SYNTHESIS HYBRID URBAN SPACE + ARCHITECTURE
NATHAN DEA | PROF. JOSEPH F. KENNEDY | UNDERGRADUATE THESIS
Public space in the urban environment has so often become leftover space created after we in-fill the blocks of the urban grid, an afterthought at times. Public spaces are often underutilized spaces, havens for the nomads, and empty spaces that are there for the sake of appearances. How can we change how we utilize public space to make it more multi-use? Crucial to the experience within the urban environment is the relationship of buildings to the street. Addressing the edge condition of buildings and street and changing the way that public space relates to architecture will start to blur these boundaries between architecture, public space, and the grid. The relationship of public space to the built environment is equally important. So often there is such a defining line between buildings and open space, but how can we start to engage buildings during all hours and not just during the day?
Before the demolition, the walkway bridge served as a gateway from between the main massing of the mall and the now demolished Sam Goody building. Now that the Sam Goody building is gone, the walkway leads to no where and so it makes sense to recess it back into the mall.
The solution to the issue of a lack of public space is not the creation of void space, but a space that fosters activity and activation with a balance of built and open space. But more than just co-existing, these spaces need to mesh in a way that blurs the conventional boundaries of open space and architecture. Activation of space often gravitates to one or the other, the building or the space around it. The incorporation of the factor of time into the planning aspect of space helps to resolve several issues vibrancy for neighborhoods, adjacent activation, intangible discouragement of nomad populations inhabiting space, and sustainability of place.
The grand staircase to enter the mall was formerly hidden underneath the bridge/entry structure. With the recessing of the walkway, a new staircase is needed to create a new entryway and connection to the new Horton Plaza Park development.
What makes place dynamic and sustainable is the ability to change and adapt over time with uses and new ways of functioning. How can the scale of this adaptability start to inform the level of interaction of the user and the engagement of the space from the human-scale manipulation of the space to manipulation of a configurable building edge or expansion/contraction of space? Adaptive space can also speak to how a space changes to adapt to the ever changing social dynamic within cities, to the possibility of change. If a public space is part of a building and owned by the people that manage the building, it is more likely to be maintained and changed as it could be an auxiliary source of revenue. The intangible aspect of control of space by a system of rules of conduct helps to maintain a certain environment within a given space.
The current conditions of Horton Plaza Park and the demolished Sam Goody building.
RESEARCH : PRINCIPLES TO IMPROVE PUBLIC SPACE
BUILDING TO SUPPORT PLACE BUILDING AS WORKPLACE A building is a place for work, either an office place or a place that provides services with employs member of the community.
EXISTING CONDITIONS BEFORE DEMOLITION OF THE SAM GOODY BUILDING
PROPOSED HORTON PARK EXPANSION
A new hardscape plaza will extend south from the historic park to the Balboa Theater at E Street and result in a 57,000-square-foot park. Highlights will include an amphitheater, three open-air pavilions and restrooms, an interactive fountain embedded in the new plaza and tall, slim light fixtures called luminarios.
WORKPLACE SERVICE CENTER
THE POWER OF 10
This concept proposes that from neighborhoods to cities groupings of “10 good places” or a variety of activities would help the neighborhood achieve critical mass for both residents and tourists. For example, a park can be a good place, but a park with a cafe and a bike trail is a better place.
The concept of the power of three, that three things within close proximity of one another will feed off each other to foster activity and create a more active space.
INTERACTION WITH SURROUNDINGS
BUILDING AS DESTINATION A building can be a destination for many reasons: architectural identity, icon for sustainability, unique design considerations, multi-use destination for a multitude of services.
PARK FOUNTAIN FOOD VENDOR LIBRARY BUS STOP BIKE TRAIL CAFE ICE CREAM STAND MUSEUM RESTAURANT
DEMOGRAPHIC DEPENDENT Creating breathing room for high density environments as opposed to a place of fear and danger. A great square can be a focal point of civic pride and can help make citizens feel connected to cultural and political institutions. Parks or squares can be too limiting/not be enough to create a successful place. The best spaces are multi-use destinations: amenity space, performance space, place for youth, markets for produce. Communities determine the right mix of uses for a space.
BUILDING AS INSTITUTION Vital to a community are the community institutions such as schools, government services, markets, libraries, places for culture
CREATE SQUARES AND PARKS AS MULTI-USE DESTINATIONS
BUILDING AS RESIDENCE A building is a place for the community to reside, to be either parts of a community or as a place for creating community within the building.
