets at ranges up to 300 km. The Vietnamese Navy has taken care of coastal defense as well. The K-300P Bastion mobile missile system with the K-310 Yakhont missiles is designed to destroy surface ships of all classes and types, as well as ground-based radio-contrast targets under intensive fire and ECM condi-

> Project 12418 Molniya-class missile boats have great striking power.

tions. Its range is up to 300 km. In other words, the Yakhonts can engage targets and facilities located at South PLA Navy Fleet’s Sanya Naval Base on Hainan Island in the South China Sea. The Vietnamese Navy is small but surely well-balanced. In the near future it will be capable of deterring any attempts to infringe upon the country’s interests in the South China Sea. The Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN), which protects the strategic approaches to straits connecting the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean, is also balanced not bad. Two Lekiu type frigates and six Kasturi and Laksamana type corvettes are the ships capable of performing striking and defensive missions. Six

Kedah-class patrol ships carry one 76- and one 30mm automatic guns, two machineguns and a helicopter. However, they can be additionally equipped with Exocet antiship missiles and RAM ship self-defense SAM systems in the short term. Thus, they will turn into full-fledged corvettes. By the way, this is perhaps the single example in the world when an OPV project provides for its transformation into a warship. Bousted Holdings Berhad’s Malaysian shipyard is building six Gowind-class corvettes. Their length is 111 m and displacement is about 3,000 t, which is typical of frigates. Maximum speed is 28 knots and cruising range at 15 knots is 5,000 nm. The ships, which will start entering service with the Navy in

> Another Project 06361 submarine intended for the Vietnamese Navy is being outfitted at Admiralty Shipyards.

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> Royal Malaysian Navyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Kedah-class patrol vessel KD Terengganu

> Submarine KD Tun Abdul Razak â&#x20AC;&#x201C; one of the two Malaysian Scorpene-class boats.

2018, will be equipped with two quadruple Exocet MM40 Block III antiship missile launchers (they can strike also shore targets), VL-MICA SAM system with 16 vertical launchers, one 57- and two 30mm automatic guns, two three-tube 324mm torpedo tubes for firing antisubmarine torpedoes and a Super Lynx 300 helicopter. The RMN also operates missile boats: four Perdana type and four Handalan type boats. True, they were built in the 1970s in France and Sweden. Now these are

> Singapore frigate Steadfast was built using stealth technology.

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> EXPERT OPINION

> Singapore Navy’s landing platform dock Endeavour

obsolete ships that do not meet modern requirements. On the other hand, two Scorpene-class diesel-electric submarines are quite modern. They are armed with torpedoes and antiship missiles. A significant drawback of the Royal Malaysia Navy's submarine forces is a small number of submarines. Even two modern units make no difference. They are likely used mainly to train crews for advanced submarines. In this sense, Singapore, a small state, has more advanced naval forces. First, it purchased four Type A-11B diesel-electric submarines from Sweden, which are used for initial training of Singaporean submariners. Then Type A-17 submarines were procured in Sweden and underwent comprehensive modernization at a Kokums shipyard. As a result, not only their worn-out structures were replaced, but also their electronic equipment was upgraded and, most importantly, the boats received air-independent auxiliary Stirling engines that enable them to stay submerged for more than two weeks. These are ships with great capabilities.

In December last year, Singapore signed a contract with ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems for the purchase of two more Type 218SG submarines. Little is known about these boats except that they will also be equipped with an AIP system and electronics from ST Electronics and Atlas Elektronik. The deal is estimated at EUR 2.8 billion. It is likely that Singapore will continue to build such boats at its shipyards. They will supersede four Challenger-class (A-11B) submarines. The Singapore Navy operates also highly capable surface combatant ships. First of all we are talking about six Formidable-class frigates and six Victory-class missile corvettes. The latter have recently undergone upgrade. They received an updated command and control system integrated with sensors installed on board the ScanEagle UAVs. However, 550-t ships had to lose their antisubmarine weapons. Instead, the ASW functions are performed by eleven indigenously-built 500-t Fearless-class ships. Eight more advanced ships are under construction to replace them.

