PORTFOLIO ARCHITECTURE + URBANISM
ARCHITECTURE DESIGN MASTER PLAN BUILDINGS HISTORY VISUAL COMMUNICATION CULTURE
NATHÁLIA VERAS COELHO ARCHITECT + URBANIST BRAZIL
//MOTIVATION LETTER Dear Sirs, I am applying to the in Sustainable Urban Design starting in 2014 at Lund University. I graduated in 2012 from the University of Fortaleza, Brazil and hold a Bachelor's degree in Architecture and Urbanism. Well, since I was a child I have always had a great desire to help people and improve their lives in some way through a great and expressive act. Moreover, over the years and in many situations I have demonstrated a humanitarian vision and great sensitivity in various aspects. I never get used to injustices. I have always desired a fair world for everybody, with love, kindness, opportunities and solidarity. Later I would comprehend that those elements are directly connected and influenced by urban planning. Therefore, following the advice of some people, in 2007 I joined the course of Architecture and Urbanism, still not knowing exactly what to expect and in which area I could act. Since the first course on Urbanism that I took at the University, I readily identified myself with the area and started dedicating myself harder through research, readings, experiences, fieldwork and participation in popular debates. Then my knowledge expanded when I did two internships in this area and through my final graduation project entitled "Requalification of the Central Area of Fortaleza", where I could, for one year, delve myself into a very broad and complex subject. I took the challenge of redesigning the Central Area of the city using sustainability design concepts like sustainable transport, use of mixed land, diversity, greening and respecting the existing activities. That was an important moment in my development because my view about Urbanism and urban design was pervaded by new concepts and ways to intervene. By that time, I opened my mind to many aspects. In addition to my graduation project, I underwent the experience of developing many urban projects set in Fortaleza during my bachelor studies. Fortaleza is a city with great potential but still suffers a deficit in several areas: urban planning, urban mobility, social housing and other related areas. The city has experienced an intense process of expansion guided by the lack of urban planning, which has produced a repulsive, hostile and segregated city. Thus, Fortaleza has always been my great object of study at University courses. Designing and thinking about a city with so many problems was the biggest factor that allowed me to develop as an urban planner and was the major factor that motivated my desire to work with urbanism and deepen my knowledge through a master's degree. After I graduated, I was hired as an architect and urban planner at the company where I had been an intern until then. In this company I collaborate mostly with the development of master plans and urban projects for the government. With nearly two years of professional experience, I developed a thorough insight into the content learned at University. This experience has given me the confidence to pursue a Master's degree. Then I decided that it was the right time to join a master's degree program. Although Brazil relies on great masters in the field of urban planning and urban design, the dream of an experience abroad always spoke louder. Through the whole past year, I dedicated myself to that desire, preparing to the TOEFL test and making an extensive search for master's program with a great content, placed in a great city and a city that interest me, in a renowned University and also with a possibility of scholarship. So, since I entered the website of Lund University, I got very excited about the idea of studying there. Last year I was accepted in the Master Degree Program (MSc) in Urban Studies and Territorial Management at the University of Lisbon, but, besides the fact that this master is very complete, is not the combination of everything I'm looking for so, my biggest goal is to be accepted to the Master's program of Sustainable Urban Design starting in 2014 at Lund University because this program is the most suitable for me, taking into account all the aspects related with this choice, like the University where I will study and the city I will live in. Lund University is undoubtedly my top choice. If I am accepted, I believe that, besides the privilege of studying at a University of great renown, ranked among the world's top 100 universities, I will have the opportunity to meet excellent professors who will transmit a vast knowledge to me and I will also experience a new culture, new forms of thinking and designing. It will be a chance to gain new experiences. Furthermore, it will be a pleasure to live in such an amazing country as Sweden. I have been to Europe a few times and Sweden has amazed me. It is a country that has always been an example of sustainability, life's quality and an amazing lifestyle in general. Although I never got the chance to go to Lund, I have already read a great deal about the city and I think that the experience of living and studying there will contribute not just to my professional development, but also to my personal development. After finishing this master's program I will undoubtedly have the necessary background, confidence and knowledge to effectively change people's lives and cities for the better through a company that works with Urban Planning or through Urban Design competitions. I believe that after completing the Master's program at Lund University I will be able to achieve this goal. Thank you very much for considering my request. I look forward to your positive response.
TABLE OF CONTENTS UNIVERSITY +PROFESSIONAL
1 URBAN PLANNING II / REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN / DYNAMICS OF EXPANSION OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL PROPERTY MARKET 2 URBAN PROJECT II / SOCIAL HOUSING PROJECT INTERVENTION IN THE FAVELA VERDES MARES 3 GRADUATION PROJECT / REQUALIFICATION OF THE CENTRAL AREA OF FORTALEZA 4 VISUAL COMMUNICATION / CHROMATIC ANALYSIS, VISUAL LANGUAGE SYNTAX AND POINTLLISM TECHNIQUE 5 THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM II / STUDY CASE - NATIONAL MUSEUM HONESTINO GUIMARﾃウS 6 MASTER PLAN UNILAB MASTER PLAN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF INTERNATIONAL LUSOPHONE AFRICAN-BRAZILIAN INTEGRATION (UNILAB)
‘‘A CITY IS A REFLECTION OF MULTIPLE HISTORIES’’ RENZO PIANO
1 URBAN PLANNING II REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN DYNAMICS OF EXPANSION OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL PROPERTY MARKET|MARACANAÚ, PACATUBA AND MARANGUAPE, BRAZIL TEAM JÚLIA NAIANA NATHÁLIA AND SARAH 2010
1 INTRODUCTION MARACANAÚ
The point of this work it was the production of a regional development plan. Each team focused on a theme related to some specifics cities of the Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza, Brazil. We studied an area that included three cities of the Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza: Maracanaú, Maranguape and Pacatuba. We chose those cities because they are directly impacted by the dynamics in study. Several analyzes that are directly related to the formal and informal property market were made: analyzes of the urban development, the physical and natural environment, urban structure any many aspects related to those topics like the relationship between the built environment and the natural environment (like a dam about to be constructed), identification of green areas and natural potentials, patterns of land use and predominant urban tissues, absence or inadequacy of basic infrastructure systems and public facilities. With this analysis it was possible to achieve a more accurate identification of characteristics and / or problems of the area and then propose a regional development plan.