US GRANT HOTEL
The edge condition between buildings and public spaces, and public space and the street are important conditions to consider, much in the same way that we look at how people and space collide and interact. Buildings defining space around them, but can privately owned public space start to define architecture? Where can we start blurring the lines between where buildings end and open space begins? Through an architectural solution we start to compose a space that addresses this gray area.
BUS STOP PUBLIC SQUARE
IMPROVE STREETS AS PUBLIC SPACES
PLANNING FOR PEOPLE AND PLACES Creating a hierarchy of different street types from quiet neighborhoods lanes to major boulevards. Achieving a proper balance of public transit and other means of transportation.
VIEW FROM HORTON PLAZA CONNECTION
The bridge connects to the entrance of Horton Plaza, intersecting its geometry to directly connect with the main corridor of Horton Plaza.
VIEW FROM BROADWAY LOOKING INTO THE PARK AND ATRIUM SPACE
The topography of the park is designed to foster interaction along a hill space to provide a gentle rise to the doors of the atrium as well as a place to enjoy the sunlight. The northern doors of the atrium slide open to make the space open to the exterior and extend the park space indoors.
CIVIC CENTER / COPLEY SYMPHONY HALL US GRANT HOTEL
BROADWAY PIER / SEAPORT VILLAGE
BROADWAY RESTAURANTS/BARS PARK / GREEN SPACE
SITE USES INFOGRAPHIC COFFEE SHOP
PLACE TO INTERACT
PLACE TO WORK
FARMER’S MARKET SEASONAL ICE SKATING
SECTION: AA | Through Public Atrium and Bridge
1. ATRIUM 2. WORK BRIDGE 3. RESTAURANT DECK
WI-FI / CONNECTIVITY
PLACE TO PLAY
THEATER ARTS CONNECTION
SEC TIO N: B
SOCIAL INTERACTION : COUPLES
RETAIL CONNECTION SOCIAL INTERACTION : FAMILIES
LYCEUM THEATER BALBOA THEATER
Distribution of project goals to create place and space and connection to the surrounding site. Sun exposure and ideal views of the Broadway corridor and the US Grant Hotel chose the placement of the park space. Creating an outdoor place to work predicated a connection to the NBC Building. Creating a larger plaza space for the Balboa Theater and a play space
This site serves as a focal point for various activities, the potential for a world-class gathering space that can revitalize public space in downtown San Diego. Creating connections to the various focal elements in the surrounding area by adding program to compliment these features and connect the various communities that utilize the area will enhance the use of the site. Horton Plaza was once the catalyst to a revitalization of downtown, the introduction of a Privately Owned Public Space has the potential to set the precedent for what public spaces can become in San Diego.
PARK / GREEN SPACE
T GH NI
TE LA AFTER HOURS DINING NON-BAR INTERACTION NON-BAR INTERACTION
BUSINESS LUNCH CROWD LUNCH TIME DINING
TOURISTS RETAIL SHOPPING CROWD ART WALK
ALL-AGES ACTIVITIES LIVE MUSIC
THEATER / FILM
AFTER WORK CROWD EARLY DINNER DINERS HAPPY HOUR TWILIGHT GATHERING SPACE
Using architecture + public space to create a more vibrant experience Creating a working environment to foster interaction and creativity in an outdoor setting. A place to play. Activation of space + place. Digital placemaking. Round-the-clock activation of place + surrounding neighborhood.
Public Atrium Restaurant Park Space Outdoor Work Space Play Space Amphitheater Rooftop Deck / Bar
PARK SPACE/ FOOD TRUCK SEATING AREA
WORK BRIDGE ADAPTIVE SPACE FARMER’S MARKET SEASONAL ICE SKATING RINK
BALBOA THEATER PLAZA
- Farmer’s Market - Food Truck Plaza - Fountains
- Gathering Space - Sense of Community - Frequent Activation - No Place For The Nomadic Population
TIME | USERS | PROGRAM
The usage of a space can be broken down by times of activation, users during these different times, and program of space to attract different users during typically unused times. Given the location of site within the urban environment in addition to the proximity to both the business district and the tourist-driven Gaslamp District and the retail-driven Horton Plaza, a vast swath of the population can be reached by creating additional program of public space. Increasing the times of activation will also discourage the nomadic population of San Diego from making this another remnant space for their habitation.