> Indonesian Navy’s advanced SIGMA 9814 class frigate

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Singapore builds landing platform docks (LPD) not only for its naval forces, but for other countries in the region as well. These are rather compact ships with a full displacement of about 8,500 t can carry more than 350 marines, 18 tanks, and 20 wheeled vehicles at 12 knots to a range of 10,400 miles. Indonesia, the Country of Thousand Islands (there are actually 17,508 islands, with about 6,000 of these inhabited), whose population is 245.6 million (fourth largest in the world) and the coastline has a length of 54,716 km (second longest in the world), is destined to be a major maritime power. The ship strength of its Navy is impressive, but the performance leaves much to be desired. It looks like a patchwork quilt. The fleet includes Dutch-, German-, Yugoslav-, South Korean-, Singapore-, US-, Japanese- and indigenously-built ships. All of them are mostly second hand, that is quite worn-out. Such a «palette» complicates logistic support of the fleet and does not contribute to a high combat capability of the country's Navy. Now Jakarta is making strenuous efforts to improve the situation by building ships and vessels at national shipyards. The KCR-40 and KCR-60 type fast missile boats have already joined the Navy or are under construction. Production of amphibious ships has been mastered with South Korea's assistance. One of the two SIGMA 10514 class frigates will be supposedly built in Indonesia. In terms of their characteristics, these ships will be close to the Vietnamese SIGMA 9814 corvettes. All three new Type 209/1400 diesel-electric submarines will be built in Indonesia from components supplied by South Korea. But all this is not enough. Therefore, Jakarta continues to purchase naval equipment abroad. Recently, three BAE Systems Corporation-built Type F2000 corvettes, which the Royal Brunei Navy refused to accept back in 2006 because of their non-compliance with

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> EXPERT OPINION

> Royal Thai Navyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s frigate HTMS Naresuan was built in China.

the specification, were purchased for one-fifth of the original price, that is, 40 million pounds per ship. Now, following depreservation they are being prepared for passage to Indonesia. The Royal Thai Navy (RTN), too, looks rather patchwork. Its backbone consists of the Spanishbuilt light aircraft carrier Chakri Naruebet, two obsolete Knox type frigates, four Type 025T and 053HT frigates made in China, four corvettes supplied by the United States in the early 1970s and mid1980s, as well as three indigenously-built corvettes. The Navy includes nine missile boats. Recently, it has been decided to purchase submarines, but neither supplier nor the number of ordered submarines have been determined. On the other hand, two new Type

DW 3000F frigates will be built in South Korea. The Philippines Navy is perhaps the weakest link among the Southeast Asian navies. It includes mostly old American ships, which have long served out their life. Suffice it to say that the Cannonclass frigate Datu Sikatuna and six PCE 827 class corvettes date back to the WWII era. The newest ships â&#x20AC;&#x201C; two Hamilton-class frigates (ex-US Coast Guard cutters) were commissioned in the second half of the 1960s. Apparently, the island republic lacked the resources to develop its Navy. But in September last year the Navy announced a tender for the purchase of new modern frigates. Eleven shipbuilding companies in different countries announced their willingness to participate in it.

However, Typhoon Haiyan, also known as Typhoon Yolanda, which struck the country in November last year, caused great economic losses to the Philippines and so the tender was put on ice. But the US made hay by promising to provide a grant of US$ 40 million, which will be part of payment for another two Hamilton-class cutters, if Manila decides to buy them. However, it is clear that these ships will not significantly enhance the combat capability of the Philippines Navy. Like all over the world, Southeast Asian navies have not passed the fashion for offshore patrol vessels (OPV). But, as already noted, except for the Malaysian Kedah type OPV, all of them can not be attributed to the warships. Fighting a battle using them is the same as hunting elephants by using a fly swatter. Of course, the Southeast Asian countries keep a wary eye on China's growing military power. But it does not mean that the states in the region will lean over backwards to protect Washington's interests. Especially, since many of them maintain the excellent relationship with Beijing. Therefore, an antiChinese wall is hardly to be built in Southeast Asia.

> Indonesian and US ships in joint exercises

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Si vis pacem, para bellum

00 Cover#02.14_DSA:00 ND#02.10_Farnb

ARM S & M ILITA RY T E C H N OL O GIE S

THE LAST LINE OF DEFENSE

w w w. n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e . r u

# 2 (37) 2 01 4 • special issue for DS A 2 0 1 4

National Defense #02 14 DSA  

This special issue of the National Defense magazine is timed to the DSA 2014 exhibition.

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