NO SCALE CENTRE OF MARANGUAPE
CENTRE OF MARACANAU
AREA OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION
AREA IN STUDY DAM PROPOSED BY THE GOVERNMENT FLOODABLE AREA (DAM)
PARKS AND SQUARES HYDROGRAPHY LIMIT OF MARACANAU
CONURBATION AND THE ISSUE OF THE DAM
AREA IN STUDY LIMIT OF MARACANAU CONCENTRATION OF COMMERCE AND SERVICES
AREA IN STUDY LIMIT OF MARACANAU
CENTRE OF MARACANAÚ
DAM PROPOSED BY THE GOVERNMENT
CENTRE OF MARANGUAPE SOCIAL HOUSINGS
LIKELY AREA TO SUFFER THE PROCESS OF CONURBATION
CENTRE OF MARANGUAPE CENTRE OF MARACANAU AREA IN STUDY GROWTH IN THE 13st CENTURY
IMPACTS OF THE METROFOR PROJECT
GROWTH BETWEEN THE 13st AND 19st CENTURY GROWTH BETWEEN THE 19st AND 20st CENTURY GROWTH IN THE 1940s MARACANAÚ STATION
GROWTH IN THE 1970s JEREISSATI STATION VILA DAS FLORES STATION
AREA IN STUDY LIMIT OF MARACANAU MARANGUAPINHO RIVER
MIDDLE CLASS HOUSING SOCIAL HOUSING
AREA IN STUDY SOCIAL HOUSINGS METROFOR STATIONS
BRIDGE ABOVE TIMBÓ RIVER MAINTENANCE CENTER
SOUTH LINE METROFOR PROJECT LIMIT OF MARACANAU
GROWTH BETWEEN 1970 AND 1980 GROWTH IN THE DIRECTION OF FORTALEZA AND OTHERS DISTRICTS OCCUPATION UNTIL 1970 OCCUPATION UNTIL 1984 - SOCIAL HOUSING
EQUIPMENTS AND DENSITY
2 ACTIONS ANALYSIS OF THE POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL BASIS STRATEGY: EQUIP AND GIVE IDENTITY TO THE SOCIAL HOUSING JEREISSATI III IN PACATUBA
CENTRE OF MARANGUAPE
CENTRE OF MARACANAU
AREA IN STUDY LIMIT OF MARACANAU CONVENED SCHOOL / CHILDREN’S DAY CARE MUNICIPAL SCHOOL MUNICIPAL CHILDREN’S DAY CARE PRIVATE SCHOOL STATE ESTADUAL SPECIALISED OUTPATIENT HEALTHCARE STATE / FEDERAL HOSPITAL HEALTH CENTERS
MARACANAÚ POPULATION DENSITY 100 TO 160 POPULATION PER HECTARE 40 TO 99 POPULATION PER HECTARE 15 TO 39 POPULATION PER HECTARE 0 TO 14 POPULATION PER HECTARE MARANGUAPE POPULATION DENSITY 90 TO 150 POPULATION PER HECTARE 70 TO 89 POPULATION PER HECTARE
40 TO 69 POPULATION PER HECTARE
0 TO 39 HAB/ha
PRESSURE/ Political and administrative boundary between Jereissati’s III social housing and Maracanaú. CURRENT STATE/ Deficiency of public equipments in the city of Pacatuba;Maracanaú as the main supplier of public equipments and services to the Jereissati social housing. IMPACT/ Social housing complex without identity, characterized as "non place"; no possibility of using Maracanaú’s health and education equipments. PROJECTS/ Create a consortium between the towns of Maracanaú and Pacatuba where Maracanaú would allow the use of public equipments such as schools, hospitals, health centers and police station. In return, Pacatuba would divide the maintenance costs of them; create some street furnitures, strictly related to the identity of the cities.
ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICAL AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT STRATEGY: PREVENT INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE HILLS OF MARANGUAPE
ANALYSIS OF SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUND STRATEGY: COMMERCE DECENTRALISATION OF THE CENTRE OF MARACANAÚ AND OF THE SURROUDINGS OF ROAD CE065
ECOLOGICAL TRAIL ACCESSES TO THE TRAIL AREA IN STUDY LIMIT OF MARACANAÚ CENTRE OF MARANGUAPE CENTRE OF MARACANAÚ AREA TO BE OCCUPIED BY FAMILIES LIVING IN THE RISK AREA
PRESSURE / As the land price is very expensive and as there is a great retention of land, people have no choice and tend to invade the hills. CURRENT STATE / 30% have already been devastated. IMPACT / With the continuing informal occupation of the hills, a risk area emerges and also the hills get degraded. PROJECTS / Delineate areas for residential use only; make urban parameters more flexible; determine areas for relocation of the local families living on the risk area; creation of leisure areas (ecological trails and broad sidewalks) to delimit the non occupiable area of the mountain.
