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From the case studies of the different types of household we can see a few trends. It becomes clear that every house in the UK has Recycling collection bi-weekly, alternating between waste collection and recycling collection. THis concurs with the secondary research on collection rates in the UK but if this is so then why are there still problems? Human nature can come in here, older generations don’t seem to have the same attitude towards recycling orgganisation as the young professionals or the family home, is this an age bracket thing or does it come down to income and time? Another common factor between the three households is that they all ahve a build up in their recycling at one point or antoher. The difference between them is that the family home just deals with it by taking it to a skip or moving it to another bin, the students just let it build up to a degree where they have to take all their waste to a a recycling plant but the young professional has the time and creativity to want to do something “Cool” and “interesting” with their excess recycling in order to create a conversation piece to impress their friends. The young professionals open up a great market for a product that actively encourages recycling by giving postivie and vidual feedback.

TESTING LIGHT: Requirements: 1x Acrlyic cyclinder Borken glass bottles superbright LED torch

Test to be conducted by: Nathan Donnell Test to be conducted by (Time) : 06/02/14


Component sourcing for prototypes


Research on Blue light and how it affects Sleep: Production of melatonin by the pineal gland is inhibited by light to the retina and permitted by darkness. Its onset each evening is called the dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO).It is principally blue light, around 460 to 480 nm, that suppresses melatonin, proportional to the light intensity and length of exposure. Until recent history, humans in temperate climates were exposed to few hours of (blue) daylight in the winter; their fires gave predominantly yellow light. The incandescent light bulb widely used in the twentieth century produced relatively little blue light. Wearing glasses that block blue light in the hours before bedtime may decrease melatonin loss. Kayumov et al. showed that light containing only wavelengths greater than 530 nm does not suppress melatonin in bright-light conditions. Use of blue-blocking goggles the last hours before bedtime has also been advised for people who need to adjust to an earlier bedtime, as melatonin promotes sleepiness. When used several hours before sleep according to the phase response curve for melatonin in humans, small amounts (0.3 mg) of melatonin shift the circadian clock earlier, thus promoting earlier sleep onset and morning awakening. The physics of fluorescent lights can’t be changed, but coatings inside the bulbs can be so they produce a warmer, less blue light. LED lights are more efficient than fluorescent lights, but they also produce a fair amount of light in the blue spectrum. Richard Hansler, a light researcher at John Carroll University in Cleveland, notes that ordinary incandescent lights also produce some blue light, although less than most fluorescent lightbulbs. I want to look at how Lighitng in a domestic enviroment can effect the users in a physical and psycological way. Looking at the Hawthorne Experiments where artificial light was produced in the workplace to improve the quantity of work produced by the staff. We have to understand first how light effects us, light that is absorbed over the eyes and into the body is an essential trigger

for endogenous rythms. It triggers the edogenous oscillators according to times of day, week and year, regulating essential body function such as metabolism or sleeping patterns. This is regulated by the release of melatonin in the body, melatonin is regulate d by the circadian photoreceptor in the eye. Melatonin causes tiredness and regulates the body’s sleep-awake rythm. The wave length that activates the melatonin is 464 nm (nanoneters) or Blue Light. Knowing this I want to produce a light that when used in the evening when unwinding after work for a young professional, it won’t effect their circadian rythm and allow them to drift of to sleep later that evening whilst still providing light. Super bright LEDs are made by applying a yellow phosphorous coat onto a blue LED filament producing a brilliant white light, this means the wavelength of a Superbright LED is that on “Blue Light” , the light commonly associated with melatonin and sleeping problems. Running with a wavelength of 470 nm, these ligths will actuvate the melatonin. As I use these in my light this may be a problem in what I’d like to solve.

In optics the refractive index or index of refraction n of a substance (optical medium) is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through that medium. It is defined as n=\frac{c}{v}, Ref: Herschel, John F.W. (1828). On the Theory of Light P.R. BOyce, Human Factors in Lighting, Second Edition