3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
SECTION: BB| Through Amphitheater, Main Structure, and Park Space
FARMERS MARKET MORNING COFFEE BREAKFAST DINING
AERIAL VIEW FROM BROADWAY Bubble diagram of proposed general program
Hightlighting the large park space, bridge interaction with the street
ATRIUM RESTAURANT KITCHEN COMMUNITY COLLABORATIVE WORKSPACE ROOFTOP DECK PARK SPACE
ROOF PLAN 1. 2. 3. 4.
ROOFTOP BAR ROOFTOP DECK BALCONY STAIR/ELEVATOR TOWER
DOWN TO PARK
DOWN TO RESTAURANT
RAMP DOWN TO NBC PLAZA
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
5. ATRIUM 6. COFFEE BAR 7. COMMUNITY COLLABORATIVE WORKSPACE 8. WORK BRIDGE 9. RESTAURANT BRIDGE DECK 10. PARK
BROADWAY CIRCLE UP TO BRIDGE FROM HORTON PLAZA
UP TO ATRIUM
UP TO BRIDGE
VERTICAL CIRCULATION TOWER
FIRST FLOOR PLAN 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
RESTAURANT KITCHEN RESTAURANT PATIO ADAPTABLE SPACE REFLECTING POOL IRVING GILL FOUNTAIN
Designed to provide an enclosed but open air environment, the triangulation allows for a solid/void relationship with panels of metal mesh to partially enclose space while the open form work above provides for light and natural ventilation.
AERIAL VIEW FROM 4TH AVENUE
Hightlighting the new Balboa Theater with the relocated Irving Gill fountain, the food truck plaza/drop off zone, reflecting pool and upper balcony for the roof deck.
Along the length of the span, undulations and folds in the framework create opportunities for niches for seating. Moveable chairs add versatility to the space, allowing for one-on-one and group interactions.
SEATING WORK BRIDGE
The bridge serves as an outdoor extension of the Community Collaborative Workspace, designed to be a meeting space for those who work in the area to meet outside of the office in an outdoor but partially enclosed environment. While connecting NBC Plaza and Horton Plaza to the site with a physical connection, it also serves as a focal point for connectivity, a unique architecture that draws people in.
The main public space of the building - an enclosed but permeable space that opens on 3 sides to the outside to allow for the flow of people into/out of/through the space while inviting them to stay at the same time.
AERIAL VIEW FROM 3RD AVENUE
Hightlighting the bridge crossing over Broadway Circle
METAL MESH MATERIAL The screen is a metal mesh material that provides transparency and but also a surface that can be projected onto.
PROJECTION SCREEN WALL To emphasize the connection to the arts community, as well as a way for the building pavilion to further interact with itâ€™s surroundings, the screen wall surrounding the crown of the building serves as an outlet to be an art element through the use of projected images or abstract expressions representing San Diego.
ROOFTOP DECK ENCLOSURE BUILDING + MEDIA SCREEN
To emphasize the connection to the arts community, as well as a way for the building pavilion to further interact with itâ€™s surroundings, the screen wall surrounding the crown of the building serves as an outlet to be an art element through the use of projected images or abstract expressions representing San Diego.
In this configuration, a tiered seating condition is created to provide a space for live music or theater performances that require an amphitheater-style seating. A screen is also created by the lowering of the platforms for outdoor public film screenings.
This will be the most typically used configuration of the adaptive space to create another area for seating and prevent the amphitheater configuration from becoming a haven for the nomad population and keep the street eyes on the surface. This configuration can also be used for additional seating for diners during the use of the site by food trucks in the drop off area in addition to the concrete seating blocks.
At night, the building screen transforms into a display for artwork, representative of San Diego and the arts and culture scene.
The flat configuration further increases the versatility of the space to expand its uses for farmers markets, art shows, and potential leasable additional event space.
VIEW ON BRIDGE
An extension of the community collaborative workspace, the bridge features tables with moveable seating to increase versatility of the seating configuration. Each table features power outlets and wifi connections throughout the bridge.The space between the building and the bridge also serves as another dining space for the restaurant.
ROOFTOP PUBLIC SPACE
Like the atrium on the main floor, the rooftop is another type of public realm for people to socialize and experience the community life.