PRESSURE / With the installation of the first social housings in the centre of Maracanaú there was a need for installation of commerce to meet local needs. However, the commerce got concentrated only in that area, Due to lack of streets, a commerce concentration also settled along the road CE-065, because it is quite accessible and visible. CURRENT STATE / Concentration and bad distribution of commerce in the city. IMPACT / The population that is not served tend to look for services and commerce in Fortaleza due to the proximity and the existence of more options. PROJECTS / Decentralise the commerce that actually is concentrated in the centre and implement new commercial areas in the municipalities in order to serve them throughout their region; creation of the project "Your invoice has value" where invoices of purchases made in the resident neighborhoods would value as a discount on the IPTU, which is a property and urban land tax. With this discount, people would feel more motivated to buy in their neighborhoods; temporary tax exemption for commerce in the neighborhoods; urbanization project in the road CE065 distinguishing the types of use: creation of a traffic calm area to support the commerce and the fast traffic would be put under the surface.
ANALYSIS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY: CHANGE ON THE DAM PROJECT PROPOSED BY THE GOVERNMENT
ANALYSIS OF THE URBAN STRUCTURE STRATEGY: ADAPTATION OF THE SOUTH LINE OF THE METRO
AREA IN STUDY
LIMIT OF MARACANAÚ
AREA IN STUDY
SOUTH LINE - METROFOR PROJECT LIMIT OF MARACANAÚ
CENTRE OF MARANGUAPE CENTRE OF MARACANAÚ PREFENCIAL AREA OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION WEIRS AND LAKES RIVERS AND LAKES
TRECHO DE ALTERAÇÃO DA LINHA DO METRO PARA SUBTERRÂNEA
MOST AFFECTED AREAS NOWADAYS MAINTENANCE CENTER
NEW PROPOSED DAMS
PRESSURE / The project proposed by the government brings the creation of a dam as the most economical solution for the current issue of Rio Maranguapinho. CURRENT STATE / Occupation in an area of constant floods (risk area); Tendency of urban expansion to the area of the proposed dam due to the fact that the mountains (Serra de Maranguape) are a limiting occupation factor. IMPACT / The occupation of an area of expansion and occupation between the cities of Maracanau and Maranguape (process of conurbation). This situation of an inefficiency project that will probably generate a risky area. PROJECTS / Reduce the extent of the dam and break it in repeated sections along the length of the river, reducing the flooding area of the previous project; create a financial support program to people who will be resettled, enabling then their establishment at the new location; creation of urbanized areas (parks) around the river.
PRESSURE / Utilization of existing urban structure as the main way of connection between the cities of the Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza (RMF). CURRENT STATE / Surface metro line; internal segregation of municipalities; bad pedestrians access and noise pollution. IMPACT / No communication between the indenpendent parts of the Jereissati social housing; poor mobility to pedestrians forcing them to make a larger displacement; noise impact for the existing population in the surrounding area of the metro. PROJECTS / Adaptation of the south line of the metro at the part that pass through the centre of Maracanaú. The line will be modified from a surface metro to an underground one, allowing the integration of people and spaces; creation of streets that connect both sides; creation of public spaces, parks, bike paths and recreational equipments to integrate the area.
PROPOSED INTERVENTION NEW STREETS
FROM A SURFACE LINE TO AN UNDERGROUND LINE
TREES / SQUARES
3 CONCLUSION After studying the cities of MaracanaĂş, Maranguape and Pacatuba through the most striking and common dynamic among them: the formal and informal housing market, we concluded that the most relevant issues of this dynamic is directly related to the eminent conurbation in these municipalities. All our projects have been directed to facilitate the integration between the municipalities and inside of each municipalities, believing that this is the key issue to the evolution of them. Not only through new proposals, our Regional Development Plan also sought to actualize the essence of measures and projects already adopted as a shorter way to enable a fast response to emergency needs.
2 URBAN PROJECT II SOCIAL HOUSING PROJECT INTERVENTION IN THE FAVELA VERDES MARES | FORTALEZA, BRAZIL TEAM NATHÁLIA AND SARAH 2011
‘‘THE DESIGN PHILOSOPHY THAT INFORMS THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN VILLAGE RECOGNIZES WHAT INDIVIDUALS WANT IN THEIR EVERYDAY LIVES; WHAT THEY SEE AND FEEL IN THEIR NEIGHBORHOODS, THEIR HOMES AND WORKPLACES, A SENSE OF CALM, PERMANENCE AND TIMELESS BEAUTY SERVED BUT NOT DOMINATED BY THE WONDERS OF TECHNOLOGY. RESTORE LIFE TO THE PLEASURES OF PRIVACY AND FRIENDSHIP IN SCENARIOS DESIGNED TO HUMAN SCALE. BUILD WITH FORESIGHT AND RESTORE CAREFULLY. LOOK FIRST TO PEOPLE.’’ BEN PARK, DESIGNER
The area chosen by the team was the "favela" Verdes Mares – or Verdes Mares Slums-, located on Papicú neighborhood in Fortaleza, Brazil. The community has an excellent infrastructure for electricity, sanitation and sewage, also has a large network of opportunities, besides several facilitating factors such as easy access via public transport, the presence of services, trade and equipment nearby, the presence of vacant land in the vicinity, which are classified in the Master Plan as ZEIS (Special Zone of Social Interest, translation for English), allowing its use for social housing and also their use as supports to this function. The community is composed mostly of irregular, present occupations in the region for over twenty years. This is a community with a strong identity and established relationships, but characterized by a low quality of life, which encourages marginalization. Through visits to the region under study, a survey was made of data on the conditions under which the local population is and how did this illegal occupation come to exist. Through maps, site visits and interviews with residents of the area, an analysis was done on several scales: the community in relation to the city, with respect to the neighborhood and its immediate surroundings, which enabled our understanding of this area and the maximum realization of a proposal that meets the needs of that population. Currently the community and the city split up dramatically, and a change is needed. We need the community Verdes Mares to interact and connect with the city, to no longer be a barrier, to stop representing an image of insecurity for passersby and adding to the landscape and people's lives. A range of potentialities that only need to be developed. It is fully possible to promote change. When a site is designed and thought out for people from the human scale, there is, besides the positive change in the community, a chance to radiate this transformation and change for the better also the life of places nearby or even on a larger scale, neighborhood or city. The proposed intervention by staff is essentially humanitarian, taking into account the proper planning, going against gentrification and segregated interventions that have been practiced by the government.
1 GENERAL SCHEMATIC SPATIALIZATION
EXISTING CONDITION/ NO GREEN AREAS ~ NO LEISURE PLACES ~ HIGH DENSITY ~ NO CONNECTIONS ~ POOR LIFE’S QUALITY
PROPOSAL/ GREEN AREAS + FREE FLOW + LEISURE PLACES + SQUARES + IDEAL DENSITY +NO NEED OF REMOVAL PROCEEDINGS
//CREATIVE PROCESS SKETCHES IDEAS
One of the grounds in front of the ‘‘favela’’ Verdes Mares currently is an empty space, without any social function. The population use the site as a improvised soccer field because of the lack of public and leisure nearby. However, the intention is to transform this space into a multipurpose space, as a system of public open spaces, connected to the built environment. This space will bring a mini-soccer field and other cultural, sports, educational activities etc.
2 MASTER PLAN
THE INTERVENTION The proposed intervention for community Verdes Mares seeks to maintain in its layout, features that promote the identity of this community and to enjoy all the potentials that exist, also seeking to meet a range of needs of these families that today live in precarious situation. Creating spaces for integration, leisure and various manifestations has been a major priority of this intervention. Furthermore, we sought to allow the buildings to encourage relationships between neighbors that already exist today, despite the large amount of barriers. The space of residential buildings extend into the interior of the blocks and to the blocks, thus creating a system of open spaces allies to the buildings.
COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION SPACE TO POPULAR MARKETS, LEISURE, MUSIC, ART, CULTURE, INTERACTION CHILDREN DAY CARE
PUBLIC SPACE AS AN EXTENSION AND SUPPORT The land that was selected to house the kindergarten, the community association and other support equipment for these buildings and the housing is mapped in the Master Plan of Fortaleza ZEIS-3 (empty / unused / underutilized - Special Zone of Social Interest Void), which says that these areas should be designed to implement housing projects of social interest as well as to other legitimate uses for the area where they are located, from preparation of the plan.
THE PROJECT /Few units facing the west side which is the most exposed to the sun and, consequently, the most hot. As Fortaleza is very hot all year long, ranging from 24oC to 33oC, the desirable situation is as least buildings facing the west side as possible; /wide pedestrians streets with a huge amount of trees inside the community, allowing a free flow and a greater integration among the residents; /alternated arrangement of the buildings, in order to have better ventilation; /insertion of green areas; /connection / dialogue with the city; /landscaping using the shape of the land where the community is settled as a reference.
TYPE 2 ~78,70M2 +8,60M2 BACKYARD
TYPE 4 ~64,36M2
TYPE 3 ~72M2
FAVELA VERDES MARES
FIRST FLOOR (COMMERCE)
PLACES TO BE PLACES TO PEOPLE PROJECT
PLACES TO PEOPLE / so, the idea was really propose a social housing with connections between people and open spaces. The design looked after a free flow, diversity, respecting the identity, inserting leisure places, squares; places to promote art and culture. It will be a place also connected with the surroudings. People deserve to have a great lifeâ€™s quality, specially when the location already offers great conditions to support an intervention. When a place is designed thinking about people and human scale, the results are impressive and they will influence in many aspects.
3 GRADUATION PROJECT REQUALIFICATION OF THE CENTRAL AREA OF FORTALEZA FORTALEZA, BRAZIL AUTHOR NATHÁLIA VERAS MENTOR CARLA CAMILA GIRÃO DE ALBUQUERQUE 2012
‘‘FIGHT FOR EQUALITY WHERE DIFFERENCES DISCRIMINATE AGAINST US; FIGHT FOR THE DIFFERENCE EVERY TIME THE EQUALITY DETRACTS US’’ BOAVENTURA DE SOUZA SANTOS
1 INTRODUCTION CENTRAL AREA OF FORTALEZA
With urban sprawl caused by interest in other areas of the city - feature enhanced by the advent of the automobile and the real estate interests - the center of the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, witnessed a process of displacement of the residential use of the high-income class to other regions city. With this substitution, the signs of decay began to appear and have been aggravated by the continuous urban expansion of Fortaleza. The main factor in the decline of the Center was the output of residential use to other neighborhoods. The area lost its diversification of uses - since the output of the function along with several houses led activities - and became almost exclusively locus of the marketing function and services. After this process, the Centre, fabric originator of Fortaleza, migrated from one situation to a situation apogee of physical deterioration, unacceptable for a fact historically so important to the city and its population area. Today the neighborhood has a space with uniformity of uses and vitality only in certain periods. However, it has a variety of potential and a great possibility of adaptability, as well as activities and interesting and isolated events. It is an area that has a high concentration of landmark buildings and squares that are not linked, regardless of their proximity. Thus, the project for redevelopment of the central area followed this main guideline: joint center making it a system. The project for the redevelopment of the central area presented here sought to allow the area to be properly valued and also returned to be inhabited and frequented by people of all classes of Fortaleza, starting from cultural bias, but working with three other intervention principles in parallel: uses, identity and urban mobility. For the intervention project, it was considered all important existing demonstrations to achieve the goal of retraining - recognizing and giving appropriate conditions enabling all activities that already exist and confer identity to the neighborhood. The Centre of Fortaleza has an intrinsic role for its inhabitants. It acts as a place of reference and identity for citizens and tourists alike, who seek the essence Center, the city's past. The importance he plays transcends its limits. Therefore, a requalification of the area will impact positively on the lives of the entire population.
AREA IN STUDY (HISTORICAL CENTRE)
SYNTHESIS OF THE PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS + CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AREA
INTERVENTION AREA SQUARES HISTORICAL EQUIPMENTS / CULTURAL EQUIPMENTS / REVELANT BUILDINGS CONCENTRATION OF INSTITUTIONAL USES AREAS WITH HIGH BUILDINGS PREDOMINANCE OF COMMERCIAL USE PHYSICAL BARRIERS INTENSE PEDESTRIANS FLOW INTENSE CARS FLOW PAJEÚ CREEK - DEGRADED PARTS STRONG PRESENCE OF INFORMAL TRADING FUTURE METRO LINE (UNDER CONSTRUCTION) OPEN BUS TERMINAL PAJEÚ CREEK LAKE OF LOVE
HIGHLIGHTS From conducting a series of visits, studies and analyzes, one synthesis map with key existing features was generated in the intervention area. The main insights of the site based on the synthesis map, maps previously analyzed and field surveys - were: 01.The intervention area has a rich cultural potential, with many cultural facilities, historic buildings and squares, many related to the appearance of the city; 02.Great environmental potential, which are Pajeú Creek (which is almost all degraded, surrounded by walls or being misused) and the Lake of Love (known as Park of the Child). The importance of Pajeú creek is also related to the emergence of the city as it was on its banks that happened the first occupations that began the city. 03. It’s clearly on the map that the issue of informal trade (orange spots) is closely linked to the proximity of terminals or corridors where there is a more intense flow of buses. And around the Central Market ( 1 ) there is another situation: informal trade occurs mainly due to the proximity to the market; 04. Predominance of commercial use (targeted to an audience of mostly lowincome), hegemony caused by the restructuring process that encouraged the departure of several uses of the Center to other locations in the city; 05. Predominance of low buildings. However, there is a concentration of buildings upright. This concentration provides visual landmark in the landscape; 06. The implementation of the line passing through the center METROFOR, which is a positive point for the area, as will enable new forms of access to the site and serve as an ally to the articulation of process equipment; 07. Scarce vegetation and street furniture; 08. Large presence of visual clutter (façade, plates, sheets, overhead lines etc.) which often conceals or devalues the facades of buildings with architectural appeal and / or history. 09. Presence of a large stock of empty, vacant lots or underutilized properties, which is a great potential for redevelopment of the area.
3 ANALISYS OF DYNAMICS AND SOCIAL READINGS From the physical diagnosis generated, the information was crossed with an approach to behavioral character of social reading. An analysis of existing dynamics from each symbolic building / square was taken observing how they behave, radiate and articulate or not, and also analysis of the intervention area from qualitative parameters.
MOBILITY / ACESSIBILITY
Perceptions/strong identity in pedestrian streets or in places with the presence of informal trade; in general, a strong commercial identity was noticed, with creative ways of selling; in many historical and important places, the identity is almost nonexistent
Perceptions/negative and positive aspects: sidewalks with generous dimensions but quite obstructed; difficulty of crossing streets - intense flow of cars and buses; orange spots: circulation with more barriers; problems with mobility and acessibility donâ€™t facilitate the articulation/connection between symbolic squares and buildings in the area of intervention.
intervention area commercial use squares aspectos positivos aspectos positivos e negativos critical aspects negative aspects relevant / important buildings
Perceptions/great adaptability potential;: many public spaces are able to receive activities with an ephemeral nature; empty or underused spaces / buildings situation propitious for new uses; streets propitous to changes; despite an intense physical and social degradation, the area has adaptable places to promote requalification;
4 INTERVENTION PLAN
intervention area symbolic buildings / squares with dynamics that donâ€™t radiate symbolic buildings / squares degraded or underused symbolic buildings / squares with dynamics that radiate Approximate radius range of the of dynamics commercial use intense flow of cars and buses intense flow of pedestrians
ANALYSIS OF DYNAMICS DERIVED FROM SYMBOLIC BUILDINGS AND SQUARES The most symbolic buildings and squares have dynamics that do not radiate to other places; The informal trade ia a dynamics radiator; A single use can not promote joint / connections; The intense flow of cars and buses are not compatible with the area
From the junction of the physical and social analyzes of the intervention area, a question that served as a basis to all the intervention plan arose: what to do for the Centre has all its manifestations, cultural facilities, buildings and symbolic squares articulated, becoming an integrated area? Use of cultural bias - the biggest potential center - to promote the redevelopment of the central area of Fortaleza. But not only the culture linked to buildings and squares of symbolic values, but also the existing cultural dynamics, recognizing them and seeking to provide more adequate space, respecting the reality and identity of the area. With the socio-spatial aggregation of existing dynamic , and encouraging economic diversification, is expected to encourage their rehabilitation and social and spatial articulation of cultural / historical equipment , squares and significant buildings, making the Center a system, integrated through its greater potential, starting to have a vitality in all periods and attracting various social classes. Thus, the intervention plan was divided into three intervention principles: uses, identity and urban mobility. The proposals were also specialized and will be presented as maps.
INTERVENTION PLAN ~ SYNTHESIS USES + MOBILITY + IDENTITY INTERVENTION AREA
SQUARES / CULTURAL EQUIPMENTS/ SYMBOLIC BUILDINGS USES - EMPTY OR UNDERUSED PROPERTIES - POTENTIAL FOR MIXED USE USES - EMPTY LOTS (SOCIAL HOUSING) HYDROUS RESOURCES URBAN MOBILITY - INTEGRATED TRANSPORT TERMINAL URBAN MOBILITY - PARKING LOTS URBAN MOBILITY - LINE 01 LRT (LIGHT RAIL TRAIN) URBAN MOBILITY - LINE 02 LRT (LIGHT RAIL TRAIN) CHANGING ON THE TRAFFIC DIRECTION IDENTITY - GALLERIES OR NEW USES IDENTITY - NEW SIGNALLING / STANDARDIZATION OF SIGNBOARDS AND COMMERCIAL AWNINGS IDENTITY - INCORPORATION OF THE PROJECT ‘‘RUA DAS PRAÇAS’’ FROM THE GOVERNMENT IDENTITY - PLACES FOR THE INFORMAL TRADING (ESTRATEGY 01) IDENTITY - ENVIRONMENT 0 100
IDENTITY - CYCLOPATHS
//SUMMARY OF THE PROPOSALS USES/ Attracting the production of social interest housing as well as middle and upper class, allowing the center also to have a dynamic during the night, week -ends and holidays; take advantage of the large inventory vacant / underutilized or occupied by erratically and unhealthy private car parks to induce new economic activity from incentives (fiscal and financial) in specific locations of buildings according to the cultural and economic agenda proposed for the space MOBILITY/The primary means of transportation will be banning the flow of buses within the area of intervention. There will be two terminals of integrated transport in the vicinity of. Way that people from bus and disembark at these terminals can then walk or use the LRT (Light Rail Vehicle) small and also rent bikes. With the prohibition of bus flow and inhibition of car use, the center will turn over to pedestrians, bringing the most delightful ways and compatible with the scale of the neighborhood; creation of two LRT lines, covering the areas with inclusion of social housing, symbolic / squares and buildings with new uses; creation of bike lanes that permeate some public spaces; removal of irregular parkings. There will be the creation of parking lots on the periphery, close to integrated transportation terminals. The intention is that people moving to the central area with the cars displace to one of the parking lots and from there depart with other transportation (LRT or bike lane). Thus the use of the car within the intervention area will be discouraged; parking along the axis of the tracks will be forbidden, except at specific points, especially to serve to people with restrictions s on mobility; creating bays embarkation / disembarkation, especially near equipments, squares and galleries; reform and standardization of sidewalks in accordance with proposed uses along the intervention area; Implementation of traffic calming measures within the area of intervention; IDENTITY/Informal Trade: today the informal trading is already part of the Centre. However, they cause problems in the flow of pedestrians. The proposal is to allow informal trade remains through two strategies : to relocate the street near the current location spaces , creating a sort of fair with all the support and infrastructure needed , including other activities (such as bars , restaurants , temporary exhibitions etc. ) allowing the space to remain dynamic at all times . At the same time, will also be allowed some traders remain on the sidewalk, but in a way that does not harm pedestrians; opening visuals from the landscaping of highways, buildings emphasizing the symbolic character; in the intervention area there is a more vertical location. As these buildings have plenty of visibility , they will receive light projections showing photos of the city , the center (including photos taken in real time) or facing a commemorative date , creating a playful and interesting space that will extend the dynamics of the PajeĂş park, which will be created; creation of galleries inside the block, which will house various activities (exhibitions of paintings, photos, art shows, etc.) related to the proposed new uses; develop a new signage and informational reformulation of totems (in these locations information desks will be inserted ); promote free tour from some places, developing pathways that relate to the areas that received interventions; standardization of commercial signage and solar protection, ensuring a diversity of possible models according to the need of the tenant. Along with this program, funding lines should be open to reform and recovery of the original facades. Only one sign shall be permitted per establishment with standard dimensions. Awnings may not have advertisements and all wiring will be underground, enabling a greater understanding of space; insertion of street furniture throughout the intervention area, following a design that relates to the dynamics of the Centre; the banks of the creek PajeĂş (in areas where today are empty, with unoccupied buildings or irregular parkings) will be opened and transformed into a park that will connect with the new dynamics created;
PHYSICAL MODEL SPATIALIZATION OF THE INTERVENTION PLAN
The physical model was produced to support the formal, dimensional and topographical understanding of the intervention area. At the end, the intervention plan was spatialized in the physical model.
STREET FURNITURE During the design concept of the street furnitures, the design was thought to be strictly related to the dynamics of the area and also related to the new interventions. The use of primary colors is a try of incentive to new activities and also a suppport to the already existing ones. The idea of colorful street furnitures emerged with the main intention of the intervention: extend the vitality of the Central Area to all periods of the day and not just to a particular period. Nowadays, the Central Area is full of nice and cultural activities trying to survive despite all the degradation of the place. We can see musicians, writers, photographers and many kind of artists in general. Moreover, itâ€™s also possible to see old people reviving their memories in an area that in the past were an import meeting point. The Central Area is full of colors, activities and different kinds of people; these characteristics need to be respected and also exalted.
ACTIVITIES, NEW USES, CYCLING The Central area already has a lot of potentials: historical buildings, squares, a river, empty lands and buildings. It also has a great infraestructure. These potentials just need to be worked on. Since the conception, the main idea was to promote ephemeral activities at already existing squares and create public spaces connecting a place to other; discourage the car use; incentivate the mixed use also inside the building; incentivate people to live there; insert cyclopaths all connected with the spaces and with the other transports and many others measures. The main guideline is: to promote the urban life, the permanence, the feeling of belonging to a place. ‘‘As much as we complain about other people, there is nothing worse for mental health than a social desert. The more connected we are to family and community, the less likely we are to experience heart attacks, strokes, cancer and depression. Connected people sleep better at night. They live longer. They consistently report being happier.’’, The Guardian
THE PROJECT ~ GENERAL GUIDELINES RAISED STREETS WITH LANES FOR TWO CARS: 5,00m RAISED STREETS WITH LANE FOR ONE CAR: 2,50m STREETS FOR CARS AND LRT (LIGHT RAIL TRAIN): 6,50m NOT RAISED STREETS WITH LANES FOR TWO CARS: 5,40m ou 6,00m CYCLOPATHS WIDTH : 1,20m DISTANCE BETWEEN BOLLARDS: 1,80m DISTANCE BETWEEN TREES: 5,00m / 7,00m or 10,00m (according to uses and views) MININUM WIDTH OF SIDEWALKS: 2,55m (0,75m for street furniture / trees), 1,50m footpath and 0,30m for interaction) 3,00m (1,20 m for street furniture / trees), 1,80m footpath and 0,30m for interaction)
AREA WITH TABLES AND BENCHES
FOOD COURT + KIOSKS
SHADED AREA WITH SPACE TO FAIRS AND ITINERARY EXHIBITION
The gallery created was settled in a place that currently is a group of empty lots and an irregular parking, with no use and no social function. The gallery will not just promote some activities, but also serves as a connector from one side to the other. It will also support the existing activities and future uses, like the residential use. The raised streets, with a small space to cars and the pedestrians playing the central role, itâ€™s one of the most important conditions to the success of the intervention.
SAVANAH BUILDING (PREVIOUSLY A HOTEL)
‘‘SUL AMÉRICA’’ BUILDING (PREVIOUSLY A COMMERCIAL BUILDING)
CINE SÃO LUIZ BUILDING (PREVIOUSLY A CINEMA)
INCENTIVE TO EPHEMERAL ACTIVITIES, LIKE MOVIES, THEATRES AND OTHERS. IT´S A WAY TO BRING CULTURE TO ALL SOCIAL CLASSES, ESPECIALLY TO PEOPLE THAT DON’T HAVE ACCESS TO IT.
INSERTION OF NEW TREES
LRT (LIGHT RAIL TRAIN)
ABOUT/ The ‘‘Praça do Ferreira’’ is a square that routinely receives itinerant events of all kinds. On the weekends it’s possible to witness markets of Cordel (popular narrative verse typical of the Brazilian northeast), children's activities, health events (such as blood donation, free medical exams and appointments etc) among others. Added to that, it’s an important nodal point in the central area. A historical meeting point, serving both as a place of passage and permanence. The ‘‘ Praça do Ferreira’’ is surrounded by historicals buildings - many of them are now abandoned and without social function, a fact that , as in many places in the central area , causes a lack of vitality in the evening and outside any working hours / days. These buildings already have a good structure to receive new uses, as long as they previously served to functions like cinema , hotel, commercial and / or residential buildings and others. There are also some historic establishments that still resist strongly, despite many difficulties. It’s the case of the Pharmacy Oswaldo Cruz, with over 80 years of history and also the ‘‘Leão-do-Sul’’pastry with almost 90 years of operation.
//STREET FURNITURE! + COLOR, INCENTIVE TO CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS AND TO CREATIVITY street furniture inserted according to existing uses, new uses, the proposed spaces and interventions
//INFORMAL TRADE + CONNECTIONS + CYCLING In this intervention, the informal trade was valorized and seen as a potential and not as a problem. This activity was organized in two strategies: 1) a place that was previously an empty land and in the project was transformed into a trading complex, with an adequate place to the informal trade and also all the support to that activity: kiosks, fourd court, benches, transport, vegetation and others; 2) the other strategy is the informal trading remaining on the streets, occupying the sidewalks after a resize to a wider width. Added to that, the main guideline of the project was followed with the connections between squares and places with the support of a pocket park and taking advantage of already consolidated structures like the Parque das Crianças - Child Park and the Cultural Centre Banco do Nordeste. Moreover, there are a set of general actions being an important part on that microinterventions, like the cyclepaths, the establishment of new uses, the discouraging of the car’s use, the insertion of LRT’s (Light Rail Train) and other measures.
SYMBOLIC BUILDINGS / CULTURAL EQUIPMENTS INTEGRATED TRANSPORT TERMINAL GALLERY / POCKET PARK NEW USES SPACE TO THE INFORMAL TRADE INSERTION OF NEW TREES
LRT (LIGHT RAIL TRAIN)
DYNAMICS CONNECTING DYNAMICS AND IRRADIATING THEM. CONNECTION OF ACTIVITIES AND PEOPLE
PLACE TO THE INFORMAL TRADING / FOOD COURT + KIOSKS AS A SUPPORT
PLACE TO SIT AND REST WITH TREES AND BENCHES
RAISED STREET WITH A WIDTH TO JUST ONE CAR
INSERTION OF TREES / VEGETATION INSERTION OF STREET FURNITURE
PLACES FOR CARTS OF STREET’S VENDOR (INFORMAL TRADING)
AREA WITH BENCHES, TREES, AND PANELS TO EXHIBITIONS
FOOD COURT + KIOSKS AS A SUPPORT
SHADED AREA WITH SPACE TO FAIRS AND ITINERARY EXHIBITION
//PAJEÚ PARK The Pajeú River originated Fortaleza. The first occupations happened along the river. Nowadays the area is totally degraded, serves to irregular uses or is simply abandoned. Pajeú river is such a huge potential and currently is forgotten. Inhabitants don’t know about its history and facts like that causes the lack of the feeling of identity. As long as the area is surrounded by high buildings, the idea is that these buldings receive audiovisual projects, with pictures of the city, people, also pictures taken in real time; art; music; color and light effects. A space to invoke the senses and provoke the emotions; bring vitality and serve mainly to the inhabitants, but also to tourists. Added to that, the Pajeú Park will be created, with a lot of new uses, new spaces, bars, kiosks, outdoor library, outdoor gym and others. The LRT (Light Rail Train) cover all the area and traffic calming measures were taken. The cyclepath permeates the park, promoting an integration inside x outside. It’s other intervention that takes advantage of existing structures. SPACE TO OUTDOOR GYM, YOGA AND OTHER PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES
SYMBOLIC BUILDINGS / CULTURAL EQUIPMENTS
FOOD COURT +KIOSKS
INTEGRATED TRANSPORT TERMINAL
LRT (LIGHT RAIL TRAIN)
GALLERY / POCKET PARK
SPACE TO THE INFORMAL TRADE
+ housings new uses place to outdoor activities - gym, yoga, library playground for kids public market cyclepath public transport insertion of trees and street furnitures audiovisual projections place for arts, theatre, exhibitions space to ephemeral activities nature
// VALORIZATION OF SCENES, VIEWS AND COMMECIAL ACTIVITIES The area involves important places of the Central Area, like symbolic squares and buildings and also very known and frequented commercial streets. In addition, there are already happening independent manifestations at the ‘‘Passeio Público’’, and many people is going there for leisure; but, when you leave the place, the feeling of insecurity readily appears again. So, the idea with the connections is to extend concentrated dynamics to all over the area; bringing vitality. At the Street Castro e Silva, the idea is to take advantage on the nice view to the Metropolitan Cathedral of Fortaleza and transform the place in a ‘‘gastronomical corridor’’. In the same street, the commercial use will remain but with some supports like the resize of the sidewalks, leaving them wider so vendors can expose their products on the sidewalks and people can walk freely with no barriers. At night, the gastronomical use probably will be stronger, with some restaurants and bars. The proposal also suggests that this street turns into a raised street with just one lane for cars. The surroundings also will have raised streets, turning this place into a great place to walk comfortably with a reduced numbers of cars and also the reduction of their speed with traffic calming measures. It’s also important to highlight that the area is covered by the LRT (Light Rail Train) and cyclepaths, like all the places in the intervention area. Added to that, new uses were proposed, transforming the area in a place with mixed uses and vital in all periods of the year. SYMBOLIC BUILDINGS / CULTURAL EQUIPMENTS
INTEGRATED TRANSPORT TERMINAL
GALLERY / POCKET PARK
SPACE TO THE INFORMAL TRADE
INSERTION OF STREET FURNITURE AND TREES / VEGETATION
GREAT VIEW TO THE CATHEDRAL
SITUATION 01//resize of the sidewalks, leaving them wider so there is enough place for
SITUATION 02//resize of the sidewalks, leaving them wider so vendors can expose their
tables and chairs and a comfortable space to pedestrians.
products on the sidewalks and people can walk freely with no barriers.
This street has three lanes for cars, which is not compatible with such an important corridor, with four historical buildings and one historical square. So, the proposal was: raise the street and insert the LRT (Light Rail Train), reducing the space for cars and extending the width of the sidewalks. With the resize of the sidewalks, many parking places were taken off, as another measure to discourage the use of the car inside the area. And the cyclopath inserted gets inside the Passeio PĂşblico as a measure to connect the vibrant dynamics that happen there with the space outside. Itâ€™s all about vitality. People occupying spaces and human scale are two great ways to bring the feeling of security, the desire to remain in some place.
‘‘CITIES ARE ENVIRONMENTS OF EXISTENCE. WE KNOW THAT THE POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE RELATIONSHIP WITH IT DETERMINES THE PHYSICAL, MENTAL AND MORAL HEALTH OF INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIAL GROUPS’’ GIULIO CARLO ARGAN
4 VISUAL COMMUNICATION CHROMATIC ANALYSIS VISUAL LANGUAGE SYNTAX POINTLLISM TECHNIQUE AUTHOR NATHÁLIA VERAS
//POINTILLISM TECHNIQUE | VISUAL COMMUNICATION I | 2008
//CHROMATIC ANALISYS + VISUAL LANGUAGE SYNTAX VISUAL COMMUNICATION II ~ 2011
5 THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM II STUDY CASE NATIONAL MUSEUM HONESTINO GUIMARÃES|BRASÍLIA, BRAZIL AUTHOR NATHÁLIA VERAS 2010
STUDY CASE + PHYSICAL MODEL NATIONAL MUSEUM HONESTINO GUIMARÃES, BRASÍLIA
This was an research about the evolution of museums in Brazil and the National Museum Honestino Guimarães was chosen for a study case. Plans, façades and sections were analyzed with the support of a physical model. The main point was to identify the architectural style, the constructive techniques, the relation between the building and the surroudings, the formal aspect and other important points.
The National Museum Honestino Guimarães was designed by the architect Oscar Niemeyer in 1999 (was inaugurated in 2006) and it’s part of the Republic Cultural set which complements the Monumental Axis of Brasília. The museum is a concrete cupola, almost a pure cupola. The interior arrangement of the museum is very simple and has huge free spans, which is a salient characteristic in Niemeyer’s work.
6 MASTER PLAN UNILAB (UNIVERSIDADE DA INTEGRAÇÃO INTERNACIONAL DA LUSOFONIA AFRO-BRASILEIRA / UNIVERSITY OF INTERNATIONAL LUSOPHONE AFRICANBRAZILIAN INTEGRATION), REDENÇÃO - BRAZIL PROFESSIONAL PROJECT DEVELOPED AT THE COMPANY URBI CONSULTORES, FORTALEZA, BRAZIL TEAM AIRTON MONTENEGRO, CAIO PESSOA, MARÍLIA DIÓGENES AND NATHÁLIA VERAS 2012 - 2013
This was a master plan developed between 2011 - 2013 to the UNILAB (...) located in Redenção, Brazil. I participated in the pre-dimensioning of the buildings and also in the urbanistic project of the 2nd stage, together with more three architects. I also made my contribution in all the textual part (9 documents) and slides. Well, the Campus of the university was design following sustainability principles. Cyclopaths were inserted and buses transits inside the area, allowing the displacement all over the campus. There are a lot of small squares connecting the buildings, a great way to promote the integration between students and all the staff. Overall, it’s a complete campus, offering all the adequate structure to the activities that will be developed there and it will be also a very important equipment to the city of Redenção that currently is not served by any University.
THANK YOU! NATHÁLIA VERAS COELHO
‘‘NOTHING IN THE WORLD IS MORE SIMPLE AND MORE CHEAP THAN MAKING CITIES THAT PROVIDE BETTER FOR PEOPLE’’ JAN GEHL